ECONOMY

9

9 =ÚO^Œ∞=∂@
áÈ\© ѨsHõΔʼnõΩ Ç¨[~°ÜÕ∞º q^•º~°∞÷ʼnõΩ Ç¨Ï$^ŒÜ«∞ѨÓ~°fiHõ Jaè#O^Œ#Å∞. „QÆ∂Ñπ–2
#∂`«# ѨsHΔÍ q^è•#OÖ’ q[Ü«∞ ™ê^è#Œ ‰õΩ H©ÅHõO ZHÍ#q∞ (¿ÑѨ~–ü 3) J<Õk JO^ŒiH©
`≥eã≤#^Õ. „QÆ∂Ñπ–2–¿ÑѨ~ü 3 ZHÍ#g∞Ö’ ÃãHõ<Δ –£ 1 WO_çÜ∞« <£ ZHÍ#q∞H˜ K≥Ok#k
HÍQÍ, ÃãHõΔ<£–2 Z.Ñ≤.ZHÍ#q∞H˜ ã¨O|OkèOz#k. #∂`«# ѨsHΔÍ q^è•#OÖ’
x~°fiÇ≤ÏOK«É’ÜÕ∞ ~Ô O_»= „QÆ∂Ñπ–2 HÍ=_»O =Å¡ 2008Ö’ [iy# „QÆ∂Ñπ–2 ZHÍ#q∞
¿ÑѨ~ü (¿ÑѨ~ü III)#∞ Ѩije¿ãÎ „Ѩâfl◊ Å ã¨~o° Uq^èOŒ QÍ L#fln? J=QÍǨÏ# KÕã∞¨ HÀ=K«∞Û.
x*ÏxH˜ „QÆ∂Ñπ–2 ¿ÑѨ~–ü 3Ö’ ÃãHõ<Δ –£ 1H˜ K≥Ok# WO_çÜ∞« <£ ZHÍ#q∞ ã≤Å|ãπ
"≥Ú`«OÎ ã≤qÖò ã¨sfiãπÖ’x ZHõ<åq∞H±û PѨ¬#Öò ¿ÑѨ~Öü ’x ã≤Å|ãπ#∞ „áêuѨkHõQÍ fã¨∞H˘x
~°∂á⁄OkOK«_O» [iyOk (6 Ü«¸x@∞¡ fã¨∞HÀ=_»O [iyOk). ZHÍ#q∞ „ѨâßflѨ„`«OÃÑ·
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ J=QÍǨÏ# ~å"åÅO>Ë =∞#‰õΩ QÆÅ P^è•~åÅ∞: 2008 Group II ZHÍ#q∞
¿ÑѨ~Öü ’x „Ѩâfl◊ ŠѨijÅ#. ã≤qÖò ã¨sfiãπ ZHõ<åq∞H±û PѨ¬#Öò ¿ÑѨ~‰ü Ωõ ã¨O|OkèOz# QÆ`«
„ѨâßflѨ„`åŠѨijÅ#† WѨÊ\˜ =~°‰Ωõ PѨ¬#Öò ѨsHΔÍ q^è•#OÖ’ Z.Ñ≤.Ñ≤.Zãπ.ã≤. "å~°∞
x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz# ZHÍ#q∞H±û PѨ¬#Öò ¿ÑѨ~Öü ’x „Ѩâfl◊ ŠѨijÅ#.
q^•º~°∞÷Å J=QÍǨÏ#ÔH· ã≤qÖòû ZHõ<åq∞H±û PѨ¬#Öò ¿ÑѨ~üÖ’ 15 ã¨O=`«Ê~åÅ
„ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’x „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞, Z.Ñ≤.Ñ≤.Zãπ.ã≤. "å~°∞ x~°fiÇ≤ÏOz# qq^èŒ Ñ¨sHõÅΔ ‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz
ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 15 ZHõ<åq∞H±û PѨ¬#Öò „ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’x „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞ (2005 „QÆ∂Ñπ–2, 2000
„QÆ∂Ñπ–2, QÔ l>ˇ_,£ <å<£ QÔ l>ˇ_£ "≥Ú^ŒÖ#·ˇ q) q^•º~°∞Å÷ ™œHõ~åº~°O÷ W=fi_»O [iyOk.
=ÚYºOQÍ „áê=∂}˜Hõ ѨÙã¨HÎ ÍÅ P^è•~°OQÍ XH˘¯Hõ¯ Ü«¸x\òÃÑ· =ÚMϺOâßÅ∞, X<£ =~ü¤
P#û~üû a\òÉϺOH±, q^•º~°∞Å÷ „áêH©ãì HÔπ · =∞iH˘xfl „áêH©ãì π a@∞¡ W=fi_»O [iyOk. ¿ÑѨ~–ü 3H˜
g∞~°∞ K«k"Õ „áê=∂}˜Hõ ѨÙã¨ÎHÍÅ`Àáê@∞ D "≥∞\©iÜ«∞Öò ‰õÄ_® ã¨OѨÓ~°‚OQÍ
^ÀǨÏ^ŒÑ_¨ Q» ÅÆ ^Œx, g∞ q[Ü«∂xH˜ =∂~°Oæ K«∂ѨQÅÆ ^Œx Ptã¨∂.Î ....
g∞

z~°Orq

N
1

9

9

z~°Orq

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

INDEX
1.Civil Services 2008, 09, Group - II 2008

„Ѩâ◊flÅ qâı¡+¨}`À ‰õÄ_ç# q=~°} (D Ü«¸x\ò‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz).. 03
(with Explanations).......................................

15

3. =$kú – Jaè=$kú
Z) =ÚMϺOâßÅ∞...............................................................
a) H© áê~ÚO\òû................................................................
ã≤) =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ „QÆO^ä•Å∞.......................................................
a\òÉϺOH±

22
32
33

_ç) One word Questions ............................................

35

W) Z.Ñ≤.Ñ≤.Zãπ.ã≤. QÆ`« „ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’ „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞..........................
ZѶ)π Ü«¸x=i≈\© QÆ`« „ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’ „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞............................
l) „áêH©ãì π „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞.............................................................
4. QÆ}ÏOHõâß„ã¨ÎO
Z) =ÚMϺOâßÅ∞..............................................................
a)=ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ ã¨∂„`åÅ∞.......................................................
ã≤) H© áê~ÚO\òû...............................................................
a\òÉϺOH±

50
61
68

2. "≥∂_»Öò ¿ÑѨ~ü

_ç) One word Questions..............................................

W) Z.Ñ≤.Ñ≤.Zãπ.ã≤.QÆ`« „ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’ „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞............................
ZѶ)π „áêH©ãì π „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞............................................................
5. 27–04–2008# [iy# Endowment E.O. Examination.......
6 . Group - II 2008 „Ѩâfl◊ Å∞-ã¨=∂^è•<åÅ∞............................

z~°Orq

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83
95
99
101
120
126
146
149

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ECONOMY

CIVIL SERVICES 2008 - ECONOMICS

1.eãπì 1 (ÉèÏ=#)#∞, eãπì 2 (q=~°})`À [`«KÕã≤ HÀ_£Å#∞ LѨÜ≥∂yOz ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞# ã¨=∞^•<åxfl Z#∞flH˘#O_ç.
eãπì 1 (HÍ<≥ûÑπì)
eãπì 2 (ZH±ûѨ¡<Õ+¨<£)
Z) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
1. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „¿Ñ~°}HÔ · ÃÑ@∞ì|_çÖ’ ÉèÏsQÍ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
a) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
2. `«‰Ωõ ¯=™ê÷~Ú ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç`À ã¨O÷ aèOK«∞@.
ã≤) aQ∑ ѨÙ+π
3. JO`«~ü ã¨O|O^èŒ Ñ¨i„â◊=∞ÅÖ’ XˆH™êi ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ@∞ì@.
1) Z a ã≤
2) Z a ã≤
3) Z a ã≤
4)Z a ã≤
231
123
213
132
[:1
q=~°} : 
¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ J<Õq `«‰Ωõ ¯= ™ê÷~Ú ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç`À Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ã¨O
÷ aèOz#ѨÙ_»∞ U~°Ê_»∞#∞. Wk
~åQÍfl~ü#~ü¯ û`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk. 
JO`«~ü ã¨O|O^èO
Œ QÆŠѨi„â◊=∞ÅÖ’ UHõHÍÅOÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\˜ì =$kú ™êkèOK«∞@ÜÕ∞ ã¨O`«∞e`«=$kú. nxfl
~åQÍfl~ü#~ü¯ û Jaè=$kú KÕÃã#∞. 
"≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú [~°QÍÅO>Ë ÉèÏs™ê÷~ÚÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\ÏìÅx aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O `≥Å∞ѨÙ`«∞Ok.
nxfl ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£ „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞.
2. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ Wage-goods model ("Õ`«# =ã¨∞Î #=¸<å)#∞ Jaè=$kú KÕã≤#k
1) Z"£∞. _®Éò
2) Z.ÔH. ¿ã<£
3) =H©Öò   „|Ǩ‡#O^Œ
4) =∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ
[:3
q=~°} : 
=∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞Å =ӺǨxfl (=¸Å^è#
Œ ™êO„^Œ`« Ѩ^uúŒ H˜ „áê^è•#º`« Wã¨∂)Î ~°∂á⁄OkOK≥#∞. Wk
~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ‰Ωõ P^è•~°"∞≥ Oÿ k. nxH˜ „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∞OQÍ ã≤.Z<£. =H©Öò =∞iÜ«Ú Ñ≤.P~ü. „|Ǩ‡#O^ŒÅ∞ "Õ`#«
=ã¨∞Î =ӺǨxfl („â◊=∞ ™êO„^Œ`« Ѩ^`úŒ ∞« ʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« Wã¨∂)Î `å=Ú „"åã≤# "Planning for an Expanding Economy"
1956Ö’ Jaè=$kú KÕãi≤ .
3. *Ïa`å I (Pi÷Hõ"Õ`«Î)x, *Ïa`å II (ÉèÏ=# / ã≤^•úO`«O)`À [`«KÕÜ«∞O_ç.
*Ïa`å II (ÉèÏ=# / ã≤^•úO`«O)
*Ïa`å I (Pi÷Hõ"Õ`«Î)
Z. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û
1. ÉϺH± "å+π Ѷe¨ `«O
a. Ñ≤.Z<£. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£ 2. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O
ã≤. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò
3. aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O

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ECONOMY

_ç. Z.F.ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£

4. Jã¨O`«∞e`«=$kú ã≤^•úO`«O

HÀ_£û : 1) Z a ã≤ _ç

2) Z a ã≤ _ç

2134

4312

3)Z a ã≤ _ç

4)Z a ã≤ _ç

2314

4132

[. 3
q=~°} : 

~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û – ã¨O`«∞e`«=$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl 

~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£ – aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`åxfl 

QÆ∞<åfl~üq∞~å÷Öò – ÉϺH± "å+π Ѷe¨ `åxfl 

Z.F. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ – Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl Jaè=$kú KÕãi≤ .
4. =∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ #=¸<å U „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ J=ÅOaèOK«_»O [iyOk.
1. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
2. ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
3. =¸_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ

4. <åÅæ= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ

[:2
q=~°} : 

ǨÏ~å_£-_˘=∞~ü #=¸<å P^è•~°OQÍ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ 

=∞ǨÏÖò<Àa<£ #=¸<å P^è•~°OQÍ ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ 

Jâ’H± "≥∞ǨÏ`å #=¸<å P^è•~°OQÍ =¸_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ 

5.

Jâ’H± ~°∞„^Œ =∞iÜ«Ú Alan-S.Manne #=¸<å P^è•OQÍ 4= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ ~°∂á⁄OkOK«|_çOk.
'Pi÷HÍaè=$kú =∂Ѩ<åÅ∞—‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz Jq Jaè=$kú KÕÜ«∞|_ç# =~°∞㨄Hõ=∞O D q^èŒOQÍ LOk.
Z) Hõh㨠J=ã¨~åÅ ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ (Basic needs approach)
a) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞ ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ (Percapita Income approach)
ã≤) =∂#= Jaè=$kú ã¨∂z ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ ( Human Development Index approach)
1) Z, a, ã≤

2) a, Z, ã≤

3)a, ã≤, Z

4)Z, ã≤, a

[:2
q=~°} : 

`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞ ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ – 1960 ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ 

Hõh㨠J=ã¨~åÅ ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ – 1970 „ѨÑO¨ K« ÉϺOH± 

=∂#= Jaè=$kú ã¨∂p ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ – 1990 UNDP

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ECONOMY

6.

=$kú Jaè=$kúH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz, „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ^ÕÕxx =$kúQÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~°∞.
1) „^Œ=º~°∂ѨOÖ’ QÆÅ GNP =$kú
2) „^Œ=º~°∂ѨOÖ’ QÆÅ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O =$kú
3) "åã¨=Î ~°∂ѨOÖ’ QÆÅ GNP =$kú
4) "åã¨=Î ~°∂ѨOÖ’ QÆÅ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞ =$kú

[:4
q=~°} : 

^Õâ◊ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÖË =$kú. J~Ú`Õ Wk [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ „ѨÉÏè "åxfl ѨiQÆ}#Ö’xH˜ fã¨∞HÀ^Œ∞.
HÍ|\˜ì `«Åã¨i GNP ÖË^• `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÖË =$kú. „^Œ=º~°∂ѨOÖ’ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O HõO>Ë "åã¨=Î ~°∂ѨOÖ’
QÆÅ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞=$kú '=$kú—QÍ Ñ≤Å∞=|_»∞#∞. „^Œ=º~°∂Ѩ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ^è~Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ „ѨÉÏè =O
Hõeã≤ LO_»∞#∞. ^è~Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ =Å¡ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy<å Jaè=$kúQÍ Ñ≤Å∞=~å^Œ∞.

7.

Two - GAP modelÖ’

Ô~O_»∞ JO`«~åÅ∞O\Ï~Ú. nxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz, „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k Uk

Z) ~Ô "≥#∂º – =ºÜ«∞ JO`«~O°
a) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠– ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç JO`«~O°
1) Z =∂„`«"∞Õ

2) a =∂„`«"∞Õ

3) Z =∞iÜ«Ú a

4) Z HÍ^Œ∞, a HÍ^Œ∞

[:2
q=~°} : 
Two - GAP model J<Õ ÉèÏ=# Holls. B. Chenery Jaè=$kú KÕÃã#∞. D ^ŒfiO^Œfi JO`«~O
° Ö’ 2 JO`«~åÅ∞O\Ï~Ú.

Z) "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çH˜ ã¨iѨ_#ç O`« á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÅÉèºí O HÍ^Œ∞. nxx á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠– ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å =∞^躌
JO`«~O° JO^Œ∞~°∞.
a) ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å qÅ∞=HõO>Ë – kQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å qÅ∞= Z‰õΩ¯=ÙO@∞Ok. HÍ|\˜ì ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å kQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å JO`«~O° U~°Ê_»∞#∞. 

"≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ^•xfl á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠JO`«~O° Jx, ~Ô O_»=^•xfl q^Õj =∂~°Hõ „^Œ=º JO`«~=° ∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° . HÍ|\˜ì (2)
ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # ã¨=∂^è•#O.

8. XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`«O 20.6 =∞iÜ«Ú ÉÏǨïà◊HõO 26 J~Ú`Õ ^•x JOHõ =∞^茺=∞O
ZO`« ?
1) 16

2) 17.9

3)18.4

(Mean)

4)19

[:2
q=~°} :

z~°Orq

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Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY
Z = 3 med − 2 mean
26 = 3 (20.6) − 2x
26 = 61.8 − 2x
26 − 61.8 = − 2x
− 35.8 = − 2x
35.8
=x
2
17.9 = x

9.

ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõˆ~Y ^Õxx J^茺ܫ∞#O KÕÜ«Ú@‰õΩ LѨÜ≥∂QÆѨ_»∞#∞
1) ã¨QÆ@∞Å∞
2) qã¨Î~°}=∂<åÅ∞
3)ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒO

4)ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ∞

[:2
q=~°} :
qã¨~Î }
° #∞ H˘Å=_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ~ˆ MÏz„`« H˘Å=∂#"Õ∞ ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„HõÖYË . =∂H±û F.ÖÏÔ~O*ò ¿Ñ~°∞`À Wk
=Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk.
10. ™ê=∂#º ѨOÑ≤}© [normal distribution] H˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k Uk?
⎞ Å4#O > K«`∞« ⎛~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
1) „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O > =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«
⎟ σ = DM ⎜
⎠ Å5#O > „áê=∂}˜
⎝ Hõ qK«Å#O
2) K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O > =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«
3) =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#O > „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O > K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
4) K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O > =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#O > „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
[:1
q=~°} :
XˆH ™œ+¨=ª qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ ™ê^è•~°}O JxflO\˜HOõ >Ë „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_ç, K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
`«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
2 ⎞

⎜ QD = σ ⎟
3 ⎠
⎝ 

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ Q.D 2/3 =O`«∞ LO@∞Ok. 

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ M.D 4/5 =O`«∞ LO@∞Ok. 

HÍ|\˜ì „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O > =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#O > K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O

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ECONOMY

11. HÀ\
HÀ\˜˜ ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HÍxfl QÆ}˜OKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞# ã¨∂„`«"Õ∞k
1)

2)

3)

4)

[:2
q=~°} : 
ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ JOâßÅ∞ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl QÆ}O
˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HÍxfl LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞.
ÖË^•
12. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ Uk HÍÅѨi=~°Î# =∞iÜ«Ú HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°Î# ѨsHõΔÅ#∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÎѨ~°K«∞#∞.
1) ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂pã¨OYº 2) Ñ≤+~¨ ü ã¨∂pã¨OYº
3)áêjÛã¨∂pã¨OYº
4)ÔHb¡ã¨∂p
[:2
q=~°} : 
Ѷ+
≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂pã¨OYº HÍÅѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ~Ô O_çO\˜x ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° Û#∞. JO^Œ∞KÕ Wk P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂pQÍ
Ñ≤Å∞=|_»∞`«∞Ok.
13. QÆ∞}=∞^茺=∞O (Geometric Mean) ã¨Ç¨Ü«∞O`À U ã¨∂p ã¨OYº xi‡OK«|_çOk.
1) ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p
2) Ѷ+≤ 2d~¨ Σü ã¨6∂2d222pddΣΣΣ666
3)áêjÛ ã¨∂p
4) É∫ÖË ã¨∂p
1
=
r


1
[:2
n1−
1−−323N
nn
)1− 2nN
(N
q=~°} : 
Ѷ+
≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ QÆ∞}=∞^躌 =∞O 
É∫ÖËã∂
¨ p ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O.
14. ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO nx#∞Oz ã¨fi`«O„`«ºOQÍ LO@∞Ok.
co-efficient of correlation is independent of which of the following?
1) Change of origin only (=¸ÅO#∞Oz
2)
3)
4)

=∂~°∞Ê)
Change of scale only (`«~Ç
° ¨ #∞Oz =∂~°∞Ê)
Change of origin and scale (=¸ÅO   `«~Ç
° ¨ #∞Oz =∂~°∞Ê)
None of the above (Un HÍ^Œ∞)

[:3
q=~°} :
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO J<Õk =¸ÅO, `«~Ç° ¨ =∂~°∞ÊÅ #∞Oz ã¨fi`«O„`«ºOQÍ LO_»∞#∞. JO>Ë „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞.
[Co-efficient of correlation is independent from change of origin and scale. Thus no impact on correlation
Co-efficient].

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CIVIL SERVICES 2009 - ECONOMICS

15. ~À™Èì"£ ¿Ñ~˘¯#fl '™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞Hõ ã¨=∂[O—Ö’ ÅHõΔ}O Uk
Z) Ѩiq∞`« L`«ÊuÎÑŨ¶ O
a)„ѨÉ∞íè `«fi *’HõºO ÖˉΩõ O_»∞@
ã≤) #∂º@<£H˜ ѨÓ~°fiO L#fl âßG – ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O _ç)=º=™êÜ«∞HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅ PkèHºõ `«
1) Z, a,   _ç
2) Z, a,   ã≤
3)Z, ã≤,   _ç
4)a, ã≤,   _ç
[:3
q=~°} :
Δ ÏÅ∞
~À™Èì"£ =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ^Œâ◊ Traditional society. nx ÅHõ} 
#∂º@<£H˜ ѨÓ~°fi=Ú#fl âßG, ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O P^è•~°OQÍ U~°Ê_ç# ã¨=∂[O. 
nxÖ’ Ѩiq∞`«"∞≥ #
ÿ L`«ÊuÎÑŨ¶ O LO@∞Ok. 
nxx „Ñ≤ WO_»¢ãÜ
ì≤ ∞« Öò ¿ã*ì ò JO^Œ∞~°∞. 
^Õj [<åÉèÏÖ’ 75% ÃÑ#
· =º=™êÜ«∞O ÃÑ<· Õ P^è•~°Ñ_¨ `» å~°∞. 
„Ѩ[Å qxÜ≥∂QÆ J=ã¨~åÅ∞ áÈ#∞ q∞ye#k qÖÏ㨠rq`«OÃÑ· Y~°∞Û KÕ™êÎ~∞° .
16. ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõˆ~Y gx =∞^茺 ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
1) Pã¨∞ÅÎ ã¨$+≤ì =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞HõÅÊ#
2) [<åÉèÏ „QÆ∂ÑπÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú `«`û« O|O^èŒ P^•Ü«∞"å\ÏÅ∞
3) x~°∞^Àºy`« =∞iÜ«Ú „^Œ"ÀºÅƒù}O
4) "Õ`#« O „â◊=∞QÆO@Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú q„âßOu
[:2
q=~°} :
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y P^•Ü«∞,ã¨OѨ^,Œ ѨOÑ≤}Ö˜ ’ QÆÅ Jã¨=∂#`«Å#∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞. 0x JHõOΔ ÃÑ· [<åÉèÏ=~åæÅâß`åxfl,
0y JHõOΔ ÃÑ· PÜ«∂=~åæÅ [<åÉèÏ "≥Ú`«OÎ P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ á⁄O^Õâß`åxfl QÆ∞iÎOz ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y#∞ xi‡™êÎ~∞° 

JO>Ë P~ÀǨÏ}„Hõ=∞OÖ’ U~åÊ@∞KÕã#≤ [<åÉèÏ#∞, "≥Ú`«OÎ P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ á⁄O^Õ "å\Ï#∞ ÖÏÔ~O*ò ~ˆ Y `≥eÜ«∞KÕã∞¨ OÎ k. 

x~°∞^Àºy`«‰Ωõ –„^Œ"ÀŃ} ~ˆ @∞‰õΩQÆÅ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥ÖÊˇË k Ñ≤eÑπû =„Hõ~ˆ Y. 

"Õ`#« O, ѨxQÆO@Å∞–q„âßOuH˜ =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥ÖÛˇË k "≥#∞Hõ‰Ωõ =Oy# „â◊=∞ ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú ~ˆ Y.
17. „ѨK«Ûù#fl x~°∞^Àºy`« J<Õk D Ѩiã≤÷ux `≥Å∞ѨÙ`«∞Ok.
1) ѨÓiÎHÍÅO HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ "åi¿ã=Å∞ J=ã¨~O° J~Ú#ѨÊ\˜H,© ѨÓiÎHÍÅO =$`«∞ÅÎ Ö’ ѨxKÕã∞¨ #Î fl@∞¡ Hõ#Ê_»∞@
2) x~°∞^Àºy`«, „^Œ"ÀŃ}O ã¨ÇϨ r=#O KÕÜÚ« @

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3) ѨÓiÎHÍÅO ѨxKÕÜÚ« @ =Å¡ `«‰Ωõ ¯=ÙQÍ "Õ`<« åÅ∞ K≥eO¡ K«|_»∞@.
4) Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷ JÅÊx~°∞^Àºy`åã¨=∞`ÒźOÖ’ LO_»∞@.
[. 1
q=~°} :
J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ# "åiHõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= =∞Ok ѨxÖ’ x=∞QÆ∞flÖˇ·LO_»_®xfl „ѨK«Ûù#flx~°∞^Àºy`« JO^Œ∞~°∞. g~°∞ x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞QÍ
L#fl@∞¡"åiH˜ ‰õÄ_® `≥eÜ«∞^Œ∞. gi LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « â◊¥#ºOQÍQÍx, ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍQÍx LO@∞Ok. JO>Ë „ѨKÛ« #ù fl
x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞ ѨÓiÎHÍÅO =º=™êÜ«∞Ѩ#∞Ö’¡ ѨxKÕã∞¨ #Î fl@∞¡ Hõ#Ê_»`å~°∞. x*ÏxH˜ gi¿ã=Å∞ H˘kÌHÍÅO =∂„`«"∞Õ J=ã¨~O° .
18. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k Uk
Z) ^èxŒ Hõ, ¿Ñ^Œ ^ÕâßÅ =∞^躌 , qq^虌 ê÷~ÚÅÖ’ ^èxŒ Hõ, ¿Ñ^Œ=~åæÅ =∞^躌 "≥q· ^躌 O LO_»∞@ÜÕ∞HÍHõ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∂~å=_»"∞Õ
^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO (Dualism)
a) P^è∞Œ xHõ „Ѩ*Ï™êfi=∞ºOÖ’ ã¨=∂[O ÖˇÑãì≤ Åìπ ∞ (Leftists), ~Ô >· ãˇ Åìπ ∞ (Rightists) QÍ ~å[H©Ü∞« qÉè[í # [~°∞QÆ∞@ÜÕ∞
^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO(Dualism).
1) Z =∂„`«"∞Õ

2) a =∂„`«"∞Õ

3) Z   a

4) ~Ô O_»∞ ã¨iHÍ^Œ∞.

[: 1
q=~°} :
"≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ L`«ÊuΠѨ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ P^è∞Œ xHõ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O J=ÅOaOKÕ ~°OQÆOÖ’ JkèHõ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ ,« ѨÙ~å`«#
™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O J=ÅOaOKÕ ~°OQÆOÖ’ JÅÊL`åÊ^ŒH`õ « LO@∞Ok. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ Ö« ’ =º`庙êÅ =Å¡ P^•Ü«∞ ã¨OѨ^ÖŒ ’
=º`庙êÖË~Ê° _ç ^èxŒ Hõ ¿Ñ^Œ=~åæÅ =∞^躌 JO`«~åÅ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞ nxfl ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO JO^Œ∞~°∞.
19. „H˜Ok "åHͺÅÖ’ ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k QÆ∞iÎOK«O_ç
Z) JkèHõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OQÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞ JkèHõ P Q L I x Hõeæ LO\Ï~Ú.
a) JkèHõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OQÆÅ ^ÕâßÅhfl JkèHõ P Q L I x Hõeæ LO_®eû# J=ã¨~O° ÖË^∞Œ
(Countries with high PQLI need not necessarily have high per Capita Income )
1) Z =∂„`«"∞Õ

2) a =∂„`«"∞Õ

3) Z =∞iÜ«Ú a

4) Z, a Å∞ ~Ô O_»∂HÍ^Œ∞

[.3
q=~° } : 

™ê^è•~°}OQÍ `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OQÆÅ ^ÕâßÖ’¡ P Q L I qÅ∞= `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ#∂ Z‰õΩ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ
^ÕâßÅÖ’ P Q L I qÅ∞= Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ#∞ LO@∞Ok. 

J~Ú#ѨÊ\˜H© H˘xfl ^ÕâßÖ’¡ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O JkèHOõ QÍ L#flѨÊ\H© P Q L I qÅ∞= JÅÊOQÍ LO_»=K«∞Û. `«Åã¨i
P^•Ü«∞O `«‰Ωõ ¯="≥#· ѨÊ\˜H© P Q L I ã¨∂p JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»=K«∞Û.

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20. P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ nx ^•fi~å QÆ}˜OK«=K«∞Û
1) JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O

2) =∞^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#O

3) „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O

4) ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y

[. 4
q=~° } :
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y qã¨~Î }
° #∞ ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å H˘eKÕ =∂Ѩ#O. nxã¨ÇϨ Ü«∞O`À P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ Z\Ï¡ L#fl"À
`≥Å∞ûHÀ=K«∞Û. P^•Ü«∞ã¨=∞ѨOÑ≤}˜ ~ˆ Y‰õΩ ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y ^Œ∂~°OQÍ LO>Ë Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ Z‰õΩ¯=ÙQÍ L#fl@∞¡, ^ŒQ~æÆ Q° Í
LO>Ë Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ L#fl@∞¡ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û.
21. XHõ ѨijÅ#Ö’ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O 12, =∞^躌 QÆ`O« 14, J~Ú#KÀ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ZO`«
1) 16 2)26
3)18
4) 13
[. 3
q=~°}: ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ´ 3 =∞^躌 QÆ`åÅ∞ – 2 JOHõ=∞^躌 =∂Å∞
´ 3(14) –2(12)
´ 42–24
´18
22. „ѨK«Ûù#fl x~°∞^Àºy`« ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ D ~°OQÆOÖ’ Hõ#Ê_»∞#∞.
1) =∂#∞º áêHõÛiOQ∑ ~°OQÆO
2) =º=™êÜ«∞O 3) z#fl`«~Ç° Ϩ Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ 4) Ѩ@}
ì „áêO`åÅ∞
[. 2
q=~° } :
™ê^è•~°}OQÍ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆOÖ’ J=ã¨~"° ∞≥ #ÿ Ѩx"åi HõO>ˇ Z‰õΩ¯= =∞Ok ѨxKÕã∞¨ OÎ \Ï~°∞. gi<Õ „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞
JO^Œ∞~°∞.
23. ''„Ѩuã¨Ñ¨¡~Ú `«# _ç=∂O_£#∞ `å<Õ ã¨$+≤ìOK«∞‰õΩO@∞Ok—— HÍ|\˜ì ã¨Ç¨Ï[OQÍ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`« LO@∞Ok. J<Õ
ã≤^•úO`«O nx`À ã¨O|O^è=Œ ÚOk.
1) '¿ãã¨∂„`«O 2) yÃÑ<¶ £ "≥Ñ· i¨ `«ºO
3) Ñ≤Q∂Æ L^Àºy`« ã¨∂„`«O 4) H©<û£ L^Àºy`« ã¨∂„`«O
[. 1
q=~°} :
J.B. Say ' Supply creats its own Demand' J<Õ =∂Ô~¯\ò ã¨∂„`åxfl „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞. „Ѩuã¨Ñ~
¡¨ Ú `«# Demand #∞
`å<Õ ã¨$+≤ìOK«∞‰õΩO@∞Ok HÍ|\˜ì =∂Ô~¯\òÖ’ _ç=∂O_£ H˘~°`« LO_»^Œx, Ѷ¨e`«OQÍ L`«ÊuÎ J~Ú# =ã¨∞Î~åt JO`å
q„Hõ~ÚOK«|_»∞@=Å¡ JkèHõ L`«ÊuÎ, x~°∞^Àºy`« LO_»^<Œ #≥ ∞. HÍ|\˜ì Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`« LO@∞Ok.
24. „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ '„ÃѶa<£–ã≤OQÆ~ü ã≤^•úO`«O— ^ÕxH˜ K≥Ok#k
1) JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ =~°HÎ õ x|O^è#Œ ʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#q
2) Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏʼnõΩ K≥Ok#k

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3) JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ q^Õj "åºáê~° K≥eO¡ ѨÙÅ ã¨=∞`ÒÖϺxH˜ K≥Ok#k.
4) Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ q^Õj"åºáê~° K≥eO¡ ѨÙÅ ã¨=∞`ÒÖϺxH˜ K≥Ok#k.
[.1
q=~°} :
Jaè=$kú K≥Ok#, Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ=∞^躌 q^Õj"åºáê~°O [iy`Õ, =~°HÎ xõ |O^è#Œ Å∞ Jaè=$kúKO≥ ^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßʼnõΩ
„Ѩu‰õÄÅOQÍ LO\ÏÜ«∞x, Jaè=$kúKO≥ k# ^ÕâßÖË Åaúá⁄O^Œ∞`åÜ«∞x '„ÃÑaãπ–ã≤OQÆ~—ü ã≤^•úO`«O K≥ÑÙ¨ `«∞Ok.

Group II - 2008
1. 'Stages of Growth' J<Õ

1) Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩl<≥\òû

ã≤^•úO`«=Ú Z=i`À =Ú_ç Ѩ_ç#k?
2) HÀe<£ HÍ¡~¯ü

4) w.w. ~À™Èì"£

3) áêÖò ™ê=¸ºÖò ã¨<£

[. 4
q=~°} : 

^ÕâO◊ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =$kú qq^èŒ ^ŒâÅ◊ ^•fi~å [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞O^Œx Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ Jaè„áêÜ«∞O. 

HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯û ѨӺ_»e[O, ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•iq^è•#O, ™ê=∞º"å^ŒO, Hõ=¸ºx[O ^•fi~å ã¨=∂[O Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞O^Œ<#≥ ∞. 

w.w. ~À™Èì"£ ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O, Ѩ=
¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞, Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ,◊ ѨiѨHfiõ `«‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#O, ™ê=∂Ç≤ÏHõ

qxÜ≥∂QÆ ^ŒâÅ◊ ^•fi~å ã¨=∂[O Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞O^Œ<#≥ ∞. 

2.

w.w. ~À™Èì"£ „"åã≤# „QÆO^äO
Π" The Stages of Economic Growth"
w.w. ~À™Èì " £

Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ H˘xfl ^Œâ◊Å∞ ã¨∂zOK≥#∞. Jq U=∞#QÍ

1) ™êO„Ѩ^•~ÚHõ ã¨=∂[O 2) Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊

3) „_≥"· £ @∞ "≥∞K«∂ºi\©

4) JkèHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ^⌠◊ HÍÅO

[. „Ѩâfl◊ ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ QÍ ÖË^∞Œ . ~À™Èì"£ ÃÑ#· ÃÑ~˘¯#fl 4 ^ŒâÅ◊ #∞ K«∂zOK≥#∞.
3. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ ÖˇH˜¯Oz# "åiÖ’ XHõ~°∞
1) Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü

2) Z_£=˚ ~üÎ

3) Ñ≤Q∞Æ

4) _®Åì<£

[. 1
q=~°} : 

ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛ, _Àiƒ+π, É∫ÖË, Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ,ü =∂~°¬Öò–Z_£=˚ ~ü,Î HÔ b¡Å∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOzi. 

J~Ú`Õ 134 ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ ѨijeOz, XHõ P^Œ~°≈ ã¨∂px ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k Ѷ≤+¨~ü HÍ|\˜ì ã¨∂pã¨OYº
Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ
Ѷ+≤ ~¨ `ü À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk.
4. =∂#= Jaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõÖ’ JOâ◊=ÚHÍxk

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1) ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ =◊ ÚÖ’ PÜ«Ú+¨μ¬ ã¨OÉèÏ=º`«

2) JHΔÍ~å㨺`«~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú áê~îâ° ßÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ã¨O=`«û~åÅ∞

3) tâ◊√ =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞

4) P^•Ü«∞O

[. 3
q=~°} :
1979Ö’ "≥∂iãπ _≥q_£ "≥∂iãπ 3 JOâßÅ∞ fã¨∞H˘x P.Q.L.I x xi‡OK≥#∞.
Z) PÜ«Ú~å÷Ü∞« O a) tâ◊√ =∞~°}~ˆ @∞

ã≤) JHõ~Δ å㨺`«

D 3 JOâßÅ∞ ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ JOâßÖË. 

1990Ö’ U.N.D.P "å~°∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOz# =∂#"åaè=$kúÖ’ ~Ô O_»∞ ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ JOâßÅ∞ XHõ\ ˜ Pi÷Hõ JOâ◊O QÆÅ=Ù. 

Z) PÜ«Ú~å÷Ü∞« O a) JHΔÍ~°ãº¨ `« 

"≥∂iãπ P.Q.L.I Ö’ tâ◊√=∞~°}~ˆ @∞ XHõ JOâ◊O. HÍx U.N.D.P "åi HDI Ö’ tâ◊√=∞~°} ~ˆ @∞ ÖˇH¯˜ OK«|_»Ö^Ë ∞Œ .
`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂xfl fã¨∞HÀ=_»O [iyOk.

ã≤) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O

5. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú J<Õ ÉèÏ=# HÍ¡ã≤HõÖò ‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#k.
(The idea of balanced Growth is related to the classical )
1) ã¨ÇϨ [ Pi÷Hâõ ß„ã¨=Î Ú J<Õ ÉèÏ=#

2) ѨÓiÎ L^Àºy`« ã¨=∞`ÒźÉèÏ=#

3) =∂Ô~¯@∞¡ q^è∞Œ Å∞ (Law of markets)

4) Jaè„áêÜ«∞ ã≤^•ú`O« (school of thought)

[. 3
q=~°} :
ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kúã^≤ •úO`åxfl ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û Jaè=$kú KÕ¿ã#∞. J~Ú`Õ Wk J.B. Say „ѨuáêkOz# '=∂Ô~¯\ò ã¨∂„`«O— ÃÑ·
P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ç LOk. '„Ѩuã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú `«# Demand #∞ `å<Õ ã¨$+≤Oì K«∞‰õΩO@∞O^Œx— Say ã¨∂„`«O `≥eÜ«∞*Ëã∞¨ OÎ k. nxÃÑ· q=∞~°≈
LOk. =ã¨∞~Î åt ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú ÃÑiy`Õ L`«ÊuÎ HÍ~°HÍʼnõΩ _ç=∂O_£ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok. =ÚYºOQÍ =¸Å^è#Œ _ç=∂O_£ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞.
HÍx =¸Å^è#Œ O `«# ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Úx `å#∞ ã¨$+≤Oì K«∞HÀÖË^∞Œ Hõ^•!
6. Jaè=$kú H˘~°‰õΩ ÉèÏsѨi„â◊=∞ÅÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\ÏìÅx "åkOz# Jaè=$kú ã≤^•úO`«=Ú
1) „H˜\ H˜ Öõ ò q∞x=∞"£∞ ZѶ~¨ ìü

2) aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π

3) Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú

4) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú

[. 2
q=~° } :
¿Ñ^ŒiHÍxfl `«yOæ z q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å#∞ KÕkOè KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ÉèÏsѨi„â◊=∞ÅÖ’ ÉèÏs ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\ÏìÅx aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O
`≥Å∞Ê`«∞Ok.
7. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷Ö’ „ÃÑ·"Õ\ò–Ѩa¡H± ~°OQÍÅ ã¨Ç¨Ïr=<åxfl U=∞xÑ≤Å∞™êÎ~°∞.
1) xÜ«∞O„`«} Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷

z~°Orq

2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s q^è•#O 3) =∞^ŒºO`«~° ~°OQÆO
12

4) q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

[. 4
q=~° } : 

xÜ«∞O„`«} Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fiO „Ѩ^•è # áê„`« áÈ+≤OK«∞#∞. L`«ÊuÎ JO`å „Ñ¨É∞íè `«fiO Pnè#OÖ’ LO_»∞#∞. 

ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ^•s q^è•#OÖ’ L`«ÊuÎ JOâßÅ∞ „ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ =º‰õΩÅÎ Pnè#OÖ’ LO_»∞#∞. 

q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi =∞iÜ«Ú „ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ ~°OQÍÅ∞ ~Ô O_»∂ Hõeã≤ ã¨ÇϨ r=#O KÕ™êÎ~Ú. nxH˜ =∞Oz
L^•Ç¨Ï~°} WO_çÜ∂« . 

1948 áêi„âßq∞Hõ f~å‡#O ^•fi~å WO_çÜ∂« Ö’ q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷H=õ º=㨉÷ Ωõ ѨÙ<åk Ѩ_Oç k.

8. ÉèÏ~°`«^Õâ◊O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Ô~O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ ~°∂ѨHõÅÊ# KÕã≤#k Z=~°∞?
1) „|Ǩχ#O^Œ

2) =∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ

3) ǨÏ~å_£–_À=∞~ü

4) K«„Hõ=iÎ

[. 2
q=~° } : 

"≥Ú^Œ\ „˜ Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ ǨÏ~å_£–_À=∞~ü #=¸<å J#∞ã¨iOK«_O» [iyOk. 

~Ô O_»= „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ =∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ =ٺǨxfl J#∞ã¨iOK«_O» [iyOk. 

=∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞Å =ٺǨxH˜ „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∞OQÍ =H©Öò =∞iÜ«Ú „|Ǩχ#O^ŒÅ∞ "Õ`#« =ã¨∞Î =ٺǨxfl
~°∂á⁄OkOzi. J~Ú<å Wk 2= „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ J=∞Å∞ HÍÖË^∞Œ .

9.

U.N.D.P

"å~°∞ xi‡ã¨∞Î#fl =∂#=Jaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõÖ’ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞ÖˇHõ¯Ö’xH˜ nxx fã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞.

1) NNP per capita
2) GDP per capita
3) GDP per capita US $ in terms of purchasing power parity
4) GDP per capita in US $ at market Exchange Rate

[. 3
q=~° } : 
U.N.D.P.

"å~°∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOz# =∂#"åaè=$kúã∂¨ pÖ’ `«Åã¨i GDP x `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞.

D `«Åã¨i GDP x ~Ô O_»∞ ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û
(a) =∂Ô~¯\ò qx=∞Ü«∞~ˆ @∞Ö’ `«Åã¨i GDP
(b) H˘#∞QÀÅ∞ â◊HΘ ã¨=∂#`« (PPP) ~°∂ѨOÖ’QÆÅ `«Åã¨i GDP. 
U.N.D.P.

"å~°∞ H˘#∞QÀÅ∞ â◊HΘ ã¨=∂#`« ~°∂ѨOÖ’ QÆÅ `«Åã¨i GDP x (J"≥∞iHÍ _®Å~°Ö¡ ’ QÆÅ) `«Åã¨i
P^•Ü«∞OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞.

10. ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ `≥Å∞ѨÙ=Ú.?

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Z) „áê^èqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆ=Ú #∞O_ç GDP Ö’ JkèHõ "å\Ï =K«∞Û@.
a) Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =º=™ê÷ÑH¨ õ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ (institutional changes)
ã≤) =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆ=Ú #∞O_ç áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÆ=Ú#‰õΩ =º=™ê÷Ñ~¨ "° ∞≥ ÿ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ (structural transformation)
_ç) HõÅ~ÚHõÅ =$kú (Inclusive Growth)
1) a, ã≤, =∞iÜ«Ú _ç ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q

2) Z, a, =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q.

3) Z, ã≤, =∞iÜ«Ú _ç ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q

4) a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ =∂„`«"∞Õ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q.

[: 4
q=~° } : 
GDP Ö’

„áê^èqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆO "å\Ï JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»∞@ Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ ã¨∂zHõ HÍ^Œ∞. 

ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =º=™ê÷ÑH¨ õ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ KÀ@∞ KÕã∞¨ ‰õΩ#flq. Wk Jaè=$k÷H˜ ã¨∂zHõÜ∞Õ . 

ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO#∞O_ç, áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÍxH˜ =º=™ê÷ÑH¨ õ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ =KåÛ~Ú. Wk‰õÄ_®
Jaè=$kúH˜ ã¨∂zHõÜ∞Õ . 

ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ =$kú [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#flk. HÍx Jk JO^Œix HõÅ∞Ѩ٠H˘x [~°QÖÆ ^Ë ∞Œ .=$kúÑÖ¨¶ ÏÅ∞ KåÖÏ =~åæÅ "åiH˜
KÕ~Ö° ^Ë ∞Œ . JO^Œ∞KÕ 11= „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ Inclusive Growth x „Ѩ^•è # JOâ◊OQÍ x~°~‚ ÚOK≥#∞.

11. ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷Hõ=º=ã¨÷ "≥#∞Hõ|_ç LO_»_®xH˜ D „H˜Ok "å\
"å\˜˜Ö’ XHõ\ ˜ =ÚYºHÍ~°}O
1) JkèHõ [#™êO„^Œ`«
2) =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
3) qxÜ≥∂QÆO HÍx =∂#==#~°∞Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å ã¨ÇϨ r=#O
4) ã¨fiÅÊ`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O
[: 3 

ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷H=õ º=÷Ö’ QÆ`H« ˘xfl ã¨O=`«û~åÅ∞QÍ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∂ =KåÛ~Ú. 

=¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`« L#flѨÊ\˜H© kQÆ∞=∞u KÕã∞¨ H˘x ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å#∞, =∂#= =#~°∞Å#∞ ѨÓiΙê÷~ÚÖ’
qxÜ≥∂yOK«∞HÀQÆey`Õ Jaè=$kú ™êkèOK«=K«∞Û. 

HÍ|\˜ì ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷ "≥#∞Hõ|_»_®xH˜ qxÜ≥∂QÆO HÍx =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å ã¨ÇϨ r=#"Õ∞.

Note: '' XHõ"Ñ
·≥ Ù¨ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«x ÖË^• `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz# =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞, =∞~À"≥Ñ· Ù¨ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«x ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å∞

Hõeã≤ LO_Õ ^ÕâßÅ#∞—— JÅÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅx „Ѩ}ÏoHÍ ã¨OѶ∞¨ O x~°fizOz#k.

z~°Orq

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APPSC (GROUP-II) EXAM
MODEL PAPER

(5= Ü«¸x\òÃÑ·)
1. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ Jã¨O`«∞e`« ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U JOâßxH˜ „áê^è•#º`«#∞ W=fiÖË^Œ∞?
1) =ÚO^Œ∞, "≥#∞Hõ JO#∞|O^è•Å∞
2) „Ѩ`º« HõΔ L`åÊ^ŒHõ HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅ∞ (DPA)
3) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ =º=™ê÷Ñ<¨ å =¸Å^è#Œ O (SOC)
4) qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨=∞`ÒźO
[. 4
q=~°} : 
ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl K≥ÑÙ¨ `«∂.. =ÚO^Œ∞, "≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ QÆŠѨi„â◊=∞Å#∞ "≥Ú^Œ@QÍ
™ê÷ÑO≤ KåÅ<≥#∞. J`«ºkèHõ =ÚO^Œ∞ "≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ W#∞=Ú–L‰õΩ¯ Hõ~å‡QÍ~åxH˜ LO\ÏÜ«∞<≥#∞. 
=¸Å^è#
Œ , qxÜ≥∂QÆ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ L`«ÊuÎH˜ K≥Ok# ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å#∞ DPA ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ JO^Œ∞~°∞. 
qq^èŒ ~°OQÍʼnõΩ Ñ¨xH˜ =KÕÛ L`åÊ^ŒHÍÅ#∞ L`«ÊuÎ KÕÜÚ
« ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ SOC ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ L^•: q^Œ∞ºK«ÛHù ,Θ ~°"å}Ï,
q^Œº "≥ÚII. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O SOC H˘~°`« ^•fi~åQÍx, SOC JkèHºõ `« ^•fi~å QÍx ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ ÃÑ@ì=K«∞Û. 
qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨=∞`ÒźO LO_ÕÖÏ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\ÏìÅ<Õk ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û „ѨuáêkOz# ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kúH˜
K≥Ok#k. nxH˜ ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „áê^è•#º`« W=fiÖË^∞Œ .
2. ^ŒfiO^Œfi Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k.
Z) ^ÕjÜ«∞ =∂Ô~¯\ò, q^Õj =∂Ô~¯\ò Hõeã≤ LO_»∞@
a) P^è∞Œ xHõ Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú =º=™êÜ«∞ "å}˜rºHõ~}
° , ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ KÕu=$`«∞ÅÎ `À#∞, r=<å^è•~°
=º=™êÜ«∞O`À#∞ ã¨ÇϨ r=#O KÕÜÚ« @
1) Z =∂„`«"∞Õ
2) a =∂„`«"∞Õ
3) Z =∞iÜ«Ú a
4) UnHÍ^Œ∞
[. 2
q=~° } : 
JÖÏÊaè=$kú Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö
÷ ’ ^ŒfiO^Œfi Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ Hõ#|_»∞#∞. D =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ ~Ô O_»∞ qÉèÏQÍÅ∞ Hõ#|_»`å~Ú.
=∂Ô~¯\ò P^è•i`«OQÍ P^è∞Œ xHõ L`«ÊuΠѨ^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ XHõ"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ , r=<å^è•i`«OQÍ ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ Ѩ^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ =∞~À"≥Ñ· Ù¨
Hõ#|_»∞#∞. HÍ|\˜ì 2 =∂„`«"∞Õ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # ã¨=∂^è•#O.
3. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ã¨iHÍx "åHõºO Uk?
1) „ѨÑO¨ Kåaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ 2009 „ѨHÍ~°O $935 HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O =KÕÛ ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JÖÏÊ^•Ü«∞
^ÕâßÅ∞ JO\Ï~°∞.
2) $11,456 HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O =KÕÛ ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞ JO\Ï~°∞.

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3) „ѨÑO¨ K« Jaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ#∞ „ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺOH± "å~°∞ „ѨK∞« iã¨∞<Î åfl~°∞.
4) ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ =sæH~õ }
° Ö’ LOk.
[. 4
q=~°} : 
WDR–2009 „ѨHÍ~°O $936 HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= =KÕÛ ^ÕâßÅ#∞ LIC ^ÕâßÅx JO\Ï~°∞. 
$11,456 JO`«HO
õ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞ JO\Ï~°∞. 
WDR x „Ѩu ã¨O=`«û~°O „ѨÑO
¨ K«ÉϺOH± „ѨK∞« iã¨∞OÎ k. 
WDR 2009 „ѨHÍ~°O ÉèÏ~°`« `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O $950. HÍ|\˜ì ÉèÏ~°`^
« âÕ O◊ JkèHPõ ^•Ü«∞ ^ÕâßÅ
=sæH~õ }
° Ö’ ÖË^∞Œ .
4. Pi÷ H Íaè = $kú H ˜ 㨠O |Okè O z#k
Z) =$kú{ =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ"∞≥ #ÿ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
a) Wk ã¨O‰õΩz`«"∞≥ #ÿ ÉèÏ=#
ã≤) Wk n~°H… ÍÖÏxH˜ K≥Ok#k
1) Z =∂„`«"∞Õ
2) Z =∞iÜ«Ú a
3) Z =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤
4) Z,a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤
[. 3
q=~°} : 
L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ`Àáê@∞ =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ ™êOˆHuHõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ`À ‰õÄ_ç# QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ#∞ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú
JO^Œ∞~°∞. 
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J<Õk Pi÷H=
õ $kú HõO>Ë qâßÅ"≥∞#ÿ k. 
"åã¨q
Î Hõ `«Åã¨i, P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ =KÕÛ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ H˘#™êy`Õ<Õ Jk Pi÷HÍaè=$kú JQÆ∞#∞.
5. =∂#= =¸Å^èŒ# HõÅÊ# J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ ^Õx ^•fi~å "≥∞~°∞QÆ∞QÍ K≥ѨÊ=K«∞Û?
Z) XHõ ^ÕâO◊ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« <åxfl ÃÑOK«∞@
a) ^Õâ◊ „Ѩ[Å Ü≥ÚHõ¯ q*Ï˝<åxfl, <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }Ϻxfl, â◊HΘ ™ê=∞~°º÷ =Ú#∞ ÃÑOK«∞@
ã≤) Éè∫uHõ ã¨OѨ^Œ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
_ç) JÉè∫uHõ ã¨OѨ^Œ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
1) Z,a =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
2) Z,a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤
3) ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
4) a =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
[. 4
q=~°} : 
^Õâ◊ „Ѩ[Å q*Ï˝<åxfl, <≥Ñ
· Ù¨ }Ϻxfl, â◊HΘ ™ê=∞~å÷ºÅ#∞ ÃÑOá⁄OkOKÕ „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞Õ =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O, Wk JÉè∫uHõ
ã¨OѨ^‰Œ Ωõ ã¨O|OkèOz#k.
6. JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ "åºáê~°O Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅHõO>Ë, áêi„âßq∞HõOQÍ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßňH
Z‰õΩ¯= ÖÏÉèíO#∞ KÕ‰õÄ~°∞Û#∞? nxx ã¨=∞i÷Oz#k?
Z) QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷Öò a) ~åǨïÖò „ÃÑa+π
ã≤) ǨÏ|~°~¡ ü
_ç) _Õq_£ iHÍ~À¤
1) a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤
2) ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
3) Z =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
4) Z =∞iÜ«Ú a
[. 4

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q=~°} : 
QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åúÖò, „ÃÑa+π, ã≤OQÆ~Å
ü "å^Œ#Ö’ "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅ∞ „áê^èqŒ ∞Hõ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ#∞ ZQÆ∞=∞u KÕÜÚ« @ =Å¡, "å\˜
^è~Œ Å° ∞ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞@ =Å¡, JkèHõ ^è~Œ Å° ∞ QÆÅ áêi„âßq∞Hõ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ#∞ kQÆ∞=∞u KÕã∞¨ H˘#∞@ =Å¡, q^Õj =~°HÎ õ
x|O^è#Œ Å∞ áêi„âßq∞HõOQÍ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßňH J#∞‰õÄÅOQÍ LO\Ï~Ú.
7. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõѨ٠q+¨=ÅÜ«∂ʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞# „Hõ=∞O Uk?
JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
JÅÊ _ç=∂O_£ =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
1) JÖÏÊ^•Ü«∞=Ú
JÅÊ P^•Ü«∞O
JÅÊ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠=¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
2) JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
JÅÊ _ç=∂O_£
JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
=¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
3) JÅÊ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ
4) JÅÊ P^•Ü«∞O JÅÊ _ç=∂O_£ JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
[. 4
q=~°} : 
¿Ñ^ŒiHõ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂xH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # „Hõ=∞O U^Œ#QÍ _ç=∂O_£"Ñ
·≥ Ù¨ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂ÅÖ’ JÅÊ
P^•Ü«∞O JÅÊ _ç=∂O_£‰Ωõ , JÅÊ _ç=∂O_£ JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çH,˜ JÅÊ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç JÅÊ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« <åxH˜
^•ifÜ«Ú#∞.
_ç=∂O_£ "≥·Ñ¨Ù q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞

8. =∂#"åaè=$kúH˜ K≥Ok# =¸_»∞ JOâßÅ ã¨Ç¨Ü«∞O`À HDI x QÆ}˜ã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞, „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U JOâßxfl
HDI QÆ } #Ö’ f㨠∞ HÀÖË ^ Œ ∞ ?
Z) n~°H… ÍÅ=O`«"∞≥ #ÿ r=#O   P~ÀQƺO ( Longevity and health)
a) q*Ï˝#O   q^Œº (Knowledge and Education)
ã≤) „ã‘Î =∞iÜ«Ú tâ◊√ J aè=$kú (Women and Child development)
_ç) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ <åºÜ«∞O =∞iÜ«Ú ™êkèHÍ~°`« ( Social Justice and Empowerment)
W) r=# „Ѩ=∂}O (Decent standard of living)
1) W =∂„`«"∞Õ
2) ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç 3) a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ 4) Z =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
[. 2

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q=~°} : 
UNDP

"å~°∞ 1990 #∞Oz HDI x 3 JOâßÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ ~°∂á⁄Okã¨∞<Î åfl~°∞. Z) n~°H… ÍÅ=O`«"∞≥ #ÿ r=#O.
nxx PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« O`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . a) q*Ï˝#O, nxx JHõ~Δ å㨺`«`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . ã≤) r=# „Ѩ=∂}O. nxx `«Åã¨i
P^•Ü«∞O`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . nxÖ’ PÜ«Ú~åÌÜ∞« O, JHõ~Δ å㨺`« J<Õq ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ JOâßÅ∞. `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞=∞<Õk Pi÷Hõ
JOâ◊O.
9. Take-off Ѩ¡=# ^Œâ◊ J<Õ Jaè=$kú ^Œâ◊ Z=~°∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOzi ?
1) ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
2) ~À™Èì"£
3) HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯û
4) #~ü¯û
[. 2
q=~°} : 
~À*ˇ<ã
£ <ì‘ £ ~À_®<£ aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞. 
~À™Èì"£ ¿Ñ~˘¯#fl 5 Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ
◊ Ö’ Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ k. =~°∞ã¨QÍ 5 ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞...1) ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O.
2) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞, 3) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ,◊ 4) ѨiHõfi`«‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#O, 5) J`«ºkèHõ ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ ^Œâ.◊ 
HÍ¡~=
ü ∂~ü¯û q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«O K≥ÃÑÊ#∞. 
~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞.
10. [iy# Pi÷Hõ=$kú „Ѩ*Ï ã¨OˆHΔ=∂xfl ÃÑOá⁄OkOKåÅO>Ë, „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ J=ã¨~°"≥∞ÿ# +¨~°`«∞ Uk?
1) [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°QÍe 2) P^•Ü«∞O ã¨=∞ ѨOÑ≤}© HÍ"åe.
3) ^è~Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑ~°QÍe 4) „âßq∞‰õΩx ѨxQÆO@Å∞ ÃÑ~°QÍe.
[. 2
q=~°} : 
*ÏfÜ«∞, `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@ÜÕ∞ Pi÷H=
õ $kú, *ÏfÜ«∞, `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂Å∞ ÃÑiy#ѨÙ_»∞ „Ѩ*Ï ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O
ÃÑ~°QÍÅO>Ë `«Ñʨ xã¨iQÍ ÃÑiy# P^•Ü«∞O „Ѩ[ÅO^Œi =∞^躌 ã¨=∂#OQÍ Ñ¨OÑ≤}© HÍ"åe. ÖËx Ü≥∞_»Å „Ѩ[Å
ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°QHÆ áõ È=K«∞Û. 
^è~
Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑiy<å, [<åÉèÏ ÃÑiy<å, „âßq∞‰õΩxKÕ JkèHOõ QÍ Ñ¨xQÆO@Å∞ ѨxKÕ~ÚOz<å "≥Ú`«OÎ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O
ÃÑ~°Q=Æ K«∞Û. HÍh „Ѩ*Ï ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O `«Q=æÆ K«∞Û. 
P=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<£ W = μ (1-G) J<Õ ã¨OHˆ =
Δ ∞ ã¨∂p ‰õÄ_®, `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy, P^•Ü«∞O Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ `«y`æ Õ
ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#x ã¨∂zã¨∞OÎ k.
11. Pi÷Hõ =$kúH˜, =∂#"åaè=$kúH˜ =∞^茺 ã¨O|O^èŒO Ѩ@¡ ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k Uk?
Z) `«‰Ωõ ¯= Pi÷H=õ $kú ‰õÄ_® JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kúH˜ ™ê^躌 O HÍQÆÅ^Œ∞.
a) JkèHõ Pi÷H=õ $kú, „Ѩu™êi JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kúQÍ =∂~°ÖHË áõ È=K«∞Û.
ã≤) JkèHõ Pi÷H=õ $kú JkèHõ =∂#"åaè =$kú J™ê^躌 O
_ç) JkèHõ Pi÷H=õ $kú, JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kú ~Ô O_»∂ ™ê^躌 =∞QÆ∞@ P^Õâ◊ q^è•<åÅÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞.
1) Z,a =∞iÜ«Ú _ç 2) a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ 3) Z, ã≤ & _ç 4) Z, a & ã≤
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q=~°} : 
`«‰Ωõ ¯= Pi÷Hõ =$kú =^ŒÌ ‰õÄ_® JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kú ™ê^躌 =∞QÆ∞#∞. L^•: <åˆ~fi 
JkèHõ Pi÷H=
õ $kú JkèHõ =∂#"å=$kúH˜ ^•ifÜ«∞HõáÈ=K«∞Û. 
™ê^è•~°}OQÍ JkèHõ Pi÷H=
õ $kú, JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kúH˜ ^•ifÜ«Ú#∞. 
J~Ú`Õ XHõ ^ÕâO
◊ J=ÅOaOKÕ q^è•<åÅÃÑ,· JkèHõ Pi÷H=õ $kú, JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kúH˜ ^ÀǨÏ^ŒÑ_¨ _» O» J<Õk
P^è•~°Ñ¨_»∞#∞.
12. eãπ ì – 1(㨠Q Æ @ ∞ ~° H ÍÅ∞)
eãπ ì – 2
1. z#fl JOâßxH˜ JkèHõ „áê^è•#º`« WK«∞Û@
Z) QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞O (GM)
2. nx #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ∞ "≥Ú`«OÎ 'ã¨∞#fl—
a) ǨÏ~° =∞^Œº=∞O (HM)
3. qÅ∞=#∞ ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å ‰õÄ_® K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û
ã≤) JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O (AM)
4. âß`åÅ∞, x+¨Ê`«∞ÅÎ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞H˘<ÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞
_ç) ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ (Z)
5. crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=# (Mathematical operations) ‰õΩ Ñ¨xH˜~å^Œ∞.
1) Z–4, a–5, ã≤–2, _ç–1
2) Z–2, a–1, ã≤–3, _ç–5
3) Z–4, a–1, ã≤–2, _ç–5
4) Z–2, a–5, ã≤–3, _ç–1
[.
3
q=~°} :
2
σ 
QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞O (GM) : Wk x+¨Ê`«∞Å
Î ∞, âß`åÅ∞ QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ, =∞Oz ã¨Q@
Æ ∞QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆ_∞» #∞. 
ǨÏ~° =∞^Œº=∞O (HM) : Wk JÅÊ JOâßʼnõΩ JkèHõ „áê^è•#º`«, JkèHõ JOâßʼnõΩ JÅÊ „áê^è•#º`« WK«∞Û#∞. 
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O (AM) : ~åâ◊√Å "≥Ú`åÎxfl, ~åâ◊√Å ã¨OMºKÕ ÉèÏy¿ãÎ =ã¨∞O
Î k. Jã¨Å∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz
fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ã¨∞#fl‰õΩ ã¨=∂#=∞QÆ∞#∞. 
ÉÏǨïà◊HO
õ (Z) : Wk ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞, Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ç QÆ}O˜ K«|_»^∞Œ . JO^Œ∞KÕ Mathematical
≥ QÆÑ_¨ ^» ∞Œ .
Treat ment H˜ LѨÜ∂
13. Assertion (A) : x „âı}˜ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ qã¨Î $u ZšѨÙÊ_»∂ ^•x „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ
LO_»∞#∞. Reason (R) : qã¨Î $u J<Õk „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =~°æ=Ú.
1) A =∞iÜ«Ú R Å∞ "åã¨"Î åÖË. =∞iÜ«Ú R J<Õk AH˜ ã¨~Ô #· q=~°}
2) A =∞iÜ«Ú R Å∞ ~Ô O_»∂ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #"Õ. HÍh R J<Õk AH˜ ã¨~Ô #· q=~°} HÍ^Œ∞.
4) A J<Õk J"åã¨=Î O. R ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #^Õ.
3) A J<Õk ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #k. R J"åã¨qÎ HõO.
[.
1
q=~°} : 
qã¨Î $u J<Õk „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =~°O
æ . nxx ã¨OHˆ `«OQÍ Variance =
K«∂Ñ≤™êÎ~∞° . JO^Œ∞KÕ „âı}˜
qã¨Î $u ZÅ¡ÑÙ¨ Ê_»∞ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.

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14. ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º ˆ~MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# ã¨QÆ@∞#∞ JOK«<å "ÕÜ«∞QÆÅ=Ú ?
1) QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2) ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
3) =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
4) ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
[. 3
q=~°} : 
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú QÆ}`
˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞, HÍ|\˜ì g\˜x ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å K«∂ѨÖ=Ë Ú. 
=∞^ŒºQÆ`=
« Ú, ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú J<Õq ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞, g\˜x ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û. 
=∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º ~
ˆ Y J<Õ Fl"£ =„Hõ~ˆ Y ^•fi~å JOK«<å "ÕÜ∞« =K«∞Û 
ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl ™Èáê# Ѩ@O ^•fi~å JOK«<å "ÕÜ∞« K«∞Û.
15. 1970 =∞iÜ«Ú 1990 ã¨O=`«û~åxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ^èŒ~°Å#∞ 1990 ã¨O=`«û~åxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz
Ѩ i =∂}Ïxfl W=fi_»O [iy#ѨÙÊ_»∞ U ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# ã¨∂p ã¨OYº#∞ QÆ}˜OK«=K«∞Û?
1) =∂~°¬Öò Z_£=˚ ~üÎ ã¨∂p
2) Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p
3) áêjÛ ã¨∂p
4) ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p
[. 3
q=~°} : 
ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÖ’ P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}Ïxfl ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞. 
áêjÛ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº x~å‡}OÖ’ „Ѩã∞¨ `
Î « ã¨O=`«û~°O Ѩi=∂}Ïxfl ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞. HÍ|\˜ì ÃÑ· ã¨=∂Kå~°O
P^è•~°OQÍ ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú. áêjÛ ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
16. D „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# QÆ}ÏOHõ H˘Å`« ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x Jxfl K«Å~åâ◊√Å#∞ P^è•~°OQÍ KÕã¨∞‰õΩx
QÆ } ˜ O K« | _» ∞ #∞?
1) K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
2) "åºÑ≤Î
3) ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
4) QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
[. 4
q=~°} : 
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=ÚÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ 25% JOâßÅ∞, z=i 25% JOâßÅ∞ q_çzÃÑ\˜ì =∞^躌 Ö’ L#fl 50% JOâßÅ
P^è•~°OQÍ Q.D. x QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . 
"åºÑ≤Ö
Î ’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ JOâ◊O, z=i JOâ◊O fã¨∞‰õΩx =∞^躌 Ö’ L#fl Jxfl JOâßÅ#∞ q㨇i™êÎ~∞° . 
ÉÏǨïà◊HO
õ Ö’ U qÅ∞= Z‰õΩ¯=™ê~°∞¡ ѨÙ#~å=$`«=∞QÆ∞<À ^•x<Õ Ñ¨iQÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . 
QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∂xfl ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x K«Å~åâ◊√ÅxflO\˜ P^è•~°OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx QÆ}™
˜ êÎ~∞° .
17. XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O ^èŒ<å`«‡Hõ "≥·+¨=∞ºO Hõey L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Uk ã¨Ô~·#k?
1) JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú > =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú > ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
2) JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú < =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú < ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
3) JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú ´ ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
4) =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú < ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú < JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
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q=~°} : 
XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O ™œ+¨=
ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O J~Ú`Õ ^•xÖ’ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO LO_»^∞Œ . nxÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ,
ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÅ∞ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO\Ï~Ú. 
^Œ`åÎOâ◊O J™œ+¨=
ì OQÍ LO>Ë "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO LO@∞Ok. 
ÉÏǨïà◊HO
õ HõO>Ë JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O Z‰õΩ¯"≥`· Õ Jk ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO. 
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O HõO>Ë ÉÏǨïà◊HO
õ Z‰õΩ¯"≥`· Õ Jk ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O
« ZѨÙÊ_»∂ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜, ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxH˜ =∞^躌 Ö’ LO_»∞#∞.
18. ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO '–1— J~Ú`Õ Jk U ~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ# ã¨Ç¨Ï|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
1) ã¨ÇϨ ã¨|O^èOŒ ÖË^∞Œ
2) ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨|O^è=Œ Ú
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯= ã¨ÇϨ ã¨|O^è=Œ Ú
4) ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú
[. 4
q=~°} : 
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èO
Œ qÅ∞= ZѨÙÊ_»∂ –1H˜ {1H˜ =∞^躌 Ö’ LO_»∞#∞. –1 ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl, {1
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞. 
0 J<Õk ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ~åÇ≤Ï`åºxfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ=Ú. 

0.25 J<Õk `«‰Ωõ ¯= ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
19. Ѷ≤Ѷ¨~ü P^Œ~°≈ã¨∂p „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ U ѨsHõΔ#∞ 㨱O`«$Ñ≤ÎѨ~°∞K«∞#∞ ?
1) HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
2) HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
3) HÍÅ =∞iÜ«Ú HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
4) K«„H©Ü∞« ѨsHõΔ (Circular Test)
[. 3
q=~°} : 
Ѷ+
≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº Ü«¸x\ò ѨsHõ#Δ ∞, HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞, HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° ∞« #∞.
J~Ú`Õ Wk K«„H©Ü∞« ѨsHõ#Δ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° Ö« ^Ë ∞Œ .
20. „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ q=$`åO`« `«~°QÆ`«∞Ö’¡ (Open ends) QÆ}˜OK«_®xH˜ gÅ∞ÖËx QÆ}ÏOHõâß„ã¨Î
H˘Å=∂#"Õ∞k ?
1) =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
2) JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
3) ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4) K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
[. 2
q=~°} : 
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O
« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ , K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ qK«Å<åÅ∞ ^Œ`åÎâO◊ Ö’x Jxfl JOâßÅ#∞ ѨiQÆ}#Ö’H˜ fã¨∞HÀ‰õΩO_®
QÆ}O˜ K«|_»`å~Ú. JO^Œ∞OKÕ g\˜x q=$`åO`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Ö’¡ ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û. HÍh JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞<Õk ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x
Jxfl K«Å~åâ◊√Å P^è•~°OQÍ QÆ}O˜ K«|_»∞#∞. JO^Œ∞KÕ`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl q=$`åO`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Ö’¡ QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.

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=$kú – Jaè=$kú : =ÚMϺOâßÅ∞
=$kú J~° ÷ = Ú 
N=∞u Ç≤ÏH±û, +¨μOÑ‘@~üÖÏO\˜ Pi÷H"
õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞ Pi÷H=õ $kú,Jaè=$kú J<Õ Ñ¨^•Å =∞^躌 ã¨Ê+¨"ì ∞≥ #ÿ =º`庙êxfl K«∂Ñ≤OKå~°∞.
=$kú . 
^ÕâO
◊ Ö’ =ã¨∞¿Î ã=Å L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÖË Pi÷H=õ $kú. L^• : *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ. Wk Ѩi=∂}Ï`«‡Hõ
=∂~°∞Ê#∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞. Wk ã¨O‰õΩz`« ÉèÏ=#. 
J~Ú`Õ D L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
–n~°H… ÍÅOQÍ LO_®e.
–"åã¨=Î L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°QÍe.
– `«Åã¨i L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°QÍe.
Pi÷ H Íaè = $kú 
L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ`Àáê@∞ =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ, ™êOˆHuHõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ`À ‰õÄ_ç# QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ#∞ Jaè=$kú JO^Œ∞~°∞.
Wk qâßÅ"≥∞#ÿ ÉèÏ=#.
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ´ Pi÷Hõ =$kú { =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ"∞≥ #ÿ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
´ =$kú { ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O
H˘#™êyOK« Q Æ e ˆ Q Jaè = $kú 
Éèq
í +¨º`ü `«~åÅ "åi J=ã¨~åÅ∞ f~°∞Û‰õΩ<Õ ™ê=∞~°º÷ O ^≥|ƒfÜ«∞‰õΩO_® „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « `«~O° "å~°∞ `«=∞ J=ã¨~åÅ∞ f~°∞ÛHÀ=_»"∞Õ
H˘#™êyOKÕ Jaè=$kú Jx „|\òÖÏO_£ Hõq∞+¨<£ 1987Ö’ x~°fizOK≥#∞. 
„ѨÑO
¨ K« Ѩ~åº=~°} Jaè=$kú Hõq∞+¨<£ 'our common future' J<Õ Ããq∞<å~ü iáÈ~üÖì ’ D Ѩ^•xfl "≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ
LѨÜ≥∂yOK≥#∞. 
'P^è Œ ∞ xHõ =$kú —x q=iOz#k 'Ãã=
· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû—.

Pi÷Hõ=$kú–Jaè=$kú =∂Ѩ#Å∞  

Pi÷H=õ $kú [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#fln, ÖËxn *ÏfÜ«∞^•Ü«∞O ^•fi~å "≥Ú^Œ\’¡ QÆ}O˜ KÕ"å~°∞. `«~∞° "å`« Z‰õΩ¯==∞Ok Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞
`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂xfl =∂Ѩ#OQÍ P"≥∂kOKå~°∞.
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú |Ǩï=ÚY „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« . 1960 ^ŒâH◊ Oõ =~°‰Ωõ Pi÷HÍaè=$kúx =∂Ѩ#O KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎx, `«~∞° "å`«
`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂xfl fã¨∞H˘<åfl~°∞. `«~∞° "å`« ã¨iH˘`«Î ã¨∂zHõÅ∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOKå~°∞.
1. "åã¨Î= ã¨∂÷Å *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎ : ÃÑiy`Õ Jaè=$kú [iy#@∞¡QÍ ÉèÏqOK«=K«Ûx Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû, g#~ü ÖÏO\˜
Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞ ÉèÏqOKå~°∞. J~Ú`Õ [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ „ѨÉÏè "åxfl Wk ѨiQÆ}O˜ K«^∞Œ .
2. `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O : *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎ HõO>Ë "åã¨qÎ Hõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨∂zHõ Jx Å∂~Úãπ,
Öˇa· <£ã<ì‘ Ö£ ÏO\˜ Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞ ÉèÏqOKå~°∞. J~Ú`Õ P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨fiÉèÏ"åxfl Wk ѨiQÆ}O˜ K«^∞Œ .

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3. xHõ~° Pi÷Hõ ã¨OˆHΔ=∞ ã¨∂z (NEW)
{ Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ H˘Å=∂<åxfl qeÜ«∞O #~°=÷ Ùãπ, *Ë"∞£ û\’a<£Å∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOKå~°∞.
{ nxx H˘kÌQÍ =∂iÛ 'xHõ~° Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O—QÍ âß=¸ºÖòã<¨ £ ¿Ñ~°∞ ÃÑ>ˇ#ì ∞.
{ xHõ~° Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ ã¨∂p ´ "åã¨=Î ã¨∂Å÷ *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎ { q„âßOu ã¨=∞Ü«∞O {=∂Ô~¯\òÜ∞Õ `«~° HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅ∞
– Ѩ~åº=~°} HÍÅ∞ëêºxH˜ JÜÕ∞º =ºÜ«∞O
4. P.Q.L.I Éè∫uHõ r=# „Ѩ=∂} ã¨∂p (Physical Quality of life Index)
{1979Ö’ "≥∂iãπ _Õq_£ "≥∂iãπ Pi÷Hˆ `«~° JOâßÅ`À P.Q.L.I. x ~°∂á⁄OkOK≥#∞.
{ nxx Z) „Ѩ[Å PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« O (XHõ ã¨OII #∞Oz)
a) tâ◊√ =∞~°} ~ˆ @∞
ã≤) JHõ~Δ å㨺`« J<Õ 3 JOâßÅ P^è•~°OQÍ ~°∂á⁄OkOK≥#∞.
5. =∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂p(HDI) (Human Development Index)
{ 1990 #∞Oz U.N.D.P. (United Nations Development Programme) "å~°∞ nxx =∂#"åaè=$kú x"ÕkHõÖ’
„ѨK«∞iã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞.
{ H.D.I ~°∂ѨteÊ áêH˜™êÎ<£ ^ÕâßxH˜ K≥Ok# =∞ǨÏ|∂Éò–LÖò–ǨÏH±
{ nxx Z) „Ѩ[Å PÜ«Ú~åÌÜ∞« O (ѨÙ\˜#ì ѨÊ\˜ #∞Oz)
a) JHõ~Δ å㨺`«
ã≤) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O GDP (US$ PPPÅÖ’) J<Õ 3 JOâßÅ∞ (™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ{Pi÷H)õ P^è•~°OQÍ
~°∂á⁄Okã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞. 2010 HDR Ö’ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ 119 = ~åºO‰õΩ á⁄Ok#k.
{ P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷Hõ =$kúH˜ Z‰õΩ¯==∞Ok P"≥∂kã¨∞#Î fl =∂Ѩ#O H.D.I
6. G.D.I. eOQÆ ã¨O|Okè`« Jaè=$kú ã¨∂z (Gender Related Development Index)
{ nxx UNDP "å~°∞ 1995 #∞Oz ~°∂á⁄Okã¨∞<Î åfl~°∞. HDI Ö’x JOâßÖË „ã‘,ΠѨÙ~°∞+¨μʼnõΩ "Õ~∞° "Õ~∞° QÍ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .
2010 Ö’ Gender Inequality Index x QÆ}O˜ K≥#∞.
7. GEM eOQÆ ™êkèHÍi`« H˘Å=∂x (Gender Empowerment Measure)
{ ѨiáêÅ#, ~å[H©Ü∞« , Pi÷Hõ JOâßÅÖ’ „ã‘ÅÎ ∞ U "Õ∞~°‰Ωõ áêÖÁæO@∞<åfl~À Wk `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
8. HPI-I, HPI-II (Human Poverty Index)
{ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßʼnõΩ 1997 #∞Oz HPI-I #∞ QÆ}㘠∞¨ <Î åfl~°∞.
{ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßʼnõΩ 1998 #∞Oz HPI-II x QÆ}㘠∞¨ <Î åfl~°∞. 2010Ö’ Multi-Dimensional Human
Poverty Index x ~°∂á⁄OkOzi.
9. Green Index :
{ „ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Ѩ~åº=~°}, H˘#™êyOK«^yŒ # Jaè=$kú qÉèÏQÆO nxx Jaè=$kú KÕãO≤ k.

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Z) L`«ÊuÎ KÕã#≤ Pã¨∞ÅÎ ∞
a) ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
ã≤) =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞

J<Õ D 3 JOâßÅ ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O`À nxx QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .

10. EDI ( Economic Development Index)
nxx ÉèÏ~°`Hü ˜ K≥Ok# NCAER (National Council of Applied Economic Research) "å~°∞ Jaè=$kú
KÕâß~°∞.
Z) q^•º™ê÷~Ú ã¨∂zHõ 

a) P~ÀQƺ=$kú ã¨∂zHõ

ã≤) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O J<Õ 3 JOâßÅ`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .

„ѨÑO¨ K« Jaè=$kú x"ÕkHHõ#∞ „ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ "å~°∞ „ѨK∞« i™êÎ~∞° .

=$kú, ѨOÑ≤}© =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OˆHΔ=∞O 

™ê^è•~°}OQÍ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy`Õ Pi÷Hõ =$kú [iy, Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞. 

J~Ú`Õ P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨=∂#OQÍ [iy#ѨÙ_Õ, P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy`Õ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞. 

„H˜Ok Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« ÅÖ’ P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy<å ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°QHÆ áõ È=K«∞Û.
Z) ^è~Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@=Å¡ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy<å,
a) „âßq∞‰õΩÅKÕ Z‰õΩ¯= Ѩx QÆO@Å∞ ѨxKÕ~ÚOK«∞@ =Å¡ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy<å,
μ ÃÑiy<å,
ã≤) *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ HõO>Ë, [<åÉèÏ "ÕQOÆ QÍ

_ç) J#∞`åÊ^ŒHõ =ã¨∞=Î Å L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@ =Å¡ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy<å,
W) *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy#ѨÊ\˜H,© P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨=∂#OQÍ ÖËHáõ È`Õ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°Q^Æ ∞Œ . 

ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∂xfl H˘eKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ J=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<££ „H˜Ok ã¨∂zHõ#∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞.
W=

ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O,

´ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O,

(1-G)

P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å H˘Å=∂#O

JÖÏÊaè=$kú Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ÅHõΔ}ÏÅ∞ 

SHõº~å[ºã¨q∞u JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ#∞ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ∞QÍ =i‚ã∞¨ OÎ k. 

„ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ, ^ÕâßÅ `«Åã¨i GNI (GNP) P^è•~°OQÍ, „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JÅÊ, =∞^躌 , JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞
^ÕâßÅ∞QÍ =sæHiõ ã¨∞OÎ k. „ѨÑO¨ K« Jaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ 2010 „ѨHÍ~°O (WDR)

JÅÊ P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞

:

$ 975

JO`«HOõ >Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞

=∞^躌 P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞

:

$976

#∞O_ç 11,905 =∞^躌 P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞

JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞

:

$11,906

z~°Orq

JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞
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Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ#∞ „ѨÑO¨ K« =ÚiH˜"å_»Å∞QÍ ÔH·~°<£ „HÍãπ Jaè=i‚OK≥#∞.
JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ ÅHõΔ}ÏÅ∞
1. `«‰õΩ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O LO@∞Ok. L^• : qx=∞Ü«∞ ~ˆ @∞ „ѨHÍ~°O ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ ◊ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O (2010
WDR „ѨHÍ~°O) $1070, H˘#∞QÀÅ∞ â◊HΘ ã¨=∂#`« „ѨHÍ~°O (PPP$). $ 2,930.
2. =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆ PkèHõº`« Hõ#|_»∞#∞. L^•: 2001 <å\˜H˜ =∞#^ÕâO◊ Ö’ =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆOÃÑ· 58% „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞
P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» K«∞<åfl~°∞. 2009–10Ö’ ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 15% "å\Ï *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO #∞OKÕ =ã¨∞OÎ k.
3. JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ LO_»∞#∞. L^• : 2001–2011 =∞^躌 =∞#^Õâ◊ ^Œâß|Ì [<åÉèÏ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ 17.64%, D HÍÅOÖ’
™êO=`«ûiHõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ 1.64%.
4. JkèHõ x~°∞^Àºy`«, „ѨK«Ûù#fl x~°∞^Àºy`« LO_»∞#∞.
– ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ x~°∞^Àºy`« ã¨fiÉèÏ=O =º=™ê÷Ñ~¨ "° ∞≥ #ÿ k. n~°H… ÍeHõ"∞≥ #ÿ k. Wk =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`« =Å¡
U~°Ê_çOk.
– U^≥<· å ~°OQÆOÖ’ J=ã¨~"° ∞≥ #ÿ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= =∞Ok „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ x=∞QÆ∞flÖˇ· LO>Ë, "åix „ѨKÛ« #ù fl
x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞ JO^Œ∞~°∞. gi LáêO`« L`«ÊuÎ â◊¥#ºO. =∞#^ÕâO◊ Ö’ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆOÖ’ Hõ#Ѩ_∞» #∞.
– „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ x[ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«Ûx ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û ¿Ñ~˘¯#∞#∞.
5. =¸Å^èŒ#O H˘~°`«QÍ LO_»∞#∞. `«‰Ωõ ¯= P^•Ü«∞O, `«‰Ωõ ¯= á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ, `«‰Ωõ ¯= ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞ʼnõΩ ^•ifÜ«Ú#∞.
6. P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
– P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y "å_»`å~°∞.
– P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å™ê÷~Úx yx QÆ∞}HõO ^•fi~å H˘Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
– Jaè=$kú „áê~°OÉèí ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`åÜ«∞x `«~∞° "å`« `«Q∞Æ `æ åÜ«∞x Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû u~°Q"Æ ãÕ #≤
'U' ѨiHõÅÊ# (Inverted 'U' hypothesis) #∞ „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞.
7. JÅÊ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝<åxfl, JÅÊ L`åÊ^ŒHõ`«#∞ Hõey LO\Ï~Ú.
8. D ^ÕâßÅ∞ `«‰õΩ¯= =∂#"åaè=$k
$kúx Hõey LO\Ï~Ú.
– 2010 =∂#"åaè=$kú x"ÕkHõÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`ü 119= ~åºOH±#∞ Hõey LOk.
9. Pi÷Hõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO Hõ#|_»∞#∞. ÉèÏ~°`Öü ’ ‰õÄ_® D ÅHõ}
Δ O Hõ#Ѩ_∞» #∞.
– ™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO –
ɡOl=∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
– ™ê=∂lHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO –
É’ˆH
– q`«Î ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO

q∞O\ò
10. JkèHõ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO LO@∞Ok.
– NSSO "åi 61= ~“O_£ JOK«<åÅ „ѨHÍ~°O ÉèÏ~°`Öü ’ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO URP „ѨHÍ~°O 28% HÍQÍ, MRP
„ѨHÍ~°O 22%QÍ #"≥∂^≥O· k.
– ÅHͤ"åÖÏ ã¨∂„`«O P^è•~°OQÍ ¿Ñ^ŒiHÍxfl QÆ}㘠∞¨ <Î åfl~°∞.

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JÖÏÊaè = $kú H ˜ HÍ~° } ÏÅ∞
Z) =∂Ô~¯\ò Jã¨OѨÓ~°`‚ Å« ∞
a) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ – ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞.
ã≤) JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ â◊‰Ωõ ÅÎ ∞
Jaè = $kú ^Œ â ◊ Å ∞ 
Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ
◊ #∞ qâı+¡ }
¨ KÕã#≤ "åiÖ’ HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯ û, ~À™Èì"£ =ÚYºÅ∞.
1. HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û Jaè=$kú ^Œâ◊Å∞
Z) Pk=∞ ã¨=∂[O (Primitive communism)
a) ÉÏx㨠^Œâ◊ (Slavary)
ã≤) Éè∂í ™êfi=∞º ^Œâ◊ (Feudalism)
_ç) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s q^è•#O (Capitalism)
W) ™ê=∞º"å^ŒO (Socialism)
ZѶ)π Hõ=¸ºx[O (Communism) 
=∂~ü¯ û ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ z=i ^Œâ◊ Hõ=¸ºx[O 
ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö
÷ ’ ÃÑiˆQ x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ ''WO_»„ã≤Ü
ì ∞« Öò i[~üfi_£ Ps‡—— QÍ Ñ≤eK≥#∞. 
=∂~ü¯ û 3 ÉèÏ=#Å∞ LѨÜ∂
≥ yOK≥#∞.
q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= =
S
Z) „âßq∞Hõ ^ÀÑ≤_ô (q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞=) ´ -----------C
S #
K«~° =¸Å^è
ΠO
V
V+ C

a) OCC (Organic Composition of Capital) =

C = ã≤~
÷°

=¸Å^è#Œ O,

V= K«~°

=¸Å^è#Œ O,
S = q∞QÆ∞Å∞
ã≤) ÖÏÉèÏÅ ~ˆ @∞´ 
„âßq∞Hõ ^ÀÑ≤_ô ÃÑiˆQ H˘nÌ ÖÏÉèÏÅ ~
ˆ @∞ 
OCC ÃÑiˆQ H˘nÌ ÖÏÉèÏň~@∞ `«Q∞Æ #
æ ∞. 

ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞.

`«~∞° "å`« HÍÅOÖ’ =∂~ü¯ û ^ŒâÅ◊ ã≤^•úO`åxfl q.S.Öˇx<£ qã¨iÎ OK≥#∞.

2.Ãã·=∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<≥\òû Jaè„áêÜ«∞O : 
‰õΩ*ò<\
≥ òû Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ #∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯#ÖË^∞Œ HÍx Jaè=$kú U ~°OQÆO #∞O_ç U~°OQÍxH˜ =∂ˆ~k ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞ 
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „áê~°OÉèO
í Ö’ =º=™êÜ«∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Q÷ Í LO_»∞#∞. ™êOˆHuHÍaè=$kú [iˆQH˘nÌ =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO "å\Ï
`«yæ kfifÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO "å\Ï ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞. „âßq∞Hõ â◊HΘ ‰õÄ_® „áê^èqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆO #∞Oz, kfifÜ«∞ ~°OQÍxH˜ =∞~°Å∞#∞.
z=iH˜ „âßq∞Hõ â◊HΘ `«$fÜ«∞ ~°OQÍxH˜ =∞~°Å∞#∞. L`«ÊuÎÖ’ JkèHõ "å\Ï `«$fÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO #∞Oz ÅaèOK«∞#∞.

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ECONOMY

3. ~À™Èì"£ =$kú ^Œâ◊Å ã≤^•úO`«O 
"=$kú ^ŒâÅ
◊ ∞", ~À™Èì"`£ À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk. 
~À™Èì"£ ~°zOz# 'The stages of Economic Growth' 1960Ö’ „ѨK∞« i`«"∞≥ O
ÿ k. 
nxx A non-communist manifesto J<Õ sub-title `À Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° . 
=∂~ü¯û ã≤^•úO`åxH˜ Wk „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∞OQÍ LOk. ~À™Èì"£ =$kú ^ŒâÅ
◊ ∞ 5.
Z) ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O (Traditional Society)
a) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ HÍ"åeû# =ÚO^Œ∞ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞ (The pre-condition for take-off)
ã≤) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊ (The take-off)
_ç) ѨiѨHfiõ ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ QÆ=∞#O (The Drive to maturity)
W) ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆO (The age of high mass consumption) 
Ѩ=
¡ # ^Œâ◊ ~À™Èì"£ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ Ju =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ ^Œâ.◊
– D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ 10% ÃÑ#· ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞.
– D ^Œâ#◊ ∞ =ÚO^Œ∞ KÕ~∞° ‰õΩ#fl ^ÕâO◊ WOQÍ¡O_»∞. 
ÉèÏ~°`^
« âÕ O◊ 1952Ö’ Ѩ=¡ # ^ŒâÖ◊ ’H˜ „Ѩ"tÕ Oz 1964–65 ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ#◊ ∞ ^•\˜Ok. 
Ѩ=
¡ # ^Œâ◊ `«~∞° "å`« Drive to maturity ^Œâ◊ =K«∞Û#∞. nxx stage of self sustained growth JO^Œ∞~°∞. ™êOˆHuHõ
Ѩi*Ï˝<åxfl Jxfl ~°OQÍÖ’¡ qxÜ≥∂y™êÎ~∞° . D ^Œâ#◊ ∞ ‰õÄ_® =ÚO^Œ∞QÍ WOQÍ¡O_»∞ á⁄Ok#k. 
High mass consumption age #∞ "≥Ú^Œ\QÍ KÕi# ^ÕâO
◊ J"≥∞iHÍ.
¡¨ ∞ü ã¨=∞㨺‰õΩ |^Œ∞Å∞ _ç=∂O_£ H˘~°`«
*ˇ.ÔH.QÍÖò„ɡ`ü `«# 'Affluent Society' J<Õ „QÆO^äOŒ Ö’ 'Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ã¨ÑÜ
ã¨=∞㨺#∞ Z^Œ∞~˘¯O@∞Ok— Jx ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞.

=$kúH˜ P^è•~åÅ∞
=$kúx x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ JOâßÅ∞ 2 ~°HÍÅ∞.
1. Pi÷Hõ HÍ~°HÍÅ∞
2. Pi÷ ˆ H `« ~ ° HÍ~° H ÍÅ∞
Z) ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
Z) ~å[H©Ü∞« JOâßÅ∞
a) =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#
a) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ JOâßÅ∞
ã≤) =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O, [<åÉèÏ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
– L=∞‡_ç ‰õΩ@∞O|O
_ç) ™êOˆHuHõ „ѨQuÆ
– ™êkèOKåÅ<Õ HÀiHõ
W) Trade & Aid (=~°HÎ =õ Ú =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O) – =∞`«O
ZѶ)π =∂Ô~¯\ò Ѩi=∂}O 
J^Œ#OQÍ XHõ Ü«¸x\ò =ã¨∞=
Î Ù#∞ L`«ÊuÎ KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ ZO`« =¸Å^è#Œ O J=ã¨~"° ∂≥ `≥eÜ«∞*Ë¿ã^Õ ICOR
(Incremental Capital Output Ratio).

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ECONOMY          

ǨÏ~å_£, _À=∞~ü Pi÷HÍaè=$kú #=¸<åÖ’ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« # „áê^è•#º`«#∞ <˘H˜¯ K≥ÃÑÊ#∞.
q^Œº, P~ÀQƺO, <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºOÃÑ· KÕ¿ã ÃÑ@∞ì|_Õ =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O
[<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`åxfl âß„ã‘Ü
Î ∞« ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ `À "≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ q=iOz#k =∂ÖÏ÷<.£
An Essay on the principles of population J<Õ „QÆO^äO
Œ Ö’ =∂ÖÏ÷ãπ nxfl K«iÛOK≥#∞.
1815Ö’ Z_»fi~ü¤ "≥ãìπ ''JaèÅ+¨}Ü
© ∞« [<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`åxfl—— "≥Ú^Œ@QÍ K«iÛOK≥#∞. `«~∞° "å`« ã≤_q˚ç H±, Z_çfi<£ HÍ#<£,
_®Åì<Å£ ∞ D ã≤^•úO`åxfl Jaè=$kú KÕâß~°∞.
''„ѨH$õ u XHõ Éè’[#âßÅ =O\˜k. nxÖ’ PǨfix`«∞ňH Éè’[#O Åaèã∞¨ OÎ k—— – =∂Å÷ã.π
''ѨÙ>Ëì „Ñ¨u a_»¤ á⁄@ì`Àáê@∞ 2 HÍà◊√§, KÕ`∞« Å`À ѨÙ_»`å_»∞—— – HÍ#<£.
[<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i}Ï=∞ ã≤^•úO`åxfl ^ä•=∞ûãπ =∞iÜ«Ú <À\˜ã<ì‘ Å£ ∞ q=iOK≥#∞. D ã≤^•úO`åxfl HÀÖò =∞iÜ«Ú Ç¨˙=~üÅ∞
3 ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞QÍ#∞, ÉÏ¡H~õ ü 5 ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞QÍ#∞ q=iOzi.
L`åÊ^ŒHÍÅ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @∞ HõO>Ë L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ^•xx L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « JO^Œ∞~°∞.
'Jaè=$kú K≥Ok#, Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ =∞^躌 q^Õj "åºáê~°O [iy`Õ, Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßňH =~°HÎ õ
x|O^è#Œ Å∞, q^Õj "åºáê~°O J#∞‰õÄÅOQÍ LO_»∞#∞— J<Õ ã≤^•úO`åxfl ã¨=∞i÷Oz#k – „ÃÑa¶ +π, ã≤OQÆ~,ü q∞~åÌÖò.
Dual-gap model : ^≥· fiq^Œº JO`«~O
° J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ K≥<ås (Chenery) qâı+¡ }
¨ KÕ¿ã#∞.
Z) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠JO`«~O°
a) q^Õj=∂~°Hõ „^Œ=º JO`«~O° .
ÃÑ· ~Ô O\˜x ^≥· fiq^Œº JO`«~O° JO^Œ∞~°∞.
g\˜x q^Õj ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O (Foreign Aid) ^•fi~å `˘ÅyOK«=K«∞Û.

=$kú =ӺǨÅ∞
qq^èŒ „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∂ÅÖ’ P ^Õâ◊ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« ʼnõΩ J#∞QÆ∞}OQÍ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ q^è•<åxfl Z#∞flHÀ=_»"∞Õ =ӺǨÏO.
1. aQ∑ ѨÙ+π : nxx ~À*ˇ<£ã‘ì<£ ~À_®
~À_®<£ „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞
– Notes on the theory of Big Push in Economic Development of Latin America J<Õ "åºã¨OÖ’
nxx q=iOK≥#∞.
– JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ P@OHÍÅ#∞ JkèQqÆ ∞Oz =$kú =∂~°Oæ Ö’ ѨÜ∞« xOKåÅO>Ë ÉèÏs ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ J=ã¨~O° .
– JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞, ÉÏǨϺ P^•Ü«∂ʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« WK≥Û#∞.
– L`«ÊuÎÖ’ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞ (Indivisibility), _ç=∂O_»∞Ö’ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞, á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙÖ’ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞ Jx 3 ~°HÍÅ
JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞. g\˜`À áê@∞ =∂#ã≤Hõ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ#∞ ‰õÄ_® „Ѩ™êÎqOK≥#∞.
– „ѨMϺuQÍOz# áê^Œ~H° ‰Δõ Ωõ ŠѨi„â◊=∞ L^•Ç¨Ï~°} ~À_®<£^.Õ
2. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O (Balanced Growth)
– ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£, ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û, P~°~÷ ü Å∂~¸ãπÅ∞ nxx ã¨=∞i÷Ozi.
– J~Ú`Õ D ã≤^•úO`åxfl Jaè=$kú KÕã#≤ k ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û.

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Problems of Capital Formation in under Developed countries J<Õ „QÆO^äO
Œ Ö’ K«iÛOK≥#∞.

¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å#∞ q=iOz#k ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ L`åÊ^ŒHõ`«, P^•Ü«∞O =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ XˆH™êi ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ@∞ì@ÜÕ∞ ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú.
JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè "åxfl q=iOz#k–~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û.
~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆOÖ’ L#fl „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ x[ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ "å_ç =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#‰õΩ
LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«Ûx ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞.
– J.B. Say =∂Ô~¯\ò ã¨∂„`«O P^è•~°OQÍ ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û `«# ã≤^•úO`åxfl ã¨=∞i÷OK≥#∞.
3. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O (Un Balanced Growth)
– ã≤OQÆ~,ü H˜O_»Öò |~°~æ ,ü ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£Å∞ ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl q=∞i≈Oz Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxH˜
J#∞‰õÄÅOQÍ Jaè„áêÜ«∞O =ºHõÑÎ i¨ zi.
– D ã≤^•úO`åxfl 'ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£— XHõ Ѩ^uúŒ „ѨHÍ~°O ~°∂á⁄OkOK≥#∞.
– H˘xfl ZOÑ≤Hõ KÕã#≤ , H©ÅHõ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ\˜,ì "å\˜x JÉè=í $kú KÕã,≤ "å\˜ ^•fi~å ÅaèOz#
P^•Ü«∂Å∞ q∞ye# ~°OQÍʼnõΩ qxÜ≥∂yOz, Jã¨O`«∞e`«O #∞Oz ã¨O`«∞e`åxH˜ ѨÜ∞« xOK«∞@ÜÕ∞
Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú.
– =ÚO^Œ∞, "≥#∞Hõ (Forward and Backward linkages) J#∞ |O^è•Å#∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£.
– ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O J`«ºkèHõ =ÚO^Œ∞, "≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ QÆŠѨi„â◊=∞ – Iron and Steel Industry.
W`«~° JOâßÅ∞:
Z) P_»"£∞ ã≤‡`ü : J~°÷âß„ã¨Î Ñ≤`å=∞Ǩï_»∞ (Father of Economics)
– Wealth of Nations „QÆO^äŒ Hõ~ΰ (1776)
– J^Œ$â◊º ǨÏã¨OÎ J<Õ ÉèÏ=# P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü^.Õ
– Division of Labour, ã¨ÇϨ [ ã¨∂„`«O, ¿ãfiKåÛù "åºáê~° q^è•<åxfl ã¨=∞i÷OK≥#∞.
a) iHÍ~À¤ :
– The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) „QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`«
– ÉèÏ@Hõ ã≤^•úO`«O, Stationary State W`«x`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç L<åfl~Ú.
ã≤ ) \ ˜.P~ü.=∂ÖÏ÷<£ :
– The Principles of Political Economy (1820) „QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`«.
– [<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`åxfl K≥ÃÑÊ#∞, ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü H˜ ã¨=∂#OQÍ ã¨q∞+≤ì _ç=∂O_£ LO_»^xŒ "≥Ú^Œ@QÍ K≥ÃÑÊ#∞.
_ç ) *ˇ.Z<£.q∞Öò :
– "Õ`#« xkè ã≤^•úO`«O K≥ÃÑÊ#∞. (Wage Fund Theory)

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W) ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ Pi÷Hõ "Õ`«ÎÅ ã≤^•úO`« ÅHõΔ}ÏÅ∞ :
– Laissez Fair Policy, Capital Accumulation (=¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O)
– ÃÑ@∞ì|_çH˜ „¿Ñ~°} ÖÏÉèÏÖË. – ÖÏÉèÏÅ∞ H©}
Δ O˜ KÕ ^èÀ~°}.˜
– ã¨|÷ `ú åã≤u÷ (Stationary State)
ZѶ π ) +¨μOÑ‘@~ü (Schumpeter) :
– Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ #=HõÅÊ#Å „áê^è•#º`«#∞, =º=™ê÷Ѩ‰õΩx „áê^è•#º`«#∞ <˘H˜¯ K≥ÃÑÊ#∞.
– „"åã≤# ~°K#« Å∞ :
– Theory of Economic Development – 1911
– Business Cycles 1939. Ten Great Economists
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 1942

l) *ˇ.ZO. H©<£û :
– The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money 1936.
– ™ê~°H÷ õ _ç=∂O_»∞, QÆ∞}HõO, M.E.C., „^Œ"ÀºÅƒ} q~å=∞O ÖÏO\˜ ÉèÏ=#Å∞ H©<£û"Õ.
ÃÇÏKü) P~ü.P~ü.<≥Åû<£ :
– Low Level Equilibrium Trap (JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú ã¨=∞`Òź ã¨O÷ |#) J<Õ ÉèÏ=# <≥Åû<£ QÍi^Õ.
S) ǨÔ~fi Öˇ·a<£ã‘ì<£ :
– Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth „QÆO^ä•xfl ~°zOK≥#∞.
– Critical Minimum effort theory (Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç) ã≤^•úO`«O Öˇa· <£ã<ì‘ ^£ .Õ
*ˇ ) QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åúÖò :(Theory of Backwash effect)
– W`«#∞ Backwash and Spread effects #∞ q=iOK≥#∞.
– "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å‰õΩ HÍ~°}O.
|Å"≥∞#ÿ ÉϺH±"å+π Ѷe¨ `«O, |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè =O.
Ô H ) ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û :
– „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ ^•y L#fl á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ ÉèÏqOz, JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅÖ’ gix =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« <åxH˜
LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«∞Û#x ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞.
ZÖò ) _» | ∞¡ º.º. Z.Å∂~¸<£ (W.A.Lewis) (JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨Ñ¨¡Üü∞ ã≤^•úO`«O)
Economi development with unlimited supply of labour – J<Õ „QÆO^ä•xfl „"åÃã#∞
– Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’...Z) r=<å^è•~° ~°OQÆO, a) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s ~°OQÆO Jx 2 ~°OQÍÅ∞O\ÏÜ«∞<≥#∞.
Z"£∞) ǨÏ~å_£–_À=∞~ü =$kú #=¸<å
– g~°∞ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç áê„`«‰Ωõ „Ѩ^•è #™ê÷#O WzÛi.
– ǨÏ~å_£ ~°K#« Towards A dynamic Economics

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– ǨÏ~å_£ 3 ~°HÍÅ =$kú ~ˆ @¡#∞ q=iOK≥#∞. Z) "åã¨qÎ Hõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
a) "åÔ~O>ˇ_£ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
ã≤) ã¨ÇϨ [ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
S
á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ
– =$kú~ˆ @∞ ´ ----------------- ´
COR
=¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
L^• : =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ 4 :1 =$kú ~ˆ @∞ 3%, á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠12%
=$kú ~ˆ @∞
Z<£ ) N=∞u *’<£ ~åa<£ã¨<£ :
– 1956Ö’ The Accumulation of Capital J<Õ „QÆO^ä•xfl „"åÃã#∞.
– ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Œºy`«`À ‰õÄ_ç# „Hõ=∞ =$kú ™êkèOK«∞@‰õΩ 'Golden Age' J<Õ ÉèÏ=# LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k.
F) Ñ≤.ã≤.=∞ǨÏÖò<Àa<£ :
1955Ö’ 4 ~°OQÍÅ #=¸<å Jaè=$kú KÕÃã#∞. Wk 2= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ‰Ωõ P^è•~°O.
Ñ≤ ) ã≤ . Z<£ . =H© Å ∞ =∞iÜ« Ú Ñ≤ . P~ü . „|Ǩ  ‡#O^Œ O
– 1956Ö’ Planning for an Expanding Economy „"åã≤i.

21
S
– =∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ =ӺǨxH˜ „Ѩ3 `=åº=∂flÜ«
«#( =ã¨∞Î =ӺǨxfl Jaè=$kú KÕÃã#∞.
= ∞OQÍ "Õ=`)G
4 ROC
‰õĺ) Theory of Circular Causation – QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò
P~ü) Theory of International Dualism – H.V. q∞O\ò   l.q∞~åúÖò (ZO.Ñ≤.`˘_®~À nxx Jaè=$kú KÕÃã#∞.)
Zãπ) =∞^茺O`«~° ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O (Intermediate Technology) J<Õ ÉèÏ=# – +¨μ=∂K«~ü (Schumachar)
„Ѩ"Õâ◊ÃÑ>ˇì#∞.
\ ˜ ) ÃÑ@∞ì | _ç =ӺǨ  Å∞:
Z) Capital - Turnover - Criterian : áÈÖÏH±   |∞Hõ<å<£
a) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ – LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç – Z.W.MÏ<£, a.z<ås
ã≤) ѨÙ#ó ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ã≤^•úO`«O – QÍÖˇ<+£ <¨ £   Öˇa· <£ã<ì‘ .£
_ç) HÍÅ„âı}˜ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ã≤^•úO`«O – Z.ÔH.¿ã<£.
EDI (q^•º

Jaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ)Ö’ Hˆ ~°à◊ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ™ê÷#OÖ’ LOk.
"≥Ú`«OÎ LáêkèÖ’ =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO "å\Ï 1993–94Ö’ 61.67% HÍQÍ 1999–2000 <å\˜H˜ 58.54%xH˜
`«yOæ k. 2004–05 <å\˜H˜ 52%xH˜ `«yOæ k.

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KEY POINTS

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P.Q.L.I.

x ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k
_Õq_£ "≥∂iãπ (1979)
H.D.I ~°∂ѨtÅÊ
=∞ǨÏ|∂Éò–LÖò–ǨÏH± (nxfl1990Ö’ UNDP "å~°∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOzi)
*’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
„ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«
ɡOl=∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
É’ÔH
™ê=∂lHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
q∞O\ò
q`«Î ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û
P~åæxH± HÍOáÈl+¨<£ PѶπ Hˆ Ñ≤@~ü OCC
HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û
áêi„âßq∞Hõ i[~°∞fi¿ã=
HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û
q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«O
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The strategy of Economic Development
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Balanced Vs un Balanced Growth
Principles of Economic Planning
Development Planning
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Economic Development with unlimited supply of labour
33

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ECONOMY  

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The conditions of Economic Progress
The accumulation of capital 1956
Essays in the theory of Economic Growth 1963       

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z~°Orq

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a\òÉϺOH± (One Word Questions)
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Pi÷Hõ=$kú
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Pi÷HÍaè=$kú
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„|\Ï¡O_£ Hõq∞+¨<£ (1987)
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H˘#™êyOK«QeÆ Qˆ Jaè=$kú.

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=$kú – Jaè = $kú – =∂Ѩ # Å∞
14. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ =∂Ѩ#OQÍ ã¨∂Å÷ *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎx ã¨=∞‡uOz# Pi÷H"õ `Õ ?Ϋ
[. Ãã=· ∞<£‰Ωõ *ò<\≥ òû   g∞_£   g#~ü   „á¶êOÔHÖò
15. <å=∞=∂„`«ÑÙ¨ P^•Ü«∂xfl "åã¨qÎ Hõ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OQÍ =∂ˆ~ÛO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
<å=∞=∂„`«ÑÙ¨ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O
[. "åã¨qÎ Hõ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ´----------------------˛100
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[. "åã¨qÎ Hõ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O
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[. "åã¨qÎ Hõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O
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[. Å∂~Úãπ† ֡ɷ <£ã<ì‘ †£ "Õ∞Ü«∞~ü
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[. "åã¨qÎ Hõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O
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[. #~°∞=÷ ãπ   *Ë"∞£ û\’a<£
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ì H© ~õ }
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[. xHõ~° Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ ã¨∂p (NEW)
23. xHõ~° Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ ã¨∂px D q^èOŒ QÍ K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û?
[.

NEW = "åã¨=
Î

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ì H© ~õ }
°
Ѩ~åº=~°} HÍÅ∞ëêºxH˜ JÜÕ∞º =ºÜ«∞O

24. 1979= ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ Éè∫uHõ r=# „Ѩ=∂} ã¨∂p (PQLI) x `«Ü∂« ~°∞ KÕã#≤ k?
[. "≥∂iãπ _Õq_£ "≥∂iãπ

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25. Éè∫uHõ r=# „Ѩ=∂} ã¨∂p (PQLI) Ö’ fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl JOâßÅ∞?
[. Z) „Ѩ[Å PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« =Ú (1 ã¨OII #∞Oz)
a) tâ◊√ =∞~°} ~ˆ @∞
ã≤) JHõΔ~å㨺`«
PQLI Ö’

JOâ◊ ã¨∂pH˜ ã¨∂„`«O?
"åã¨=Î qÅ∞= – Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=
[. JOâ◊ã∂¨ p ´ ------------------QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞= – Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=

26.

27. "≥∂iãπ xi‡Oz# PQLI J<Õ ã¨g∞Hõ$`« ã¨∂p J#∞=iÎ`=« Ú U q^èOŒ QÍ LOk?
[. Z) `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅÖ’ PQLI qÅ∞= `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ#∂, Z‰õΩ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅÖ’
PQLI qÅ∞= Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ#∂ LOk.
a) J~Ú<å H˘xfl ^ÕâßÅÖ’ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O JkèHOõ QÍ L#flѨÊ\˜H© PQLI ã¨∂p JÅÊOQÍ LOk. `«Åã¨i
P^•Ü«∞O `«‰Ωõ ¯= J~Ú#ѨÊ\˜H© PQLI ã¨∂p JkèHOõ QÍ LOk.
28. ã¨g∞Hõ$`« Jaè=$kú ã¨∂px (Composite Index of Development) QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ 11 H˘Å=∂<åÅ#∞ ѨsH˜OΔ z#
Pi÷Hõ"Õ`«Î?
[. W.W.ÃÇÏÔQ<£
29. ™ê=∂lHõ Jaè=$kúÃÑ· SHõº~å[ºã¨q∞u Ѩiâ’^è<Œ å ã¨Oã¨÷ (UNRISD) Pi÷HÍaè=$kú =∂Ѩ<åxfl ~°∂á⁄OkOK«∞@‰õΩ
Zxfl JOâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩOk?
[. 16 (9 ™ê=∂lHõ ã¨∂zHõÅ∞ { 7 Pi÷Hõ ã¨∂zHõÅ∞)
30.

HDI (Human Development Index) x U ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ ~°∂á⁄OkOzi?

[. 1990
31.

HDI Z=~°∞

[.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)

32.

HDI

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(=∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂p) ~°∂ѨtÅÊ?

[. =∞ǨÏ|∂Éò–LÖò–ǨÏH± (áêH˜™êÎ<)£
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HDI x

~°∂á⁄OkOKÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ JOâßÅ∞?

[. Z) PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« =Ú ([x‡Oz#ѨÊ\˜ #∞Oz)
a) JHõ~Δ å㨺`« (=Ü≥∂[# JHõ~Δ å㨺`« { L=∞‡_ç #"≥∂^Œ∞ x+¨ÊuÎ)
ã≤) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O GDP (US$ PPP)

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ECONOMY

34. =∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂p qÅ∞= P^è•~°OQÍ „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ#∞ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ =sæHiõ OK«=K«∞Û#∞.
[. 3 ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ =sæHiõ OK«=K«∞Û
1) `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∂#"åaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ (0.5 ֒ѨÙ)
2) =∞^躌 ™ê÷~Ú =∂#"åaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ (0.5 #∞O_ç 0.8)
3) JkèHõ =∂#"åaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ (8.0 #∞O_ç 1.0)
35. 2010 =∂#"åaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ „ѨHÍ~°O HDI Ö’ ÉèÏ~°`ü ~åºO‰õΩ ZO`«?
[. 119= ~åºO‰õΩ – =∞^躌 ™ê÷~Ú =∂#"åaè=$kú =sæH~õ }
° Ö’ ÉèÏ~°`ü LOk. (2009Ö’ 134= ~åºO‰õΩ)
36. 2010 =∂#"åaè=$kú x"ÕkHõÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ,˜ z=i ~åºO‰õΩÅ∞ QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞?
[. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ~åºO‰õΩ–<åˆ~fi (0.938)
169= ~åºO‰õΩ – lOÉÏÉËfi (0.140)
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[. K≥<· å–89
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AP 10 = ~åºO‰õΩ #∞ Hõeæ 0.416 ã¨∂p`À India ã¨Q@
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[. GDI- 1995 (eOQÆ ã¨O|O^èŒ Jaè=$kú ã¨∂p)
40. =∂#= ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ ã¨∂p– (HPI-1) x U ^ÕâßÅ H˘~°‰Ωõ ~°∂á⁄Okã¨∞<Î åfl~°∞?
[. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßʼnõΩ (1997 #∞Oz)
41. (HPI-1) Ö’ „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ ~åºO‰õΩ? (2008 HDR „ѨHÍ~°O)
[. 87 ("≥Ú`«OÎ 135 ^ÕâßÅ∞ fã¨∞HÀ=_»O [iyOk)
42. Green Index #∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k Z=~°∞?
[. „ѨÑO¨ K« ÉϺO‰õΩ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Ѩ~åº=~°} H˘#™êyOK«^yŒ # Jaè=$kú qÉèÏQÆ=Ú
43. Green Index x~å‡}OÖ’ fã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ JOâßÅ∞
[. Z) L`«ÊuÎ KÕã#≤ Pã¨∞ÅÎ ∞
a) ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
ã≤) =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞
44. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ã¨∂p (Economic Development Index) x Z=~°∞ Jaè=$kú KÕâß~°∞?
[. NCAER (National Council of Applied Economic Research)
45. „ѨÑO¨ K« PHõe x"ÕkHõÖ’ (Hunger Index)– ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ ™ê÷#O?

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47.
[.

96= ™ê÷#O (119 ^ÕâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞HÀ=_»O [iyOk)
„ѨÑO¨ K« áÈ\©``« fi« ã¨∂p x"ÕkHõÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`ü ™ê÷#O?
48= ™ê÷#O (131 ^ÕâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞)
„ѨÑO¨ K« Jaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ#∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOKÕk Z=~°∞?
„ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ "å~°∞

=$kú–ѨOÑ≤}©–ã¨OˆHΔ=∞O
48. ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy`Õ Pi÷H=õ $kú ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok. J~Ú`Õ Pi÷H=õ $kúH˜ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∂xH˜ ZÖÏO\˜
ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO@∞Ok?
[. =$kú ÃÑiy`Õ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ‰õÄ_® ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞.
49. ^è~Œ Å° ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ =Å# *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy# Ü≥∞_»Å........
[. Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞OÖ’ =∂~°∞Ê#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«_O» Hõ+Oì¨
50. „âßq∞‰õΩÅ#∞ JkèHõ ѨxQÆO@Å∞ ѨxKÕ~ÚOK«@O =Å# *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy#...
[. Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑiy#@∞¡ K≥Ñʨ ÖË=Ú.
51. *ÏfÜ«∞, `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂Å∞ ÃÑiy#ѨÊ\˜H© ÃÑiy# P^•Ü«∞O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ ^èxŒ ‰õΩʼnõΩ KÕi`Õ....
μ
) G − 1( μ = W
[. Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O `«yáæ È=Ù#∞
52. J=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<£ Pi÷Hõ ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O#∞ H˘eKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ã¨∂zOz# ã¨g∞Hõ~}
° O
W- ã¨OHˆ =
Δ ∞O

[.

- `«Åã¨i

53.
[.
54.
[.

P^•Ü«∞O
G - Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
J=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<£ „ѨHÍ~°O ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O ÃÑ~°QÍÅO>Ë....
`«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ `«QÍæe
J=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<£H˜ J~°â÷ ß„ã¨OÎ Ö’ <ÀɡÖò„ÃÑ* ò =zÛ# ã¨O=`«û~°O ?
1998 (ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ J~°â÷ ß„ã¨OÎ Ö’ Hõ$+≤ KÕã#≤ O^Œ∞‰õΩQÍ#∞)

JÖÏÊaè=$kú Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ÅHõΔ}ÏÅ∞
55. ''P ^Õâ◊ [<åÉèÏ ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å`À áÈeÛ#ѨÙ_»∞ `«‰Ωõ ¯= =¸Å^è#Œ O QÆÅ ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ JO\Ï~°∞——
Jx x~°fizOz#k?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û

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ECONOMY

56. LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«|_»x ÖË^• `«‰Ωõ ¯= LѨÜ∂≥ yOz# =∂#= ã¨OѨ^Œ XHõ"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ , LѨÜÚ« HõOÎ HÍx ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
=∞~˘Hõ"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ Hõeã≤ LO_»_"» ∞Õ JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^Õâ◊ ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú Jx x~°fizOz#"å~°∞?
[. „Ѩ}ÏoHõ ã¨OѶ∞¨ O
57. ''JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^Õâ=◊ Ú XHõ l~åѶ֑ ÏO\˜^xŒ , ^•xx =i‚OK«∞@ Hõ+=ì¨ Ú J~Ú`Õ K«∂_»QÍ<Õ QÆ∞iÎOK«=K«∞Û—— Jx
"åMϺxOz#k Z=~°∞?
[. ã≤OQÆ~ü
58. „ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ#∞ JÅÊ, =∞^躌 , JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Å÷ x ^Õx P^è•~°OQÍ qÉè[í # KÕã∞¨ OÎ k?
[. `«Åã¨i GNP (GNI)
59. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ#∞ „ѨÑO¨ K« =ÚiH˜"å_»Å∞QÍ Jaè=i‚Oz#k?
[. ÔH·~°<£„HÍãπ
60. `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O J<Õk U ^ÕâßÅ ÅHõ}
Δ O?
[. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞
(2008 <å\˜ ÉèÏ~°`ü `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O $1070sss)
61. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO PkèHºõ `«#∞ Hõey LO_»_O» U ^ÕâßÅ ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú?
[. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞
62. =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`,« JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ XuÎ_,ç JÅÊ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ ,« `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∂#"åaè=$kú U Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ Hõ#|_»∞#∞?
[. JÖÏÊaè=$kú Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷
63. 2001–2011 =∞^躌 ÉèÏ~°`« ^Œâß|Ì [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ ?
[. 17.64%
64. 2001–2011Å =∞^躌 =∞# ^Õâ◊ [<åÉèÏ ™êO=`«ûiHõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞?
[. 1.64%
65. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« J#QÍ?
[. J=ã¨~åxH˜ q∞Oz Z‰õΩ¯= =∞Ok „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ XHõ ~°OQÆOÖ’ ѨxKÕÜ∞« _®xfl „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« JO\Ï~°∞.
66. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å LáêO`« L`«ÊuÎ?
[. `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ ÖË^• â◊¥#ºOQÍ LO@∞Ok (XH˘¯Hõ¯™êi |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍ LO_»=K«∞Û)
67. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ x~°∞^Àºy`« ã¨fiÉèÏ=O U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ k?
[. =º=™ê÷Ñ~¨ "° ∞≥ #ÿ k (Wk n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ LO@∞Ok)
68. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅÖ’ x~°∞^Àºy`«‰Ωõ HÍ~°}O?
[. =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«

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ECONOMY

69.
[.
70.
[.
71.
[.
72.
[.
73.
[.
74.
[.
75.
[.
76.
[.
77.
[.
78.
[.
79.
[.
80.
[.
81.
[.
82.
[.

„ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ x[á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«Ûx ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å#∞ `≥e¿Ñ ~ˆ Y?
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ M
P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å f„=`«#∞ `≥e¿Ñk?
yh QÆ∞}HõO
P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂`«Å‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz u~°Q"Æ ãÕ #≤ U ѨiHõÅÊ##∞ ( ) „ѨuáêkOz#k?
Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
2001 [<åÉèÏ ÖˇH¯õ Å „ѨHÍ~°O ZO`« âß`«O ‰õΩ@∞OÉÏʼnõΩ ã¨∞~°H`Δ˜ « =∞Ozh~°∞ ÅÉèºí O J=Ù`«∞#flk?
36%
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „áê~°OÉèOí Ö’ "≥Ú^Œ\’¡ P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`åÜ«∞x, `«~∞° "å`« ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ `«Q∞Æ `æ åÜ«∞x
¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩA<≥\òû
™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`åfixfl ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
ɡOl=∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
™ê=∂lHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`åfixfl ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?

ÉÁˆH
q`«Î ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO K≥ÑÊ≤ #k?
q∞O\ò
=∞#^ÕâO◊ Ö’ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO QÆ}# Z=i á¶ê~°∞‡ÖÏ P^è•~°OQÍ [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#flk?
ÅHͤ"åÖÏ
NSSO "åi 61= Round JOK«<åÅ „ѨHÍ~°O WO_çÜ∂
« Ö’ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO âß`«O?
URP „ѨHÍ~°O 28% (uniform recall period)
MRP „ѨHÍ~°O 22% (mixed recall period)
JÖÏÊaè=$kúH˜ P@OHÍÅ∞ Uq?
Z) =∂Ô~¯\ò Jã¨OѨÓ~°`‚ Å« ∞, a) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞, ã≤) JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ â◊‰Ωõ ÅÎ ∞
â◊‰Ωõ O`«Å "≥∞„Ǩ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ ^ÕxÃÑ· JOK«<åÅ#∞ "ÕÃã#∞?
„ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆO (17.4% „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆO QÆÅ^Œx JOK«<å "ÕÃã#∞)
™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO J#QÍ
Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ~°OQÆ=Ú, ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞Hõ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ "Õ~∞° "Õ~∞° L`«ÊuΠѨ^`úŒ ∞« Å#∞ J=ÅOaèOK«∞@

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ECONOMY

83. HDI ~°∂ѨHÅõ Ê#Ö’ PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=?
[. 25 (QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞= 85)

Jaè = $kú ^Œ â ◊ Å ∞
84.
[.
85.
[.
86.
[.
87.
[.
88.
[.
89.
[.
90.
[.
91.
[.
92.
[.
93.
[.
94.
[.
95.
[.

HÍ~°Öò =∂~ü¯û Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ z=i ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞?
Hõ=¸ºx[O
áêi„âßq∞Hõ i[~üfi¿ã= J<Õ ÉèÏ=# Z=ik?
HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
Organic Composition of capital J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k?
HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
^•ãπHÍÑ≤@Öò „QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`«?
HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆO #∞O_ç kfifÜ«∞ ~°OQÍxH˜, kfifÜ«∞~°OQÆO #∞O_ç `«$fÜ«∞
~°OQÍxH˜ J@∞ L`«ÊuÎÖ’#∞, W@∞ LáêkèÖ’#∂ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ =™êÎÜ∞« x K≥ÑÊ≤ #k Z=~°∞?
Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩA<≥\òû
"The stages of Economic Growth" 1960Ö’ ~°zOz#k Z=~°∞?
_»|∞¡ º._»|∞¡ º. ~À™Èì"£
"Non-Communist Manifesto" Jx D ~°K#
« #∞ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
The Stages of Economic Growth

~À™Èì"£ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ^Œâ◊ J~Ú# ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞Hõ ã¨=∂[O D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å=|_»∞#∞?
„Ñ‘ WO_»„ã≤Ü
ì ∞« Öò ¿ã*ì ò
"Period of Transition" Jx ~À™Èì"£ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ D ^Œâ#
◊ ∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯O\Ï~°∞?
Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ HÍ=Åã≤# =ÚO^Œ∞ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞
~À™Èì"£ „ѨuáêkOz# ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ „Ѩ^•è #"≥∞#ÿ k?
Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊ (Take-off)
*ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ L`åÊ^ŒHõ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç 5% #∞O_ç 10%H˜ ÃÑQ· Í ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Hõ#|_»∞#∞?
Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊
Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ#◊ ∞ "≥Ú^Œ@QÍ KÕ~∞° ‰õΩ#fl ^ÕâO◊ ?
„a\<£(1783–1802)

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96. ~À™Èì"£ ¿Ñ~˘¯#fl Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊ x|O^è#Œ Å∞ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ ã¨OÉèqí Oz# ã¨O=`«û~°O?
[. 1952
97. U ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ#◊ ∞ ^•\˜ LO_»=K«Ûx ~À™Èì"`£ Àáê@∞ =∞iH˘O`«=∞Ok Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞
ÉèÏqã¨∞Î<åfl~°∞?
[. 1964–65
98. ã¨fiÜ«∞O xÅHõ_» L#fl =$kúx ™êkèOKÕ ^Œâ◊ (Self sustained growth) QÍ ~À™Èì"£ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ U ^Œâ#◊ ∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯O\Ï~°∞?
[. ѨiѨHfiõ `« kâ◊QÍ #_çKÕ ^Œâ◊ (Drive to maturity)
99. JO`«=~°‰Äõ L#fl ѨÙ~ÀQÍq∞ ~°OQÍÅ ™ê÷#OÖ’ H˘`«QÎ Í U~°Ê_ç# ~°OQÍÅ∞ =$kú K≥O^Œ_O» D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Hõxã≤™êÎ~Ú?
[. ѨiѨHfiõ `« kâ◊‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#O (Drive to maturity)
100. JO`«=~°‰Äõ ™êkèOz# „ѨQuÆ Ñ¶Ö¨ ÏÅ#∞ Jxfl ~°OQÍʼnõΩ =iÎOѨ*¿Ë ã ^Œâ?◊
[. ѨiѨHfiõ `« kâ◊‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#O (Drive to maturity )
101. ~À™Èì"£ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ z=i ^Œâ?◊
[. ÃÇÏK«∞Û™ê÷~Ú ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ™ê÷~Ú (Age of high mass consumption)
102. Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü "≥Ñ· Ù¨ #∞Oz _ç=∂O_£ "≥Ñ· Ù¨ , L`«ÊuÎ ã¨=∞㨺Š#∞Oz qxÜ≥∂QÆ ã¨=∞㨺ʼnõΩ =∂ˆ~ ã≤u÷ U ^ŒâÖ◊ ’
Hõ#|_»∞#∞?
[. ÃÇÏK«∞Û™ê÷~Ú ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ™ê÷~Ú
103. ÃÇÏK«∞Û™ê÷~Ú ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ™ê÷~Úx KÕi# "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ^ÕâO◊ ?
[. J"≥∞iHÍ (1920), 2=k Ü«Ú.ÔH. (1930)
104. Hõh㨠J=ã¨~åÅ∞ ã¨=∞㨺 fiáÈ~Ú =∞xflHõQÅÆ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ qxÜ≥∂QÆO ÃÑiˆQ ^Œâ?◊
[. ÃÇÏK«∞Û™ê÷~Ú ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ™ê÷~Ú
105. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~Ô \˜Oì Ѩ٠J~Ú 10% JkèQqÆ ∞OK«∞@, =$kúH˜ HÍ=Åã≤# ™êO㨯 $uHõ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞ U~°Ê_»∞@, ѨÙ~ÀQÍq∞
~°OQÍÅ∞ =$kú K≥O^Œ∞@ D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Hõ#|_»∞#∞ ?
[. Take-off
106. Ǩ~å_£–_À=∞~ü =$kú #=¸<å D ^ÕâßÅ J#∞Éè=í O P^è•~°OQÍ ~°∂á⁄OkOK«|_çOk?
[. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s ^ÕâßÅ∞
107. Pi÷H=õ $kú [iˆQH˘nÌ „âßq∞Hõ â◊HÖΘ ’ ¿ã"å~°OQÆO "å\Ï?
[. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∂ =ã¨∞OÎ k.
108. Pi÷H=õ $kú [iˆQH˘nÌ LáêkèÖ’ =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO "å\Ï?
[. `«Q∞Æ `æ ∂« =ã¨∞OÎ k.

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=$kú P^è•~åÅ∞
109. ^Õâ◊ Jaè=$kúx ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞ ^Œ$ëêì º ѨijeOz# Pi÷H"õ `Õ ÅΫ ∞?
[. _»|∞¡ º.Z<£.áê~°¯~ü
110. ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å H˘~°`« L#flѨÊ\˜H© Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßʼnõΩ L^•Ç¨Ï~°}?
[. [áê<£, WOQÍ¡O_£
111. =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O J#QÍ
[. =¸Å^è#Œ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ, L^•: Ü«∞O„`åÅ∞, =Ú_çã~¨ ∞° ‰õΩÅ∞,q_çÑi¨ Hõ~åÅ∞, Hõ~å‡QÍ~°
™ê=∂„y "≥Ú^ŒÖ#·ˇ q.
112. Incremental capital output ratio J#QÍ ?
[. L`«ÊuÎ XHõ Ü«¸x\ò ÃÑ~°QÍÅO>Ë =¸Å^è#Œ OÖ’ZO`« ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ LO_®Ö’ `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« ^•xx LáêO`«
=¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ JO^Œ∞~°∞.nxx ICOR JO^Œ∞~°∞.
113. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ KèkÕ OK«∞@‰õΩ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O J=ã¨~O° Jx ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
114. =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ# „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Zxfl ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ [~°∞QÆ∞#∞?
[. =¸_»∞ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ [~°∞QÆ∞#∞.
1) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÃÑOK«∞@
2) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ã¨g∞HõiOK«∞@
3) á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ#∞ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çQÍ =∂~°∞Û@
115. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ #=HõÅÊ#Å „áê^è•#º`«#∞ <˘H˜¯ K≥ÑÊ≤ #k?
[. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
116. =º‰õΩÅÎ ∞ q^Œº P~ÀQƺ=Ú, <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ϺÅÃÑ· KÕ¿ã ÃÑ@∞ì|_çx U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O
117. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ QÆÅ <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºO QÆÅ =∂#=â◊HΘ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ QÆÅ JkèHõ "Õ`<« åʼnõΩ PHõi¬OK«|_ç
`«~e° áÈ=_®xfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. "Õ∞^äÀ=Åã¨
118. [<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`åxfl `˘e™êiQÍ âß„ã‘Ü
Î ∞« ^Œ$HõÊ^äOŒ `À K≥ÑÊ≤ #k?
[. \˜.P~ü.=∂Å÷ãπ (An essay on the principles of the population)
119. JaèÅ+¨}Ü
© ∞« [<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`«=Ú "≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ K«iÛOz#k?
[. Z_»fi~ü¤"≥ãπì
120. JaèÅ+¨}Ü
© ∞« [<åÉèÏ ã≤^•úO`åxfl Jaè=$kúÑi¨ z#"å~°∞?
[. ã≤_q˚ç H±† Z_çfi<£HÍ#<£, _®Åì<£

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ECONOMY

121. U [<åÉèÏ ™ê÷~Ú =^ŒÌ J`«ºkèHõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÅÉèºí =∞QÆ∞<À P [<åÉèÏ#∞..... JO\Ï~°∞.
[. JaèÅ+¨}Ü
© ∞« [<åÉèÏ
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JÅ=∞\˜OKåeûO^Õ—— D "åºYº Z=ik?
[. =∂Å÷ãπ
123. ''Éè∂í q∞ÃÑ· ѨÙ>Ëì „Ñ¨u a_»¤ á⁄@ì`À áê@∞, ~Ô O_»∞ HÍà◊√,¡ KÕ`∞« Å`À ѨÙ_»`å_»∞—— Jx K≥ÑÊ≤ Ok Z=~°∞?
[. Z_çfi<£ HÍ#<£
124. [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i}Ï=∞ ã≤^•úO`åxfl HÀÖò =∞iÜ«Ú Ç¨ÏŸ=~üÅ∞ 3 ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞QÍ „ѨuáêkOzi. J~Ú`Õ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ^Œâ◊ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞
Uq?
[. JkèHõ [##ˆ~@∞, JkèHõ =∞~°}~ˆ @∞
125. [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i}Ï=∞ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ 2= ^Œâ◊ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ Uq?
[. [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞Ö’x `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ HõO>Ë =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞Ö’x `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞. Ѷe¨ `«OQÍ [<åÉèÏ q™ÈÊù@#=Ú
[~°∞QÆ∞#∞.
126. [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i}Ï=∞ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ 3= ^Œâ◊ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ Uq?
[. JÅÊ [##ˆ~@∞,JÅÊ =∞~°}~ˆ @∞ LO_»∞#∞.
127. L`«ÊuÎ HÍ~°HÍÅ∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @∞ HõO>Ë, L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ^•xx U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. L`åÊ^ŒHõ`«
128. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok#, K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ =∞^躌 q^Õj "åºáê~°O [iy#ѨÙ_»∞ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßňH "åºáê~°O
J#∞‰õÄÅOQÍ LO@∞O^Œx ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
[. „¿Ña+π–ã≤O≤ QÆ~,ü QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷ÖòÅ∞
129. Two-gap model Ö’ QÆÅ JO`«~åÅ∞ Uq?
[. Z) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠JO`«~O°
a) q^Õj =∂~°Hõ „^Œ=º JO`«~=° Ú
130. Pi÷Hõ =$kúx x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ HÍ~°HÍÅ∞ Uq?
[. Z) Pi÷Hõ HÍ~°HÍÅ∞,
a) Pi÷Hˆ `«~° HÍ~°HÍÅ∞
131. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúx x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ Pi÷Hõ HÍ~°HÍÅ∞ Uq?
[. ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å∞† =º=™ê÷Ñ#¨ † ™êOˆHuHõ „ѨQuÆ † =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#† q^Õj "åºáê~°O
132. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúx x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ Pi÷Hˆ `«~° HÍ~°HÍÅ∞ Uq?
[. ~å[H©Ü∞« Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞† ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞† L=∞‡_ç ‰õΩ@∞O| =º=㨆÷ ‰õΩÅ =º=㨆÷ =¸_è#» =∞‡HÍÅ∞† =∞`«O
"≥Ú^ŒÖ#·ˇ q.

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ECONOMY

133. =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ `«Q∞Æ @
æ J#QÍ
[. XHõ xs‚`« Ü«¸x\ò =ã¨∞Î L`«ÊuÎH˜ `«‰Ωõ ¯= =¸Å^è#Œ O J=ã¨~O° JQÆ∞@
134. =$kú ~ˆ @∞#∞ U q^èOŒ QÍ x~°fizOK«=K«∞Û?
[.
135. Invisible Capital J#QÍ?
[. =∂#= P~ÀQƺO, <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºOÃÑ· KÕ¿ã ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç

=$kú =ӺǨÅ∞
136. aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#k?
[. ~À*ˇ<£ã‘ì<£ ~À_®<£
137. JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞–ÉÏǨϺ P^•Ü«∂ʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« WzÛ#k?
[. ~À*ˇ<£ã‘ì<£ ~À_®<£
138. ~À_®<£ „ѨHÍ~°O JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞?
[. Z) L`«ÊuΠѶŨ OÖ’ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞
a) _ç=∂O_£Ö’ JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞
Q - tQ
01× 1- t
= tG
ã≤) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ã¨~Ñ° ~¨¶ åÖ’ JqÉèÏ0*ϺÅ∞
1- t Q
139. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl ã¨=∞i÷Oz#"å~°∞?
[. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£† P~°~÷ Åü ∂~Úãπ† ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
140. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl Jaè=$kú KÕã#≤ k Z=~°∞?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û [J.B.Say Market Law P^è•~°OQÍ fã¨∞H˘x „ѨuáêkOK≥#∞.]
141. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#k?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û
142. H˘xfl â◊‰Ωõ ÅÎ ∞ K«~º° =∞iÜ«Ú „ѨfHÍ~° K«~º° Å =Å# XHõ =ÅÜ«∂HÍ~°OÖ’ XHõ ^Õâßxfl ¿Ñ^ŒiHõOÖ’ LOK«_®xfl
U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
143. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û „ѨHÍ~°O Ѩiq∞`« =∂Ô~¯\ò Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ U~°Ê_»_®xH˜ HÍ~°}O?
[. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
144. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ UHõ HÍÅ=∞O^Œ∞ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çÃÑ\˜ì "å\˜x Jaè=$kúÑ~¨ K° åe Jx `≥e¿Ñ ã≤^•úO`«O?
[. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O (Wk ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk).

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ECONOMY

145.
[.
146.
[.
147.
[.
148.
[.
149.

JO`«~`æ° « „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O J#QÍ
¿Ñ^Œ"å~°∞, =∞^躌 `«~Q° uÆ qxÜ≥∂QÆ f~°∞#∞, =∞^躌 `«~Q° uÆ "å~°∞ ^èxŒ ‰õΩÅ qxÜ≥∂QÆ f~°∞#∞ J#∞ã¨iOK«∞@.
JO`«~`æ° « „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O Z=i ¿Ñ~°∞`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk?
_»∂ºÃã<£ ɡ„s
JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O JO>Ë?
q^ÕâßÅ qxÜ≥∂QÆÑÙ¨ JÅ"å@¡#∞, ¿Ñ^Œ ^ÕâßÅÖ’x ^è#Œ =O`«∞Å∞ J#∞ã¨iOK«∞@
JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O Z=i ¿Ñ~°∞`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç LOk?
~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂xfl KèkÕ OK«∞@‰õΩ "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O J`«º=ã¨~O° Jx K≥ÑÊ≤ Ok
Z=~°∞?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
150. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ x[á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ "å_ç =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«Ûx ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk?
[. ~°QÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
151. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl q=∞i≈Oz#k?
[. ã≤OQÆ~,ü ǨÏ~°¬=∂<£, ‰õΩiǨ~ü, H˜O_≥Öò|~°~æ ,ü áêÖò„ã‘@
ì <£
152. H˘xfl ZOÑ≤Hõ KÕã#≤ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ "≥Ú^Œ@ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çÃÑ\˜ì „Hõ"∞Õ }Ï Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ™êkèOKÕ =ӺǨxfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO
153. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO J#∞ ÉèÏ=##∞ „áêK«∞~°ºOÖ’H˜ fã¨∞‰õΩ=zÛ#k?
[. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
154. =ÚO^Œ∞–"≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ (Forward & Backward linkages)#∞ q=iOz#k?
[. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
155. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O =ÚO^Œ∞–"≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ L#fl Ѩi„â◊=∞?
[. W#∞=Ú–L‰õΩ¯ Hõ~å‡QÍ~°O
156. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O "≥Ú^Œ\ Q˜ Í U Ѩi„â◊=∞#∞ ™ê÷ÑO≤ Kåe?
[. `«∞k Ѩi„â◊=∞Å#∞ "≥Ú^Œ@ <≥ÅH˘ÖÏÊe (Last Industries first)
157. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl "≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ J#∞ã¨iOz, ã¨fiÅÊHÍÅOÖ’ JkèHõ =$kúx ™êkèOz# ^ÕâO◊ ?
[. ~°ëêº
158. =∞#^ÕâO◊ Ö’ U ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl J#fi~ÚOzi?
[. ~Ô O_À ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ

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ECONOMY
Hõhã¨, Hõx+¨ì „ѨÜ∞« `«fl=Ú (Critical Minimum effort theory) x „ѨuáêkOz#k Z=~°∞?

159.
[. Ǩˆ~fiÖˇ·|<£ã‘ì<£
160. Economic Backwardness & Economic Growth „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ?ΰ
[. Ǩ~ˆ fiÖˇ|· <£ã"ì‘ £
161. JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú ã¨=∞`Òź É’#∞#∞ q=iOz#k?
[. P~ü.P~ü.<≥Åû<£
162. Development with unlimited supply of labour J#∞ „QÆO^ä•xfl „"åã≤Ok Z=~°∞?
[. Å∂~Úãπ
163. Å∂~Úãπ JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ QÆÅ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ QÆÅ ~°OQÍÅ∞ Zxfl?
[. 2... Jq 1) r=<å^è•~° ~°OQÆO, 2) P^è∞Œ xHõ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s ~°OQÆO
164. JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞, JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ U~°Ê_»_®xH˜ HÍ~°}=Ú?
[. Z) |Å"≥∞#ÿ ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè ==Ú
a) |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè ==Ú
165. ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè ==Ú J#QÍ
[. XHõ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# „áêO`«=Ú `«# Pi÷Hõ HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅ∞ ^•fi~å =∞iÜ≥ÚHõ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œx „áêO`åxfl
âßâ◊fi`«OQÍ JÖÏÊaè=$kúH˜ QÆ∞iKÕÜÚ« @
166. ''"åÔ~O>ˇ_£ =$kú ~ˆ @∞—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=# Z=ik?
[. Ǩ~å_£
167. Ǩ~å_£–_À=∞~ü #=¸<å U ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ‰Ωõ P^è•~°O J~ÚOk?
[. 1= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
168. Ǩ~å_£–_À=∞~ü #=¸<åÖ’ „Ѩ^•è # ™ê÷#O nxH˜ W=fi|_çOk?
[. ÃÑ@∞ì|_çH˜
169. Ǩ~å_£–_À=∞~ü #=¸<å „Ñ¨HÍ~°O =$kú ~ˆ @∞#∞ á⁄O^•ÅO>Ë
[.
á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÖË^• ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
=$kú ~ˆ @∞ ´
–––––––––––––––
=¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
170. ã¨fi~°Ü
‚ Ú« QÆO J<Õ ÉèÏ=# Z=ik?
[. N=∞u *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
171. Ñ≤.ã≤.=∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ 4 ~°OQÍÅ∞ #=¸<å U ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ‰Ωõ P^è•~°"∞≥ Oÿ k?
[. ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ

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ECONOMY

172. HÍÅ„âı}–˜ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ã≤^•úO`åxfl ã¨=∞i÷Oz#k?
[. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
173. Choice of Technic J<Õ „QÆO^ä•xfl „"åã≤#k?
[. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
174. Asian Drama „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ?ΰ
[. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷Öò
175. =∞^躌 O`«~° ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#=Ú#∞ ã¨∂zOz#k?
[. +¨μ=∂K«~ü
176. "Õ`#« =ã¨∞Î =ӺǨxfl ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k?
[. =H©Öò =∞iÜ«Ú „|Ǩ‡#O^Œ
177. ''J^Œ$â◊º ǨÏã¨=Î Ú——, „â◊=∞ qÉè[í #—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=#Å∞ gi`À =Ú_çÑ_¨ ç =Ù<åfl~Ú?
[. P_»"£∞ã≤‡`ü
178. ''q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞=——, ''=~°æ ã¨OѶ∞¨ ~°¬}——, Kåi„`å`«‡Hõ Éè∫uHõ ã≤^•úO`«=Ú—— giH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz# ÉèÏ=#Å∞?
[. HÍ~°Öò =∂~ü¯û
179. "Theory of Economic Development „QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`«?
[. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
180. The Accumulation of Capital „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ΰ Z=~°∞?
[. N=∞u *’<£~åa<£ã<¨ £
181. ÃÑÖ¶ ò=¤ ∞<£ =$kú #=¸<å D ^ÕâßxH˜ K≥Ok#k?
[. ~°ëêº
182. Shadow Prices x x~°fizOz#k?
[. Tin Burger
183. Perspective Plan ^Õxx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞?
[. n~°^… iŒ ≈ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ#∞
184. 4= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ #=¸<å#∞ ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k?
[. Jâ’Hõ~∞° „^Œ =∞iÜ«Ú Z.Zãπ.=∂<Õ
185. Indian Economic Planning in its Broader setting J#∞ „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ?ΰ
[. q∞~å÷Öò
186. Theory of circular causation „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ΰ Z=~°∞?
[. q∞~å÷Öò

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ECONOMY

QÆ`« ZÑ≤Ñ≤Zãπã≤, Ü«ÚÑ≤Zãπã≤ „ѨâßflѨ„`åÅÖ’x
„Ѩ â ◊ fl Å∞–㨠= ∂^è • <åÅ∞
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

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(1)
1) P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}©
2) ^•i„^ŒºO
3) x~°∞^Àºy`«
4) PǨ~° ѨOÑ≤}©
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1) =¸Å^è#Œ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«O 2) ^è~Œ ° qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«O 3) qxÜ≥∂QÆ ã≤^•úO`«O 4) L`«ÊuÎ ã≤^•úO`«O
_À=∞~ü ã¨∂„`«O „ѨHÍ~°O,=¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ 3:1 LO_ç "åi¬Hõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ 4% J~Ú#KÀ, HÍ=Åã≤#
(3)
á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠~ˆ @∞ ZO`«? (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) 10%
2) 11%
3) 12%
4) 14%
(3)
ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆO JO>Ë Uk?(Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÆO
2) ¿ã=Å ~°OQÆO
3) =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO 4) Ѩ„uHÍ ~°OQÆO
'„ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«— J#QÍ (Dy.E.O.-2008)
(2)
1) L^ÀºQÆO ÖËx =ºH˜Î
2) XHõ ѨxH˜ HÍ=Åã≤# "åiHõ#fl Z‰õΩ¯= =∞Ok Ѩx KÕÜÚ« @
3) „ã‘ÅÎ Ö’ x~°∞^Àºy`«
4) 60 ã¨O=`«û~åÅ =∞iÜ«Ú PÃÑ· L#fl "åiÖ’ x~°∞^Àºy`«
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° ^Õx P^è•~°OQÍ KÕ™êÎ~∞° ? (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) [<åÉèÏ
2) l.Z<£.Ñ≤
3) qã‘~Î O‚°
4) `«Åã¨i l.Z<£.Ñ≤.
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1) qeÜ«∞"£∞ã¨<£
2) Ãã·=∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
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ǨÏ~ü¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O ã¨q∞+≤ì J#∞|O^è•Å∞ ã¨OÉèqí OKÕk ^ÕxH˜? (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) ^è•#ºO =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ Hõ~å‡QÍ~°O 2) W#∞=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú L‰õΩ¯ 3) =„ã¨Î Ѩi„â◊=∞O 4) QÆ#∞Å `«=fiHõO
(2)
`«‰Ωõ ¯= ™ê÷~Ú ã¨=∞`Òź`«Å ã¨O|O^èOŒ Z=i`À HõÅ^Œ∞? (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) ÃÇÏKü.q∞O\ò
2) P~ü.P~ü.<≥Åû<£
3) P~ü.#~ü¯¿ã
4) Å∂~Úãπ
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1) Z.ã≤.Ñ≤Q∞Æ
2) _®.=∂~°¬Öò
3) "åÖò~åãπ
4) P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ +¨~`° ∞« Å∞, XHõ =$kú ^ŒâQ◊ Í `≥eÑ≤#"å~°∞ (Dy.E.O.-2008)
(3)
1) Å∂~Úãπ
2) ™ê=¸ºÖòã¨<£
3) ~À™Èì"£
4) ֡ɡ·<£Ããì"£
(2)
J~°â÷ ß„ã¨Î Ñ≤`å=∞Ǩï_»∞ (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û
2) P_»"£∞ ã≤‡`ü
3) iHÍ~À¤
4) *Ï<£ =∂~°¬Öò
(4)
'ã¨fi~°‚Ü«ÚQÆO— (Golden Age) ÉèÏ=# „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ (Dy.E.O.-2008)
1) +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
2) HÍ~ü¡=∂~ü¯û
3) eÜ≥∂ ~åa<£û 4) *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
'J^Œ$â◊º ǨÏã¨OÎ — J<Õ ã≤^•úO`åxfl „áê|źOѨiz#"å~°∞ Z=~°∞? (Dy.E.O.-2008)
(4)
1) Ǩ~å_£
2) _À=∞~ü
3) *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £ 4) P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü

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16.

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18.

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20.
21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

ECONOMY
¿Ñ^ŒiHõ q+¨=ÅÜ«∞O J#QÍ (Dy.E.O.-2008)

(1)
2) Z‰õΩ¯= L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= P^•Ü«∞O
4) `«‰Ωõ ¯= á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠=∞iÜ«Ú Z‰õΩ¯= ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
(4)

1) `«‰Ωõ ¯= L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= P^•Ü«∞O
3) Z‰õΩ¯= á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠=∞iÜ«Ú Z‰õΩ¯= ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
Pi÷Hõ Jaè=$kú J#QÍ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
1) XHõ ^ÕâO◊ x[ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ã≤~÷ O° QÍ LO_»_O»
2) *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ XHõ ã¨O=`«û~° HÍÅOÖ’ ã¨OÉèqí Oz# „^Œ=º ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
3) =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆOÖ’ =$kúx JkèQqÆ ∞Oz# áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO =$kú
4) Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ x~å‡}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ`À ã¨OÉèqí Oz# n~°H… ÍeHõ Pi÷Hõ =$kú
g\˜Ö’ Uk JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ ÅHõ}
Δ O HÍ^Œ∞ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(3)
1) JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞ 2) JkèHõ x~°∞^Àºy`« ~ˆ @∞ 3) JkèHõ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠„Ѩ=$uÎ 4)JkèHõ x~°H~Δõ å㨺`« ~ˆ @∞
Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ˇfl\òû „ѨHÍ~°O Pi÷Hõ =$kú `˘e ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(2)
1) ™ê¿ÑHõΔ P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«fiO `«Q∞Æ `æ ∞« Ok
2) ™ê¿ÑHõΔ P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«fiO ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok
3) P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«fiO `«Q∞Æ `æ ∞« Ok
4) P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© U PHÍ~°OÖ’ LO@∞Ok
xÅ^˘‰õΩ¯‰õΩ<Õ (H˘#™êyOK«QeÆ Qˆ ) Jaè=$kú nxH˜ =iÎã∞¨ OÎ k („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(1)
1) „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « `«~O° "åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ Éèqí +¨º`ü `«~åÅ"åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ áê_»∞KÕÜ∞« ‰õΩO_® f~°Û_»O
2) Éèqí +¨º`ü `«~åÅ"åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « `«~O° "åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ ѨH¯õ ‰õΩ ÃÑ@ì‰Ωõ O_® f~°Û_»O
3) „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « `«~O° "åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ „ѨH¯õ ‰õΩ ÃÑ\˜ì Éèqí +¨º`ü `«~åÅ J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ f~°Û_»O
4) „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « `«~O° "åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ Éèqí +¨º`ü `«~åÅ"åi J=ã¨~åÅ#∞ „ѨH¯õ ‰õΩÃÑ\˜ì <≥~"° ~Õ Û° _»O
„H˜Ok"å\˜Ö’ Uk Pi÷Hˆ `«~° HÍ~°HOõ HÍ^Œ∞? („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(3)
1) =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞
2) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ ^Œ$HõÊ^ä•Å∞
3) =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O 4)~å[H©Ü∞« ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O
Ǩi_£–_À=∂~ü #=¸<åÖ’ ã¨=∞`Òź =$kú ^ÕxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» `«∞Ok?(„QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(1)
1) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú L`«ÊuΖ=¸Å^è#Œ ~ˆ @∞
2) á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞
3) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú „^Œ=ºO ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü
4) =_ô¤ ~ˆ @∞¡ =∞iÜ«Ú „^Œ=º ^è~Œ Å° ∞
„ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« Pi÷Hõ =$kúH˜ xH˜ÑΔ Î¨ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«|_»∞`«∞O^Œx <˘H˜¯ K≥ÑÊ≤ # J~°â÷ ß„ã¨"Î `Õ Î«
(„QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(1)
1) ~åQÍfl~ü #ˆ~¯û
2) P~°~÷ ü Å∂~Úãπ
3) PÖò|~üì Ǩ~ü¬=∞<£
4)~À*ˇ<£ Ãã~ì Ú<£ ~À_®<£
|ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ#∞ |Å"≥∞#ÿ u~ÀQÍq∞ „ѨHÍΔ à◊# „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞ =∞_çz"Õã≤ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨#÷ ∞ JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú
Jaè=$kúH˜ QÆ∞iKÕã∞¨ OÎ ^Œx q=iOz# J~°â÷ ß„ã¨"Î `Õ Î« („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(2)
1) ã¨g∞~ü Jg∞<£
2) l.q∞~åÌÖò
3) Z.l.„á¶êºOH±
4)Z"£∞.\Á_®~˘
JÅÊ Jaè=$kú ™êkèOz# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ `«Ñʨ xã¨i Hõh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç XHõ ÃÑ^ŒÌ "≥Ú`«OÎ Ö’ LO_®Åx „ѨuáêkOz#
Jaè=$kú J~°â÷ ß„ã¨"Î `Õ Î« („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(1)
1) ÃÇÏKü.Öˇ·ˇÉˇ<£ Ããì~Ú<£ 2) P~ü.<≥Åû<£
3) P~ü.~À_®<£
4)P~ü.#ˆ~¯û
P^è∞Œ xHõ ~°OQÆ=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ~°OQÆO Hõeã≤ LO_»∞@#∞ WÖÏ JO\Ï~°∞ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2005)
(3)
1) Pi÷Hõ ã¨fi`«O„`«`« 2) „ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ ~°OQÆO „áê=ÚYº`« 3) Pi÷Hõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fi=Ú 4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú

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26. L`«ÊuΠѨ^`úŒ ∞« Å ZOÑ≤Hõ J#QÍ g\˜ =∞^躌 ZOÑ≤Hõ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2000)
(1)
1) „â◊=∞ ™êO„^Œ`« =∞iÜ«Ú =¸Å^è#Œ ™êO„^Œ`«
2) ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O =∞iÜ«Ú P^è∞Œ xHõ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O
3) ÃÑ^Œ`Ì ~« Ç° ¨ Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ‰õΩ\©~° Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ 4) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi ~°OQÆO =∞iÜ«Ú „ÃÑ"· \Õ ò ~°OQÆO
27. ã¨|÷ `ú åã≤u÷ ã≤^•úO`«=Ú#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2000)
(1)
1) ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ Pi÷Hâõ ß„ã¨"Î `Õ ÅΫ ∞
2) #=º ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ Pi÷Hõ âß„ã¨"Î `Õ ÅΫ ∞
3) #∂`«# ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ Pi÷Hõ âß„ã¨"Î `Õ ÅΫ ∞
4) P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷Hõ âß„ã¨"Î `Õ ÅΫ ∞
28. ^•i„^Œº q+¨=ÅÜ«∞ ÉèÏ=###∞ QÆ∞iOz K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å~°∞ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2000)
(4)
1) ɡOl=∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£ 2) QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~°Ö¤ ò
3) _»|∞¡ º.Z.Öˇqãπ
4) ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯¿ã
29. `«‰Ωõ ¯= Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Pi÷H=õ $kúH˜ =ÚYº x~À^èHŒ =õ Ú („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2000)
(2)
1) x~°HõΔ~å㨺`«
2) =¸Å^èŒ#H˘~°`«
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯=™ê÷~Ú ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O
4) `«‰Ωõ ¯= ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ =∂#= =#~°∞Å∞
30. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ „ѨHÍ~°O `«‰õΩ¯= Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Pi÷Hõ=$kú `«fii`«QÆu# [~°QÍÅO>Ë ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞#k(„QÆ∂Ñπ2–2000)
1) ã≤~÷ `° fi« O`À ‰õÄ_ç# =$kú 2) Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
3) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
4) ÃÑ"· å\˜Ö’ UnHÍ^Œ∞ (2)
31. D„H˜Ok Hõ#|~°z# "å\˜Ö’ Uk ™êOѶ≤∞Hõ =º=ã¨÷ =¸Å^èŒ#=Ú#‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#k HÍ^Œ∞?(„QÆ∂Ñπ2–2000)

32.

33.

34.

35.

1) P~ÀQƺ ™œHõ~åºÅ∞
2) q^•º ™œHõ~åºÅ∞
3) Ü«∞O„`« ™ê=∞„y 4) ~°"å}Ï ™œHõ~åºÅ∞
=¸Å^è#Œ O – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ J#QÍ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2–2000)
1) qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞x =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ `«Ü∂« ~°∞KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ ã¨iѨ_∞» =¸Å^è#Œ O Ü«¸x@∞¡
2) XHõ Ü«¸x\ò L`«ÊuÎx `«Ü∂« ~°∞KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ ã¨iѨ_∞» =¸Å^è#Œ O
3) =¸Å^è#Œ O Pã≤xÎ <≥ÅH˘Å∞Ê@‰õΩ `«y# =¸Å^è#Œ O "≥Ú`«OÎ
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
Pi÷Hõ Jaè=$kú JO>Ë (Non-Gazetted 2005)
1) XHõ ã¨O=`«û~°O #∞O_ç =∞~˘Hõ ã¨O=`«û~åxH˜ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
2) x[ ÖË^• "åã¨qÎ Hõ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ [iˆQ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
3) n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ [iˆQ x[ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
4) [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ J#∞áê`«OQÍ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
~À™Èì"£ ѨiѨHfiõ `« kâ◊"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ =∞o¡OѨ٠^Œâ◊ (Non-Gazetted 2005)
1) Jaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« `À "≥Ú^ŒÅ=Ù`«∞Ok
2) Jaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« #∞ ѨÓiÎ KÕã∞¨ OÎ k
3) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ =ã¨∞OÎ k
4) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊ `«~∞° "å`« =ã¨∞OÎ k
¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂ÅÃÑ· QÆÅ "å^Œ# D ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ç L<åfl~Ú (Non-Gazetted 2005)
1) P^•Ü«∞O =∞iÜ«Ú [<åÉèÏ
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =∞iÜ«Ú ™êOˆHuHõ *Ï˝#O
3) L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞O
4) qxÜ≥∂QÆO =∞iÜ«Ú L`«ÊuÎ

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(3)
(2)

(2)

(4)

(3)

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ECONOMY

36. [<åÉèÏ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú ã¨=∞`Òź`«‰Ωõ
^•i fã¨∞OÎ ^Œx q=iOz# =ºH˜Î (Non - Gazetted, 2005)
(4)
1) ÃÇÏKü. ã≤OQÆ~ü
2) P~ü.~À_®<£
3) ÃÇÏKü. ֡ɷ <ˇ £ Ãã~ì Ú<£ 4) P~ü.<≥Åû<£
(3)
37. „H˜Ok Uk Jaè=$kúx x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ Pi÷Hˆ `«~° HÍ~°HOõ HÍ^Œ∞ ? (Non - Gazetted, 2005)
1) =∂#= ™ê^è<Œ åÅ∞
2) ™ê=∂lHõ ^Œ$HõÊ^è•Å∞ 3) =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O 4) ~årHõÜ∞« ã≤~÷ `° fi« O
38. D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ U JOâ◊O =∂#= Jaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõÖ’ ѨiQÆ}O˜ K«|_»^∞Œ ? (Non - Gazetted, 2005) ( 3 )
1) r=# JOK«<åHÍÅO 2) r=# „Ѩ=∂}O
3) „ã‘ΠѨÙ~°∞+¨ ã¨=∂#`«fiO 4) q^•º~°#˚
(3)
39. [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i}Ï=∞O D „H˜Ok ^ÕxH˜ =iÎã∞¨ OÎ k ? (Non - Gazetted, 2005)
1) „QÍg∞} „áêO`åÅ #∞Oz Ѩ@}
ì „áêO`åʼnõΩ [<åÉèÏ =Åã¨
2) [<åÉèÏ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ „ã‘Î – ѨÙ~°∞+¨ x+¨ÊuÎÖ’ =∂~°∞Ê
3) JkèHõ [## – =∞~°} ~ˆ @¡ #∞Oz `«‰Ωõ ¯= [## =∞~°} ~ˆ @¡‰Ωõ Hõ^eŒ Hõ
4) JkèHõ [#<åÅ =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @¡ #∞Oz `«‰Ωõ ¯= [#<åÅ =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @¡‰Ωõ Hõ^eŒ Hõ
(4)
40. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨxfl „ѨuáêkOK«_O» Ö’ D L^ÕâÌ O◊ LOk (Non - Gazetted, 2005)
1) Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’x qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅ =∞^躌 Ѩ~㰠ʨ ~° ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO_»_O»
2) |Ç≤Ï~°`æ « P^•Å#∞ JO`«~`æ° O« QÍ =∞Å∞K«∞HÀ=_®xH˜ QÆÅ P=â◊ºHõ`«
3) UHõHÍÅ =∂Ô~¯@¡ J=ã¨~O°
4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
41. Jaè=$kú „Ѩ}ÏoHÍ ~°K#« ‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# ~Ô O_»∞ H˘~°`Å« (MÏmÅ) ã≤^•úO`«O nxH˜ =iÎã∞¨ OÎ k. (Non-Gazetted, 2005) (4)
1) „^Œ"ÀºÅƒù} H˘~°`« =∞iÜ«Ú ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç MÏm
2) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠JO`«~O° =∞iÜ«Ú „Ѩu „^Œ"ÀºÅƒ} JO`«~O°
3) q^Õâ◊ „^Œ=º =∂~°HOõ QͺÑπ =∞iÜ«Ú „^Œ=ºÖ’@∞ q^è•#O
4) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠H˘~°`« =∞iÜ«Ú q^Õâ◊ „^Œ=º qx=∞Ü«∞ H˘~°`« ÖË^• J=~À^èOŒ
42. D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk H˘O`« =~°HÔ <· å =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ OÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çQÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}O˜ K«|_»∞`«∞Ok?(Non-Gazetted, 2005)
1) ÖÏOKè#« |^Œ"ú ∞≥ #ÿ q^Œº
2) ѨxKÕã∂¨ Î tHõ}
Δ á⁄O^Œ_O»
(4)
3) "≥∞~°∞QÔ #· P~ÀQƺ ™œHõ~º° O
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
(1)
43. =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆOÖ’ „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«‰Ωõ QÆÅ HÍ~°}O (Non - Gazetted, 2005)
1) Éè∂í q∞ÃÑ· [<åÉèÏ XuÎ_ç
2) |∞∞`«∞Ѩ=<åÅÃÑ· =º=™êÜ«∞O P^è•~°Ñ_¨ _» O»
3) [q∞O^•s ~°∂ѨÙ=∂Ѩ_O»
4) =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆOÖ’ HÍi‡Hõ ã¨OѶ∂¨ Å∞ ÖËHáõ È=_»O
(1)
44. yh QÆ∞}HõO H˘eKÕk (APPSC, 2001)
1) P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
2) „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
4) ™êOˆHuHõ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
(4)
45. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ ™êOˆHuHõ q*Ï˝#O J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞ (APPSC, 2001)
1) Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
2) Ѷ∞¨ OÑ‘@~ü
3) *ˇ.*ˇ.áÈÅH±
4) Ѷ∞¨ =∂Hõ~ü
46. ã¨~Ñ° ~¨¶ å ^Œ$ëêì º ''aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π—— (ÃÑ^ŒÌ „`ÀѨÙ_»∞) ã≤^•úO`«O D „H˜Ok P^è•~°OQÍ "åkOK«|_»k¤ (APPSC, 2001) ( 3 )
1) [<åÉèÏ JkèH=õ $kú
2) JkèHõ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~ˆ @∞
3) JqÉèÏ[º`«Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú |Ç≤Ï~°`æ åÅ∞
4) =∂Ô~¯\ò qã¨Î $`« Ѩikè.

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47. ''XHõ ^ÕâO◊ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõOQÍ LO_»_®xH˜ ^•x ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ"∞Õ HÍ~°}O—— Jx K≥ÑC¨ @Ö’ QÆÅ ÉèÏ"å~°=÷ Ú D „H˜Ok ^•xH˜
(2)
=iÎã∞¨ OÎ k (APPSC, 2001)
1) ÃÑ^ŒÌ Z`«∞#Î x~°∞^Àºy`«
2) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∞=Ú
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯= ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~ˆ @∞
4) `«‰Ωõ ¯= y~åH© ™ê÷~Ú
48. U.N.D.P. ^•fi~å 1990 #∞O_ç "å_»∞HõÖ’ L#fl Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ H˘Å=∂#O (APPSC, 2001)
(3)
1) =∞øeHõ J=ã¨~åÅ ã¨∂zHõ
2) Éè∫uHõ <å}º`« r=# ã¨∂zHõ (Ñ≤.‰õĺ.ZÖò.S.)
3) =∂#= Jaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ
4) P^•Ü«∞ ã¨∂zHõ
(2)
49. „Hõ=∞=$kú J#QÍ (APPSC, 2001)
1) Jxfl ~°OQÍÅÖ’ XHõ ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ XˆH ~ˆ @∞ ™êkèOK«∞@
2) Jxfl ~°OQÍÅÖ’ KåÖÏ ã¨O=`«û~°=ÚÅ =~°‰Ωõ XˆH ~ˆ @∞ ™êkèOK«∞@
3) ã¨fiÅÊ HÍÅOÖ’ =º=™êÜ«∞ =$kú~ˆ @∞ JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»_O»
4) n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ áêi„âßq∞Hõ =$kú~ˆ @∞ JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»_O»
(3)
50. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ÉèÏ=# J#QÍ (APPSC, 2001)
1) Pi÷Hõ =$kú`À áÈe¿ãÎ ã¨O‰õΩz`«"∞≥ #ÿ ÉèÏ=#
2) Pi÷Hõ =$kú`À ã¨=∂#O
3) Pi÷H=õ $kú`À áÈe¿ãÎ qã¨Î $`«"∞≥ #ÿ ÉèÏ=#
4) Pi÷HÍaè=$kú`À U q^èOŒ QÍ#∞ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖËxk
(4)
51. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#QÍ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú =∞iÜ«Ú (APPSC, 2001)
1) ^è~Œ ° ã≤~÷ `° fi« =Ú
2) „^Œ"ÀºÅ|‚O
3) „Ѩu „^Œ"ÀºÅƒù}O
4) ™ê=∂lHõ =∂~°∞Ê
(4)
52. Z‰õΩ¯= =∞^躌 , `«‰Ωõ ¯= P^•Ü«∞ ^ÕâßÅ∞QÍ nx „áêuѨkHõ g∞^Œ qÉèlí OK«|_®¤~Ú (APPSC, 2003)
1) [<åÉèÏ
2) l.Z<£.Ñ≤.
3) "≥â· ßź=Ú
4) `«Åã¨i l.Z<£.Ñ≤.≤
(4)
53. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Pi÷HÍa=$kúH˜ Uk J=~À^èOŒ ? (APPSC, 2003)
1) `«‰Ωõ ¯= =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#ˆ~@∞
2) ^•i„^Œº q+¨=ÅÜ«∞O
3) ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ, ™êO㨯 $u J=~À^è•Å∞
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
(4)
54. XHõ ^ÕâÑ◊ Ù¨ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú nxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» `«∞Ok (APPSC, 2003)
1) ã¨=∂[ =#~°∞Å∞
2) =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ#
3) =∂Ô~¯\ò Ѩi=∂}=Ú 4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
(4)
55. Jaè=$kúH˜ #∂`«# H˘Å=∂#=Ú (APPSC, 2003)
1) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O
2) ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O 3) ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞
4) =∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ
56. P^•Ü«∞Ѩ٠Jã¨=∂#`«Å QÆ∂iÛ, u~°Q|Æ _ç# "U" PHÍ~° ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ (APPSC, 2003) ( 1 )
1) Ãã=· ∞<£‰Ωõ *ˇfl\òû
2) Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
3) K≥#s
4) ÉèQí =Æ u
57. ǨÏ~ü¬=∞<£ ##∞ã¨iOz D „H˜Ok Ѩi„â◊=∞Ö’ Z‰õΩ¯= ã¨q∞+≤ì ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú LO@∞Ok. (Z‰õΩ¯= J#∞|O^è•Å∞)
(APPSC, 2003)
(1)
1) W#∞=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú L‰õΩ¯ i„â◊=∞
2) *∫o Ѩi„â◊=∞
3) QÆ#∞ŠѨi„â◊=∞
4) ÃÑ"· å\˜Ö’ UnHÍ^Œ∞
(3)
58. Pi÷Hõ =$kúÖ’, ã¨fi~°Ü
‚ Ú« QÆ ÉèÏ=##∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ (APPSC, 2003)
1) ǨÏ~å_£
2) _À=∂~ü
3) *’<£~åa<£ã<¨ £
4) J_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü

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59. =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ (APPSC, 2003)
(4)
1) ǨÏ~å_£
2) _À=∂~ü
3) *’<£~åa#û<£
4) _»|Œ ∞¡ º. _»|∞¡ º. ~À™Èì"£
(1)
60. ''ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú—— J#QÍ (APPSC, 2003)
1) XHõ ~ˆ @∞Ö’ Jxfl Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ =$kú K≥O^Œ∞@
2) ™ê=∞~°ãº¨ =$kú
3) =∂#∞ºá¶êHõÛiOQ∑ ~°OQÆOÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
4) =º=™êÜ«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
(2)
61. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ "åkOz# =ӺǨÏ"Õ∞k ? (APPSC, 2003)
1) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
2) Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
3) ZQÆ∞=∞u „áÈ`åûǨÏHõ =ӺǨÏ=Ú
4) kQÆ∞=∞u „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∞ =ӺǨÏ=Ú
(2)
62. q^ŒºÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_çx D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° . (APPSC, 2003)
1) Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú 2) =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú 3) ã¨=∂[ =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú 4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
(2)
63. q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«=Ú#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞ (APPSC, 2003)
1) =∂~°¬Öò
2) HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯û
3) Z.ã≤.Ñ≤Q∂Æ
4) áêÖò ™ê=¸ºÖòã<¨ £
(2)
64. yh QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú Z‰õΩ¯= L#fl Ü≥∞_»Å (APPSC, 2003)
1) Jã¨=∂#`« `«‰Ωõ ¯=
2) Jã¨=∂#`« Z‰õΩ¯= 3) ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ã¨=∂#`« 4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
(1)
65. ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y nxx H˘Å∞ã¨∞OÎ k (APPSC, 2003)
1) P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}©
2) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ=Ú
3) x~°∞^Àºy`«
4) PǨ~° ѨOÑ≤}©
(2)
66. =∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ D „H˜Ok P^è•~°OQÍ xi‡™êÎ~∞° (J.L., 2003)
1) JHõ~Δ å㨺`« ~ˆ @∞, tâ◊√=∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú r=#HÍÅ ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞`« ~ˆ @∞
2) JHõ~Δ å㨺`« ~ˆ @∞, r=#HÍÅ ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞`« ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞O
3) JHõ~Δ åã¨`º« ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú K«^∞Œ =Ù‰õΩ<Õ ~ÀAÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞, [##=∞ѨÙÊ_»∞ r=#HÍÅ ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞`« ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú
Ѩiâ◊√„Éèí`«
4) ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞ r=#HÍÅ ~ˆ @∞ tâ◊√=∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú áÈ+¨}
(2)
67. P~°~÷ Åü ∂~¸ „ѨHÍ~°O, ^ŒfiO^Œfi Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ g\˜ LxH˜x `≥eÜ«∞*Ëã∞¨ OÎ k. (J.L., 2006)
1) =º=™êÜ«∞O, Ѩi„â◊=∞
2) "≥#∞Hõ|_»¤ Ju ÃÑ^ŒÌ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆO =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨fiÅÊ P^è∞Œ xHõ ~°OQÆO
3) P^è∞Œ xHõ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩ^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩ^`úŒ ∞« Å∞
4) „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•~°∞¡
(3)
68. ã¨OÉèÏ=º`å =$kú~ˆ @∞ J<≥_ç ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å~°∞ (J.L., 2006)
1) N=∞u *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £ 2) _»|∂¡ º._»|∂¡ º.~À™Èì"£ 3) P~ü.ZѶ.π Ǩ~å_£
4) a.Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
69. 5% ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç~ˆ @∞ #∞Oz 10% ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞ D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ LO\Ï~Ú. (J.L., 2006)
(3)
1) ã¨O„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O 2) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ ѨÓ~°fiO 3) Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊
4) ѨiѨHfiõ `«"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ #_»∞ѨÙ
(4)
70. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz# J~°â÷ ßG"Õ`Ϋ (J.L., 2006)
1) QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò
2) ~À*ˇ<ã ã~ì Ú<£ ~À_®<£ 3) P~ü.P~ü.<≥Åû<£
4) Ǩ~ˆ fi֡ɷ <ˇ 㣠<ì‘ £

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71. <≥Åû<£ „ѨHÍ~°O JÅÊ™ê÷~Ú ã¨=∞`ÒźO =Å¡ "≥#∞Hõ|_»¤ ^ÕâßÅÖ’ D HÍ~°}OQÍ U~°Ê_»∞`«∞Ok. (J.L., 2006) ( 1 )
1) [<åÉèÏ JkèHõ =$kú~ˆ @∞
2) *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O `«‰Ωõ ¯= =$kú ~ˆ @∞
3) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∂Å `«‰Ωõ ¯= =$kú~ˆ @∞
4) `«‰Ωõ ¯= [<åÉèÏ ~ˆ @∞
72. n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ ã¨OѨÓ~À‚^Àºy`« QÆÅ „Hõ=∞=$kú ~å=_®xH˜ Ǩ~å_£ D +¨~`° ∞« #∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯<åfl~°∞. (J.L., 2006) ( 3 )
1) Ga = Gw

2) Gw = Gn

3) Ga = Gw = Gn

4) Ga = Gn

73. D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk `«ÑÙ¨ Ê ? (J.L., 2006)
(1)
1) Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ã≤^•úO`åxfl P~°~÷ Åü ∂~¸ãπ „ѨuáêkOKå~°∞
2) Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxfl ÃÇÏKü.ã≤OQÆ~ü |ÅѨiKå_»∞
3) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨ =ÅÜ«∂Å#∞ #~ü¯û qâı+¡ O≤ Kå_»∞
4) Hˆ O„^ŒO – LѨi`«ÅO "≥q· ^Œº ã≤^•úO`åxfl P~ü.„ÃÑa+πÛ „ѨuáêkOKå_»∞
74. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«#∞ xH˜ÑΔ Î¨ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«∞H˘x ^ÕâßÅ∞ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ=K«∞Û Jx K≥ÑÊ≤ # J~°â÷ ßG"Õ`Ϋ
(J.L., 2006)
(1)
1) P~ü. #~ü¯û
2) Ñ≤. ÉÏ~°<£
3) W. _À=∞~ü
4) _»|∂¡ º._»|∂¡ º.~À™Èì"£
(1)
75. LáêO`« =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ JO>Ë HÍ=Åã≤# (J.L., 2006)
1) XHõ J^Œ#Ѩ٠ܫ¸x\ò L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑOK«_®xH˜ HÍ=Åã≤# =¸Å^è#Œ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
2) "≥Ú`«OÎ =¸Å^è<Œ åxH˜, "≥Ú`«OÎ L`«ÊuÎH˜ =∞^躌 QÆÅ x+¨ÊuÎ
3) =¸Å^è#Œ qÅ∞= ” L`«ÊuÎ qÅ∞=
4) "≥Ú`«OÎ =¸Å^è#Œ O – "≥Ú`«OÎ L`«ÊuÎ
(4)
76. „â◊=∞ qÉè[í # ÉèÏ"åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#k Z=~°∞ ? (J.L., 2006)
1) *ˇ.Zãπ.q∞Öò
2) iHÍ~À¤
3) Å∂~¸ãπ
4) ã≤‡`ü
(2)
77. =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞ „H˜Ok Z=iH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz#k ? (J.L., 2007)
1) HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯ û
2) ~À™Èì"£
3) Ѷ∞¨ OÑ‘@~ü
4) QÆ∞<åfl~üq∞~åÌÖò
(2)
78. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ ѨÙ~ÀQÆuÖ’ LOk Jx K≥Ñʨ _®xH˜, `«$fÜ«∞~°OQÆ "å\Ï *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ (J.L., 2007)
1) `«Q_æÆ O»
2) ÃÑ~°Q_Æ O»
3) ã≤~÷ O° QÍ LO_»_O»
4) "≥Ú^Œ@ ÃÑiy `«~åfi`« `«Q_æÆ O»
(4)
79. ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü "≥Ñ· Ù¨ #~ü¯û „ѨHÍ~°O ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨ =ÅÜ«∂Å∞ D HÍ~°}OQÍ Ñ¨xKÕ™êÎ~Ú (J.L., 2004)
1) ^ÕâO◊ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ "≥#∞Hõ|_»¤ `«#O
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç H˘~°`«
3) ™êOˆHuHõ <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ϺŠH˘~°`«
4) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠H˘~°`«
(2)
80. q∞~åÌÖò „ѨHÍ~°O "≥#∞Hõ|_»¤ ^ÕâßÅÖ’ `«‰Ωõ ¯= Jaè=$kú KÀ@∞ KÕã∞¨ HÀ=_®xH˜ HÍ~°}O ? (J.L., 2004)
1) JkèHõ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞, `«‰Ωõ ¯= ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞
2) `«‰Ωõ ¯= qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞, JkèHõ ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞
3) qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞, ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞ ~Ô O_»∂ `«‰Ωõ ¯=
4) qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞, ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞ ~Ô O_»∞ Z‰õΩ¯=
(3)
81. Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ã≤^•úO`«O nxfl <˘H˜¯ K≥ÑÙ¨ `«∞Ok (J.L., 2004)
1) ã¨~Ô #· L`«ÊuΠѨ^`úŒ ∞« Å#∞ L`«ÊuÎÖ’ "å_»_O»
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç q^è•#O
3) ÃÑ^ŒÌ "≥Ú`«OÎ Ö’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç P=â◊ºHõ`«
4) `«‰Ωõ ¯= [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞

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82. Éè∫uHõ <å}º`« r=# ã¨∂zHõ (PQLI) =¸_»∞ JOâßÅ P^è•~°OQÍ xi‡Oz# XHõ ã¨∂zHõ (J.L., 2004) ( 2 )
1) [#‡ #∞Oz ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞ rq`«HÍÅO, tâ◊√ =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞O
2) [#‡ #∞Oz ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞ rq`«HÍÅO, tâ◊√ =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú JHõ~Δ å㨺`« ~ˆ @∞
3) [#‡ #∞Oz ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞ rq`«HÍÅO, tâ◊√ =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú áÈ+¨}
4) [#‡ #∞Oz ã¨OÉè=í hÜ«∞ rq`«HÍÅO, áÈ+¨} =∞iÜ«Ú JHõ~Δ å㨺`« ~ˆ @∞
83. Ǩ~å_£ „ѨHÍ~°O ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`«`À ‰õÄ_ç# n~°H… ÍÅ ã¨=∞`Òź`« Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ D Ѩiã≤u÷ Ö’ =ã¨∞OÎ k
(J.L., 2004) ( 2 )
1) Ga = Gw

2) Ga = Gn = Gw

3) Gn = Gw

4) Ga = Gn

84. ''Pã≤Ü«∞<£ „_®=∂—— „QÆO^äŒHõ~°Î (J.L., 2004)
(1)
1) QÆ∞<åfl~üq∞~å÷Öò
2) P_»Oã≤‡`ü
3) Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
4) Z.Å∂~¸ãπ
85. ''™ê‡Öò D*ò |∂º\˜Ñ¶¨ÙÖò—— „QÆO^äŒHõ~°Î (J.L., 2003)
(2)
1) QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
2) Ѷ∞¨ =∂K«~ü
3) *’Ã+Ѷπ ã≤QÔì \¡ ò˚
4) =O^Œ<åt=
(1)
86. ''™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fi=Ú—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k (J.L., 2003)
1) ɡOlq∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
2) *ˇ.ÃÇÏKü.ÉÁÔH
3) Z.Å∂~¸ãπ
4) P~ü.~À_®<£
(4)
87. I.C.O.R. - qã¨~Î }° (J.L., 2001)
1) áêi„âßq∞Hõ =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
2) JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
3) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
4) J^Œ#Ѩ٠(LáêO`«) =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
(3)
88. =∂~ü¯ û Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ z=i ^Œâ◊ (J.L., 2001)
1) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s q^è•#O 2) ™ê„=∂[º"å^ŒO
3) Hõ=¸ºx[O
4) ™È+¨e[O
(2)
89. ''Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú—— ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#k (J.L., 2001)
1) #~ü¯ û
2) Ǩ~ü¬=∞<£
3) "≥c<£ã<ì‘ £
4) ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
90. Å∂~¸ãπ „ѨuáêkOz# JѨi`«q∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü ã≤^•úO`«O nxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ Oç k (J.L., 2001)
(4)
1) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O
2) Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ã≤^•úO`«O
3) ''ÉèÏs „`ÀѨٗ— ã≤^•úO`«O
4) JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ Hõey# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ã¨∞<åfl LO@∞Ok
(2)
91. ''~À™Èì"—£ — =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ – ѨiѨHfiõ `«‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#=Ú J<Õ ^Œâ◊ (J.L., 2001)
1) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚOL^Œ =K«∞Û#∞
2) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ `«~åfi`« =K«∞Û#∞
3) Jaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« „áê~°OÉè=í ∞QÆ∞#∞
4) Jaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« ѨÓiÎ JQÆ∞#∞
92. =∞ǨÅ<Àaãπ #=¸<å‰õΩ „Ѩ`åº=∂flÜ«∞OQÍ ''"Õ`#« =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ #=¸<å#∞—— ~°zOz# "å~°∞ (Gazz, 2006) ( 1 )
1) =H©Öò – „|Ǩ‡#O^Œ
2) Zãπ. K«„Hõ=iÎ
3) [QÆnâò ÉèQí =Æ u
4) _ç.P~ü.QÍ_çÖæ ò

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93. =∂~ü¯û Jaè=$kú ^Œâ◊ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ ã¨~Ô #· „Hõ=∞O Uk ? (Civils, 2007)
(2)
1) ÉÏx㨠^Œâ◊
2) Pk=∞ Hõ=¸ºx[O
3) ™È+¨e[O
4) Hõ=¸ºx[O
5) ѶӨ º_»e[O
6) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s q^è•#O
„H˜Ok "Code" #∞ѨÜ∂≥ yOz ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # ã¨=∂^è•#=Ú Hõ#∞Q˘#O_ç.
1) 1–2–3–4–5–6
2) 2–1–5–6–3–4
3) 1–2–5–6–3–4
4) 2–1–5–6–4–3
94. ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû „ѨuáêkOz# ''u~°Q"Æ ãÕ #≤ U" ã≤^•úO`«=Ú (inverted U-hypothesis) D „H˜Ok JOâßxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz#k
(Civils, 2007)
(3)
1) qxÜ≥∂QÆ Jã¨=∂#`«
2) ã¨OѨ^Œ Jã¨=∂#`«
3) P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«
4) Ѩ#∞fl Jã¨=∂#`«
(2)
95. ''J#∞|O^è•Å ã≤^•úO`«=Ú—— U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ Jaè=$kú #=¸<å‰õΩ ã¨iáÈ=Ù#∞ (Civils, 2007)
1) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú #=¸<å
2) Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú #=¸<å
3) [<åÉèÏ =$kú #=¸<å
4) XHõ ~°OQÆ =$kú #=¸<å
96. „áê~°OÉèOí Ö’ P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ ™ê÷~Ú ÃÑiy `«~åfi`« ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞—— Jx „ѨuáêkOz# Pi÷H"õ `Õ Î«
(Civils, 1995)
(2)
1) Ǩ~å_£
2) Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
3) Ç≤ÏH±û
4) +¨μÖò˚
(Z)
97. kQÆ∞=#∞#fl ~°K~« Ú`«Å#∞ – ÉèÏ=#Å#∞ [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç (Civils, 2000)
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
Z) _À=∞~ü
1) ã¨fi~°Ü
‚ Ú« QÆO (Golden age)
a) ~À*<£ã<ì‘ £ – ~À_®<£
2) aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π
3) Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞
ã≤) Rostow (~À™Èì")£
_ç) *Ï<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
4) J=ã¨~"° ∞≥ #ÿ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ (Required rate of growth)
Codes :
a) A B C D
4 2 3 1

b) A B C D
2 4 3 1

c) A B C D
2 4 1 3

d) A B C D
4 2 1 3

98. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«‰Ωõ ã¨O|OkèOz „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ã¨i J~Ú#k (Civils, 1995)
Z) Wk xH˜ÑΔ Î¨ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ#∞ `≥eÜ«∞KÕÜÚ« #∞
a) „â◊=∞ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ã¨∞<åfl ÖË^• KåÖÏ `«‰Ωõ ¯=
ã≤) Wk L=∞‡_ç ‰õΩ@∞O| q^è•#O =Å¡ Hõ#|_»∞#∞
_ç) „QÍg∞} „áêO`åÖ’¡ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ Hõ#|_»∞#∞
1) a, ã≤
2) Z, a, ã≤, _ç
3) ã≤, _ç

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(2)

4) Z, a, ã≤

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ECONOMY

99. [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç. (Civils, 1996)
eãπì – 1
Z) ~À[<£ ã‘<ì £ – ~À_®<£
a) ֡ɷ <ˇ £ ã‘<ì £
ã≤) #~ü¯û
_ç) _»|∞¡ º. _»|∞¡ º. ~À™Èì"£

(Z)
eãπì – 2
1) Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ã≤^•úO`«O
2) aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O
3) Take off (Ѩ¡=#^Œâ◊)
4) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞

Codes : a) A B C D

b) A B C D

2 1 4 3

3 4 2 1

c) A B C D

d) A B C D

3 1 4 2

2 4 1 3

100. ''Pi÷HÍaè=$kú—— J#QÍ (Civils, 1997)
(2)
1) x~°O`«~° „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞«
2) ã¨fiÅÊHÍeHõ „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« 3) n~°H… ÍeHõ „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞«
ÃÑ· "åºYºÅÖ’ ã¨i J~Ú#k
1) 2 =∂„`«"∞Õ
2) 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 3
3) 3 =∂„`«"∞Õ
4) 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
101. "Economic development with unlimited supply of labour" J<Õ „QÆO^è•xfl ~°zOzOk. (Civils, 1998) ( 3 )
1) ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
2) ~À™Èì"£
3) Å∂~¸ãπ
4) z<åi
102. Öˇa· <£ã<ì‘ £ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ [<åÉèÏ J<Õ HÍ~°H=õ Ú D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ¨xKÕÜÚ« #∞ (Civils, 1995) ( 2 )
1) P^•Ü«∂xfl ã¨$+≤Oì K«∞#∞
2) P^•Ü«∂xfl J}˜K"« Ü
Õ Ú« #∞ (income depressing)
3) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç „áÈ`åûǨÏO
4) =∂Ô~¯\ò qã¨Î $u
103. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü Jaè=$kú ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ nxH˜ „áê^è•#º`« W=fi|_≥#∞ (Civils, 1999)
(4)
VC
+C
1) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú P=â◊ºHõ`«
2) J=™ê÷Ñ#¨ ™œHõ~åºÅ Jaè=$kú
V +V C
V
3) "Õ∞<Õ[~°¡ áê„`«
4) #=HõÅÊ#Å áê„`«
(2)
104. „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ã¨iQÍæ [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« |_ç#k (Civils, 1999)
1) Z._»|∞¡ º. Å∂~¸ãπ
– aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O
2) Z.F. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
– Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO
3) ~À*ˇxã‘<ì £ ~À_®<£
– Pi÷Hõ =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞
4) _»|∞¡ º._»|∞¡ º.~À™Èì"£ – JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü
105. =∂~ü¯ û Ü≥ÚHõ¯ O.C.C. (Organic Composition of Capital) ''P~åæxH± HÍOá⁄l+¨<£ PѶπ HÍÑ≤@Öò—— g\˜ x+¨ÊuÎx
(3)
`≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞. (Civils, 2002)
1)

C
V +S

2)

3)

106. „H˜Ok JOâßÅ#∞ [`«KÜ
Õ Ú« =Ú. (Civils, 2002)
Z) Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤ ã≤^•úO`«O
a) JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú
ã≤) ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
_ç) "åÔ~O>ˇ_£ „QÀ`ü ˆ~\ò

4)

( a)
1) ~À_®<£
2) ǨÏ~å_£–_À=∞~ü
3) Å∂~¸ãπ
4) Öˇ·Éˇ<£ã‘ì<£

a) A B C D

b) A B C D

c) A B C D

d) A B C D

1 2 4 3

4 3 1 2

1 3 4 2

4 2 1 3

z~°Orq

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107. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« nxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞ (Civils, 2003)
(4)
1) n~°H… ÍÅOÖ’ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ =$kú
2) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O r=# „Ѩ=∂}ÏÅ =$kú
3) "≥Ú`«OÎ [<åÉèωõΩ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`«
4) *ÏfÜ«∞ P^•Ü«∞=$kú`Àáê@∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
(4)
108. ~À™Èì<£ 5 ^ŒâÅ◊ =∞^躌 =º`åºã¨O K«∂Ñ≤OK≥#∞. Jq =~°∞ã¨QÍ (Civils, 2004)
Z) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞#fl ^Œâ◊
a) ѨiѨHfiõ `«‰Ωõ QÆ=∞#O
ã≤) ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏH« qxÜ≥∂QÆ ^Œâ◊
_ç) ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞Hõ ã¨=∂[O
W) Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ◊
1) Z, a, ã≤, _ç, W
2) a, Z, ã≤, _ç, W
3) _ç, Z, a, ã≤, W
4) _ç, Z, W, a, ã≤
109. „H˜Ok "åxx [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç.
( _ç )
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) _»|∞¡ º. Z. Å∂~¸ãπ
Z) ã¨|÷ `ú ã« u÷≤ (stationary State)
a) JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú
2) l.q∞~åúÖò
3) Ǩ~å_£ – _À=∞~ü
ã≤) Knife - edge equilibrium
4) Z. ã≤‡`ü
_ç) Theory of cumulative causation
a) A B C D
2 1 3 4

b) A B C D

c) A B C D

4 3 1 2

2 3 1 4

d) A B C D
4 1 3 2

110. #~ü¯û Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ g\˜ =∞^躌 JO`«óã¨O|O^èOŒ LO@∞O^Œx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
(1)
1) L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞O
2) P^•Ü«∞O =∞iÜ«Ú [<åÉèÏ
3) „^Œ"ÀºÅƒ}=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú JkèHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆ=Ú
4) q∞QÆ∞Å∞ „â◊=∞ =∞iÜ«Ú „Ѩ`åº#fl x~°∞^Àºy`«
P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷Hõ =$kú :    

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

„QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`« – Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
Wk Jaè=$kÌ K≥Ok# ^ÕâßʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#k.
Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷Hõ =$kúH˜ 6 ÅHõ<Δ åÅ∞ ¿Ñ~˘¯<≥#∞.
gxÖ’ 2 Ѩi=∂}Ï`«‡Hõ JOâßÅ∞, 2 =º=™ê÷ÑÓ¨ ~°fiHõ =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ K≥Ok#q. 2 JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞ qã¨~Î }
° JOâßʼnõΩ
K≥Ok#q.
JkèHõ `«Åã¨i L`«ÊuÎ =$kú~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ ~ˆ @∞
L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
Z‰õΩ¯= ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ x~å‡}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
Ѩ@ì}©Hõ~°}
Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ ÉÏǨϺ qã¨~Î }
° ( The outward Expansion of Developed countries.)
JO`«~å˚fÜ«∞OQÍ =º‰õΩÅÎ ∞, =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ∞, =¸Å^è#Œ Hõ^eŒ HõÅ∞.
Modern Economic Growth

z~°Orq

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Ü«¸x=iû\© áê`« Ñ„ ⨠ßflѨ`„ åÅÖ’x Ñ„ ⨠fl◊ Å∞ – ã¨=∂^è•<åÅ∞
111. Pi÷Hõ =$kú J#∞ ÉèÏ=#.
( )
1. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#∞ ÉèÏ=#`À ã¨=∂#"≥∞#ÿ k
2. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#∞ ÉèÏ=#HõO>Ë ã¨O‰õΩz`«"∞≥ #ÿ k
3. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#∞ ÉèÏ=#HõO>Ë qâßÅ"≥∞#ÿ k
4. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#∞ ÉèÏ=#‰õΩ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖËxk
112. ''¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∞O—— J#∞ ÉèÏ=##∞ „ѨH\õ O˜ z# Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. ɡO[q∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
2. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
3. _»|∞¡ º. P~°~ú ü Å∂~Úãπ 4. *ˇ.ZO.H©<û£
113. „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œx Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Pi÷Hõ ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú Uk?
( )
1. *Ï˝#Ç‘Ï#`«
2. x~°H~Δõ å㨺`« 3. `«‰Ωõ ¯= ¢ãÅΑ ™ê=∂lHõ™ê÷~Ú 4. `«‰Ωõ ¯= `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O
114. „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ ^Õxx Pi÷Hõ =$kúH˜ x["≥∞#ÿ ã¨∂zHõQÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
( )
1. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ^è~Œ Å° Ö’x *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
2. ã≤~÷ "° ∞≥ #ÿ ^è~Œ Å° Ö’x *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
3. "åã¨=Î `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OÖ’x x~°O`«~° ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ 4. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ^è~Œ Å° Ö’x `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
( )
115. PQLI J#∞#k ^ÕxH˜ ã¨=∂#O.
1. Ѷl≤ HõÖò HÍfie\© PѶπ ÖˇÑ· π¶ WO_≥Hû±
2. Ѷl≤ HõÖò HÍfiO\˜\ © PѶπ ÖˇÑ· π¶ WO_≥Hû±
3. Ѷl≤ HõÖò HÍfie\© PѶπ e@~°ã‘ WO_≥Hû±
4. Ѷl≤ HõÖò HÍfiO\˜\ © PѶπ e@~°ã‘ WO_≥Hû±
116. ''=∂#= Jaè=$kú x"ÕkHõ——#∞ `«Ü∂« ~°∞ KÕÜÚ« #k.
( )
1. „ѨÑO¨ K«ÉϺO‰õΩ
2. ÉèÏ~°fÜ«∞ i[~°∞fi ÉϺO‰õΩ 3. Ü«Ú.Ü«∞<£._ç.Ñ≤.
4. _»|∂¡ º.\˜.F.
117. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«=Ú#∞ K≥ÑÊ≤ # Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. Ü«Ú.ÔH.Ç≤ÏH±û
2. *ˇ.Ü«∞O.H©<û£
3. ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û
4. Z.F.ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
118. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’x J<ÕHõ ~°HÍÅ HÍ~°ºHõÖÏáêÅ∞ UHõ HÍÅ=∞O^Œ∞ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ_®xfl WÖÏ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° . ( )
1. aQ∑–ѨÙ+π ã≤^•úO`«O
2. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O
3. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O
4. L^ÀºQÆ HõÅÊ# ÖËx =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O
119. ''=∞^躌 O`«~° ™êOˆHuHõ L`«ÊuΠѨ^uúŒ ——x „ѨuáêkOz# Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. ã≤.Ü«∞<£.=H©Öò
2. W.Ü«∞Ѷ.π +¨Ø=∂K«~ü
3. Ñ≤.P~ü.„|Ǩ‡#O^Œ
4. Ñ≤.ã≤.=∞ǨÏÅ<Àaãπ
120. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú`Àáê@∞ =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆOÖ’x „âßq∞Hõ â◊HΘ âß`«O.
( )
1. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok
2. `«Q∞Æ `æ ∞« Ok 3. ã≤~÷ O° QÍ LO@∞Ok 4. JxtÛ`« suÖ’ =∂~°∞`«∞Ok
121. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ 1999–2000 ã¨O=`«û~°O <å\˜H˜ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ ~ˆ Y „H˜O^Œ L#fl [<åÉèÏ âß`«O ZO`«?(2003)( )
2. 36%
3. 51%
4. 55%
1. 26% (26 crores)
111.(2)
119.(2)

z~°Orq

112.(2) 113.(4)
120.(2) 121.(1)

114.(3) 115.(1) 116.(3) 117.(4) 118.(2)

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122. 'J^Œ$â◊º ǨÏã¨OÎ — Ѩ^•xfl "å_ç#"å~°∞.
( )
1. =∂ÅÌãπ
2. J=∂~°ºÎ ¿ã<£
3. WOk~åQÍOnè
4. P_»Oã≤‡`ü
123. =∂#"åaè=$kú ã¨∂zHõ D =¸_çO\˜ÃÑ· =ÙO_»∞#∞.
( )
1. PÜ«Úó„Ѩ=∂}O, JHõ~Δ å㨺`«, á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ
2. P^•Ü«∞O, á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ, rq`«O
3. PÜ«Úó„Ѩ=∂}O, JHõ~Δ å㨺`«, P^•Ü«∞O
4. JHõ~Δ å㨺`«, P^•Ü«∞O, qxÜ≥∂QÆO
124. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J#QÍ.
( )
1. Pi÷Hõ =$kú
2. „Ѩ[Å PÖ’K«#Ö’ =∂~°∞Ê
3. [<åÉèÏ =$kú
4. =$kú`Àáê@∞ x~å‡}Ï`«‡Hõ"∞≥ #ÿ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
125. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^Õâ◊ ™ê=∂#º ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú.
( )
1. Z‰õΩ¯= =¸Å^è#Œ – „âßq∞Hõ x+¨ÊuÎ
2. Z‰õΩ¯= á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ
3. „âßq∞Hõ H˘~°`«
4. Z‰õΩ¯= "≥Ú`«=Î Ú „âßq∞‰õΩÅ ÅÉèºí =Ú
126. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#fl `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O XHõ ^Õâ◊ ...........H˜ ã¨∂K«HOõ .
( )
1. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç#`«#=Ú 2. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú
3. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#fl [<åÉèÏ
4. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞#fl ^è~Œ Å° ∞
127. #~ü¯û „ѨHÍ~°=Ú ^•i„^Œº q+¨=ÅÜ«∞=Ú#∞ `˘ÅyOK«=K«∞Û.
( )
1. kQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞
2. =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #=Ú 3. ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞
4. qxÜ≥∂QÆ=Ú
128. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}.©
( )
1. ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}©
2. Jã¨=∂# – P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}©
3. P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© ÖË^∞Œ
4. P^•Ü«∞ ѨOÑ≤}© Z‰õΩ¯=
129. ^•i„^ŒºO nxH˜ ã¨∂K«H=õ Ú.
( )
1. Pi÷Hõ Jaè=$kú
2. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç#`«#=Ú
3. áêi„âßq∞Hõ Jaè=$kú 4. „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«
130. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâO◊ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ™ê=∂#º ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú.
( )
1. =º=™êÜ«∞ „áê^è•#º`« 2. „âßq∞Hõ H˘~°`«
3. Z‰õΩ¯= á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ~ˆ @∞
4. =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨O=$kú
131. Jaè=$kú x~À^èHŒ =õ Ú.
( )
1. =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú H˘~°`«
2. `«‰Ωõ ¯= <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }º=Ú QÆÅ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞
3. =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú ã¨=∞$kú
4.Z‰õΩ¯= <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }º=Ú QÆÅ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞
132. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O K≥ÑÊ≤ # =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. Å∂~Úãπ =∞iÜ«Ú P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
2. =H©Öò =∞iÜ«Ú „|Ǩ‡#O^Œ
3. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü =∞iÜ«Ú =∂~°∞¯û
122.(4)
130.(1)

z~°Orq

123.(3) 124.(4)
131.(1) 132.(4)

4. ã≤OQÆ~ü =∞iÜ«Ú Ç¨Ï~°¬=∞<£
125.(4) 126.(2) 127.(2) 128.(2) 129.(2)
62

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ECONOMY

133 W<£"O≥ @sãπ J#QÍ.
( )
1.Hõ~å‡QÍ~° x~å‡} „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ =ÙO_Õ =ã¨∞=Î Ù
2. Hõ~å‡QÍ~° x~å‡} J„Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ =ÙO_Õ =ã¨∞=Î Ù
3. Hõ~å‡QÍ~° J„Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ ¿ã=Å∞
4. Hõ~å‡QÍ~°OÖ’ ¿ã=Å∞ ÖˉΩõ O_®
134. Pi÷H=õ $kú =∞iÜ«Ú Jaè=$kú ~Ô O_»∂.
( )
1. ã¨=∂#=Ú
2. "Õ~ˆ fi~°∞
3. J#∞áê`«=Ú
4. qÖ’=∞=Ú
135. JÖÏÊaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Hõ#Ѩ_Õ ÅHõ}
Δ O.
( )
1. =¸Å^è#Œ O JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»_O»
2. <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºOQÆÅ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ JkèHOõ QÍ LO_»_O»
3. „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆOÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ _» O»
4. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
136. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ #=HõÅÊ#Å áê„`«#∞ <˘H˜¯ K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å~°∞.
( )
1. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
2. =∂~°¬Öò
3. iHÍ~À¤
4. =∂Å÷ãπ
137. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ Pi÷Hˆ `«~° HÍ~°HÍÅÖ’ Wk XHõ\ ˜.
( )
1. ™êOˆHuHÍaè=$kú
2. x~°fiǨÏ} `≥eq`Õ@Å∞
3. L^Œº=∞^•~°∞x `≥eq`Õ@Å∞
4. ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ ã¨Oã¨Å÷ ∞
138. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨxfl „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
2. #~ü¯¿ã
3. Å∂~Úãπ
4. q∞~å¤Öò
139. JÖÏÊaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ@ì_®xH˜ QÆÅ L`«∞ûHõ`« Ѩiq∞`«OQÍ LO_»_®xH˜ QÆÅHÍ~°}=Ú. ( )
1. [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i=∂}O `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
2. „âßq∞‰õΩÅ ã¨OYº `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
3. =∂Ô~¯@¡ Ѩikè `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
4. ^Õâ◊ "≥â· ßźO `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
140. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆO D ~°OQÆOÖ’ JkèHOõ QÍ HõÅ^Œ∞.
( )
1. Ѩi„â◊=∞
2. =º=™êÜ«∞O
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
4. q^Õj~°OQÆO
141. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ# J#QÍ.
( )
1. „Ѩ[Å ã¨OYº#∞ ÃÑOK«∞ q^è•#O
2. [<åÉèÏ ã¨OYº#∞ ÃÑOK«∞ q^è•#O
3. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ =$kú q^è•#=Ú
4. „Ѩ[Å <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ϺÅ#∞ ÃÑOK«∞ q^è•#O
142. ~À™Èì"£ nxx q=iOK≥#∞.
( )
1. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
2. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
3. q+¨=ÅÜ«∞O
4. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ∞
143. ÉèÏ~°`^« ÕâO◊ Ö’ „QÍg∞} „áêO`åÅÖ’Z‰õΩ¯==∞Ok nxH˜ QÆ∞~°=Ù`å~°∞.
( )
1. |Ç≤Ï~°OQÆ x~°∞^ÀºQÆO 2. K«^∞Œ =Ù‰õΩ#fl"åiÖ’ x~°∞^ÀºQÆO 3. „Ñ≤H#Δõ Öò x~°∞^ÀºQÆO 4. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆO
144. 1998 ã¨O=`«û~°O Pi÷Hâõ ßGOÖ’ <ÀɡÖò |Ǩï=∞u „QÆÇÏ‘ `«.
( )
1. eÜ«∂O\˜Ñπ
2. J=∞~°ºÎ ¿ã<£
3. ɡH~õ ü
4. q∞~åÌÖò
133.(1)
141.(4)

z~°Orq

134.(2) 135.(3)
142.(4) 143.(4)

136.(1) 137.(4) 138.(2) 139.(3) 140.(2)
144.(2)
63

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ECONOMY

145. 'U+≤Ü∞« <£ „_®=∂— J<Õ „QÆO^äŒ ~°K~« Ú`«.
( )
1. ʼnõΩO˚ |~üæ
2. =∂~°¬Öò
3. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
4. q∞~åÌÖò
146. ã¨ÇϨ [ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1.Ǩ~å_£
2. _À=∞~ü
3. HÍŤ~ü
4. *’<£~åa<£ã<¨ £
147. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£ D ã≤^•úO`åxfl ã¨"åÅ∞ KÕâß_»∞.
( )
1. aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π
2. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
3. Hõh㨠Hõ$+≤
4. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú
148. =¸_»= „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ∞ J#QÍ...
( )
1. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s ^ÕâßÅ∞ 2. ™ê=∞º"å^Œ ^ÕâßÅ∞
3. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ∞ 4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
149. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú [iy#ѨC_»∞ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû „ѨHÍ~°O *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’...
( )
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆÑÙ¨ ÉèÏQÆO ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞
2. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆÑÙ¨ ÉèÏQÆO xÅHõ_Q» Í LO_»∞#∞
3. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆÑÙ¨ ÉèÏQÆO "≥Ú^Œ@ `«y,æ `«~∞° "å`« ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞ 4. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆÑÙ¨ ÉèÏQÆO `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞
150. Pi÷Hõ =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. Å∂~Úãπ
2. #~ü¯¿ã
3. q∞~°Ö¤ ò
4. ~À™Èì"£
151. JѨiq∞`« „â◊=∞ ã¨~Ñ° ~¨¶ å ã≤^•úO`åxfl„ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. ɡO[q∞<£ Ç≤Ïyæ<û£
2. "Õ∞Ü«∞~ü
3. =∞<£"∂≥ ǨÏ<£ãO≤ Q∑
4. Å∂~Úãπ
152. #=HõÅÊ# ã≤^•úO`åxfl „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
2. =∂~°¬Öò
3. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
4. ǨÏ~üû=∞<£
153. =∂#= xi‡`« =¸Å^è#Œ =ÚÖ’ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç J#QÍ.
( )
1. P~ÀQƺO =∞iÜ«Ú q^Œº
2. P~ÀQƺO
3. q^μ
4. ~À_»Ã¡ Ñ#·
154. „ѨKÛ« ù#fl x~°∞^Àºy`« JO>Ë.
( )
1. „â◊=∞ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ã¨∞#fl JQÆ∞@
2. „â◊=∞ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ã¨∞#fl JQÆ∞@
3. JkèHõ „â◊=∞ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
4. JÅÊ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ „â◊=∞ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
155. Hõh㨠J=ã¨~åŠѨ^HŒä Oõ D HÍÅOÖ’ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ@ì|_ç#k.
( )
1. <åÅæ= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
2. S^Œ= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
3. P~°= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
4. U_»= „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
156. P^è∞Œ xHõ ~°OQÆO ѨÙ~å`«# ~°OQÆO HõÅã≤ LO_»∞@#∞...
( )
1. Pi÷Hõ ã¨fi`«O„`«`‰« Ωõ zǨÏflO
2. ¢ÃÑ"· \Õ ò ~°OQÆO „áê=ÚYº`«#∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞
3. Pi÷Hõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
145.(4)
153.(1)

z~°Orq

146.(1) 147.(2)
154.(1) 155.(2)

148.(3) 149.(4) 150.(4) 151.(4) 152.(3)
156.(3)
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ECONOMY

157. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç J#QÍ.
( )
1. `«áêÅ PѶ㑠∞¨ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠ã¨iÑì HÔ≤¶ @∞¡
2. ÉϺO‰õΩÖ’ QÆÅ HÍÅѨiq∞u _çáêl@∞¡
3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
4. Éè∫uHõ L`åÊ^ŒHõ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ qÅ∞= ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
158. XHõ JQÀK«~° ǨÏã¨OÎ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨#÷ ∞ =ÚO^Œ∞‰õΩ #_çÑã≤ ∞¨ OÎ ^Œx ÉèÏqOz# Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
2. =∂~°¬Öò
3. H©<û£
4. ~åa<£û
( )
159. 'Das Capital' Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ~°K~« Ú`«.
1. ~À_®ãπ
2. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
3. <≥Åû<£
4. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
160. ''i[~üfi ¿ã#—— J<Õ „â◊=∞ ÉèÏ=#`À ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú#fl Pi÷Hõ âßG"Õ`.Ϋ
( )
1. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
2. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
3. iHÍ~À¤
4. H©<û£
161. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ~ˆ @∞#∞ x~°~‚ ÚOK«∞@Ö’™êOˆHuHõ „ѨQuÆ „Ѩ=ÚYáê„`« =Ç≤Ïã¨∞OÎ ^Œx ÉèÏqOz#"å_»∞.
( )
1. H©<û£
2. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
3. <≥Åû<£
4. H˜fi*ò<Õ
162. L`åÊ^ŒHõ L`«ÊuÎ =∂„uHõ`À ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú#fl Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. eÜ≥∂O\˜Ñπ¶
2. ~À_®<£
3. <≥Åû<£
4. H˜fi*ò<Õ
163. ''„ѨKÛ« #ù flx~°∞^Àºy`«—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì Pi÷H"õ `Õ .Ϋ
( )
1. ÉÏ~°ƒ~å T@<£
2. q∞Ãããπ *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
3. ^ä•=∞ãπ <≥Åû<£
4. *Ï<£ g∞<å~üH¤ <© û£
164. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü«∞Ö’L#fl _çãπHõO\˜#∞º\©Å∞ |Ç≤Ï~°æ`« P^•Å Ü≥ÚHõ¯ „áê^è•#º`«#∞ ã≤^•úO`«s`åº
„ѨuáêkOz#"å_»∞.
( )
1. <≥Åû<£
2. ~À_®<£
3. =∂~ü¯û
4. eÜ≥∂O\©Ñπ
165. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú XHõ ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ KÕi# `«~åfi`«.
( )
1. =º=™ê÷`‡« Hõ =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« ÃÑiy L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ „áê^è•#º`« ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok
2. =º=™ê÷`‡« Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ ã≤~÷ O° QÍ =ÙO_ç L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ „áê^è•#º`« `«Q∞Æ `æ ∞« Ok
3. =º=™ê÷`‡« Hõ =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« `«y,æ L`«ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ „áê^è•#º`« ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok
4. Ѩi=∂}Ï`«‡Hõ =∞iÜ«Ú QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`« ÃÇÏK«∞Û`«∞Ok
166. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ .«
( )
1. â◊¥#º=Ú
2. XHõ\ ˜
3. J#O`«=Ú
4. XHõ\ ˜ Hõ<åfl Z‰õΩ¯=
167. ^ŒfiO^Œfi Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\Ïì_∞» .
( )
1. H©<û£
2. É’ˆH
3. Ǩ~ˆ fi
4. Å∂~Úãπ
157.(4)
165.(3)

z~°Orq

158.(1) 159.(4)
166.(1) 167.(2)

160.(2) 161.(2) 162.(1) 163.(2) 164.(2)

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ECONOMY

168. =∞#∞+¨º ã¨OѨ^#Œ ∞ Jaè=$kú KÕã∞¨ ‰õΩ<ÕO^Œ∞‰õΩQÍ#∞ PÜ«Úó„Ѩ=∂} =$kú JHõ~Δ å㨺`« =$kú, „âßq∞Hõ QÆ=∞#jÅ`«
=$kú =Ú#flQÆ∞ J~Ú^Œ∞ =∂~åæÅ#∞ K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å_»∞.
( )
1. +¨μÖò˚
2. ~ˆ =∂O_£
3. "ÀÖÏæ
4. HÔ ~· <ü ã≥ π
169. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’Hõhã¨O 10% á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙKÕã≤ ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å"≥Ñ· Ù¨ =∞o§OK«Háõ È`Õ Ñ¨=¡ # ^Œâ#◊ ∞ KÕ~∞° HÀ=_»O J™ê^躌 O
J#fl"å~°∞.
( )
1. Å∂~Úãπ
2. ~À™Èì"£
3. ~åa<£û
4. á¶ê<£HÔ Öò
170. #=HõÅÊ#Å =Å# Pi÷HÍaè=$kú ™ê^躌 =∞x K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å_»∞.
( )
1. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
2. Å∂~Úãπ
3. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
4. yÖò|~üì
171. P^è∞Œ xHõ HÍÅOÖ’ L`åÊ^ŒHõ L`«ÊuÎ =∂„uHõ#∞ `«Ü∂« ~°∞KÕã≤ <ÀɡÖò |Ǩï=∞ux á⁄Ok#"å_»∞.
( )
1. HÔ fi¿ãfl
2. ~åa<£û
3. QÍÖò¢É`·ˇ ü
4. eÜ≥∂O\˜Ñπ
172. „Hõ=∞ =$kú J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞.
( )
1. =∂^è∞Œ ~ü
2. q.ÔH.P~ü.q.~å=Ù
3. K≥ÅÜ
¡ ∞« º
4. =∞`«Ü
Î ∞« º
173. 'JѨiq∞`« „â◊=∞ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü — J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞.
( )
1. Å∂~Úãπ
2. ~À_®<£
3. q∞Öò
4. =∂Å÷ãπ
174. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨#÷ ∞ r=<å^è•~° ~°OQÆO, ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•~°¡ ~°OQÆO Jx =sæHiõ Oz#"å_»∞.
( )
1.J~°~÷ ü ã≤‡fãπ
2. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
3. _Õq_£ iHÍ~À¤
4. P~°~÷ ü Å∂~Úãπ
175. Å∂~Úãπ L^ÕâÌ º◊ OÖ’ =¸Å^è#Œ x~å‡}O nxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» `«∞Ok.
( )
1. „âßq∞‰õΩÅ "Õ`<« åÖ’¡ á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙÅ∞
2. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•~°¡ q∞QÆ∞Å∞
3. =_ô¤ "åºáê~°∞Å∞ WKÕÛ |∞∞}ÏÅ∞
4. Ö’@∞ „^Œ=º q^è•#O
176. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ _çãHπ Oõ \˜#∞º\©Å#∞ QÆ∞iOz K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å_»∞.
( )
1. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£ 2. H©<û£
3. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
4. ǨÏ~å_£
177. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« #∞ q=iOK«∞@Ö’ 'JqÉèÏ*ϺÅ∞— J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞.
( )
1. P~°~÷ ü Å∂~Úãπ
2. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
3. Ǩ~å_£
4. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
178. ''ÅOÑ‘<ã≥ π PѶπ HÍÑ≤@Öò—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ =$kú ã≤^•úO`åxH˜ "å_ç#"å_»∞.
( )
1. ~Àâ◊Û~ü
2. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
3. ã≤‡`ü
4. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
179. =ÚO^Œ∞ J#∞|O^è•Å∞, "≥#∞Hõ J#∞|O^è•Å∞ J<Õ ÉèÏ=#Å#∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞.
( )
1. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
2. ~°QÍfl~ü „ѶK≤ ü
3. =∂^è∞Œ ~ü
4. ™ÈÖ’
180. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Å÷ Ö’ =~°æ ã¨OѶ∞¨ ~°¬} "å\˜ Ѩ`<« åxH˜ ^•ifã¨∞OÎ k.
( )
1. #~ü¯û
2. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
3. HÍ~°Öò =∂~ü¯û
4. ~À_®<£
168.(1)
176.(1)

z~°Orq

169.(2) 170.(1)
177.(2) 178.(4)

171.(4) 172.(1) 173.(1) 174.(4) 175.(2)
179.(1) 180.(3)
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ECONOMY

181. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =~°æ ã¨OѶ∞¨ ~°¬}‰õΩ Ñ¨Ù<åkQÍ q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`åxfl q=iOz#"å_»∞.
( )
1. =∂~ü¯û
2. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷Öò
3. QÍÖò¢É`·ˇ ü
4. H©<û£
182. ™È+¨e*ÏxH˜ =¸Å„QÆO^äOŒ QÍ Ñ¨iQÆ}O˜ K«|_Õk.
( )
1. A Treatiseon money 2. Das Capital 3. Value and Growth 4. Wealth of Nations
183. P~åæxH± HÍOáÈl+¨<£ PѶπ HÍÑ≤@Öò J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ =$kú ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ "å_ç#"å_»∞.
( )
1. #~ü¯û
2. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
3. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
4. ã≤¯\’ q㑯
184. ™êOˆHuHõ *Ï˝# „ѨQuÆ =Å# U~°Ê_Õ x~°∞^ÀºQÆ∞Å#∞ áêi„âßq∞Hõ i[~üfi¿ã# Jx Ñ≤ez#"å_»∞.
( )
1. =∂~ü¯û
2. ã≤‡`ü
3. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
4. HÍÖÏÌ~ü
185. L^Œº=∞^•~°∞_»∞ =$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ „Ѩ^•è #áê„`« =Ç≤Ï™êÎ_x» K≥ÑÊ≤ #"å_»∞.
( )
1. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü
2. iHÍ~À¤
3. =∂~°¬Öò
4. ã≤‡`ü
186. ÉϺH±"å+π ZÃÑH¶ ì± û =∞iÜ«Ú „ÃãÊ_£ ZÃÑH¶ ì± û J<Õ ÉèÏ=#Å#∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì "å_»∞.
( )
1. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷Öò
2. P~°~÷ ü ã≤‡fãπ
3. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
4. #~üHˆ û
187. XHõ „áêO`«OÖ’ Pi÷Hõ qã¨~Î }
° H˘#™êˆQ@ѨC_»∞ Jk W`«~° „áêO`åÅ qã¨~Î }
° ‰õΩ `À_»Ê_ç`Õ Jk nx „ѨÉÏè =O.
1. ™êOѶ∞≤ Hõ =º=™ê÷ =¸Å^è#Œ O
2. aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π
( )
3. ÉϺH± "å+π ZÃщ¶ Ωõ ì û
4. ¢ÃãÊ_£ ZÃщ¶ Ωõ ì û
188. ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # [`«HÍxk
( )
Z
a
1. #=HõÅÊ#
Z. +¨μO+‘@~ü
2. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
a. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯ û
3. áêi„âßq∞Hõ i[~°∞fi¿ã#
ã≤. HÍ~°Öò =∂~ü¯ û
4. JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨Ñ~¡¨ Ú
_ç. J~°~÷ ü Å∂~Úãπ
5. „ÃãÊ_£ ZÃÑH¶ ì± û
W. ~À™Èì".£
189. ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # [`«HÍxk
Z
a
1. q∞QÆ∞Å∞ qÅ∞= ã≤^•úO`«O
Z. HÍ~°Öò=∂~ü¯û
2. =∂Ô~¯\ò ã≤^•úO`«O
a. *ˇ.a.¿ã (J.B.Say)
3. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`«
ã≤. N=∞u *’<£ ~åa<£ã<¨ £
4. [<åÉèÏ q™ÈÊù@#O =Å¡ Pi÷H#õ ~°HOõ
_ç. Z_çfi<£HÍ#<£
190. ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # [`«HÍxk.
( )
1. ^•ãπ Hˆ Ñ≤@Öò
Z. HÍ~°Öò =∂~ü¯û
2. Pã≤Ü∞« <£ „_®=∂
a. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò
3. "≥ÖòÎ PѶπ <Õ+<¨ û£
ã≤. *ˇ.Ü«∞O.H©#∞û
_ç. ~À™Èì"£
4. Take-off into sustained growth
5. Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth
W. Öˇ·Éˇ<£ã‘ì<£
181.(1)
189.(4)

z~°Orq

182.(2) 183.(3)
190.(3)

184.(1) 185.(1) 186.(1) 187.(4) 188.(5)
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á„ êH©ãì ∞¨ Ñ„ ⨠fl◊ Å∞
191. Pi÷Hõ =$kú J<Õ ÉèÏ=# ^ÕxH˜ K≥Ok#k?
( )
1. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ∞
2. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞
3. Ü«¸~ÀÑ≤Ü∞« <£ ^ÕâßÅ∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
192. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú J<Õ ÉèÏ=# ^ÕxH˜ K≥Ok#k?
( )
1. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ∞ 2. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ 3. Pã≤Ü∞« <£ ^ÕâßÅ∞ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
193. D „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ qâßÅ"≥∞#ÿ ÉèÏ=# Uk?
( )
1. Pi÷Hõ =$kú
2. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú
3. Pi÷Hõ ÉèÏ=#
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
194. D „H˜O^Œ `≥eÑ≤# ã¨∂zHõÅÖ’ Uk Pi÷H=õ $kúx H˘eKÕ H˘Å=∂#O.
( )
1. P~ÀQƺ ™œHõ~º° O
2. JHõ~Δ å㨺`«
3. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O =$kú ~ˆ @∞4. à Ñ=· xfl
195. D „H˜O^Œ `≥eÑ≤# ã¨∂zHõÅÖ’ Uq Pi÷HÍaè=$kúx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞.
( )
1. P~ÀQƺ ™œHõ~º° O
2. JHõ~Δ å㨺`«
3. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O =$kú ~ˆ @∞
4. Ã Ñ=· xfl
196. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ Uq HõÅã≤ LO_»∞#∞.
( )
1) Ѩi=∂}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨∂zHõÅ∞ 2) QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ"∞≥ #ÿ ã¨∂zHõÅ∞ 3) 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2 4) 1 ÖË^• 2
197. `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy#@∞¡ J~Ú`Õ.
( )
1. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O =$kú~ˆ @∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞
2. [<åÉèÏ =$kú `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞
3. [<åÉèÏ =$kú Z‰õΩ¯= LO_»∞#∞
4. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
198. JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ ^ÕxH˜ J#fi~ÚOK«=K«∞Û#∞.
( )
1. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
2. x~å‡}~°OQÆO
3. â◊H~Θ O° QÆO
4. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
199. ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞O J<Õ ÉèÏ=# D ã¨O^Œ~ƒ° Où Ö’ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ k.
( )
1. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ÃÑiy#ѨC_»∞
2. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O `«y#æ ѨC_»∞
3. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ã≤~÷ O° QÍ L#flѨC_»∞
4. *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O ѨÙ#óѨOÑ≤}© J~Ú#ѨC_»∞
200. [<åÉèÏÖ’ Jxfl =~åæÅ "åiH˜ Pi÷H=õ $kú Ѷe¨ `åÅ∞ KÕ~∞° `å~Ú Jx `≥e¿Ñ „ѨÉÏè =O.
( )
4. Back wash effect
1. Trickle up effect 2. Trickle down effect 3. Take-off effect
201. ÉèÏ~°`âÕ O◊ Ö’ ¿Ñ^ŒiHÍxfl ^Õx P^è•~°OQÍ x~åú~}
° KÕ™êÎ~∞° .
(1)
1. Hˆ ÅsÅÖ’ fã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞ 2. WÅ∞¡
3. |@ìÅ∞
4. ÃÑ=· hfl
202. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»_®xH˜ HÍ~°}O.
( )
1. JkèHõ [##ˆ~@∞
2. `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∞~°}~ˆ @∞
3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
203. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅ#∞ „á⁄II ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û nx ^Œ$ëêì º x~°fizOK≥#∞.
( )
1. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å H˘~°`«
2. =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`«
3. =∂#= =#~°∞Å H˘~°`«
4. ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#O H˘~°`«
191.(1)
199.(4)

z~°Orq

192.(2) 193.(2)
200.(2) 201.(1)

194.(3) 195.(4) 196.(3) 197.(4) 198.(4)
202.(3) 203.(2)
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ECONOMY

204. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞ ã≤^•úO`«O#∞ Jaè=$kúÑi¨ z#k.
( )
1. ÃÑÖò"¤ ∞≥ <£
2. *ˇ.W.g∞_£
3. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
4. *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £
205. JÖÏÊaè=$kú ^ÕâßÅ∞ "≥#Hõ|_ç L#flѨÊ\˜H© H˘xfl ÉèÏQÍÅÖ’ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok LO_»∞#∞. Wk D ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ Ѩiã≤u÷ x
ã¨$+≤Oì K«∞#∞.
( )
1. Z‰õΩ¯= =$kú
2. ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fi=Ú
3. P^•Ü«∞–ã¨=∂#`«
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
206. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ ◊ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ ¿ã"å~°OQÆO "å\Ï ^ÕxHõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=.
( )
1. 20%
2. 30%
3. 40%
4. 50%
207. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ ‰õÄ_® Ñ≤Å==K«∞Û#∞.
( )
1. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ∞
2. ~Ô O_»= „ѨÑO¨ K«^âÕ ßÅ∞
3. =¸_»= „ѨÑO¨ K« ^ÕâßÅ∞
4 .<åÅæ= „ѨÑO¨ K«^âÕ ßÅ∞
208. ÃÑÖò=¤ ∞<£ =$kú #=¸<å ^ÕxH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz#k.
( )
2. USSR
3. INDIA
4. CHINA
1. USA
209. 'Choice of Techniques' ѨÙã¨HÎ õ ~°K~« Ú`« Z=~°∞?
( )
1. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
2. *ˇ.W.g∞_£
3. ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û
4. *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £
210. q`«Î ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fi=Ú ã≤^•úO`«=Ú#∞ Jaè=$kú KÕã#≤ k Z=~°∞?
( )
1. ZO.áê~°~ì ü
2. ÃÇÏKü.q∞O\ò
3. Z.Ü«∞.OMÏ<£
4. ™ÈÖ’
211. ''™ê=∂lHõ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ —« — ã≤^•úO`«O#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. P~ü.™ÈÖ’
2. ǨÏ~å_£
3. *ˇ.W.g∞_£
4. Z.Z"£∞.MÏ<£
212. JѨiq∞`« „âßq∞Hõ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü ã≤^•úO`«O#∞ Jaè=$kú KÕã#≤ "å~°∞.
( )
1.Z.ZO.MÏ<£
2. *ˇ.W.g∞_£
3. Z.Öˇqãπ
4. P~ü.™ÈÖ’
213. ã¨fi~°Ü
‚ Ú« QÆ ã¨=∞`Òź ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`« ÉèÏ=##∞ Jaè=$kúÑi¨ z#"å~°∞.
( )
1. JeÊ<£ \Ï<£¿ã<£
2. QÆ∞~ˆ ¡   ëê
3. *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £
4. *ˇ.HÔ .QÆ∞Öò„ɡ`ü
214. ''ã¨fi~°‚ÜÚ« QÆO—— J<Õ ÉèÏ=##∞ *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £ U J~°O÷ `À LѨÜ∂≥ yOKå~°∞.
( )
1. ã¨fi~°‚ „Ѩ=∂}`«Ö’LѨÜ∂≥ yOKå~°∞
2. ^ŒfiO^Œfi Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
3. ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`«`À ‰õÄ_ç# xÅHõ_» =$kú
4. ^ÕâO◊ Ö’ JkèHõ „^Œ"ÀºÅƒ}O L#flѨC_»∞
215. ''ã¨fi~°Ü
‚ Ú« QÆO——Ö’ ã¨=∞`ÒźO#∞ `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #k.
( )
1. "åã¨=Î =$kú~ˆ @∞ HõO>Ë JaèÅ+≤Oz# =$kú~ˆ @∞ `«‰Ωõ ¯= LO_»∞@
2. "åã¨=Î =$kú~ˆ @∞ HõO>Ë JaèÅ+≤Oz# =$kú~ˆ @∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞@
3. "åã¨=Î =$kú ~ˆ @∞, JaèÅ+≤Oz# =$kú~ˆ @∞ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»∞@
4. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
204.(3)
212.(3)

z~°Orq

205.(2) 206.(4)
213.(3) 214.(3)

207.(3) 208.(2) 209.(1) 210.(2) 211.(4)
215.(3)
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216. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« `«~K° ∂« U ~°OQÆOÖ’ HõxÑ≤ã∞¨ OÎ k.
( )
1. ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞
2. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
3. ÉϺOH˜OQ∑ ~°OQÆO
4. qxÜ≥∂QÆ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ ~°OQÆO
217. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« U ™ê÷~Ú =^ŒÌ ã¨OÉèqí OK«_O» ™ê^躌 =∞=Ù`«∞Ok.
( )
1. "åºáêsHõ~}
°
2. ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å ™ê÷~Ú
3. r=<å^è•~°™ê÷~Ú
4. "å}˜[º ѨO@Å∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ Ñ¨O_çOK«_O»
218. Éè∂í ™êfi=∞º Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =ÚYºáê„`« áÈ+≤OKÕk.
( )
1. =º=™êÜ«∞O
2. Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞
3. Ѩ@}
ì
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
219. áêi„âßq∞Hõ qѨ=¡ O J#∞#k ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
( )
1. ~å[H©Ü∞« qѨ=¡ O
2. Pi÷Hõ qѨ=¡ O
3. ™ê=∂lHõ qѨ=¡ O
4. ™êO㨯 $uHõ qѨ=¡ O
220. áêi„âßq∞Hõ qѨ=¡ O ZHõ¯_» „áê~°OÉè"í ∞≥ #ÿ k.
( )
1. „á¶ê<£û
2. „a@<£
3. [~°‡h
4. J"≥∞iHÍ
221. _»|∞¡ º._»|∞¡ º.~À™Èì"£ „ѨHÍ~°O Jaè=$kú „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ ^Œâ◊ Uk?
( )
1. ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O
2. ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O‰õΩ =ÚO^Œ∞ ^Œâ◊
3. Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊
4. ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆO
222. _»|∞¡ º._»|∞¡ º.~å™Èì"£ „ѨHÍ~°O nxÖ’ Uk |kb ^Œâ.◊
( )
1. ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O 2. Ѩ=¡ #^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =∞O^Œ∞^Œâ◊ 3. Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
223. ''P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷Hõ =$kú——x „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
2. iK«~™¤ü Èì<£
3. _»|∞¡ º.eÜ«∂O\˜Ñπ
4. "Õ∞s¯ JeÜ«∂ãπ
224. U Pi÷H"õ `Õ Î« Jaè„áêÜ«∞O „ѨHÍ~°O ''ã¨ÇϨ ["≥∞#ÿ —— P@OHÍÅ∞ =Å# [<åÉèÏ =$kú J<Õk `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞.
( )
1. Z.ã≤‡`ü
2. *ˇ.Ü«∞ãπ.q∞Öò
3. _ç.iHÍ~À¤
4. =∂Å÷ãπ
225. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò U Jaè=$kúÑi¨ z# JOâßÅÃÑ· ^Œ$+≤xì Hˆ O„nHõiOKå~°∞.
( )
1. „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ 2. =¸Å^è#Œ O H˘~°`« 3. [<åÉèÏ ^ÀÑ≤_ô 4. =∂#= =#~°∞Å H˘~°`«
226. ''aQ∑ ѨÙ+π—— =ӺǨÏO J#∞#k ^ÕxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ #ç ÉèÏ=#.
( )
1. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
2. ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè =O
3. |Ç≤Ï~°`æ « P^•Å∞
4. JO`«~`æ° « Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Å÷ ∞
227. „ѨKÛ« ù#fl x~°∞^Àºy`« nx Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÅHõ}
Δ O.
( )
1. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ∞
2. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅ∞
3. P~ÚÖò ZQÆ∞=∞u ^ÕâßÅ∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
216.(2)
224.(4)

z~°Orq

217.(3) 218.(1)
225.(1) 226.(3)

219.(2) 220.(2) 221.(1) 222.(2) 223.(1)
227.(2)
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ECONOMY

228. „H˜Ok"åiÖ’ „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« ÉèÏ=##∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k.
1. Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
2. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
3. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û
229. „ѨKÛ« #ù fl x~°∞^Àºy`« `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #k.
1. „âßq∞‰õΩx Ü≥ÚHõ¯ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « â◊¥#ºO
2. „âßq∞‰õΩx Ü≥ÚHõ¯ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO
3. „âßq∞‰õΩx Ü≥ÚHõ¯ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõO 4. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 3
230. Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊ KÕ~∞° HÀ"åÅO>Ë Hõh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~ˆ @∞ ZO`« J=ã¨~O° .
1. 5 %
2. 7 %
3. 10%
231. J"≥∞iHÍ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ JkèHÉõ Ïè QÆO ^Õx #∞O_ç á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞Ok?
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
232. ÉèÏ~°`Öü ’ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞O U ~°OQÆO #∞O_ç Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ =ã¨∞OÎ k?
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
233. J"≥∞iHÍÖ’ U ~°OQÆOÖ’ JkèHõ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ ѨxKÕÜÚ« K«∞<åfl~°∞.
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
234. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ U ~°OQÆOÖ’ JkèH=õ ∞Ok „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ ѨxKÕÜÚ« K«∞<åfl~°∞.
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
235. áêi„âßq∞H©H~õ }
° ‰õΩ `«~∞° "å`« U ~°OQÆOÖ’ PkèÑ`¨ º« O HõxÑ≤OK«∞#∞?
1. =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
3. ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
236. Hõh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç „Ñ¨Ü∞« `«flO ã≤^•úO`åxfl `≥eÑ≤#"åÔ~=~°∞?
1. Z.Öˇqãπ
2. Ѷ.≤ ~Ô xflãπ
3. ÃÇÏKü.Öˇ|<£ã<ì‘ £
237. P_»O|~° qxÜ≥∂QÆO J#∞ ÉèÏ=##∞ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜Oì k.
1. =∂~°∞¯û "≥|~ü
2. \˜."≥É<¡ˇ £
3. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
238. P_»O|~° qxÜ≥∂QÆO nxH˜ ^•ifÜ«Ú#∞.
1. ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ 2. qxÜ≥∂QÆOÖ’ `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ 3. á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙÖ’ `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ
239. „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O =Å# ^ÕxÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ã¨OÉèqí OK«∞#∞?
1. qxÜ≥∂QÆO
2. á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙ
3. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç
240. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ Uk =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ OÖ’ XHõ ÉèÏQÆO.
1. q^μ
2. tHõ}
Δ á⁄O^Õ L^ÀºQÆ∞Å∞ 3. P~ÀQƺ ã¨^∞Œ áêÜ«∂Å∞
228.(3)
236.(3)

z~°Orq

229.(4) 230.(3)
237.(2) 238.(3)

( )
4. "Õ∞s¯ JeÜ«∂ãπ
( )

( )
4. 20 %
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
( )
4. HÔ .Z<£.~å*ò
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
4. P^•Ü«∞O
( )
4. ÃÑ=· hfl

231.(3) 232.(3) 233.(3) 234.(1) 235.(3)
239.(1) 240.(4)
71

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

241. qã¨~Î }° „ѨÉÏè =O =Å¡ XHõ „Ѩ`ºÕ Hõ „áêO`«O Pi÷HOõ QÍ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok`Õ ^•x Ѷe¨ `«O.
( )
1. W`«~° „áêO`åÅ Jaè=$kúH˜ ã¨=∞㨺QÍ =∂~°∞#∞
2. W`«~° „áêO`åÅ Jaè=$kúH˜ ^ÀǨÏ^ŒÑ_¨ ∞» #∞
3. ^ŒfiO^Œfi`åfixfl ã¨$+≤Oì K«∞#∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
242. XHõ „áêO`«O Pi÷HOõ QÍ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok#ѨC_»∞ ^•x ÉϺH±"å+π Ѷe¨ `«OQÍ D q^èOŒ QÍ LO@∞Ok.
( )
1. „Ѩu XHõ¯~°∞ „ѨÜ∂≥ [#O á⁄O^Œ∞`å~°∞
2. H˘xfl „áêO`åÅ∞ #+¨áì È`å~Ú
3. XˆH™êi Jxfl „áêO`åÅ∞ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`å~Ú
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
243. ''JѨÓÜ
¡ ∞« O\ò ™⁄Ãã\· —© — ѨÙã¨HÎ õ ~°K~« Ú`« Z=~°∞?
( )
1. *ˇ.ZO.H©<û£
2. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
3. JÅ∞ƒ<£ \’Ѩ~¡ ü
4. Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
244. ''JѨÓÜ
¡ ∞« O\ò ™⁄Ãã\· —© — Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÅHõ}
Δ O Uk?
( )
1. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅ∞ 2. =∞^躌 P^•Ü«∞=~åæÅ ^ÕâßÅ∞ 3. JkèHõ áêi„âßq∞H©H~õ }
° ^ÕâßÅ∞ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
245. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅ∞ Z^Œ∞~˘¯<Õ ã¨=∞㨺Å∞?
( )
1. „ѨÉÏè ==O`«"∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü 2. „ѨÉÏè ==O`«"∞≥ #ÿ _ç=∂O_£ 3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2 4. 1 ÖË^• 2
246. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâO◊ Z^Œ∞~˘¯<Õ ã¨=∞㨺?
( )
1. „ѨÉÏè ==O`«"∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü 2. „ѨÉÏè ==O`«"∞≥ #ÿ _ç=∂O_£ 3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
4. 1 ÖË^• 2
247. ''=¸_»= „ѨÑO¨ K«O—— ѨÙã¨HÎ õ „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ΰ Z=~°∞?
( )
1. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
2. Jefi<£ \’Ѩ~¡ ü
3. *ˇ.W.g∞_£
4. *ˇ.ZO.H©<û£
248. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ =$kú =#~°∞ÖËq (P^è•~åÖËq)?
( )
1. ã¨ÇϨ [=#~°∞Å∞
2. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O
3. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ O
4. ÃÑ=· hfl
249. cǨ~ü ~å¢ëêìxH˜ ã¨iѨ_#ç O`«QÍ Wq L<åfl~Ú.
( )
1. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
2. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O
3. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ O
4. ÃÑ=· hfl
250. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞ÅÖ’Hõeã≤ LO_Õq?
( )
1. Yx*쁰
2. q∞+¨#s
3. <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºOQÆÅ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ 4. ÃÑ=· hfl
251. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâO◊ Ö’ ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å „áê=ÚYº`«?
( )
1. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok
2. `«Q∞Æ `æ ∞« Ok
3. =∂~°∞Ê LO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
252. J"≥∞iHÍÖ’ ~åÑ≤_£ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ‰õΩ HÍ~°}O?
( )
1. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞
2. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ O
3. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
4. ÃÑ=· hfl

241.(2)
249.(1)

z~°Orq

242.(2) 243.(2)
250.(1) 251.(2)

244.(3) 245.(1) 246.(2) 247.(2) 248.(4)
252.(3)
72

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

253. `«∂~°∞Ê =∞^躌 ^ÕâßÅ∞ JkèHõ P^•Ü«∞O á⁄O^Œ∞`«∞<åfl~Ú. HÍ~°}O?
1. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O
2. P~ÚÖò xÅfiÅ∞
3. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ O
4. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =$kú
254. Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ O J#QÍ.
1. „ѨH$õ u WzÛ# =~°O

2. ^Õ=Ù_çzÛ# =~°O

3. =∂#=Ù_»∞ `«Ü∂« ~°∞KÕã#≤ Ѩx=Ú@∞¡, ѨiHõ~åÅ∞

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞

( )

( )

255. ã¨ÇϨ [ =#~°∞Å∞ J#QÍ.
1. „ѨH$õ u ã¨OѨ^Œ

( )
2. =∂#=Ù_»∞ ã¨$+≤Oì z#k

3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2

4. 1 ÖË^• 2

256. =¸Å^è#Œ xÅfiÖ’ Hõeã≤ LO_Õq?
1. q∞+¨#s

( )

2. áêi„âßq∞Hõ ã¨Oã¨Å÷ ∞

3. =Ú_çÑ^¨ •~°÷ xÅfi

4. ÃÑ=· hfl

257. =¸Å^è#Œ xÅfi `«Q_æÆ ®xfl D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
1. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç

2. =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O

( )
3. `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞

258. ã¨∂Å÷ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç – `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ nxH˜ ã¨=∂#O.
1. xHõ~° `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ

2. xHõ~° ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç

( )
3. xHõ~° =¸Å^è#Œ xÅfi

4. xHõ~° =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨OK«Ü∞« #O


k U JOâ◊OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ã¨OÉèq
259. XHõ ^Õâ◊ =¸Å^è#Œ xÅfi ÃÑ~°QÍÅO>Ë, „H˜Ok"åxÖ’
í OKåe?

1. ã¨∂Å÷ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç

2. `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ

yl Δyl

3. xHõ~° ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç

4. qxÜ≥∂QÆ=Ú

260. =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ#∞ `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #k?
2.

1.

3.

( )
4.

261. D „H˜Ok =#~°∞ÅÖ’ Éè∫uHõ =¸Å^è#Œ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü H˜ P^è•~°"∞Õ k?

( )

1. á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠~ˆ @∞Ö’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ

2. qÅ∞"≥#· =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ∞ ^•z"Õ`« `«yOæ K«∞@

3. |_≥\˚ ò q∞QÆ∞Å∞

4. ÃÑ=· hfl

262. =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ O D Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ kQÍ Hõ#Ѩ_∞» K«∞#flk.
1. ѶӨ º_»e[O

2. Hꄲ@e[O

3. ™È+¨e[O

( )

( )
4. #∂`«# Pi÷H=õ º=ã¨÷

263. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }ºO QÆÅ „âßq∞‰õΩÅ∞ Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ ѨxKÕÜÚ« @#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
1. *Ï˝#=Åã¨
2. "Õ∞^äÀ=Åã¨
3. =¸Å^è#Œ =Åã¨
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞ ( )
253.(2)
261.(4)

z~°Orq

254.(3) 255.(1)
262.(4) 263.(2)

256.(4) 257.(3) 258.(2) 259.(3) 260.(3)
73

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

264. „H˜O^Œ WzÛ# U =∂~åæÅ ^•fi~å XHõ ^ÕâO◊ =∂#= =¸Å^è#Œ xÅfi#∞ ÃÑOK«∞HÀQÆÅ^Œ∞.
( )
1. q^•º =ã¨`∞« Å∞ HõeÊOK«∞@
2. P~ÀQƺ=O`«"∞≥ #ÿ q^è•#O
3. L^ÀºQÆ tHõ}
Δ x=fi_»O
4. ÃÑ=· hfl
265. =Ú_çã~¨ ∞° ‰õΩÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @∞ HõO>Ë L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =KÕÛ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ^•xx D q^èOŒ QÍ
Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ
2. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
3. ã≤~÷ ° L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
266. L`«ÊuÎ/ „â◊=∞#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
( )
1. „âßq∞‰õΩx LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
2. „âßq∞‰õΩx "≥Ú`«OÎ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
3. „âßq∞‰õΩx ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
3. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
267. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ J#∞#k ^ÕxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞?
( )
1. „â◊=∞Ö’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
2. =¸Å^è#Œ OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
3. =Ú_çã~¨ ∞° ‰õΩÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
4. ™êOˆHuHõ Ѩi*Ï˝#OÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
268. D „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ Uk "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßʼnõΩ „âıÜ∞« 㨯~°OQÍ LO@∞Ok?
( )
3. |∞∞}ÏÅ∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
1. "åºáê~°O
2. Aid (ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O)
269. ''aQ∑–ѨÙ+π—— ã≤^•úO`«O#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û
2. ~å|~üì ™ÈÖ’
3. *ˇ.P~ü.Ç≤ÏH±û
4. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~˘_®<£
270. ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~˘_®<£ `≥eÑ≤# qq^èŒ ~°HÍÅ JqÉèÏ[º`«Å∞ ^ÕxÖ’ Hõeã≤ L<åfl~Ú?
( )
1. L`«ÊuΠѶŨ OÖ’ JqÉèÏ[º`«Å∞
2. _ç=∂O_£Ö’ JqÉèÏ[º`«Å∞
3. á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü Ö’ JqÉèÏ[º`«Å∞
4. ÃÑ=· hfl
271. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO#∞ ã¨=∞i÷Oz#"å~°∞?
( )
1. H˜O_≥Öò |~°~æ ü
2. P~°~ú ü Öˇqãπ
3. ã≤OQÆ~ü
4. ǨÏ~°¬=∞<£
272. Jã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO#∞ ã¨=∞i÷Oz#"å~°∞?
( )
1. ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û
2. ÖˇÉ<ˇ 㣠<ì‘ £
3. ã≤OQÆ~ü
4. P~°~÷ Öü qˇ ãπ
273. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú =ӺǨÏO `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #k.
( )
1. ^ŒfiO^Œfi =$kú
2. qq^èŒ ~°OQÍÅÖ’ =~°∞㨠Jaè=$kú (XˆH™êi)
3. ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞ʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`«
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
264.(4)
272.(3)

z~°Orq

265.(2) 266.(3)
273.(2)

267.(4) 268.(1) 269.(4) 270.(4) 271.(2)

74

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

274. KèåÜ«∂ ^è~Œ Å° ∞ (Shadow Price) ÉèÏ=##∞ "≥Ú^Œ@ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞?
( )
1. *ˇ."≥∞~å÷Öò
2. WifiOQ∑ Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü
3. *ˇ.\˜<É£ ~ˇ ~æ° ü
4. ÃÇÏKü.Öˇ"<≥ 㣠<ì‘ £
275. q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ Hõeã≤ LO_Õk?
( )
1. ¢ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ ~°OQÆO
2. „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi~°OQÆO
3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
4. 1 ÖË^• 2
276. J"≥∞iHÍ J#∞#k.
( )
1. ™ê=∞º"å^Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
2. =¸Å^è#Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
3. q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
277. ÉèÏ~°`« Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨.÷
( )
1. ™ê=∞º"å^Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
2. =¸Å^è#Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
3. q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
278. ÉèÏ~°`Öü ’ 4= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ Z=i #=¸<å#∞ J#∞ã¨iOKå~°∞.
( )
1. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
2. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åÌÖò
3. Z.Zãπ.=∞<Õfl   Z.~°∞„^Œ 4. Ñ≤.ã≤.=∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ
279. x~°O`«~° „Ѩ}ÏoHõ#∞ ã¨∂zOz#"å~°∞.
( )
1. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
2. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å¤Öò
3. ǨÏÖò âß=¸ºÖòã<¨ £
4. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
280. Uã≤Ü∞« <£ „_®=∂ „QÆO^äHŒ ~õ ΰ Z=~°∞?
( )
1. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÖò„ɡ`ü
2. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å¤Öò
3. ~åQÆfl~ü #~ü¯û
4. Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
281. "≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞ʼnõΩ „áê^è•#º`«xK«Û# „Ѩ}ÏoHõ Uk?
( )
1. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
2. ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
3. =¸_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
4. <åÅ∞QÆ= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
282. 2= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõÖ’ J#∞ã¨iOz# #=¸<å.
( )
1. =∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ #=¸<å
2. ǨÏ~°_–£ _À=∞~ü #=¸<å
3. ѨO`ü #=¸<å
4. ~å|~ü–ì ™ÈÖ’ #=¸<å
283. q^Õj ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O „H˜O^Œ Ñ≤ZÖò–480x Z=i #∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ<åfl~°∞?
( )
1. „a@<£
2. [áê<£
3. Ü«ÚZãπZ
4. ~°ëêº
284. Ç≤ÏO^Œ∂ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ J#∞ ÉèÏ=# ã¨∂zOz#"å~°∞?
( )
1. q.ÔH.P~ü.q.~å"£
2. ~å*òH$õ +¨‚
3. [QÆnâò ÉèQí =Æ `ü
4. \˜.Z<£.Nx"åãπ
285. ''Ç≤ÏO^Œ∂ =$kú ~ˆ @∞—— U =$kú~ˆ @∞ =^ŒÌ ã≤~÷ O° QÍ LOk?
( )
1. 1%
2. 2.5%
3. 3.5%
4. 5%
274.(3)
282.(1)

z~°Orq

275.(3) 276.(2)
283.(3) 284.(2)

277.(3) 278.(3) 279.(2) 280.(2) 281.(2)
285.(3)
75

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

286. Pi÷HÍaè=$kú H˘~°‰Ωõ +¨μOÑ‘@~ü ^ÕxH˜ „áê^è•#º`« WKåÛ_»∞.
( )
1. ~å[H©Ü∞« <åÜ«∞‰õΩʼnõΩ 2. ã¨OѶ∞¨ ¿ã=‰õΩʼnõΩ
3. Éè∂í ™êfi=ÚʼnõΩ
4. #=HõÅÊ#Å∞
287. „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ã¨iQÍ [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« |_»xk Uk?
( )
~°K~« Ú`«
ѨÙã¨ÎHõ=Ú
1. Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû

Uã≤Ü∞« <£ „_®=∂
2. *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £

Z¿ãû W<£ k käÜ∞« s PѶπ ZHõ<åq∞H± „QÀ`ü
3. HÍ~ü¡ =∂~ü¯û

^•ãπ HÍÑ≤@Öò
4. P~°~ú ü Öˇqãπ

käÜ∞« s PѶπ ZHõ<åq∞H± „QÀ`ü
288. =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ 3 : 1QÍ#∞, ™êO=`«ûiHõ [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞ 2.5% QÍ#∞, ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ÃÑ~°Q∞Æ ^ŒÅ 10.5%
LO^Œx „Ѩ"∞Õ Ü«∞O KÕ¿ãÎ `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ZO`«QÍ LO_»∞#∞?
( )
1. 0%
2. 1.0%
3. 3.0%
4. 7.0%
289. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ –ü HÍ¡~¯ü ã≤^•úO`«O „ѨHÍ~°O „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # „Hõ=∞=Ú.
( )
=#~°∞Å∞ U ~°OQÆO #∞O_ç U ~°OQÆO#‰õΩ `«~e° áÈ=_»O =Å# x~°O`«~° Jaè=$kúH˜ `À_»Ê_»`å~Ú
¿ã=Å∞ áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO
2. =º=™êÜ«∞O áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÆO ¿ã=Å∞
1. =º=™êÜ«∞O
¿ã=Å∞
=º=™êÜ«∞O 4. áêi„âßq∞Hõ~O° QÆO =º=™êÜ«∞O
¿ã=Å∞
3. áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÆO
290. qã¨~Î }° „ѨÉÏè =O J#QÍ?
( )

Pi÷HOõ QÍ XHõ „Ѩ`ºÕ Hõ „áêO`«O Jaè=$kú K≥O^Õ@ѨC_»∞?
1. W`«~° „áêO`åÅ Jaè=$kúÃÑ· J#∞‰õÄÅ „ѨÉÏè =O#∞ K«∂ѨÙ#∞
2. Jaè=$kú =ºÜ«∂Å∞ W`«~° „áêO`åʼnõΩ „áê‰õΩ#∞
3. Jaè=$kú =ºÜ«∂Å∞ ^Õâ=◊ ∞O`å qã¨iÎ OK«∞#∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
291. ÉϺH±"å+π „ѨÉÏè =O J#QÍ Pi÷HOõ QÍ XHõ „Ѩ`ºÕ Hõ „áêO`«O Jaè=$kú K≥Ok#ѨC_»∞?
( )
1. Jxfl „áêO`åÅ∞ "å\˜H"õ Õ Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞#∞
2. W`«~° „áêO`åÅ∞ =ÚYºOQÍ "≥#Hõ|_ç# „áêO`åÅ∞ #+¨áì È=Ù#∞
3. U W`«~° „áêO`åÅ∞ #+¨áì È=Ù
4.ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
292. x~À^èHŒ õ â◊‰Ωõ ÅÎ K«~º° , „ѨuK«~º° Å∞ „ѨÉÏè =O=Å¡ ¿Ñ^Œ ^Õâßxfl ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ LOKÕ ã≤u÷ x `≥e¿Ñ =~°#‚ nxH˜
K≥Ok#k?
( )
1. JÖÏÊaè=$kú
2. áê`«∞‰õΩáÈ~Ú# ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO
3. ã¨|÷ `ú «
4. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõÑÙ¨ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞
286.(4)

z~°Orq

287.(1) 288.(2)

289.(2) 290.(1) 291.(2) 292.(4)
76

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ECONOMY

293. Jaè=$kú „áê~°OÉèí ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞`åÜ«∞x `«~∞° "å`« ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ `«Q∞Æ `æ å~Ú J<Õ Ñ¨iHõÅÊ##∞
Jaè=$kú KÕã#≤ k Z=~°∞?
( )
1) P~ü. ZѶ.π ǨÏ~°_£
2) Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû
3) *ˇ.P~ü.Ç≤ÏH±û
4) \˜._»|∞¡ º.Ѷ∞¨ Öò˚
294. ^Õx P^è•~°OQÍ ''Éè∫uHõ r=# „Ѩ=∂} ã¨∂p——x `≥ÅѨ=K«∞Û#∞ ?
( )
1) PÜ«Ú~åúÜ∞« O, tâ◊√ =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú JHõ~Δ å㨺`å âß`«O
2) Kåe#O`« ''PǨ~°O, =∞Ozh~°∞, =ã¨u =∞iÜ«Ú P~ÀQƺ ¿ã=Å#∞ HõeÊOK«_O» ——
3) áêiâ◊√^Œºú O, q^Œº, ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ H˘Å=∂#OÅ#∞ HõeÊOK«_O»
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
295. eãπì – 1 (ã≤^•úO`«O)x
eãπì – 2 (Pi÷H"õ `Õ Î« ¿Ñ~°∞)¡ `À [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç.
( )
1) #=º ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ "å^Œ∞Å Pi÷H=õ $kú ã≤^•úO`«O
Z) Öˇa· <£ã<ì‘ £
2) Pi÷HÍaè=$kúH˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ''aQ∑ÑÙ¨ +π ã≤^•úO`«O—— a) *ˇ.ÃÇÏKü.É’ÔH
3) ''Hõh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç „Ñ¨Ü∞« `«fl=Ú—— ã≤^•úO`«O
ã≤) ǨÏ~ü¬=∞<£
4) ™ê=∂lHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
_ç) ~À*ˇ<㣠<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
W) g∞_£ (Meade)
1) 1–a, 2–ã≤, 3–_ç, 4–W
2) 1–W, 2–_ç, 3–Z, 4–a
3) 1–ã≤, 2–W, 3–a, 4–Z
4) 1–Z, 2–ã≤, 3–W, 4–a
296. Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ J#∞Éè=í O `≥e¿Ñk U=∞O>Ë Jaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« Ö’ ÉèÏQÆOQÍ *ÏfÜ«∂^•Ü«∞OÖ’ „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ
~°OQÆO "å\Ï
( )
1) ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞
2) ã≤~÷ O° QÍ LO_»∞#∞
3) `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞
4) „áê~°OÉèOí Ö’ `«yæ `«~∞° "å`« ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞
297. Jaè=$kú J~°â÷ ßGOÖ’ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO J#QÍ
( )
1) ^ŒfiO^Œfi ^è~Œ Å° q^è•#=Ú
2) P^è∞Œ xHõ =∞iÜ«Ú ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ~°OQÍÅ∞ ã¨ÇϨ r=#O KÕÜÚ« @
3) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi =∞iÜ«Ú „ÃÑ"· \Õ ò ~°OQÍÅÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
4) áêi„âßq∞Hõ =∞iÜ«Ú áêi„âßq∞ˆH`«~° U*ˇhûÅÖ’ ã¨Ç¨ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
298. =∞#^ÕâO◊ Ö’ 50= ^ŒâH◊ Oõ =∞^躌 Ö’ J=ÅOaèOz# =∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ =ӺǨÏO Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÅHõΔ ºO, „Ѩ^•è #OQÍ ... ( )
1) ~°H}
Δõ Ѩi„â◊=∞‰õΩ ^Œ$_è"» ∞≥ #ÿ P^è•~°O#∞ xi‡OK«_O»
2) =¸Å^è#Œ ™êO„^Œ`#« ∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz ÉèÏs Ѩi„â◊=∞Å#∞ <≥ÅH˘ÅÊ_»O
3) Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ „^Œ"ÀºÅƒ}O ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
4) ã¨fiÅÊHÍÅOÖ’ x~°∞^Àºy`«#∞ `«yOæ K«_O»
299. D „H˜O^Œ WzÛ# "åxÖ’ U Ѩi„â◊=∞ Z‰õΩ¯= =ÚO^Œ∞ J#∞|O^è•Å#∞ Hõey LOk ?
1) QÆ<û£
2) PǨ~°^•è <åºÅ∞
3) W#∞=Ú–L‰õΩ¯
4) q∞+¨#s
293.(2)

z~°Orq

294.(1) 295.(2)

296.(3) 297.(2) 298.(2) 299.(3)
77

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ECONOMY

300. ~åQÍfl~ü #~ü¯û „ѨHÍ~°O ÉèÏ~°`Öü ’ JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ Ñ¨i=∂}O ^Õxx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞ ?
( )
1) JkèHõ xH˜ÑΔ Î¨ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠™ê=∞~°º÷ O (larger saving potential)
2) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠™ê=∞~°º÷ O#∞ q_»<å_»_O»
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯= á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠™ê=∞~°º÷ O
4) Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ |Ç≤Ï~°`æ « =Åã¨Å∞
Æ ∞ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠x+¨ÊuÎ (S)H˜ ã¨O|OkèOz .... =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
301. ǨÏ~å_£ – _À=∞~ü #=¸<åÖ’ =$kú (G), ã¨Q@
(K)x, D ã¨g∞Hõ~}
° O ^•fi~å `≥eÜ«∞KÕÜ∞« =K«∞Û.
( )
1)

2)

3)

4)

302. H˘e<£ HÍ¡~¯ü „ѨHÍ~°O Jaè=$kú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ 3= =∞iÜ«Ú z=i ™ê÷~Ú =ÚYº ÅHõ}
Δ O Uk ?
1) áêi„âßq∞Hõ ~°OQÆO
2) ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
3) =º=™êÜ«∞O
4) ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞
303. #~ü¯ û „ѨHÍ~°O "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç Ѩiq∞u ^Õxx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞ ?
1) =∂Ô~¯\ò Ѩi=∂}O
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç J=HÍâßÅ∞ H˘~°`«
3) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠H˘~°`«
4) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi q^è•<åÅ∞
304. P^è∞Œ xHõ Pi÷H=õ $kú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ ÅHõ}
Δ O Uk ?
1) Z‰õΩ¯= ™ê÷~ÚÖ’ x~å‡}Ï`«‡Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞
2) Ѩ@}
ì H© ~õ }
°
3) `«Åã¨i „â◊=∞ L`åÊ^ŒH`Œõ õ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
305. *ÏfÜ«∞ P^•Ü«∞O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ ^ÕxH˜ ã¨=∂#O ?
KK
−K
S1
1) *ÏfÜ«∞ P^•Ü«∞O/[<åÉèÏ =$kú
Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ
= G 2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç x+¨ÊuÎ/=¸Å^è#
S1
SS−K
3) =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ/ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç x+¨ÊuÎ
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
306. ã¨=∂[OÖ’ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠~ˆ @∞ 10%,

K
0

( )
( )

( )

( )

x+¨ÊuÎ 4 J~Ú<å Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ™ê^è•~°} =$kú ~ˆ @∞ ZO`« ?
( )

1) 0.5%
2) 1.5%
3) 2.5%
4) 4%
307. ™êO=`«ûiHõ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ 2.5% J~Ú`Õ ^Œâß|Ì [<åÉèÏ =$kú~ˆ @∞ 10% J~Ú<å, `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞ =$kú
~ˆ @∞ ZO`« ?
( )
1) 1.5%
2) 2.5%
3) 2.5%
4)4%
( )
308. L^Œº=∞ ^•~°∞`«fiO (Entrepreneurship) ^ÕxH˜ J`«ºO`« ^ŒQ~æÆ Q° Í LO@∞Ok ?
1) Hõ#∞HÀ¯=_»O
2) #=HõÅÊ#Å∞
3) x~åfiǨÏ}Å∞
4) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi ѨiáêÅ#Å∞
309. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ∞, Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ`À áÈeÛ K«∂¿ãÎ Z^Œ∞~˘¯O@∞#fl x~°∞^ÀºQÆ ã¨=∞㨺 ( )
1) Z‰õΩ¯= =∞iÜ«Ú qaè#fl"≥∞#ÿ k
2) `«‰Ωõ ¯=
3) ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO@∞Ok
4) H˘xfl ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ#∞, =∞iH˘xfl ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅÖ’ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO@∞Ok
300.(1)
308.(2)

z~°Orq

301.(2) 302.(2)
309.(1)

303.(1) 304.(4) 305.(2) 306.(3) 307.(1)
78

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ECONOMY

310. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « HÍÅOÖ’ "ÕQ=Æ O`«"∞≥ #ÿ [<åÉèÏ =$kúH˜ HÍ~°}=Ú ?
( )
1) Z‰õΩ¯= [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞
2) `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞
3) JkèHõ [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞
4) H˘xfl ã¨O^Œ~åƒùÅÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯= [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iH˘xfl ã¨O^•~°ƒÅù Ö’ `«‰Ωõ ¯= [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞
311. P~°~÷ ü Å∂~Úãπ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ Zxfl ~°OQÍÅ∞ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ Pi÷HÍaè=$kú „Ѩ„H˜Ü∞« #∞ q=iOK≥#∞ ?
( )
1) XHõ\ ˜
2) ~Ô O_»∞
3) <åÅ∞QÆ∞
4) J<ÕHOõ
312. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ∞ ¿Ñ^ŒiHõO`Àáê@∞ Hõ#Ѩ|_Õ W`«~° ™ê^è•~°} ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ Uq ?
( )
1) =º=™ê~°OQÆOÃÑ· JkèHõ âß`«O [<åÉèÏ P^è•~°Ñ_¨ _» O» 2) ™êOˆHuHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO
3) „âßq∞Hõ =¸Å^è#Œ x+¨ÊuÎ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»_O»
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
313. „âßq∞Hõ q∞QÆ∞Å∞ ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ „Ѩ"∞Õ Ü«∞O ?
( )
1) `«‰Ωõ ¯= Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯= [<åÉèÏ Hõey LO_»_O»
2) `«‰Ωõ ¯= Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅ L`«ÊuÎÖ’ „âßq∞‰õΩx Ü≥ÚHõ¯ áê„`« LO_»^∞Œ
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯= Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „âßq∞‰õΩx LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « â◊¥#ºO
4) "≥#∞Hõ|_ç ^ÕâßÅÖ’ x~°∞^Àºy`« Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO@∞Ok
314. XHõ ^ÕâO◊ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠H˘~°`#« ∞ U q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ¨ÓiOK«=K«∞Û ?
( )
1) J^Œ#Ѩ٠=¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ `«yOæ K«_O» ^•fi~å 2) ^ÕjÜ«∞ qxÜ≥∂QÆO `«yOæ K«_O»
3) Z‰õΩ¯= q^Õj ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O á⁄O^Œ_O»
4) ÃÑ=· hfl
315. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«O „ѨHÍ~°O "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ JÅÊ Jaè=$kúH˜ „Ѩ^•è # HÍ~°}O ?
( )
1) =∂Ô~¯\ò z#fl Ѩi=∂}O Hõey LO_»∞@
2) á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠H˘~°`«
3) `«‰Ωõ ¯= ™ê÷~Ú ™êOˆHuHõ`«
4) q^Õj PkèHºõ `«
316. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú ã≤^•úO`«=Ú „Ѩ^•è #OQÍ ^Õxx ѨiQÆ}#Ö’H˜ fã¨∞‰õΩx q=∞~°≈ KÕÜ∞« |_çOk ?
( )
1) =∂Ô~¯\ò Ѩi=∂}O
2) |Ç≤Ï~°`æ « Ѩi=∂}O 3) =#~°∞Å H˘~°`«
4) JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ
317. QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~åúÖò „ѨHÍ~°O "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂`«#ʼnõΩ „Ѩ^•è # HÍ~°}=Ú ?
( )
1) |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ "≥#∞Hõ „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú |Å"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞
2) `«‰Ωõ ¯= "≥#∞Hõ „ѨÉÏè =O =∞iÜ«Ú qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè =O
3) |Å"≥∞#ÿ "≥#∞Hõ „ѨÉÏè =O =∞iÜ«Ú qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè =O
4) |Å"≥∞#ÿ "≥#∞Hõ „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° „ѨÉÏè "åÅ∞
318. Jaè=$kú K≥O^Œ∞`«∞#fl ^ÕâßÅ Pi÷HÍaè=$kúx |ÅÇ‘Ï#"≥∞#ÿ ÉϺH±"å+π Ѷe¨ `åÅ∞ |Å"≥∞#ÿ qã¨~Î }
° Ѷe¨ `åÅ∞ ÃÑOK«∞@
^•fi~å ™êkèOK«=K«Ûx ¿Ñ~˘¯#flk Z=~°∞ ?
( )
1) Z<£.HÍŤ~ü
2) *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £
3) l.q∞~åúÖò
4) *ˇ.ÃÇÏKü.É’ÔH
310.(3)

z~°Orq

311.(2) 312.(4)

313.(3) 314.(4) 315.(1) 316.(3) 317.(4)
79

318.(3)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

319. XHõ ^ÕâO◊ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =$kú ~ˆ @∞#∞ x~å÷iOK«∞#k ?
( )
1) ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠„Ѩ=$uÎ
2) ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü , _ç=∂O_£Å JO`«~° K«~º° Å∞
3) `«∞Å<å`«‡Hõ =ºÜ«∞ ã≤^•úO`«O
4) =¸Å^è#Œ HõÅÊ# ~ˆ @∞
320. "≥#∞Hõ|_ç# ^ÕâßÅÖ’ q`«Î ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO ^Õxx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞ ?
( )
1) "å}˜[º ÉϺO‰õΩÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú =_ô¤ "åºáê~°∞Å∞ 2) Ã+_»∂ºÖò =∞iÜ«Ú Ã+_»∂ºÖò HÍx "å}˜[º ÉϺO‰õΩÅ∞
3) ™êìH± ZˆHÛùO*ò =∞iÜ«Ú #∂`«# =∂Ô~¯\òÅ∞
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
321. ÉÁÔH „ѨHÍ~°O ™ê=∂lHõ ^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fiO ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅÖ’ Uk HõÅã≤ LO_»∞#∞ ?
( )
1) JkèHõ =∞iÜ«Ú `«‰Ωõ ¯= ‰õΩÖÏÅ∞
2) Éè∂í ™êfi=∂ºÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•~°∞Å∞
3) kQÆ∞=∞u KÕã∞¨ HÀ|_ç# =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨fi^Õj ™ê=∂lHõÑ^¨ `úŒ ∞« Å∞
4) „QÍg∞} =∞iÜ«Ú Ñ¨@}
ì *<åÉèÏ
322. Hõh㨠J=ã¨~åÅ∞ ã¨=∞㨺 H͉õΩO_»@, =∞xflHõ QÆÅ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ∞ qxÜ≥∂QÆO ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@ J<Õ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ ~À™Èì"£ ^ŒâÅ◊
ã≤^•úO`«OÖ’ D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Hõ#Ѩ_∞» #∞.
( )
1) ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆO
2) ѨiѨHfiõ ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ QÆ=∞#O
3) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊
4) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ ^Œâ◊
323. Z) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~Ô \˜Oì Ѩ٠J~Ú 10% JkèQqÆ ∞OK«∞@
a) =$kúH˜ J#∞‰õÄÅ"≥∞#ÿ ™êO㨯 $uHõ Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞ U~°Ê_»∞@
ã≤) H˘xfl ѨÙ~ÀQÍq∞ ~°OQÍÅ∞ "ÕQOÆ QÍ =$kú K≥O^Œ∞@ J<Õq ~À™Èì<£ ^ŒâÅ◊ Ö’ D ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ Hõ#|_»∞#∞ ?
1) ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆO
2) ѨiѨHfiõ ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ QÆ=∞#O
3) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ◊
4) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ ^Œâ◊
324. ''™ê=∂lHõ LáêO`« L`åÊ^ŒH`õ —« —#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#"å~°∞
( )
1) *ˇ.~åa#¬<£
2) P~ü.ZO.™ÈÖ’
3) Z.ZO.MÏ<£
4) ~À*ˇã<ì‘ £ ~À_®<£
325. ǨÏ~å_£ #=¸<åÖ’ ^Õx QÆ∂iÛ „Ѩ™êÎ=# ÖË^∞Œ
( )
1) "åã¨qÎ Hõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
2) Hõh㨠ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =$kú ~ˆ @∞
3) "åÔ~O>ˇ_£ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
4) ã¨ÇϨ [ =$kú ~ˆ @∞
326. „Ѩ}ÏoHÍ"Õ`ÅΫ ∞ ™êO=`«ûiHõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞#∞ 2% ™êkèOKåÅx J#∞‰õΩ#flk. =¸Å^è#Œ L`«ÊuÎ 5:1 J~Ú`Õ J=ã¨~"° ∞≥ #ÿ
ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç ~ˆ @∞ ZO`« ?
( )
1) 5
2) 2
3) 10
4) 3
327. *ÏfÜ«∞ L`«ÊuÎÖ’ =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆ "å\Ï J#∞#k
( )
1) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O`À |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞ Hõey LOk
2) `«Åã¨i P^•Ü«∞O`À ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞ Hõey LOk
3) ã¨∂Å÷ *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎ`À ã≤~÷ "° ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞ Hõey LOk
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
319.(4)

z~°Orq

320.(1) 321.(3)

322.(1) 323.(3) 324.(3) 325.(2) 326.(3)
80

327.(1)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

328.

"Indian Economic Planning in its Broader setting"

"å~°∞ ?
1) l.q∞~å÷Öò
3) Ñ≤.ã≤.=∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ
[`«Ñ~¨ ∞° K«∞=Ú :
329. eãπì – 1
1) „Ѩ^~Œ ≈° <å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O
2) „áêOfÜ«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
3) ¿Ñ^ŒiHõ q+¨=ÅÜ«∂Å∞

J<Õ „QÆO^äŒOÖ’ x~°O`«~° „Ѩ}ÏoHõÅ#∞ „ѨuáêkOz#
( )
2) Z.ÔH.¿ã<£
4) *ˇ.~åa<£ã<¨ £

eãπì – 2
Z) P~ü.#~ü¯û
a) *ˇ._»∞ºã¨<É£ „ˇ s
ã≤) Z<£.q∞O\’
_ç) l.q∞~åÌÖò
1) 1–a, 2–_ç, 3–Z
2) 1–Z, 2–Z, 3–_ç
3) 1–Z, 2–ã≤, 3–a
4) 1–ã≤, 2–_ç, 3–Z
330. HÍ~ü=¡ ∂~ü¯û `≥eÑ≤# =$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ #∞ =~°∞㨠„Hõ=∞OÖ’ `≥Å∞ѨÙ=Ú.
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) Hõ=¸ºx[O
Z) ¿ã*ì ò – 1
2) Hˆ Ñ≤@e[O
a) ¿ã*ì ò – 2
3) ÉÏx㨠^Œâ◊
ã≤) ¿ã*ì ò – 3
4) ѶӨ º_»e[O
_ç) ¿ã*ì ò – 4
1) 1–a, 2–ã≤, 3–Z, 4–_ç
2) 1–Z, 2–ã≤, 3–a, 4–a
3) 1–_ç, 2–ã≤, 3–Z, 4–a
4) 1–ã≤, 2–Z, 3–_ç, 4–a
331. _»|∞¡ º. _»|∞¡ º. ~À™Èì"£ ã≤^•úO`«O „ѨHÍ~°O D „H˜Ok ^ŒâÅ◊ #∞ =~°∞㨠„Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞~°ÛO_ç ?
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) Ѩ=¡ # ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ ^Œâ◊
Z) ¿ã*ì ò – 1
2) ™ê=¸Ç≤ÏHõ qxÜ≥∂QÆO
a) ¿ã*ì ò – 2
3) ѨiѨHfiõ ^Œâ‰◊ Ωõ QÆ=∞#O
ã≤) ¿ã*ì ò – 3
4) ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ã¨=∂[O
_ç) ¿ã*ì ò – 4
1) 1–ã≤, 2–a, 3–_ç, 4–Z
2) 1–a, 2–_ç, 3–ã≤, 4–Z
3) 1–Z, 2–a, 3–ã≤, 4–Z
4) 1–_ç, 2–a, 3–ã≤, 4–Z
328.(1)

z~°Orq

329.(1) 330.(3)

( )

( )

( )

331.(2)
81

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ECONOMY

332. Ãã=· ∞<£ ‰õΩ*ò<\≥ òû ã≤^•úO`«O „ѨHÍ~°O „H˜Ok Jaè=$kú ^ŒâÅ◊ #∞ =~°∞㨠„Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞~°ÛO_ç ?
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) =º=™êÜ«∞~°OQÆO
Z) ¿ã*ì ò – 1
2) ¿ã"å~°OQÆO
a) ¿ã*ì ò – 2
3) =∂#∞ºá¶êºHõÛiOQ∑
ã≤) ¿ã*ì ò – 3
_ç) ¿ã*ì ò – 4
1) 1–ã≤, 2–a, 3–Z
2) 1–a, 2–a, 3–ã≤
3) 1–ã≤, 2–Z, 3–a
4) 1–Z, 2–ã≤, 3–a
333. eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ „ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
Z) =∞ǨÏÖò<Àaãπ
2) 2= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
a) ǨÏ~å_£ – _À=∞~ü
3) 4= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ
ã≤) =∂<Õ =∞iÜ«Ú ~°∞„^Œ
1) 1–_ç, 2–Z, 3–a
2) 1–ã≤, 2–a, 3–_ç
3) 1–a, 2–Z, 3–ã≤
4) 1–a, 2–a, 3–ã≤
334. eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
1) J"≥∞iHÍ
Z) q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
2) ~°ëêº
a) =¸Å^è#Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
3) WO_çÜ∂«
ã≤) ™ê=∞º"å^Œ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
1) 1–a, 2–Z, 3–ã≤
2) 1–ã≤, 2–a, 3–Z
3) 1–a, 2–ã≤, 3–Z
4) 1–Z, 2–ã≤, 3–a

332.(4)

z~°Orq

( )

( )

( )

333.(3) 334.(3)

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ECONOMY

QÆ}ÏOHõâßGO
Pi÷Hõ QÆ}ÏOHõâßGO 

QÆ}ÏOHõ âßGO ™êì@ãπ J<Õ ÖÏ\˜<£ Ѩ^OŒ , ™êì\ 㘠Hì≤ Í J<Õ [~°‡<£ Ѩ^OŒ , ™êì\ ™˜ êì J<Õ W\ÏeÜ«∞<£ Ѩ^OŒ #∞Oz
=zÛOk. nxH˜ '~å[ºO— Jx J~°O÷ .

ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ (ˆHO„^Œ™ê÷# H˘Å`«Å∞)    

1)

^Œ`åÎOâ◊O JO`«\ H˜ ˜ „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤ÏOKÕ XˆH XHõ qÅ∞=#∞ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ JO^Œ∞~°∞. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å<Õ Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å∞
JO^Œ∞~°∞.
"≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl XHõ qÅ∞=Ö’ =i‚OK«∞@, ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl ã¨iáÈÅ∞Û@ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å =ÚYº ÅHõΔ ºO.
=∞Oz ã¨Q@Æ ∞ ÅHõ}Δ ÏÅ∞ : ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ J~°=÷ ∞"åfie. ã¨Ê+¨Oì QÍ x~°fizOK«|_®e. Jxfl JOâßʼnõΩ „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤ÏOKåe.
ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ QÆ}# KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ gÅ∞O_®e. „ѨuK«Ü∞« # ã≤~÷ `° fi« O LO_®e. crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_®e.
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ~°HÍÅ∞ : 1) QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ : Z) JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O, a) QÆ∞}=∞^躌 =∞O, ã≤) ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O
2) ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ : Z) =∞^躌 QÆ`O« , a) ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O :
~åâ◊√Å "≥Ú`åÎxfl ~åâ◊√Å ã¨OYºKÕ ÉèÏy¿ãÎ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O =K«∞Û#∞.
~åâ◊√Å "≥Ú`«OÎ
´---------------JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O
Σ+)1xX (
x∑2 X 2 N +'n0x5.1d1..Xf..Σ.1+Nx2Σ
0=3=i × = + xA
===2 ,1 X=
~åâ◊

Å
ã¨
O

5
N
N
N
N
2 N + 1N N
L^• : 10, 20, 30, 40, 50,
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}∞Ö’¡ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O

qzÛù#fl „âı}∞Å∞

„Ѩ`«ºHõΔ Ñ¨^Œúu

AM =

^ŒQÆæ~° Ѩ^Œúu

X = A+

™Èáê# qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ 

Σdx
N
X = A+

JqzÛù#fl „âı}∞Ö’¡ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O

Σfx
N

AM = A +

X=
Σfdx
N

Σfx
N

X = A+

Σfdx
N

Σdx '
×i
N

L=∞‡_ç JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O :

A.M. ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ :

1)

Jã¨Å∞ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç fã≤# qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ã¨∞#fl‰õΩ ã¨=∂#=∞QÆ∞#∞.

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2)
3)

JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç fã≤# qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
„âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ HõeÑ≤<å, fã≤"ãÕ <≤ å JOHõ=∞^躌 =∂xH˜ ‰õÄ_® J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ HõÅáêe ÖË^•
fã≤"ÕÜ«∂e.

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ : 

PK«~}
° Ö’ „ѨMϺuQÍOz# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞, Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞. crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_»∞`«∞Ok. L=∞‡_ç
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∂xfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.

Ö’áêÅ∞ : 

JO`«º qÅ∞=Å „ѨÉÏè =O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞. 

q=$`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú. 

qѨs`« J™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú =∞Oz H˘Å=∂#O HÍ^Œ∞.
ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O :
Xw =

ΣWX
ΣW

2. =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú : 

qÉèÏ[<åxfl U qÅ∞= ~Ô O_»∞ ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí ã¨∞OÎ ^À J^Õ =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú.
N1 +
) QN
Q( 

=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œf∞c‰õ−Ω ^Œ2`åÎO212âßxfl
P~ÀǨÏ} ÖË^• J=~ÀǨÏ}Ï „Hõ=∞OÖ’ „"åÜ«∂e.
+ 12L
1L − 2L × 

=∞^躌 QÆ`O« ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞. ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ ^Œ`fåÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ Wk =∞^躌 Ö’ LO_»∞#∞.
L^• : 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70ÅÖ’ =∞^躌 QÆ`O« → 40 

=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=Ú ã¨iã¨OYºÅÖ’ LO>Ë =∞^躌 QÆ`O« qÅ∞= ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x ã¨OYºÅÖ’ LO_»^∞Œ . 

JqzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ

= JOâ◊=Ú ^•fi~å QÆ}™˜ êÎ=Ú.

= JOâ◊O ^•fi~å =∞^躌 QÆ`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Å#∞ QÆ∞iÎOz,

=∞^躌 QÆ`O« (Median) QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ´ 

J<Õ ã¨∂„`åxfl "å_»`å~°∞.

=∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl, HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=, HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= J<Õ Fl"£ =„Hõ~ˆ YÅ ^•fi~å ‰õÄ_® K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û.

=∞^茺QÆ`«OÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ¨_»¤ ™ê÷#=∂<åÅ∞ : 

K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞
^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 4 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OK«∞#∞. JO>Ë nxÖ’ 3 K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú.
=∞^躌 QÆ`O« JO\Ï~°∞.

z~°Orq

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ѨOKåOâßÅ∞ (Qu) ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 5 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OK≥#∞. JO>Ë 4 ѨOKåOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú.
JëêìOâßÅ∞ (O) ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 8 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OK«∞#∞. JO>Ë 7 JëêìOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. O <Õ =∞^躌 QÆ`O«
JO\Ï~°∞.
^ŒâßOâßÅ∞ (D) "≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 10 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ KÕã∞¨ OÎ k. J#QÍ 9 ^ŒâßOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. 5= ^ŒâßOâ◊=Ú
=∞^躌 QÆ`O« J=Ù`«∞Ok.
â◊`åOâ◊=Ú (P) "≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 100 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ KÕã∞¨ OÎ k. J#QÍ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ 99 â◊`åOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú.
P x =∞^躌 QÆ`O
« JO\Ï~°∞.
4

50

„ѨÜ∂≥ [<åÅ∞ :  

q=$`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
qѨs`« JOâßÅ =Å¡ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞.

~ˆ MÏ z„`«O ^•fi~å ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ ‰õÄ_® LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=K«∞Û.

Ö’áêÅ∞ :  

crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ Ñ¨xH˜~å^Œ∞. L^• : L=∞‡_ç =∞^躌 QÆ`åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.
QÆ}O˜ KÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ P~ÀǨÏ} ÖË^• J=~ÀǨÏ}Ï „Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞~åÛe.

3. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú :    

ÖÏ"≥∂_£ J<Õ „ÃÑO¶ z Ѩ^OŒ #∞O_ç ѨÙ\˜Oì k. nxH˜ ¿Ñ+¶ <¨ £ Jx J~°=÷ Ú.
0 f − 1f
+ 1L = Z
1L − 2L (
nxx "Z"`À ã¨∂)z™êÎ
~∞° . „âı2}f Ö˜ −’ 0Uf −qÅ∞=
Ju `«~K° ∞« QÍ =ã¨∞OÎ ^À J^Õ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ .
1f 2
L^• : 5, 8, 10, 8, 5, 8 ÅÖ’ 8 ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú.
^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ ~Ô O_»∞ qÅ∞=Å∞ QÆi+¨Oì QÍ Ñ¨Ù#~å=$`«O J~Ú`Õ ^•xfl kfiÉÏǨïà◊HOõ JO\Ï~°∞.
qzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ U K«Å~åtH˜ Z^Œ∞~°∞QÍ L#fl áœ#óѨÙ#ºO J`«ºkèHOõ QÍ LO@∞O^À J^Õ ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú. JqzÛù#fl
„âı}Ö˜ ’ ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ  

kfiÉÏǨïà◊HOõ =zÛ#ѨÙ_»∞ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ´ 3 (=∞^躌 QÆ`O« ) – 2 (JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O)
ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞, áœ#óѨÙ#º |ǨïÉè∞í l J<Õ ~ˆ MÏz„`åÅ ^•fi~å QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ : 

qѨs`« JOâßÅ =Å# „ѨÉÏè =O HÍ^Œ∞. ~ˆ MÏ z„`«O ^•fi~å ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.

Ö’áêÅ∞ : 

crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ Ñ¨xH˜~å^Œ∞. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ XHõ\ ˜ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ ÚÅ∞ LO_»=K«∞Û.

z~°Orq

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ECONOMY

JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú – =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú – ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú : 

™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O, =∞^躌 QÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÅ∞ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»∞#∞. 

J™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O, =∞^躌 QÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»=Ù. 

HÍ¡~Ñü Ü
≤ ∞« ~üã<¨ £ g\˜ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl

Z = 3 Median – 2 Mean

QÍ =ºHõÑÎ i¨ K≥#∞.

4. QÆ∞}=∞^躌 =∞=Ú : 

QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∂xfl, ~Ô O_»∞ JOâßÅ∞ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ Square root ^•fi~å, =¸_»∞ JOâßÅ∞ LO>Ë Cube root ^•fi~å
QÆ}™˜ êÎO. 

~Ô O_»∞ JOâßÅ∞ a, b Å∞QÍ ÉèÏq¿ãÎ GM = ab 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x U XHõ¯ K«Å~åt 'ã¨∞#fl— J~Ú# GM#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«_O» J™ê^躌 O. 

⎡ Σ log x ⎤
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=Ú#‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O GM = Anti log ⎢ N ⎥

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ : 

âß`åÅ∞, x+¨Ê`«∞ÅÎ ∞ QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞. 

crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_»∞#∞. L^• : L=∞‡_ç QÆ∞}=∞^躌 =∂xfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.

Ö’áêÅ∞ :



⎥ N ⎢
⎥ 1 ⎢ = MH
Hõ+Oì¨ .⎥⎦⎥ x ∑ ⎢⎣⎢ 

J~°O÷ KÕã∞¨ H˘#∞@, QÆ}O˜ K«∞@ 

„âı}Ö˜ ’ U qÅ∞= ''0—— J~Ú<å ÖË^• U qÅ∞= J~Ú<å |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõO J~Ú# GM QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.

5. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú : 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x qÅ∞=Å =Ùº„`«¯=∂Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜ QÆÅ =Ùº„`«¯=∞"Õ∞ ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú. 

a, bÅ∞ 

=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº QÆ}#

2ab

J<Õ ~Ô O_»∞ ~åâ◊√Å∞ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ ǨÏ~°=∞^躌 =∞O ´ a + b

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ : 

AM, GM 

HÍÅ=Ú, ~ˆ @∞¡ QÆ}O˜ KÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞.

z~°Orq

Å∞ =Öˇ Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞.
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Ö’áêÅ∞ :
1.
2.

J~°O÷ KÕã∞¨ HÀ=_»O, QÆ}O˜ K«_O» Hõ+Oì¨ . z#fl qÅ∞=ʼnõΩ JkèHõ „áê^è•#º`« WK«∞Û#∞.
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ, |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ qÅ∞=Å∞ ~Ô O_»∂ L#flѨC_»∞ ÖË^• 1 JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= qÅ∞=Å∞ ''0—— L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.

ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú :
1.
2.
3.

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x K«~~° åâ◊√Å∞ "Õ~∞° , "Õ~∞° QÍ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ AM, GM, HM qÅ∞=Å∞ ‰õÄ_® "Õ~∞° "Õ~∞° QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
JO>Ë HM HõO>Ë GM Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞. GM HõO>Ë AM Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x K«Å~åâ◊√Åxfl ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO>Ë AM, GM, HMÅ∞ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»∞#∞.

qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞    

qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ#∞ ~Ô O_»= „âı}˜ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ JO\Ï~°∞.
Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞=‰õΩ, ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x Jã¨Å∞ qÅ∞=‰õΩ L#fl `Õ_® `≥Å∞ã¨∞‰õΩ<Õ H˘Å=∂#"Õ∞ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú.
Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å∞ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«∞`«#∞ ѨsH˜OΔ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ Wk LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞.
qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞ : Z) "åºÑ≤,Î
a) Q.D, ã≤) AD or MD, _ç) SD, W) ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y

1. "åºÑ≤Î : 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x QÆi+¨,ì Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=Å Éè^Ë "Œ ∞Õ "åºÑ≤.Î
L^• : "å~°O ~ÀAÖ’¡ XHõ 0Hõ9OÃ=ÑMh0H6¿+1≥~°−¡ 0M
^è5~Œ G2Å° ≥∞;SSDM− ALq^èOŒ QÍ L<åfl~Ú.
200, 210, 208, 160, 220, 250
S+L
"åºÑ≤Î ´ 

"åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HÍxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ

J<Õ ã¨∂„`åxfl LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° .

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ : 

Jxfl qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÖ’¡ ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ J~°=÷ ∞ÜÕ∞ºk, QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ, `«‰Ωõ ¯= ã¨=∞Ü«∞O Ѩ>kìË "åºÑ≤.Î

Ö’áêÅ∞ :  

q=$`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Ö’¡ QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú. ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨fiÉèÏ"åxfl `≥Å∞Ѩ^∞Œ .
Jxfl JOâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞HÀ^Œ∞. JO`«º qÅ∞=Å „ѨÉÏè =O Z‰õΩ¯=.

LѨÜ∂≥ QÍÅ∞ : 

¿+~°¡ ^è~Œ Å° Ö’ =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞, "å`å=~°}O JOK«<åÅ∞, =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ QÆ∞}<å}º`«#∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞‰õΩ<ÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞.

2. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú : 

„âı}Ö˜ ’ kQÆ∞= 25 JOâßÅ∞ ZQÆ∞= 25 JOâßÅ∞ =ke =∞^躌 Ö’ L#fl 50 JOâßÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ QÆ}O˜ KÕ^Õ
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú.

z~°Orq

87

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY    

„Ѩ^=Œä ∞, `«$fÜ«∞ K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ =∞^躌 `Õ_®#∞ K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ "åºÑ≤Î ÖË^• Inter - Quartile Range JO\Ï~°∞.
Inter Quartile Range Ö’x ã¨QÉ
Æ Ïè QÍxfl Semi - Iner Quartile Range Jx JO\Ï~°∞. nx<Õ „á¶êxûãπ QÍÅì<£
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O Jx ¿Ñ~°∞ ÃÑ>ˇ#ì ∞.
ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O – kQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú ´
´
2
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HÍxfl ´

J<Õ ã¨∂„`«O`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ :   

q=$`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® nxx QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
Z‰õΩ¯= "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO L#fl qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ ‰õÄ_® Q qã¨~Î }
° #∞ H˘Å=QÆÅ^Œ∞.
qѨs`« JOâßÅ =Å# „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞.
D

Ö’áêÅ∞ :   

"≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ 25 JOâßÅ∞ z=i 25 JOâßÅ∞ q㨇iOK«|_»∞`«∞<åfl~Ú.
qã¨~Î }
° #∞ U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩx QÆ}O˜ K«Ö^Ë ∞Œ .
crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_»^∞Œ .

3. =∂^è Œ º=∞ qK«Å#=Ú : 

Q
| x−d |3Q
Σ
Q
+
Q
N
2
1
3
1 

Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞= #∞Oz qq^èŒ JOâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞"Õ∞ =∂^躌 =∞ qK«Å#=Ú. n<Õfl
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O JO\Ï~°∞. (AD)
« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ^Õx#∞O_≥<· å QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
MD x JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O, =∞^躌 QÆ`O
MD QÆ}#Ö’ qK«Å<åÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#flѨÙÊ_»∞ crÜ«∞ QÆ∞~°∞Å
Î ∞ q㨇i™êÎ~∞° . 

=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ MD QÆ}#‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«=Ú ´ 

=∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#O
=∂^躌 =∞ qK«Å# QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú ´ ------------------------------JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O ÖË^• =∞^躌 QÆ`O« ÖË^• ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ 

ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ :  

ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ J~°O÷ KÕã∞¨ HÀ=K«∞Û. QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û. U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ #∞O_≥<· å QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨fiÉèÏ"åxfl `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞.

Ö’áêÅ∞ : 

QÆ∞~°∞ÅÎ ∞ q㨇iOK«∞#∞. HÍ|\˜ì crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ Ñ¨xH˜~å^Œ∞.

z~°Orq

88

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY 

™ê=∂lHõ "åºáê~° J^躌 Ü«∞<åÖ’¡ nxx J~°∞^Œ∞QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞°
4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú ÖË^• „Hõ=∞ qK«Å#=Ú (SD) 
1893Ö’ HÍ~üÑ
¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ nxx „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ>ˇ#ì ∞. 
qã¨~
Î}
° =∂<åÖ’¡ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕk. =∞Oz qã¨~Î }
° ‰õΩO_»=Åã≤# ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ Hõey L#flk SD ÜÕ∞. 
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O =~°=
æ ¸ÖÏxfl „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O JO\Ï~°∞.
`À ã¨∂z™êÎ~∞° .
nxx 
nxx root mean-square deviation Jx‰õÄ_® JO\Ï~°∞. 
^Œ`åÎOâ◊O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ qK«~}
° Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ L#fl@∞ì. 

Jã¨Å∞ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞Oz „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl QÆ}¿˜ ãÎ      

TÇ≤ÏOz# JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç SD x QÆ}¿˜ ãÎ

Σdx 2 ⎡ Σdx ⎤
−⎢
σ=

N
⎣ N ⎦

2

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O =Öˇ ~Ô O_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= „QÆ∂ѨÙʼnõΩ L=∞‡_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
N ã¨ÇϨ [

ã¨OYºÅ‰õΩ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl QÆ}¿˜ ãÎ

2 72.86 srevo
2 c σ1 "
%
xdΣ
dΣ1 ± σX"
2
)
1
n
(


r
o
(
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç fã¨∞N‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅN2=~åæ
1 Å "≥Ú`«OÎ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
SD is Independent of change of origin but not of scale
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y "≥â· ßÖϺxfl x~°fizOK«∞@‰õΩ SD x LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° . 

X ± 2σ covers 95.45%
X ± 3σ covers 99.73%

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
–––––––––––––
JOHõ=∞^茺=∞O 

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú ´ 

qK«~}
° QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú (C.V.) 

qK«~}
° QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ã≤~÷ `° fi« O `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ L#fl@∞ì. qK«~}
° ÏxH˜, ã≤~÷ `° åfixH˜ qÖ’=∞ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
LO_»∞#∞.
MD Ö’ c[QÆ}`
˜ « QÆ∞~°∞ÅÎ ∞ q㨇iOK«|_»∞#∞. HÍh SD Ö’ fã¨∞HÀ|_»∞#∞. 

z~°Orq

´

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
––––––––––––– ˛100
JOHõ=∞^茺=∞O

89

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530 

ECONOMY
SD x JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O

MD x 

U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ #∞O_≥<· å QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
^•fi~å =∂„`«"∞Õ QÆ}O˜ K«QÅÆ O.
ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞ :
qK«~}
° #∞ QÆ}O˜ K«_®xH˜ "Õ∞Öˇ#· H˘Å=∂#O. L=∞‡_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
"≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú,„ѨuQÆ=∞#=Ú, „ѨuK«Ü∞« #=Ú ÖÏO\˜ QÆ}ÏOHõ =∂Ѩ#ÅÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° .
Ö’áêÅ∞:
QÆ}O˜ K«∞@ Hõ+Oì¨ † qѨs`« JOâßʼnõΩ Z‰õΩ¯= „áê^è•#º`« W=fi|_»∞#∞.
qã¨Î~°} =∂<åÅ∞ =∞^茺 ã¨O|O^èŒ=Ú:
SD HõO>Ë MD `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞. MD HõO>Ë QD `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞. QD < MD < σ 

SD Ö’ QD 2/3    

=O`«∞ LO_»∞#∞. (0.6745)

SD Ö’ MD 4/5

=O`«∞ LO_»∞#∞.

4
MD = σ
5

5. ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõˆ~Y  

P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y#∞ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° .
nxx ã¨Oz`« âß`«ÑÙ¨ =„Hõ~ˆ Y (Cumulative Percentage Curve) JO\Ï~°∞.

"≥ · + ¨ = ∞º=Ú:     

Z − X2

σ == PDKQS
™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, =∞^Œ
σ º3QÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»∞#∞. nxx ~ˆ MÏz„`«OÖ’ K«∂Ñ≤¿ãÎ

QÆO\ÏHÍ~° áœ#óѨÙ#ºˆ~Y =K«∞Û#∞. nx<Õ ™ê=∂#º ÖË^• P^Œ~≈° =„Hõ~ˆ Y JO\Ï~°∞.
nxÖ’ K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞ =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxH˜ ã¨=∂# ^Œ∂~°OÖ’ LO\Ï~Ú.
=∞^躌 QÆ`O« – Q1´ Q3– =∞^躌 QÆ`O«
J™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»=Ù. nxx ~ˆ MÏz„`«OÖ’ K«∂Ñ≤¿ãÎ
U^À XHõ z=~° `ÀHõ L#fl@∞ì HõxÑ≤ã∞¨ OÎ k.
J™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[#O ^è<Œ å`«‡HõOQÍ QÍx, |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍ QÍx LO_»=K«∞Û.
Z) JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O > =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« > ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ → ^è<Œ å‡`«Hõ (ÖË^•) ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
|∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ (ÖË^•) Z_»=∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
a) JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O < =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ 

"≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HÍxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<ü LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O 

ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ x~°fiK«#O ã¨iQÍ ÖË#ѨÙ_»∞ SKP =

z~°Orq

3(x − Med)

σ

90

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530 

É∫ÖË "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HõO 

HÔ b¡ "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HõO       

ECONOMY
Q + Q1 − 2Q2
SK B = 3
Q3 − Q1

Z) ^Œ`åOâßÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ

P − 2P + P
90
50 10
P −P
90 10

a)^ŒâßOâßÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ

D −2+ D
9
1
D −D
9
1

Hõ ‰ õ Ω ^Œ ` « fi O
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y tY~°O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ H˘#^ŒÅK«∞‰õΩO>Ë ^•xx Lepto Kurtic JO\Ï~°∞.
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y tY~°O Z‰õΩ¯= K«^∞Œ #∞QÍ LO>Ë ^•xx Platy Kurtic JO\Ï~°∞.
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y tY~°O ™ê^è•~°}OQÍ LO>Ë ^•xx Meso Kurtic JO\Ï~°∞.
β 2 qÅ∞= 3 HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë Jk Lepto Kurtic Jh,
qÅ∞= 3 HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ^•xx Platy Kurtic Jx JO\Ï~°∞.
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’

qÅ∞= 3 LO_»∞#∞.

ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞      

HÍs¡ J<Õ W@b ^Õâã◊ ∞¨ _÷ ∞» 1500 #∞Oz 1750 =~°‰Ωõ ^è~Œ Å° Ö’x ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ#∞ H˘eKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ „ѨÜ∞« uflOK≥#∞.
β
1P
= 120P∞ÊÅ#∞ H˘Å=_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂
ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ "≥Ú^Œ@ „^Œ=º qÅ∞=Ö’xP =∂~°
≥ yOK≥#∞.
0
1838Ö’ 'ã¨∂p ^è~Œ Å° ∞— J<Õ Ñ¨^•xfl áÈ~°~ì ü LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞.
r"å<£û ã¨∂pã¨OYº J<Õ Ñ¨^=Œ Ú#∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞.
ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ Pi÷Hõ ÉèÏ~°q∞`«∞Å∞ (Economic Barometers) JO^Œ∞~°∞.
XHõ =ã¨∞=Î Ù#‰õΩ xs‚`« HÍÅOÖ’ ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ , P^è•~° HÍÅOÖ’ QÆÅ ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ QÆÅ x+¨ÊuÎx ™ê¿ÑHõΔ ^è~Œ ° ÖË^• ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
JO^Œ∞~°∞.    

z~°Orq

ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞.
ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°O ™ê^è•~°} ã¨O=`«û~°"∞≥ ÿ LO_®e.
P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° x~°Ü
‚ ∞« OÖ’ ã≤~÷ ° P^è•~° Ѩ^uúŒ QÍx, Q˘Å∞ã¨∞ P^è•~° Ѩ^uúŒ QÍx fã¨∞‰õΩO\Ï~°∞.
ã¨∂p ã¨OYº x~å‡}OÖ’ J=ÅOaèOKÕ Ñ¨^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ ~Ô O_»∞.
Z) ÉèÏ~°~Ç° Ï≤ `« ã¨∂p,
a) ÉèÏi`« ã¨∂p

91

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY 

Éè Ï ~°

~°Ç≤Ï`«, ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ ã¨∂p 

Éè Ï ~° ` « Ç ≤ Ï `«

™ê=∂#º ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ã¨∂p

P01 =

ΣP1
× 100
ΣP0

⎛P

Σ ⎜ 1 × 100 ⎟
P

P01 = ⎝ 0
N

ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì ã¨∂pÅ∞
Z) ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p: P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° =ã¨∞ΠѨi=∂}Ïxfl (Q0) ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞.
ΣP Q
P = 1 0 × 100
01 Σ P Q
0 0

D ã¨∂p over estimate KÕã∂¨ ,Î upward bias H˜ ^•ifÜ«Ú#∞.
a) áêjÛ ã¨∂p ::=~°=Î ∂# ã¨O=`«û~°ÑÙ¨ =ã¨∞ΠѨi=∂}Ïxfl (Q1) ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞.
ΣP Q
P = 1 1 × 100
01 Σ P Q
0 1

Wk Under estimate KÕã≤ downward bias H˜ ^•ifÜ«Ú#∞.
ã≤) _Àiƒ+π   É∫ÖË Ñ¨^Œúu : P^è•~°, =~°=Î ∂# („Ѩã∞¨ `Î )« ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞. 
ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ ™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞"Õ∞ gi ã¨∂„`«O
L+P
P =
01
2

ΣPQ ΣPQ
1 0+ 1 1
ΣP Q ΣP Q
0 1 ×100
= 0 0
2

_ç) Ѷ≤+¨~ü P^Œ~°≈ã¨∂p : Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂pQÍ Ñ≤Å=|_≥#∞. 

D ã¨∂p, ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ GM ^•fi~å QÆ}O˜ K«|_»∞#∞. 

Wk „Ѩã∞¨ `Î ,« =∞iÜ«Ú P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}OÅ#∞ fã¨∞H˘O@∞Ok. 

Wk HÍÅѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞.

z~°Orq

92

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530 

ECONOMY

It is Free from bias
ΣP Q
1 0 × Σ P1Q1 × 100
P = L× P =
01
ΣP Q
ΣP Q
0 0
0 1 

Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
W) =∂~°¬Öò Z_£˚=~üÎ ã¨∂p: Wk‰õÄ_® „Ѩã∞¨ `Î ,« P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩOk.

(
(

)
)

Σ Q +Q P
0
1 1 ×100
P =
01 Σ Q + Q P
0
1 0

ZѶπ) ÔHb¡ ã¨∂p : nxx Fixed weight Aggregative Index Method JO^Œ∞~°∞.
P01 =

nxÖ’ Q =

ΣPQ
1
× 100
ΣP0Q

Q0 + Q1
(nxÖ’ ÉèÏ~åÅ∞ H˘xfl HÍÖÏʼnõΩ K≥Ok#q. YzÛ`«OQÍ P^è•~°, =~°=Î ∂# ã¨O=`«û~åÖË HÍ"åÅx ÖË^∞Œ .)
2

ÉèÏi`« ™ê¿ÑHõΔHÍÅ ã¨QÆ@∞ ã¨∂p :
P01 =

ΣPV
ΣV

^è~Œ Å° ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ∞

Q1PΣ1 =
P × PPWeights (P0Q0)
V=Value
= 1001Q × 11100P
0Q0PΣ
0P
1

HÍÅѨ i =~° Î # Ѩ s Hõ Δ : 

P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~åxfl „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«û~åxfl `å~°∞=∂~°∞ KÕã≤ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ ‰õ#∞‰õΩ¯O>Ë Jq XHõ^•xH˘Hõ\ ˜
=Ùº„`«¯=∂Å∞QÍ LO_®e.
HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°Î# ѨsHõΔ : ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p, Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ ã¨∂p Å|úO qÅ∞=ã¨∂pH˜ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_®e. 

Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p HÍÅѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞.
ã¨~°∞¯ ºÅ~ü >ˇãπì x ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ i¨ KÕ ã¨∂pÅ∞
Z) ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ .
a) Fixed weight Aggregative method (ÔHb¡ Ѩ^uúŒ )

z~°Orq

93

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY
Circular Test = P01 × P12 × P20 = 1

Ü«¸x\ò >ˇãπì#∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° x« ã¨∂p ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ (Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ∞) =∂„`«"∞Õ . q∞ye# Jxfl ã¨∂„`åÅ∞ nxx
ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞.
qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞ ^èŒ~°Å ã¨∂p (ã‘Ñ‘S) : H˜ =∞~À¿Ñ~°∞ r=# =ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂p ÖË^• i>ˇÖÿ ò ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p. Wq XHõ „Ѩ`ºÕ Hõ
`«~Q° uÆ /=~°Oæ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =ã¨∞Î ¿ã=Å H˘#∞QÀÅ∞ â◊HÖΘ ’x =∂~°∞Ê#∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞. 

qxÜ≥∂QÆ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p 2 q^è•Å∞QÍ QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
Z) ã¨q∞+≤ì =ºÜ«∞ Ѩ^uúŒ /ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ

a) ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥\˚ ò Ѩ^uúŒ /ÉèÏi`« ™ê¿ÑHõΔ Ñ¨^uúŒ

CPI =

ΣPV
ΣV

ã¨ Ç ¨ Ï ã¨ O |O^è Œ O              

~Ô O_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥e¿Ñ^Õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
L^•: Hõ+Ñì¨ _¨ ç K«^=Œ _®xH˜, q[Ü«∞™ê^è#Œ ‰õΩ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LOk.
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ J<Õk K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ™ê÷~Úx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞. JO`ÕHÍx HÍ~°}O–Ѷe¨ `« ã¨O|O^è•xfl
`≥ÅѨ^∞Œ .
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ XˆH kâ◊QÍ =∂i`Õ (L^•: Éè∂í ™ê~°O ÃÑiy`Õ Ñ¨O@ kQÆ∞|_ç ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞#∞) Jk ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ
QPΣ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
001× 0 1 = IPC
Σ :^è~
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =ºuˆ~Hõ kâ◊Ö’ ѨÜ∞« x¿ã0QÎ 0P(L^•
Œ ° ÃÑiˆQ H˘nÌ _ç=∂O_£ `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞.) ^•xx ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ JO^Œ∞~°∞.
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl Ѩije¿ãÎ Jk ™ê=∂#º ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
~Ô O_»∞ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥e¿Ñk |Ǩïà◊ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
~Ô O_»∞HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å#∞ QÆ∞iÎOz#ѨÊ\˜H,© q∞ye# K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ ã≤~÷ =° ∞x „Ѩ"∞Õ Ü«∞=ÚKÕã,≤ ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å
=∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl Ѩije¿ãÎ ^•xx áêH˜HΔ õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ JO^Œ∞~°∞.
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 =∂~°∞Ê „Ѩu™ês ã≤~÷ ° x+¨ÊuÎÖ’ LO>Ë Jk ã¨~à° ~ˆ◊ Y ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 =∂~°∞Ê „Ѩu™ês ã≤~÷ ° x+¨ÊuÎÖ’ ÖËx Ü≥∞_»Å Jk =„Hõ ~ˆ vÜ«∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl QÆ}O˜ KÕ Ñ¨^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ :Z) "åºÑ¨#Ѩ@O a) ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ~ˆ MÏ z„`«O ã≤) HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO _ç) ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO W) ™ê~°∂Ѩº qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ
"åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÖ’ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ „Hõ=∞O T~°fiú kâ◊QÍ J#QÍ Z_»=∞ #∞Oz ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ ÃÑH· ᘠÈ`Õ Jk ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
"åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÖ’ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ „Hõ=∞O J^èÀ kâ◊QÍ J#QÍ Z_»=∞ #∞O_ç ‰õΩ_çH˜ ky`Õ Jk ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
"åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÖ’ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞ ZÖÏO\˜ aO^Œ∞ „Hõ=∂xfl K«∂ѨHáõ È`Õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË#@∞¡.
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ~ˆ MÏz„`«OÖ’ QÆ∞iÎOK«|_»¤ ~ˆ YÅ∞ XˆH kâ◊Ö’ ã¨=∂O`«~O° QÍ Ñ¨Ü∞« x¿ãÎ K«Å<åÅ =∞^躌 ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO^Œx, =ºuˆ~Hõ kâ◊Ö’ ѨÜ∞« x¿ãÎ |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO^Œx J~°O÷ .

z~°Orq

94

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY 

ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl ã¨OMϺ~°∂ѨOÖ’ `≥e¿ÑO^Œ∞‰õΩ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ "å_»∞HõÖ’ L#fl Ѩ^uúŒ HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ
QÆ∞}HõO      

ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ZѨÙÊ_»∂ ± 1 J<Õ ~Ô O_»∞ J=^è∞Œ Å =∞^躌 LO@∞Ok.
~Ô O_»∞ K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ^è#Œ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ L#flѨÙ_»∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO qÅ∞= {1
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ |∞∞} ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ L#flѨÙ_»∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO qÅ∞= –1
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ã¨∞<åfl J~Ú`Õ K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË#@∞¡
HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~üã<¨ £ QÆ}#Ö’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«∞@=Å¡ Wk ã¨O`«$Ñ≤HÎ ~õ "° ∞≥ #ÿ QÆ}#
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ¿ã¯Å∞, =¸ÅO =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞.
QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ JOâßÅ (JO^ŒKO« ^•Å∞, hux*Ï~Úf, ^•#^è~Œ å‡Å∞, `≥eq`Õ@Å∞) q+¨Ü∞« OÖ’ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl
x~°~‚ ÚOKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ 1904Ö’ ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ Ѩ^uúŒ x Hõ#∞H˘¯<åfl_»∞. 

qK«Å<åÅ#∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz HÍHõ, ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x =ÚO^Œ∞ JOâ◊O #∞Oz QÆ∞iÎOz, "åx =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl
`≥e¿Ñk ™ê~°∂Ѩº qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ 

ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ x~å‡~°} ´ r2
Σ6yCd2xdΣ = r
ND−
−±1 = C
R
2
)1 − NNy(σNx σN
2

z~°Orq

95

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

Q − 3Q xdS Σ
−L
= D.Q
=
2
S+L
N

1

qã¨Î~°}=∂<åÅ∞ :
1. "åºÑ≤Î L − S
"åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HõO
2.
Q.D

QÆ∞}HõO

Q.D =

3. =∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#O ´

Q3 − Q1
Q3 + Q1

, qzÛù#fl, JqzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ =

=∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O
=∞^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO ´ –––––––––––––––
ã¨QÆ@∞
4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O

z~°Orq

96

Σf dx
N

=

MD
x m ed Z

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

σ=

Jã¨Å∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz
TÇ≤ÏOz# JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz

Σ(x − x )

2

ÖË^•

N

Σdx 2 ⎛ Σdx ⎞
−⎜
σ=

N
⎝ N ⎠

Σdx 2
N

2

qzÛù#fl, JqzÛù#fl „âı}∞Ö’¡ ™Èáê# qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ 

qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO ( CV ) =

σ
X

× 100

N1σ 12 + N 2σ 22 + N1d12 + N 2 d 22
N1 + N 2 

L=∞‡_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O σ 1,2 = 

HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HõO SK P = 

É∫ÖË "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HõO

SK B =

X −Z

σ

3 ( X − Median )

ÖË^•

σ

Q3 + Q1 − 2Q2
Q3 − Q1

ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ :
2

Z) ÉèÏ~°~Ç° Ï≤ `«

⎞ ' xdfΣ ⎛ ' xdfΣ
C× ⎟
⎜ − ™ê=∂#º= ã¨σq∞+≤ì
ã¨∂pÅ∞
⎠ N ⎝ Z) N
2

ã¨∂p

P01 =

ΣP1
× 100
ΣP0

a) ™ê=∂#º ™ê¿ÑHõΔ HÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ã¨∂p
a) ÉèÏi`« ã¨∂pÅ∞

Z) ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü
a) áêjÛ

ã≤) _Àiƒ+π   É∫ÖË

z~°Orq

P01 =

P01 =

⎛P

Σ ⎜ 1 × 100 ⎟
P

P01 = ⎝ 0
N

ΣPQ
1 0
× 100
P0Q0

ΣPQ
1 1
× 100
P0Q1

ΣPQ
ΣPQ
1 0
+ 1 1
ΣPQ
ΣPQ
L+P
0 0
0 1
P01 =
×100
formulae
2
2

97

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

ΣPQ

ΣPQ

1 0
1 1
_ç) Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p P01 = L × P = ΣP Q × ΣP Q ×100
0 0
0 1

W) =∂~°¬Öò Z_£=˚ ~üÎ ã¨∂p
ZѶπ) HÔ b¡ ã¨∂p

P01 =

P01 =

ΣP1 ( Q0 + Q1 )
ΣP0 ( Q 0 +Q1 )

× 100

ΣPQ
1
× 100
ΣP0Q

qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞ ^èŒ~°Å ã¨∂p :
Z) ã¨q∞+≤ì =ºÜ«∞ Ѩ^uúŒ

ΣPQ
1 0
× 100
ΣP0Q0

a) ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥\˚ ò Ѩ^uúŒ
ѨsHõÅΔ ∞ :

=

ΣPV
ΣV

ÖË^•

HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ

P01x P10=1

HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ P01x Q01

dΣ 6 1QW1PIΣΣ
-1 = r
QW
Σ
P)101-x2 PN12( xNP020
=1
0PΣ
2

ã¨~∞° ¯ ºÅ~ü >ˇãìπ

Σdx dy

ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ : HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO r = N.σ .σ
x
y
ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO 
Co-efficient of Determination = r2
r2 =

Explained variance
Total variance 

Co-efficient of Non-Determination = K2 = 1 - r2

z~°Orq

98

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

KEY POINTS 

=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ J<Õq

– ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú J<Õq

– QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ

– ''0—— 

=∞^ŒºQÆ`åxfl ~ˆ MÏ z„`«O ^•fi~å K«∂Ñ≤OKÕ q^è•#O

– Fl"£ =„Hõ~ˆ YÅ∞ 

|Ǩïà◊HÍxfl ~ˆ MÏ z„`«OÖ’ K«∂Ñ≤OKÕ q^è•#O

– Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞ =∞iÜ«Ú
áœ#ó ѨÙ#º |ǨïÉè∞í l 

Q2, O4, D5, P50 ʼnõΩ 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯=™ê~°∞¡ ѨÙ#~å=$`«"∞≥ #ÿ qÅ∞=

– ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú 

„âı}∞ÅÖ’ =∞^躌 Ö’ L#fl qÅ∞=

– =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« 

~åâ◊√Å∞ "≥Ú`åÎxfl ~åâ◊√Å ã¨OYºKÕ ÉèÏy¿ãÎ =KÕÛ qÅ∞=

– JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 

„âı}∞Ö’ U XHõ¯ qÅ∞= ''0—— J~Ú<å QÆ}O˜ KÕ gÅ∞ HÍxk Uk?

– QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞=Ú 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x qÅ∞=Å =Ùº¢`¯« =∂Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜ QÆÅ =Ùº¢`¯« =∞"Õ∞

– ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú 

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x Jxfl K«Å~åâ◊√ÅÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ qÕ

=∞~À¿Ñ~°∞,

– =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«

crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩxÅ|_Õ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞

– QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 

qѨs`« JOâßÅ =Å¡ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍx ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞

– ™ê÷#ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 

q=$`« J=^è∞Œ ÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ kÕ
QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl `≥Å∞ã¨∞HÀ=_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ Õ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞

– =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú 

~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ gÅ∞#fl ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞

– ™ê÷#ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 

J`«ºkèH,õ J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=Å `Õ_®ÜÕ∞

– "åºÑ≤Î 

J~°K÷ `« ∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ "åºÑ≤HÎ ˜ =∞~˘Hõ ¿Ñ~°∞

– K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ qK«Å#=Ú 

crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_»x qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞

– "åºÑ≤,Î Q.D & M.D 

~Ô O_»= „âı}© ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞QÍ Ñ≤Å=|_Õ =∂<åÅ∞

– qã¨Î~°}=∂<åÅ∞

z~°Orq

99

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY 

Hˆ O„^Œ ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞= #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞"Õ∞

– 

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì k

– HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~°û<£ 

''JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ, =~åæÅ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O

M.D (=∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#=Ú)

=~°æ=¸Å"Õ∞

– „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú 

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ

– ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O 

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O > =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« > ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ

– ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O < =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ

– |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 

P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å#∞ `≥e¿Ñ ~ˆ Y

– ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y 

P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°O =ã¨∞ΠѨi=∂}Ïxfl ÉèÏiO`«QÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ z#k

– ÖÏ¿ãÊÜ«∞~ü 

=~°=Î ∂# ã¨O=`«û~°ÑÙ¨ Ѩi=∂}Ïxfl ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ z#k

– áêjÛ 

ÖÏ¿ãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O P^è•~°OQÍ ã¨∂px ~°∂á⁄OkOz#k

– Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü 

HÍÅѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ i¨ z# P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p

– Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p 

=¸_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl ã¨∂zOKÕk

– |Ǩïà◊ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 

~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl ã¨∂zOKÕk

– ™ê=∂#º ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 

=¸_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= QÆ∞iÎOz#ѨÊ\˜H© q∞ye# "å\˜x ã≤~÷ O° QÍ
L<åflÜ«∞x ÉèÏqOz ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl ѨijeOKÕk

– áêH˜HΔ õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú 

HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~üã<¨ £ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú

– 

QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥e¿Ñk

– ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 

165 ^ÕâßʼnõΩ
á⁄O^≥#∞. 

2004–05Ö’NSSO "å~°∞ „ѨK∞« iOz# x"ÕkHõÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 20% „Ѩ[Å∞ ~ÀA‰õΩ XH˘¯Hõ¯~°∞ 14
~°∂áêÜ«∞Å HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ =ºÜ«∞OKÕã∞¨ <Î åfl~°∞. 

„QÍg∞} „áêO`åÅÖ’ <≥Åã¨i `«Åã¨i qxÜ≥∂QÆ =ºÜ«∞O 2004–05Ö’ ~°∂. 559Å∞ HÍQÍ, Ѩ@}
ì „áêO`åÅÖ’

Economic Freedon Index

±

1Å =∞^躌 LO_»∞#∞.

#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«QÍ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ 115 ~åºO‰õΩ#∞, K≥<· å 126= ~åºO‰õΩ#∞

~°∂. 1,052Å∞QÍ LOk. 
Back wash „ѨÉÏè =O#∞

z~°Orq

QÆ∞<åfl~ü q∞~å÷Öò „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ>ˇ#ì ∞.
100

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

a\ò ÉϺOH± (One word questions)
1. QÆ}ÏOHõ âߢ™êÎxfl U ¿Ñ~°∞`À Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
[. ~åAÅ âßG=Ú ÖË^• ~å*ϺOQÆ âßG=Ú
2.
[.
3.
[.

4.
[.
5.
[.
6.
[.
7.
[.
8.
[.
9.
[.
10.
[.

z~°Orq

QÆ}ÏOHõâßG Ñ≤`å=∞Ǩï_»∞?
P~ü.Z.Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü
QÆ}ÏOHõâßGO U Ѩ^•Å #∞O_ç Pq~°ƒqù Oz#k?
ÖÏ\˜<£ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’x ™êì@ãπ (Status)
[~°‡h ÉèÏ+¨Ö’x ™êì@ã≤Hì Í (Statistica)
W\ÏeÜ«∞<£ ÉèÏ+¨Ö’x ™êì@™êì (Statusta)
D Ѩ^•Å‰õΩ J~°=÷ Ú ~å[º=Ú (State)
''^Õâ◊ „Ѩ[Å ã≤u÷ QÆ`∞« ʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# =sæH$õ `« ã¨=∂Kå~åxfl JOÔHÅÖ’#∂, Ѩ\ Hì˜ Åõ Ö’#∂ á⁄O^Œ∞Ѩiz K≥¿ÑÊ^Õ
QÆ}ÏOHõâßG=Ú——.
"≥Éòã~ì¨ ü (Webster)
''QÆ}ÏOHõ âߢ™êÎxfl ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å âßGOQÍ =i‚Oz#k——?
É∫ÖË
''QÆ}ÏOHõâßGO JO>Ë ã¨OYº, ^Œ`åÎOâ◊ ¿ãHõ~}
° , ã¨=∞~°Ê}, qâı+¡ }
¨ , q=~°}—— Jx x~°fizOz#k?
„HÍH±û@<£ =∞iÜ«Ú „H“_»<£
Z‰õΩ¯= ã¨OYºÖ’ L#fl ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl ‰õΩkOz "≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O JO`«\ H˜ © „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤ÏOKÕ XˆH XHõ qÅ∞=#∞
D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
ã¨QÆ@∞
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ʼnõΩ =∞~˘Hõ¿Ñ~°∞?
Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å∞
=∞Oz ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞
Z. ã¨Ê+¨Oì QÍ x~°fizOK«|_®e a. "≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâßxH˜ „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤ÏOKåe ã≤. ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ J~°O÷ HÍ"åe
_ç. ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ QÆ}#KÕÜ∞« _®xH˜ gÅ∞O_®e W. „ѨuK«Ü∞« # =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ"åe.
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞?
1. ™ê÷#ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 2. QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞.
101

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

11.
[.
12.
[.
13.
[.

QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ Uq?
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú (A.M ÖË^• Mean);
ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú (H.M);
™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ Uq?
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú, 2. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’„ѨMϺu QÍOz# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ Uq?
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, 2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , 3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ

QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú(GM)

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
14.
[.
15.
[.
16.
[.
17.
[.
18.
[.

JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú (AM) #‰õΩ =∞~˘Hõ¿Ñ~°∞?
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÖË^• =∞^Œº=∞=Ú (Mean)
„âı}Ö˜ ’ JOâßÅ∞ "≥Ú`åÎxfl JOâßÅ ã¨OYº`À ÉèÏy¿ãÎ =KÕÛ qÅ∞= Uk?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞?
2. Z. ™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, a. ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«|_Õk, "≥Ú`«OÎ ^Œ`åÎOâßxH˜ „áêux^躌 O =Ç≤ÏOKÕ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú.
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}∞ÅÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl54xUd 0∑q^è
Œ 1QÍ+X0ΣQÆ1}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
f∑
2x+
5O
51= = + A==NX
N3
JOâßÅ∞ "≥Ú`åÎxfl JOâßÅ ã¨OYºKÕ3 ÉèNÏyOKåe.
~åâ◊√Å "≥Ú`«OÎ
X = AM =

=

~åâ◊√Å ã¨OYº
19. 10, 15, 20Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ZO`«?
[.
20. áœ#óѨÙ#º=Ú W=fi|_»x „âı}x˜ U=∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
[. =ºH˜ÎQÆ`« „âı}˜
21. =ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ ^ŒQ~æÆ ° Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.
TÇ≤ÏOz# JOHõ=∞^Œº=Ú, ∑ dx ´ qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ , N ´ JOâßÅ ã¨OYº
22. qzÛ#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ K«Å~åt`Àáê@∞ áœ#óѨÙ#ºO ‰õÄ_® LO@∞Ok. nxÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O

[. Z. „Ѩ`«ºHõΔ Ñ¨^ŒúuÖ’

z~°Orq

102

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

a. ^ŒQ~æÆ ° Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’

X =A+

∑ fdx
N

23. JqzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ ™Èáê# qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.

X =A+

Σ fdx '
×i
N

i=

`«~Q° uÆ JO`«~=° Ú

24. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ `«~Q° uÆ kQÆ∞= J=kè, z=i `«~Q° uÆ ZQÆ∞= J=kè ÖËx ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. q=$`« ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=Ú
25. L=∞‡_ç JOHõ=∞^Œº QÆ}#‰õΩLѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.

N X1 + N2 X2
X = 1
1,2
N1 + N2

26. ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O
[.

∑ WX
X =
w ∑W

∑ WX

´ qÅ∞=Å#∞ "å\˜ ÉèÏ~°=ÚÅ`À QÆ∞}˜OK«QÍ =zÛ# ÅÉÏúÅ ã¨OHõÅ#=Ú

∑W

27.
[.
28.
[.
29.
[.
30.
[.
31.
[.
32.
[.
33.
[.

z~°Orq

´ ÉèÏ~åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞O_ç fã≤# qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ...................H˜ ã¨=∂#O JQÆ∞#∞.
ã¨∞#fl ''0——
XHõ „âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ XHõ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞HõeÑ≤# JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_®ÅO>Ë ...
J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ ѨÓ~°fi JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜HÅõ áêe.
ÉèÏi`åÅ∞ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO>Ë ™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ U q^èOŒ QÍ
LO@∞Ok?
™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ´ ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞= QÆÅ JOâßʼnõΩ JkèHõ ÉèÏ~°=Ú, J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞= QÆÅ JOâßʼnõΩ `«‰Ωõ ¯= ÉèÏ~°O WzÛ#ѨÙ_»∞
™ê=∂#º, ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂Å∞ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ U q^èOŒ QÍ LO@∞Ok?
™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=ÚHõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ xÅ|_Õk, „âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩf JOâ◊OÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ kÕ ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ QÆ}O˜ K«QeÆ Qˆ k, J~Ú# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅx~å‡}OÖ’ U JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎO?
ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
q=$`« ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ QÆ}O˜ K«_®xH˜ gÅ∞ÖËx ã¨Q@
Æ ∞?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú (Jxfl QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞)
103

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

34. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ WzÛ# JOâßÅ „áê=ÚMϺxfl |\˜ì ÉèÏ~åÅ#∞ WzÛ QÆ}O˜ KÕ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ¿Ñ~ˆ q∞\˜?
[. ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú

=∞^茺QÆ`«=Ú :
35. „âı}Ö˜ ’x =∞^躌 qÅ∞=#∞ `≥e¿Ñ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk?
[. =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú
36. ''qÉè[í <åxfl U qÅ∞= ~Ô O_»∞ ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèÏyã¨∞OÎ ^À ^•x<Õ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« JO\Ï~°∞—— Jx =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxfl
x~°fizOz#k?
[. „HÍHõû@<£   „H“_»<£
37. U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ QÆ}#Ö’ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl, P~ÀǨÏ} ÖË^• J=~ÀǨÏ} „Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞~åÛe?
[. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
38. =ºH˜QÎ `Æ „« âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`« QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O
[.

N +1
2

= JOâ◊=Ú

N

´ JOâ◊=ÚÅ ã¨OYº

39. „âı}Ö˜ ’ QÆÅ qÅ∞=Å ™ê÷<åxfl |\˜xì ~°~‚ ÚOK«|_Õ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ (=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ™ê÷# ã¨NQ>Æ )Ë
fc − 2
em (
1L −ºQÆ
2L
40. JqK«Û#ù fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^Œ
`×åxfl QÆf}O˜ +KÕ1OL^Œ=∞‰õ)ΩdLѨ
Ü∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
41.
[.
42.
[.
43.
[.
44.
[.
45.
[.

z~°Orq

=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ #ç W`«~° ™ê÷#=∂<åÅ∞ Uq?
K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞, ѨOKåOâßÅ∞, JëêìOâßÅ∞, ^ŒâßOâßÅ∞, â◊`åOâßÅ∞
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâßxfl 4 ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OKÕ ^•xx U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞ ( 3 K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú)
Q , Q , Q Å qã¨~
Î}
°
Q kQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú, Q ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`=
« Ú, Q ´ ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 5 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OKÕ ™ê÷#=∂#O Uk?
ѨOKåOâßÅ∞. (nxÖ’ 4 ѨOK« JOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. Qu , Qu , Qu , Qu )
^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 8 ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OKÕ ™ê÷#=∂#O Uk?
JëêìOâ◊=Ú (nxÖ’ 7 JëêìOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. O , O , O , O , O , O , O )
1

1

2

3

2

3

1

1

104

2

2

3

4

3

5

4

6

7

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

46.
[.
47.
[.
48.
[.
49.
[.
50.
[.
51.
[.
52.
[.
53.
[.
54.
[.
55.
[.
56.
[.
57.
[.

J#QÍ?
"≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
O J#QÍ?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
O J#QÍ?
3= K«`∞« ~åÌOâ◊=Ú
^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 10 ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OKÕ ™ê÷#=∂#O Uk?
^ŒâßOâ◊=Ú. (nxÖ’ 9 ^ŒâßOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. D , D .... D )
5= ^ŒâßOâßxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 100 ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OKÕ ™ê÷#=∂#O Uk?
â◊`åOâßÅ∞ (99 â◊`åOâßÅ∞ LO\Ï~Ú. P , P , P , ....P )
P #∞U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
P #∞U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
kQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
P #∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º =„Hõ ~ˆ YÅ#∞ (Fl"£ ~ˆ YÅ∞) U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞ QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° ?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
q=$`«, J=^è∞Œ Å∞#fl `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Å∞ WzÛ#ѨÊ\˜H© QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ gÖˇ#· ã¨Q@
Æ ∞?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
qѨs`« JOâßÅKÕ „ѨÉÏè q`«=ÚHÍx, QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl ‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ gÖˇ#· ã¨Q@
Æ ∞?
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
O2

4

6

1

1

2

2

3

9

99

50

25

75

ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú (MODE) :
58. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú U ÉèÏëê Ѩ^OŒ #∞O_ç L^Œƒqù Oz#k?
[. ÖÏ"≥∂_£ J<Õ „ÃÑO¶ z Ѩ^OŒ (nx J~°O÷ ¿Ñ+¶ <¨ )£
59. ''„âı}Ö˜ ’ L#fl JOâßÅÖ’ U qÅ∞= Ju `«~K° ∞« QÍ =ã¨∞OÎ ^À P qÅ∞=<Õ ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú JO\Ï~°∞—— Jx ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl
x~°fizOz#k?
[. l[H±

z~°Orq

105

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

60.
[.
61.
[.
62.
[.
63.

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ U qÅ∞= Z‰õΩ¯=™ê~°∞¡ ѨÙ#~å=$`«O JQÆ∞<À P qÅ∞=...
ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
450, 300, 450, 200, 450, 100 ÅÖ’ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ?
450 (Wk 3 ™ê~°∞¡ ѨÙ#~å=$`«O J~ÚOk)
qzÛù#fl áœ#óѨÙ#º qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl ZÖÏ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
U K«Å~åtH˜ Z^Œ∞~°∞QÍ J`«ºkèH"õ ∞≥ #ÿ áœ#óѨÙ#ºO LO@∞O^À P K«Å~åâı ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ .
JqzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?

[. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ (Z) =
64.
[.
65.
[.
66.
[.

kfiÉÏǨïà◊HOõ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
Z = 3 =∞^ŒºQÆ`O
« – 2 JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
ÉÏǨïà◊HÍxfl Uˆ~MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
(Z) ™Èáê# z„`«=Ú (Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞), (a) áœ#óѨÙ#º |ǨïÉè∞í l
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ QÆ}#Ö’ Hõ#|_Õ Ö’áêÅ∞
(Z) Wq ^Œ`åÎOâßOÖ’x Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ =» Ù
(a) D ~Ô O_»∂ crÜ«)∞ L„áêã¨
=Î #‰õΩ 0⎤⎥Ѩfx−xg1H˜of~l ∑å=Ù⎡⎢+goLl
1 − 2 L(
1
f − f −N1f2 ⎣
67. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ Ö’ Hõ#Ѩ_2 Õ ã¨⎦ ∞0QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞?
[. Z. qѨs`« JOâßÅ =Å# „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ=Ù
a. ~Ô O_çO\˜x ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å K«∂Ñ≤OK«=K«∞Û.

QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú :
68. A, B ~Ô O_»∞ JOâßÅ∞ J~Ú`Õ D ~Ô O_çO\˜ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ....
[. GM = ab
69. ã¨O=~°=æ ∂<åÅ∞ ^•fi~å QÆ∞}=∞^Œº QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O ...
[.

GM = Anti

70. qzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ GM QÆ}#‰õΩLѨÜ∂≥ yOK«∞ ã¨∂„`«O ....
[.

z~°Orq

GM = Anti

⎡∑f

log ⎢

log x ⎤
N ⎥⎦

106

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

71. ÉèÏi`« QÆ∞}=∞^躌 =∂xfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕã∂¨ „`«O?
[.

GM W = Anti

⎡ ∑ log x.w ⎤
log ⎢

⎣ ∑w ⎦

72. âß`åÅ∞, x+¨Ê`«∞ÅÎ ∞,ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ QÆ}#KÕÜ∞« _»OÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ãÕ Q¨ @
Æ ∞?
[. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
73. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ U JOâ◊"∞≥ <ÿ å ''0—— QÍx, |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõO (–) QÍx J~Ú`Õ...
[. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∂xfl QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.

ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
74. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x qÅ∞=Å, =Ùº¢`¯« =∞=ÚÅ JOHõ=∞^蕺xH˜ QÆÅ =Ùº¢`¯« =∂xfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
75. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº QÆ}#‰õΩ ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞#flѨÙÊ_»∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú?
[. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
76. ~Ô O_»∞ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= JOâßÅ∞ L#flѨ
ÙÊ_»∞ ǨÏ~°=∞^躌 QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«=Ú?
⎤ ba2⎡
[. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú

N
).M.H(
⎥ b + a⎢ =
= ).M.H(
⎥⎦ 1x ∑ ⎢⎣

77. QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ =¸_çO\˜Ö’#∂ Hõ#|_Õ ã¨∞QÆ∞}ÏÅ∞?
[. Z. Wq ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x „Ѩu JOâ◊OÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞.
a. Wq crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ J#∞=ÙQÍ LO_»∞#∞.
78. „âı}Ö˜ ’ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ =∞iÜ«Ú |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ qÅ∞=Å∞ L#flѨÙÊ_»∞ ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∂xfl...
[. QÆ}O˜ K«Ö=Ë Ú.
79. ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
[. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú ´ ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
80. J™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
[. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú ´ 3 =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« – 2 JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O

z~°Orq

107

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

qã¨Î~°} =∂<åÅ∞
81.
[.
82.
[.
83.
[.
84.
[.

Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞=‰õΩ, ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x Jã¨Å∞ qÅ∞=‰õΩ =∞^躌 QÆÅ `Õ_®#∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞H˘<Õ H˘Å=∂<åÅ#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú (Dispersion)
qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åʼnõΩ =∞~˘Hõ ¿Ñ~°∞?
~Ô O_»=„âı}˜ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
Hˆ O„^Œ ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å q=fiã¨hÜ«∞`«#∞ ѨsH˜OΔ K«_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ kÕ ?
qã¨Î~°}=∂<åÅ∞.
qq^èŒ qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞ Uq?
Z) "åºÑ≤,Î
a) K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú, ã≤) =∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#=Ú, _ç) „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
W) ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y, (ˆ~MÏ z„`«O ^•fi~å QÆ}O˜ KÕk)

"åºÑ≤Î (Range) :
85. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x Hõx+¨,ì QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞=Å =∞^躌 Éè^Ë •xfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. "åºÑ≤Î
86. XHõ "å~°OÖ’ 10 „QÍ=ÚÅ |OQÍ~°O J`«ºkèH^õ ~Œè ° ~°∂. 12,000 QÍ#∂, J`«ºÅÊ ^è~Œ ° ~°∂. 10,500 QÍ#∂
#"≥∂^Œ∞ J~Ú`Õ |OQÍ~°O ^è~Œ Ö° ’x "åºÑ≤Î ZO`«?
[. ~°∂. 1500
87. "åºÑ≤xÎ QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[. J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞= – J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞= (R = L– S)
88. "åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HÍxH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK«=Åã≤# ã¨∂„`«O?
J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞= – J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=
[. L – S
---- = ---------------------------L+S
J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞= { J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=
89. JO`«º qÅ∞=Å „ѨÉÏè =O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_Õ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O Uk?
[. "åºÑ≤Î
90. "å`å=~°} ã¨∂K«#Ö’#∂, ™êìH± ZˆHÛùO*òÖ’ "å\ÏÅ ^è~Œ Å° =∂~°∞ÊÅ#∞ ã¨∂zOKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ, =ã¨∞Î <å}º`«#∞x~°~‚ ÚOKÕ
QÆ∞} xÜ«∞O„`«}Ö’#∂ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O?
[. "åºÑ≤Î

K«`«∞~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
91. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å<åxH˜ P ¿Ñ~°∞#∞ ÃÑ\˜#ì k?
[. ã¨~„ü á¶êxûãπ QÍÅì<£

z~°Orq

108

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

92. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’ kQÆ∞= 25 JOâßÅ∞, ZQÆ∞= 25 JOâßÅ∞ =ke =∞^躌 L#fl 50 JOâßÅ∞ P^è•~°OQÍ QÆ}O˜ KÕ
qã¨Î~°}=∂#=Ú?
[. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
93. „Ѩ^=Œä ∞, `«$fÜ«∞ K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ =∞^躌 L#fl `Õ_®#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ "åºÑ≤Î (ÖË^•) Inter Quartile Range
94. Inter Quartile Range #∞ Uq^èOŒ QÍ K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û#∞.
[. Q – Q
95. Inter Quartile Range Ö’x ã¨QÉÆ Ïè QÍxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. J~°÷ K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ "åºÑ≤Î (Semi Inter Quartile Range)
96. Semi Inter Quartile Range#∞ U q^èOŒ QÍ K«∂ѨÙ`å~°∞?
3

1

[.
97. J~°÷ K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ "åºÑ≤HÎ ˜ ã¨~„ü á¶êxûãπ QÍÅì<£ ÃÑ\˜#ì ¿Ñ~°∞?
[. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
98. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HÍxfl U q^èOŒ QÍ K«∂ѨÙ`å~°∞?
ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷OQâ◊−=ÚQ– kQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
[. Q – Q
3

1

1

=

ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú { kQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊=Ú
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å# QÆ∞}Hõ=ÚJ<Õk U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú?
™ê¿ÑHõΔ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å<åxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕ@ѨÙÊ_»∞ JOâßÅ#∞ P~ÀǨÏ} „Hõ=∞OÖ’ „"åÜ«∞_®xH˜ QÆÅHÍ~°}=Ú?
Q.D ‰õÄ_® ™ê÷#=∂#=ÚÖÏO\˜^.Õ (K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú)
q=$`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ U qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û?
K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞K«∞@∂ì L#fl qã¨~Î }
° #∞ `≥ÅѨx qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞ Uq?
"åºÑ≤†Î K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚÖ’x Jxfl JOâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞HÀ‰õΩO_® QÆ}O˜ K«|_»¤ qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞?
"åºÑ≤†Î K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú
â◊`åOâ◊ "åºÑ≤xÎ U q^èOŒ QÍ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
P –P
P ´ 90= â◊`åOâ◊=Ú
P ´ 10= â◊`åOâ◊=Ú
10

Q3 + Q1

99.
[.
100.
[.
101.
[.
102.
[.
103.
[.
104.
[.

z~°Orq

3

2

90

10

90

109

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

=∂
=∂^è^茺q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú :
105.
[.
106.
[.
107.
[.
108.
[.
109.
[.
110.
[.
111.
[.

Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞=Å #∞Oz qq^èŒ JOâßÅ#∞fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∂xfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú, =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú,ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ ÚÅÖ’ U ã¨Q@Æ ∞ #∞Oz J~Ú<å QÆ}O˜ K«_®xH˜ gÅ∞O_Õ qã¨~Î }° =∂#=Ú?
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
ã¨Q@Æ ∞ #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ crÜ«∞ QÆ∞~°∞ÅÎ #∞ q㨇iOz xi‡OKÕ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O?
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞O #∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ∞ "≥Ú`«OÎ ^ÕxH˜ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO@∞Ok?
''0—— (ã¨∞#fl)
QÆ∞~°∞ÅÎ #∞ q㨇iOz, ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ #∞Oz qq^èŒ JOâßÅ#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ∞ JOHõ=∞^躌 =∂xfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å<åxH˜ =∞~˘Hõ ¿Ñ~°∞?
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#=Ú
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}∞ÅÖ’ =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å# QÆ}#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
∑ ldxl
N

112. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å<åxfl ã¨Q@
Æ ∞`À ÉèÏyOz# Z_»ÅX nxx á⁄O^Œ=K«∞Û?
[. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å# QÆ}Hõ=Ú
113. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HÍxH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.
=∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
MD =

(ÖË^•) =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú (ÖË^•) ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
114. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯=ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ ֒ѨO?
[. crÜ«∞ zǨflÅ∞ =keÃÑ@∞ì@, crÜ«∞ „Ѩ™êÎ=#‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ^» ∞Œ

„áê=∂}˜
áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú / H„ =õ ∞ qK«Å#=Ú
115.
[.
116.
[.
117.
[.

z~°Orq

1893Ö’ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Ö<åxfl „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì k?
HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~üã<¨ £
qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÖ’¡ JkèHOõ QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕk Ju ã¨O`«$Ñ≤HÎ ~õ "° ∞≥ #ÿ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O Uk?
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú#∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ, =~åæÅ, JOHõ=∞^躌 =∞=Ú =~°=æ ¸ÖÏxfl D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
110

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

118.
[.
119.
[.
120.

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxH˜ =∞~˘Hõ ¿Ñ~°∞?
=¸Å=∞^Œº=∞ =~°æ qK«Å#=Ú (ÖË^•) =∞^躌 =~°æ qK«Å# =¸ÅO (Root - Mean Square deviation)
ZÅ¡ÑÙ¨ Ê_»∂ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú #∞Oz =∂„`«"∞Õ á⁄O^ŒQeÆ Qˆ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú?
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’, „Ѩ`º« HõΔ Ñ¨^uúŒ Ö’ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ}#‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O?
( σ = „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxH˜ QÆ∞~°∞)Î

[.

121. =ºH˜QÎ `Æ « „âı}Ö˜ ’ ^ŒQ~æÆ ° Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ}#‰õΩã¨∂„`«O?
[.
122.
[.
123.
[.

„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# ™ê¿ÑHõΔ =∂<åxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú.
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HÍxfl 100 KÕ ÃÇÏzÛ¿ãÎ =KÕÛk?
qK«~}° QÆ∞}HõO (Co-efficient of variation)
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
CV =
˛ 100
2
2 JOHõ=∞^Œe
2º=∞=Ú
2i.r8a6v= σl=±2 σ
x
cx∑nd7a∑
⎤ x d ∑ ⎡ x d%
= =σσ==D

DS


124. A, B J<Õ 2K«Å~åâ◊√⎦ÅÖ’N A⎣ HõNO>ËNB K«Å~åt qKå~°} QÆ∞}HõO `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO>Ë ã≤~÷ `° fi« O Uq^èOŒ QÍ LO_»∞#∞?
[. B ã≤~÷ `° fi« O Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
QÆ=∞xHõ : qKå~°} QÆ∞}HÍxH˜,ã≤~÷ `° åfixH˜ qÖ’=∞ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO_»∞#∞. qK«~}
° O ÃÑiˆQH˘nÌ ã≤~÷ `° fi« O `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞.
125. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# =~åæxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. qã¨Î $u (Variance).
126.
[.
127.
[.
128.
[.
129.
[.

z~°Orq

Variance =

U ã¨Q@Æ ∞ #∞O_ç fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ∞ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO_»∞#∞?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
XHõ ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^•ºxH˜ ± XHõ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl KÕiÛ`Õ P ~ˆ Y qã‘~Î =‚° ÚÖ’ QÆÅ JOâßÅ∞
XHõ ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^•ºxH˜ ± 2 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åefl KÕiÛ`Õ P ~ˆ Y qã‘~Î =‚° ÚÖ’ QÆÅ JOâßÅ∞
x ± 2σ= 95.45%

XHõ ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^•ºxH˜ ± 3 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åefl KÕiÛ`Õ P ~ˆ Y qã‘~Î =‚° ÚÖ’ QÆÅ JOâßÅ∞
x ±3σ=99.73%
111

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

130.
[.
131.
[.
132.

K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#=Ú, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=ÚÖ’ Z#fl= =O`«∞QÍ LO@∞Ok?
2/3 =O`«∞ (0.6745)
~Ô O_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= „QÆ∂ѨÙÅ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl ÖˇH¯õ QÆ_`ç Õ ^•xfl U q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
L=∞‡_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
L=∞‡_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ}#‰õΩLѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O

[.
133. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ Z#fl= =O`«∞ LO@∞Ok?
[. ã¨∞=∂~°∞ 4/5 =O`«∞ (0.7979)

ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõˆ~Y :
134.
[.
135.
[.
136.
[.
137.
[.
138.
[.
139.

qã¨~Î }
° #∞ ~ˆ MÏ`«‡HõOQÍ J^躌 Ü«∞#O KÕÜ∞« _®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ Qˆ Ѩ_Õ =„Hõ~ˆ Y?
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y Z=i ¿Ñ~°∞`À =Ú_»Ñ_¨ ç LOk?
=∂H±û F.ÖÏÔ~O*ò
ÖÏÔ~O*ò "≥Ú^Œ\ Q˜ Í ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y#∞ U ѨOÑ≤}© q=~åÅ#∞ `≥e¿ÑO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞?
ã¨OѨ^†Œ 2P^•Ü«
∞=Ú
d N + 2 d1N + 2 σ2 N + 2σ1N
2 2
1
2
) 2,1σ ( Percent curve)
ã¨Oz`« âß`åÅ =„Hõ
~ˆ Y Jx
^ÕxH˜1¿Ñ~°∞? =(Cumulative
2 N + 1N
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y
ã¨=∞qÉèÏ[# ~ˆ Y‰õΩ, ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y‰õΩ ^Œ∂~°O ÃÑiˆQH˘nÌ
qã¨~Î }
° JO`« Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ L#fl^Œx J~°=ú Ú.
yh QÆ∞}HÍxfl QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?

[. yh QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú ´

x
x+y

QÆ=∞xHõ : ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y‰õΩ, ã¨=∞ѨOÑ≤}© ~ˆ Y‰õΩ =∞^躌 LO_Õ „áêO`åxfl
LO_Õ „áêO`åxfl y QÍ#∂ QÆ∞iΙêÎ~∞° .

X

QÍ#∂, ÖÏÔ~O*ò ~ˆ Y‰õΩ kQÆ∞=#

"≥·+¨=∞º=Ú :
140.
[.
141.
[.

z~°Orq

^Œ`åÎOâ◊=Ú ã¨Q@
Æ ∞‰õΩ W~°∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ ÖÏ ã¨=∂#OQÍ qã¨iÎ Oz LO>Ë ^•xx U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=ÚJO\Ï~°∞?
™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊=Ú JO\Ï~°∞.
XHõ qÉèÏ[#=Ú ™œ+¨=ì OQÍ ÖË#ѨÙÊ_»∞ ^•xx U=∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
J™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[#=Ú/ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
112

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

142.
[.
143.
[.
144.
[.
145.
[.
146.
[.
147.
[.
148.
[.
149.
[.
150.
[.
151.
[.
152.
[.
153.

™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[#=ÚÖ’ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ U q^èOŒ QÍ LO@∞Ok?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl ~ˆ MÏz„`«OÖ’ K«∂Ñ≤¿ãÎ U PHÍ~°O =ã¨∞OÎ k?
'ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ QÆO@— PHÍ~°O
™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[# =„Hõ~ˆ Y#∞ U=∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y ÖË^• P^Œ~≈° =„Hõ~ˆ Y
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÖ’¡ `Õ_® L#flѨÙ_»∞ P qÉèÏ[<åxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
"≥+· =¨ ∞º qÉèÏ[#=Ú
"≥+· =¨ ∞º qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ ~ˆ Y U q^èOŒ QÍ LO@∞Ok?
~ˆ Y‰õΩ U^À XHõ z=~° >ˇ~ÚÖò (`ÀHõ) Hõ#|_»∞`«∞Ok.
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O qÅ∞=, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ HõO>ËZ‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú?
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú (ÖË^•) ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú JO\Ï~°∞. (nxH˜ `ÀHõ ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ LO_»∞#∞)
ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ qÅ∞= =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞OÅ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO>Ë U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú?
|∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO (ÖË^•) Z_»=∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO (WHõ¯_» `ÀHõ Z_»=∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ LO@∞Ok)
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O > =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú > ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ J<Õk ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O < =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
|∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú.
ã¨Q@Æ ∞Å P^è•~°OQÍ K≥Ñʨ |_Õ "≥+· =¨ ∂ºxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
„Ѩ^=Œè ∞ "≥+· =¨ ∞º =∂<åÅ∞ JO\Ï~°∞.
K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ P^è•~°OQÍ K≥Ñʨ |_»¤ "≥+· =¨ ∞º =∂<åÅ#∞ U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
kfifÜ«∞ "≥+· =¨ ∞º =∂#=ÚÅ∞
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú, ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÅ∞ =∞^躌 ^Œ∂~°O P^è•~°OQÍ K≥Ñʨ |_ç# HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~°û<£ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºQÆ∞}HõO Uk?
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O – ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
[. HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HõO (SK ) ´
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
154. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ x~°fiK«#O ã¨iQÍ ÖË#ѨÙ_»∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~°û<£ ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
[. 3 JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O – 3 =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#=Ú
p

z~°Orq

113

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

155. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 120, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« 115, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 10 J~Ú#KÀ SK ZO`«?
p

3 × 120 − 3 × 115 15
= =1.5(or)
10
10
3(120 − 115) 15

= =1.5
10
10

[.

156. ™œ+¨=ì qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ U q^èOŒ QÍ LO@∞Ok?
[. kQÆ∞=, ZQÆ∞= K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ∞ =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxH˜ ã¨=∂# ^Œ∂~°OÖ’ LO\Ï~Ú.
157. É∫ÖË "≥+· =¨ ∞º QÆ∞}HÍxH˜LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.

Q + Q1 − 2Q 2
SK B = 3
Q3 − Q1

158. ™œ+¨=ì =„Hõ~ˆ Y H˘#`Õe L#fl^•? K«^∞Œ #∞QÍ L#fl^•? Jx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« ÅHõ}
Δ Ïxfl U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. Hõ‰õΩ^Œ`«fiO

ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ∞
159.
[.
160.
[.
161.
[.
162.
[.
163.
[.
164.
[.
165.

qq^è*Œ Ï`«∞ʼnõΩ K≥Ok# 2 „âı}∞Å#∞ áÈÅÛ_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ „Ѩ`ºÕ Hõ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å#∞ U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ∞
"≥Ú@ì"Ú≥ ^Œ\ ˜ ã¨∂pã¨OYº QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ „ѨÜ∞« uflOz#"å_»∞?
W@b ^Õâ◊ã¨∞÷_≥·# ''HÍs¡——
"≥Ú^Œ\ ™˜ êiQÍ ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ#∞ "Õ\ x˜ H˘eKÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOzi?
„^Œ=º qÅ∞=Ö’x =∂~°∞Ê
1838Ö’ ã¨∂p^è~Œ Å° ∞ J<Õ Ñ¨^•xfl LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k?
áÈ~°~ì ü
ã¨∂pã¨OYº J<Õ Ñ¨^•xfl LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k?
r"å<£û
Pi÷Hõ ÉèÏ~°q∞`«∞Å∞ (Economic Barometers) Jx "Õ\ x˜ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞
XHõ xs‚`« HÍÅOÖ’ QÆÅ =ã¨∞Î ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ , P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°OÖ’ QÆÅ =ã¨∞Î ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ QÆÅ x+¨ÊuÎx U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?

[. ™ê¿ÑHõΔ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p

P01 =

P1
P0

166. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏxH˜, P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏxH˜ QÆÅ x+¨ÊuÎx U=∞O^Œ∞~°∞?
[. ™ê¿ÑHõΔ Ñ¨i=∂} ã¨∂p

z~°Orq

Q01 =

Q1
Q0
114

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

167.
[.
168.
[.
169.
[.
170.
[.

ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk?
QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
ã¨∂pã¨OYº x~å‡} Ѩ^`úŒ ∞« Å#∞ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OK«=K«∞Û#∞?
2. 1) ÉèÏ~°~Ç° Ï≤ `« ã¨∂p 2) ÉèÏi`« ã¨∂p
ÉèÏ~°~Ç° Ï≤ `« ã¨∂px =∞~°ÖÏ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí OK«=K«∞Û?
2. 1) ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤Ñì ^¨ uúŒ 2) ™ê=∂#º ™ê¿ÑH˜HΔ ÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Ѩ^uúŒ .
™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
∑P
P01 = 1 ×100
∑ P0

171. ™ê=∂#º ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ∞ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ ã¨∂px QÆ}O˜ KÕã∂¨ „`«O
[.

⎡P

Σ ⎢ 1 ×100⎥
P

P01 = ⎣ 0
N

172. ÉèÏi`« ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ#∞ Zxfl ~°HÍÅ∞QÍ =sæHiõ ™êÎ~∞° ?
[. 2. 1) ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì ã¨∂p 2) ÉèÏi`« ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Ѩ^uúŒ
173. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°O Ѩi=∂}Ïxfl001Éè×Ïi`«
Õ ?Ϋ
0QO1PQÍ∑ fã¨
= ∞‰õPΩx ã¨∂px ~°∂á⁄OkOz# QÆ}ÏOHõ"`
10
0Q0P ∑

[. ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü
174. =~°=Î ∂# ã¨O=`«û~°O Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx ã¨∂px ~°∂á⁄OkOz# QÆ}ÏOHõ=`Õ?Î
[. áêjÛ

P01 =

∑ P1Q1
×100
∑ P0Q1

175. ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ ™ê=∂#º JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞"Õ∞ Z=i ã¨∂pã¨OYºQÍ Ñ≤Å=|_»∞`«∞Ok?
[. _Àiƒãπ   É∫ÖË
176.
[.
177.
[.

z~°Orq

P01 =

L+P
2

Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº ÖÏãπ¿ÑÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ U ã¨Q@
Æ ∞QÍ Ñ≤Å==K«∞Û?
QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂px P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂pQÍ Ñ≤Å=_®xH˜ HÍ~°}O?
Wk HÍŠѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞.
– ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O P^è•~°OQÍ QÆ}O˜ K«|_»∞#∞.
– „Ѩã∞¨ `Î ,« P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩO@∞Ok.
– Jxfl~°HÍŠѨHáΔõ ê`åʼnõΩ^Œ∂~°OQÍ LO_»∞#∞ (It is free from bias)
115

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ECONOMY

178. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p ã¨∂„`«"∞Õ k?
[.

P01 =

∑ P1Q0 ∑ P1Q1
×
×100
∑ P0 Q0 ∑ P0 Q1

179. ''P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~åxfl „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«û~åxfl `å~°∞=∂~°∞ KÕã≤ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ Hõ#∞H˘¯O>Ë Jq XHõ^•xH˘Hõ\ ˜
=Ùº¢`¯« =∂Å∞QÍ LO_®e—— J<Õ xÜ«∞=∞O U ѨsHõ#Δ ∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
[. HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
180. P X P = 1 J<Õ ã¨∂„`«O U ѨsHõ‰Δ Ωõ K≥Ok#k?
[. HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
181. '^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p, Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ ã¨∂p Å|úO qÅ∞=Ö’x =∂~°∞ʉõΩ ã¨=∂#O— J<Õ xÜ«∞=∞O U ѨsHõ‰Δ Ωõ ã¨O|OkèOz#k?
[. HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ.Δ
182. HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞ K«∂¿Ñ ã¨∂„`« xÜ«∞=∞O Uk?
01

[.
183.
[.
184.
[.
185.
[.

10

∑ P1Q1
P01 X Q01 = ∑ P Q
0 0

ã¨~∞° ¯ ºÅ~ü >ˇãxìπ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ΠѨiKÕ ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ (ÉèÏ~°~Ç° Ï≤ `«) =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤~÷ ° ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ
ã¨~∞° ¯ ºÅ~ü >ˇã#ìπ ∞ ã¨∂zOKÕ xÜ«∞=∞O Uk?
P10 X P12 X P20 = 1

VP
P∑

W

=∂~°¬Öò – Z_£=˚ ~üÎ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº0000ã¨11×∂ׄ`«WV"∑∞Õ ∑k?==1100P
P01 =

∑ P1 (Q0 + Q1 )
× 100
∑ P0 (Q0 + Q1 )

(Wk‰õÄ_® „Ѩã∞¨ `Î ,« P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ fã¨∞H˘<≥#∞)

186. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}ÏxH˜ HÔ b¡ ã¨∂zOz# ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
[.

P01 =

∑ P1Q
×100
∑ P0Q

Q0 + Q1 ⎞

⎜∴ Q =

2

187. HÔ b¡ã∂¨ p x~å‡} Ѩ^uúŒ H˜ =∞~˘Hõ ¿Ñ~°∞?
[. ã≤÷~°ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^Œúu.
188. ÉèÏi`« ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ ã¨∂p x~å‡}ÏxH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O?
P = ^è~
Œ Å°

[.
ÖË^•

™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ∞

P1
P0

W = Value of weights (P0 Q0)

189. r=# =ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂pH˜ =∞~˘Hõ¿Ñ~°∞?
[. r=# ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p (ÖË^•) qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞x ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p

z~°Orq

116

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

190. r=# =ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂px xi‡OKÕ Ñ¨^`úŒ ∞« Å∞ Uq?
2...
1. ã¨q∞+≤ì =ºÜ«∞ Ѩ^uúŒ
2. ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥\˚ òÑ^¨ uúŒ
191. ã¨q∞+≤ì =ºÜ«∞ Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ r=#=ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂p QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
[.

P01 =

∑ P1Q0
∑ P0 Q0

192. ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥\˚ ò Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ r=#=ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂p QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
[.
193.
[.
194.
[.

P01 =

∑ PV
∑V

β2 > 3

J~Ú`Õ P =„Hõ~ˆ Y U Hõ‰Ωõ ^Œ`fi« O Hõey LO_»∞#∞.

Lepto Kurtic

J~Ú`Õ P =„Hõ~ˆ Y U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ Hõ‰Ωõ ^Œ`fi« O Hõey LO_»∞#∞?
Meso Kurtic

ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒO
195.
[.
196.
[.
197.
[.
198.
[.
199.
[.
200.
[.
201.
[.
202.
[.

z~°Orq

~Ô O_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K◊Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥e¿Ñ QÆ}ÏOHõ ™ê^è<Œ åxfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ . L^• : =º‰õΩÅÎ ∞ Z`«∞‰Î Ωõ ,|~°3∞=Ù‰õ
Ω ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO@∞Ok.
= 2β
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ, |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞ ^Õx P^è•~°OQÍ qÉèlí OѨ|_»∞#∞?
K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∂ˆ~ kâ◊#∞ |\˜ì
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å« ~åâ◊√Å∞ XˆH kâ◊QÍ Ñ¨Ü∞« x¿ãÎ P ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú. L^• : ^è~Œ ° ÃÑiy`Õ ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü ‰õÄ_® ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@.
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ XHõ^•xH˜ XHõ\ ˜ =ºuˆ~Hõ kâ◊Ö’ ѨÜ∞« x¿ãÎ ( XHõ K«~~° åt ÃÑiy`Õ ~Ô O_Àk `«Q∞Æ @
æ ) Jk U
~°Hõ"≥∞ÿ#ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒ=Ú?
|∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú (L^• : ^è~Œ ° ÃÑiy`Õ _ç=∂O_£ `«Q∞Æ @
æ )
™ê=∂#º, áêH˜HΔ ,õ |Ǩïà◊ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•Å∞ J<Õq U JOâ◊O P^è•~°OQÍ qÉèlí OK«|_ç#k?
=∞#O J^躌 Ü«∞O KÕ¿ã K«Å~åâ◊√Å ã¨OYºÃÑ#·
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^è•xfl Ѩije¿ãÎ ^•xfl U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Jx Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
™ê=∂#ºã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú (Simple co-rrelation)
=¸_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl J^躌 Ü«∞#O KÕÜÚ« @ U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ?
áêH˜HΔ õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ QÍx, |Ǩïà◊ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ QÍxHÍ=K«∞Û.
=¸_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K°Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^è•xfl UHõHÍÅOÖ’ J^躌 Ü«∞#O KÕ¿ãÎ Jk U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
|Ǩïà◊ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú. L^• : =~°¬áê`«O, Z~°∞=ÙÅ∞, ѨO@ kQÆ∞|_çÃÑ· „ѨÉÏè =O K«∂ѨÙ#∞.
117

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ECONOMY

203. ~Ô O_»∞ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å~åâ◊√Å#∞ QÆ∞iÎOz#ѨÊ\˜H© W`«~° K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ ã≤~÷ O° QÍ L<åflÜ«∞x ÉèÏqOz ~Ô O_»∞ K«~~° åâ◊√Å∞
=∞^躌 ã¨O|O^è•xfl J^躌 Ü«∞#OKÕ¿ãÎ Jk U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
[. áêH˜HΔ õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
204. ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 =º`åºã¨O „Ѩu™ês ã≤~÷ ° x+¨ÊuÎÖ’ LO>Ë "å\˜ =∞^躌 L#fl ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
[. ã¨~à° ~ˆ◊ MÏ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
205. XHõ K«Å~åtÖ’ =∂~°∞Ê#‰õΩ ~Ô O_»= K«Å~åtÖ’x =∂~°∞Ê ã≤~÷ ° x+¨ÊuÎÖ’ ÖËx Z_»Å Jk U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
[. =„Hõ ~ˆ vÜ«∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
206. "åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÖ’ aO^Œ∞=Å "åºÑ¨# „Hõ=∞=Ú T~°fiú kâ◊QÍ Z_»=∞ #∞O_ç ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ ÃÑH· ᘠÈ`Õ U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl
`≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
[. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
207. "åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÖ’ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ "åºÑ¨# „Hõ=∞=Ú J^èÀókâ◊QÍZ_»=∞ #∞O_ç ‰õΩ_çH˜ „H˜OkH˜ ky`Õ Jk U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
[. |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
208. "åºÑ¨# Ѩ@OÃÑ· QÆ∞iÎOK«|_»¤ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞ XHõ „Hõ=∞Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’ "åºÑ¨#O K≥O^Œ‰Ωõ O_® Ѩ@O JO`å qã¨iÎ Oz LO>Ë
P K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ k?
[. P ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 ZÖÏO\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ ÚÖË^∞Œ . n<Õfl ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è~Œ åÇ≤Ï`«º=Ú JO\Ï~°∞.
(No correlation)

209. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ~ˆ MÏ z„`«Ñ@
¨ OÖ’ ~Ô O_»∞ydK«xÅd~åâ◊
ˆ YÅ∞ ã¨=∂O`«~O° QÍ Ñ¨Ü∞« x¿ãÎ "å\˜ =∞^躌
∑ √ʼnõΩã¨O|OkèOz# ~
=r
yσ xσN
ã¨Ç¨Ïã¨O|O^èŒ=Ú?
[. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
210. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ ~ˆ MÏ z„`«Ñ@
¨ OÖ’ ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√ʼnõΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# ~ˆ YÅ∞ Jaè=ÚYOQÍ XHõ ^•xH˜ XHõ\ ˜
=ºuˆ~Hõkâ◊Ö’ ѨÜ∞« x¿ãÎ "å\˜ =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ?
[. |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
211. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl ã¨OMϺ~°∂ѨOÖ’ K≥Ñʨ _®xH˜ Z‰õΩ¯= "å_»∞HõÖ’#∞#fl ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú?
[. HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~üã<¨ £ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú.
212. HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~üã<¨ £ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.
213.
[.
214.
[.
215.
[.

z~°Orq

HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO { qÅ∞= =¿ãÎ U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ?
^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ZÅ¡ÑÙ¨ Ê_»∂ U qÅ∞=Å =∞^躌 LO_»∞#∞?
-1, { 1Å =∞^躌 LO_»∞#∞ (±1)
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ¿ã¯Öò, =¸Å=Ú =∂~°∞ÊʼnõΩ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞?
It is Independent of change of scale and origin.
118

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ECONOMY

216. ã¨OÉèÏ=º`å ^À+¨O QÆ}# ^ÕxH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° ?
[. HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO „áê=ÚYºO. ^•x P^è•~° Ü≥∂Qƺ`«#∞ Hõ#∞HÀ¯=_®xH˜.
217. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ã¨OÉèÏ=º`« ^À+¨O U q^èOŒ QÍ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
[.
218. QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ q+¨Ü∂« Å∞ J~Ú# JO^ŒKO« ^•Å∞, `≥eq`Õ@Å∞,hux*Ï~ÚfÅ∞ ÖÏO\˜ JOâßÅ =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl
QÆ}O˜ KÕO^Œ∞‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ Õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú?
[. HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú
219. HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HÍxfl Hõ#∞Q˘#flk?
[. KåÔ~ã¡ π Z_»fi~ü¤ ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ – 1904 („a@<£)
220. ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HÍxH˜ ã¨∂„`«O?
[.
221.
[.
222.
[.
223.
[.
224.

2
2
R =1 − 6 ∑ d
(or) 1 − 6 ∑ D
N(N 2 − 1
N3 − N

ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ãǨ Ϩ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HÍxfl U JHõ~Δ O° `À ã¨∂z™êÎ~∞° ?
"Rho"(p)

ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ HÀ\˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú U~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ „âı}∞ʼnõΩ =iÎã∞¨ OÎ k?
=ºH˜QÎ `Æ „« âı}∞ʼnõΩ =∂„`«"∞Õ .
⎞ 2 −1⎛ N − C 2
⎜ ^•x =ÚO^Œ
C =Ú #∞O_ç QÆ∞iÎOz ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl QÆ}O
„âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩu JOâ◊ÑÙ¨ qK«⎟⎠ År<åxfl
˜ KÕ Ñ¨^uúŒ Uk?
⎝ 5476.0 = r f±o∞=EJOâ◊
P
N
N
™ê~°∂Ѩº qK«Å<åŠѨ^uúŒ
™ê~°∂Ѩº qK«Å<åÅ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO ã¨∂„`«O?

[.
225.
[.
226.
[.
227.
[.
228.
[.
229.
[.

z~°Orq

J<Õk U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
R = –1 J<Õk U ~°H"
õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú.
R = 0 J~Ú#ѨÙ_»∞ U~°H"
õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞?
~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË^xŒ J~°=÷ Ú.
Co-efficient of determination #∞ Uq^èO
Œ QÍ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° ?
R=+1

r2

ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 0.9 J~Ú`Õ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ x~å÷~}
° Ï QÆ∞}HõO ZO`«?
0.81.

119

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ECONOMY

QÆ`« ZÑ≤ÑZ≤ ãπã,≤ Ü«ÚÑ≤Zãπã≤ Ñ„ ⨠ßflѨ`„ åÅÖ’x Ñ„ ⨠fl◊ Å∞ – ã¨=∂^è•<åÅ∞
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

XHõ „âı}Ö˜ ’ =ºH˜QÎ `Æ « ѨijÅ#Å∞ ∑ x ´ 25 =∞iÜ«Ú N = 4 J~Ú#ѨÙ_»∞ ^•x ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qÅ∞= nxH˜ ã¨=∂#O
(„QÆ∂Ñπ 2– 2005)
(1)
(1). 6.25
(2). 5.50
(3). 6.10
(4). 6.50
15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34 J<≥_„ç âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« qÅ∞= („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(4)
(1). 15
(2). 31
(3). 27.
(4). 29
2, 3, 4ŠǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(1)
(1). 3.0 (2.77)
(2). 3.27
(3). 4.0
(4). 4.5
d ´ 200 =∞iÜ«Ú N = 8 J~Ú#ѨÙ_»∞„Hõ=∞qK«Å#O qÅ∞= ^ÕxH˜ ã¨=∂#O („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(3)
(1). 3.0
(2). 4.0
(3). 5.0
(4). 6.0
4, 16 Å *Ϻq∞fÜ«∞ =∞^Œº=∞O („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(1)
(1) 8.0
(2) 7.5
(3) 5.5
(4) 7.0
(2)
JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O > =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« > ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ LO>Ë =KÕÛ ~ˆ Y („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(1) ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ JÃã+· =ì¨ ~ˆ Y (2) ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ J™œ+¨=ª ~ˆ Y (3) ™ê^è•~°}~ˆ Y (4) ™œ+¨=ª ~ˆ Y
~Ô O_»∞ „âı}∞Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO qÅ∞= - 0.5 J~Ú`Õ x~åú~}
° QÆ∞}HõO qÅ∞= („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(1). -0.25
(2).-0.7
(3). {0.25
(4).{0.7
(3)
P + 1∑
P
0
XHõ Jã¨fi`«O„`« K«ÖÏOHõ=Ú, 2 ã¨fi`«O0„`«01K«×ÖÏOHÍÅ
=∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è•xflÖˇH¯˜ ¿ãÎ ^•xx WÖÏ JO\Ï~°∞ ( 4 )
0P ∑
(1). ™ê^è•~°} ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
(2). ã¨fiÜ«∞OKåÅHõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(3). „âı}˜ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
(4). |Ǩïà◊`fi« ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
XHõ "åºÑ¨Hõ Ѩ@OÖ’x Jxfl aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∂ ѨÓiÎQÍ „ѨuQÆ=∞#ˆ~YÃÑ· LO>Ë K«ÖÏOHÍÅ#∞ WÖÏ ÉèÏq™êÎ~°∞
(1). ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ QÍ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ HõÅq
(2). |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ HõÅq („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(3). ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ â◊¥#ºO
(4). K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ â◊¥#ºO
(1)
P =∞iÜ«Ú P =~°∞ã¨QÍ P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°, „Ѩã∞¨ `
Î « ã¨O=`«û~° ^è~Œ Å° ∞ã¨∂z™êÎ~Ú.
ã¨∂p ã¨OYº#∞xi‡OK«_®xH˜LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ™ê^è•~°} ã¨q∞+≤Ѫ ^¨ uúŒ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ã¨∂„`«O („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005) ( 2 )
2

0

1.
11.
12.

z~°Orq

1

2.

∑ P1
×100
∑ P0

3.

∑ P1
×100
P0

4.

P1 + P0
×100
∑ P1

r=# =ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂zHõ D Ѩ^uúŒ ^•fi~å ÖˇH¯˜ ™êÎ~∞° („QÆ∂Ñπ 2 – 2005)
(2)
1. ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ
2. ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥@
˚ ∞ Ѩ^uúŒ 3. x["Õ`#« Ѩ^uúŒ 4. Q˘Å∞ã¨∞ P^è•~°Ñ^¨ uúŒ .
|∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ J™œ+¨=ª OQÍ L#fl XHõ ѨOÑ≤}© D Ѩiã≤u÷ Ö’ LO_»_O» [~°∞QÆ∞`«∞Ok (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)( 4 )
1. K«ÖÏOHõ=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞=Å áœ#óѨOÑ≤}© `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ L#flѨÙ_»∞
2. K«ÖÏOHõ=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ JkèHõ qÅ∞= áœ#ó ѨOÑ≤}˜ JkèHOõ QÍ L#flѨÙ_»∞
3. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»@O 4. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ LO_»@O
120

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ECONOMY

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.
19.

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

z~°Orq

~Ô O_»∞ K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 qÖ’=∞ ã¨O|O^èOŒ L#flѨÙ_»∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO qÅ∞= nx =∞^ŒºÖ’ LO@∞Ok
(<å<£QlÆ >ˇ_£ – 2005)
(2)
1. 0 =∞iÜ«Ú 1
2. 0 =∞iÜ«Ú -1 3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú -1 4. 0 =∞iÜ«Ú < – 1
XHõ ѨiѨÓ~°‚ ™œ+¨=ª ѨOÑ≤}© D ã≤u÷ Ö’ =ã¨∞OÎ k (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(1)
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« =∞iÜ«Ú ÉÏǨïà◊HÍÅ∞ XˆHqÅ∞=Hõey L#flѨÙ_»∞
2. ѨOÑ≤}© ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO J™œ+¨=ª OQÍL#flѨÙ_»∞
3. ѨOÑ≤}© |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõO J™œ+¨=ª OQÍ L#flѨÙ_»∞
4. ѨOÑ≤}© ã¨=∂#OQÍ L#flѨÙ_»∞
áêâıÛ ã¨q∞+≤ª ^è~Œ ° ã¨∂zHõ D „H˜Ok ÉèÏ~åÅÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» `«∞Ok (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(2)
1. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}O
2. WzÛ# ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}O (Given year quantity)
3. WzÛ# ã¨O=`«û~°O Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Ѩi=∂}O 4. ÃÑ=· hfl
(1)
XHõ ™ê=∂#º ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Ö’ r D „H˜Ok ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ`«∞Ok (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
1. "≥Ú`«OÎ Ö’ qK«~}
° OÖ’
2. QÆ∞_£<ã≥ π PѶπ Ѷ\≤ ò
3. K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^èŒ ™ê÷~Ú
4. ѨiѨÓ~°‚ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞Oz QÆÅ qK«Å#O
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO nxx H˘Å∞ã¨∞OÎ k (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(3)
1. K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 HÍ~°º – HÍ~°} ã¨O|O^èOŒ HÍ^Œ∞ 2. K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 Ѩ~㰠ʨ ~° ã¨O|O^èOŒ HÍ^Œ∞
3. K«ÖÏOHÍÅ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èŒ ™ê÷~Ú =∂„`«"∞Õ 4. ѨÓiÎ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞Oz QÆÅ qK«Å#O
H˘xfl ã¨OYºÅ∞ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ=Ú ÖË#ѨÙ_»∞, D „H˜Ok ^•xx QÆ∞}˜OK«Ö=Ë Ú (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(2)
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
4. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
XHõ ã¨=Ú^•Ü«∞OÖ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞= 3KÕ QÆ∞}˜Oz#, ã¨Q@
Æ ∞qÅ∞= 30. JO`«‰Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qÅ∞= ZO`«?
(<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(1)
1. 10
2. 20
3. 30
4. K≥Ñʨ ÖË=Ú
„H˜O^Œ WzÛ#ã¨OYºÅ ã¨=Ú^•Ü«∞OÖ’ Uk Z‰õΩ¯= qK«~#° =Ú Hõey#k (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(2)
1). 1, 1, 1, 3
2). 5, 11, 42, 22
3). 15, 15, 15, 17 4). 7, 5, 10, 8
JuQÍLO>Ë qÅ∞=Å∞ nxx Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«O KÕ™êÎ~Ú (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(4)
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
3. ÉÏǨïà◊H=õ Ú
4. "åºÑ≤Î
D „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U ã¨∂pã¨OYº, P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°=ÚÅ ÉèÏ~°=ÚÅ#∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yã¨∞OÎ k? (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
1. áê+‘ ã¨∂p
2. ÖÏ¿ãÊÜ«∞~üã∂¨ p 3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p
4. =∂~°¬Öò Z_£=˚ ~üÎ ã¨∂p
( 2)
yh QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú Z‰õΩ¯= L#fl Z_»Å (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(2)
1. Jã¨=∂#`« `«‰Ωõ ¯= 2. Jã¨=∂#`« Z‰õΩ¯= 3. ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ã¨=∂#`« 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú (<å<£QÔ l>ˇ_£ – 2005)
(3)
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ=Ú
2. |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ=Ú
3. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ=Ú HÍx |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ=Ú HÍx HÍ=K«∞Û 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù.
2

121

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

25.

26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Cumulative Percentge Curve

Jx nxfl JO\Ï~°∞. (ã¨Oz`« âß`« =„Hõ~ˆ Y Jx ^Õxx JO^Œ∞~°∞)

(ã≤qÖòû 2007)
(2)
1. Fl<£ ~ˆ Y
2. ÖÏÔ~O*ò ~ˆ Y 3. áœ#óѨÙ#º |ǨïÉè∞í l 4. áœ#óѨÙ#º ™êO„^Œ`« ~ˆ Y
"≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ K«`∞« ~åúOHõO 27, ^•x K«`∞« ~åúOHõ qK«Å#O 17 J~Ú`Õ 3= K«`∞« ~åÌOHõO ZO`«? (ã≤qÖòû 2007) ( 2 )
1) 59
2) 61
3) 65
4) 57
« ´ 48 "≥+· =¨ ∞ºQÆ∞}HõO ´ -0.3 J~Ú`Õ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O ZO`«? (ã≤qÖòû 2007) (4 )
X = 45, =∞^躌 QÆ`O
1) 20
2) 25
3) 28.
4) 30
áêjÛ ã¨∂p 196, Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p 210. J~Ú`Õ ÖÏã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p ZO`«? (ã≤qÖòû 2007)
(3)
1) 220
2) 215
3) 225
4) 230
HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= Fl"£, HõO>Ë ZHõ¯= Fl<£ YO_çOK«∞‰õΩ#flѨÙ_»∞ „H˜Ok H˘Å`« U~°Ê_»∞#∞? (ã≤qÖòû 2006) ( 1 )
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
2. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O 3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
(1)
„H˜Ok~åºO‰õΩÅÖ’ R and R „âı}∞ÅÖ’ (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
1

2

R1 : a1, a2 ...... an–1 an
R2 : an, an–1 ..... a2 a1

31.

32.

ã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü=∞<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO
1. –1
2. –0.5
3. 1
4. 0.5
z = x+y =∞iÜ«Ú x, zÅ =∞^躌 ^è<
Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LOk. J~Ú`Õ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ y =∞iÜ«Ú z Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
ZÖÏLO_»∞#∞? (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
(2)
1. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO
2. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO
3. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõOHÍ=K«∞Û, ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO HÍ=K«∞Û
4. UnHÍ^Œ∞.
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ~°HÍÅ∞, ÅHõ}
Δ ÏÅ∞ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
(2)
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ~°HOõ
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ÅHõ}
Δ O
A GM
1. z#fl qÅ∞=ʼnõΩ JkèHõ „áê^è•#º`« WK«∞Û#∞.
B HM
2. qK«Å<åÅ∞ "≥Ú`«OÎ ã¨∞<åfl‰õΩ ã¨=∂#O
C AM
3. x+¨Ê`«∞ÅÎ ∞, âß`åÅ∞ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ʼnõΩã¨iáÈ=Ù#∞.
D Mode
4. QÆ}`˜ Ñ« ~¨ ° =∂~°∞ÊÅ∞ KÕÜÚ« @‰õΩ gÅ∞HÍ^Œ∞
A

33.

z~°Orq

B

C

D

1.
1
2
3
4
2.
3
1
2
4
3.
4
3
2
1
4.
3
2
1
4
(2)
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O ZѨÙ_»∞ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO_»∞#∞ (Average deviation) (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
1. K«e`« =∂^Œº=∂Å ^•fi~å qK«Å<åÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#flѨÙ_»∞ 2. A M #∞Oz qK«Å<åÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#flѨÙ_»∞
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ #∞Oz qK«Å<åÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#flѨÙ_»∞
4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« #∞Oz qK«Å<åÅ∞ fã¨∞‰õΩ#flѨÙ_»∞
122

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

34.

35.

"åºÑ≤HÎ ˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #k (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
1. Wk qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O#‰õΩK≥Okk
2. ã¨∞ÅÉèOí QÍ QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û
3. JO`«º qÅ∞=Å =Å¡ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍ^Œ∞
4. Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ^» ∞Œ
1) 1 =∂„`«"∞Õ
2) 1=∞iÜ«Ú2
3) 2 =∞iÜ«Ú 3 4) 1, 2 =∞iÜ«Ú 4
[`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
eãπì 2 (J#∞=iÎ`O« )
eãπì 1 (r qÅ∞=)
A) 0.26
1. J`«ºkèHõ ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
B) –0.35
2. JÅÊ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
C) –0.89
3. J`«ºkèHõ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
D) 0.98
4. JÅÊ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
5. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË^∞Œ .
A

36.
37.

38.

39.

40.
41.

42.

z~°Orq

B

C

(4)

(2)

D

1. 3
1
5
2
2. 2
4
1
3
3. 2
1
5
3
4. 3
4
1
2
Uã¨∂p ã¨OYºHÍÅѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° Û#∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2006)
(3)
1. ÖÏã≤ûÜ«∞~üã∂¨ p
2. áêjÛã¨∂p
3. +≤+~¨ ü ã¨∂p
4. _ÀiÊ+π   É∫ÖË ã¨∂pã¨OYº
"The sum of squares of deviation of set of values is minimum when deviation is taken about" nx#∞Oz
fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ∞ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO_»∞#∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2004)
(1)
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. HM
1. AM
ѨOÑ≤}© ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO ZѨÙ_»∞Hõey LO_»∞##QÍ? (ã≤qÖòû 2004)
(1)
2. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O < =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O > =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« > ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ < =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« < ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ < JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p ã¨OYº „H˜Ok"åxx ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° Û#∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2004)
(3)
1. HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
2. HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
3. HÍÅ =∞iÜ«Ú HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ
4. Circular ѨsHõ#Δ ∞ =∂„`«"∞Õ
^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p QÆ}# Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =ÚYº L^ÕâÌ O◊ nxÖ’ =∂~°∞Ê#∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞H˘#∞@ (ã≤qÖòû 2003)
(3)
1. r=# „Ѩ=∂}O
2. |OQÍ~°∞ „^Œ=ºO 3. „^Œ=º H˘#∞QÀÅ∞â◊HΘ 4. L`«ÊuÎK¿Õ ã ™ê=∞~°º÷ O
„H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ã¨iHÍxk Uk Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p q+¨Ü∞« OÖ’ (ã≤qÖòû 2002)
(2)
1. ÖÏã≤ûÜ«∞~ü, áê+‘Å qÅ∞=ʼnõΩ =∞^躌 Ö’ LO_»∞#∞.
2. L, P Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
4. L = P J~Ú`Õ, L ÖËHõ P H˜ ã¨=∂#=∞QÆ∞#∞
3. L, P Å QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞O
U ã¨∂p HÍÅ, HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2002)
(4)
1. ÖÏã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü
2. áê¿+
3. HÔ b¡
4. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü
123

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

43.

44.
45.
46.
47.

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

53.
54.

55.

z~°Orq

XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ z = 5 =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ 15, JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ´ 20† J~Ú`Õ P ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O (ã≤qÖòû 2002) ( 1 )
1. ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ #‰õΩ "≥+· =¨ ∞º=∞O Hõey LO_»∞#∞
2. Z_»=∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
3. ™œ+¨=ª O
4.™œ+¨=ª O HÍ^Œ∞, "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO HÍ^Œ∞
ã¨Oz`« áœ#ó ѨÙ#º ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ QÆ}™˜ êÎO (ã≤qÖòû 2002)
(3)
2. HM
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
1. GM
The sumof squared deviation is the least when taken from (ã≤qÖòû 2001)
(3)
4. GM
1. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. AM
„H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U H˘Å=∂#O J`«ºkèH,õ J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=KÕ „ѨÉÏè q`«OHÍ^Œ∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2001)
(1)
3. S D
4. qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
2. HM
x =∞iÜ«Ú y Å ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O D q^èO
Œ QÍ LOk (ã≤qÖòû 2001)
(1)
x : 1,2,3,4,5
y : 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
y Ü≥ÚHõ¯ „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
2. (x „Hõ=∞ qK«Å#O) ˛ 2
1. x „Hõ=∞ qK«Å#O#‰õΩã¨=∂#O LO_»∞#∞
4. (x „Hõ=∞ qK«Å#O) – 2
3. (x „Hõ=∞ qK«Å#O) { 2
3, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5Å „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O (ã≤qÖòû 2001)
(1)
1. 1
2. 4
3. 0
4. á⁄O^ŒÖ=Ë Ú.
XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ Mean < Median < Mode J~Ú`Õ P ѨOÑ≤}© (ã≤qÖòû 2001)
(3)
1. ‰õΩ_ç"Ñ·≥ Ù¨ #‰õΩ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 2. ™œ+¨=ª O 3. Z_»=∞"≥Ñ· Ù¨ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 4. ™œ+¨=ª O HÍ^Œ∞ "≥+· =¨ ∞‡O HÍ^Œ∞
qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞ nx#∞Oz Hõ#∞Q˘# gÅ∞HÍ^Œ∞ (ã≤qÖòû 1999)
(4)
1. =∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. GM
P^è•~° ã¨OII Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ∞ ÉèÏ~åÅ∞QÍ fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl ã¨∂p ã¨OYº (ã≤qÖòû 1999)
(2)
1. áêâ‹Û
2. ÖÏã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü
3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü
4. WPI
„H˜Ok Scatter ~ˆ MÏ z„`«O #∞Oz ã¨~Ô #· J#∞=iÎ`O« Uk? (ã≤qÖòû 2000) ( 2 )
1. x & y Å∞ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Hõey L<åfl~Ú
2. x & y Å∞ ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Hõey L<åfl~Ú
3. y H˜x K«Å~åt HÍ~°}O
4. x H˜ y K«Å~åt HÍ~°}O
ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#ºO #∞Oz Hõ#∞Q˘<Õ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2000)
(4)
2. HM
3. z (ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ) 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
1. GM
(4)
10 qÅ∞=Å∞ QÆÅ x K«Å~åâ◊√Ö’¡ z=iqÅ∞"≥#· 5H˜ |^Œ∞Å∞ 4 =∂i`Õ JѨÙ_»∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2000)
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ Å∞ `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞, ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ =∂~°^∞Œ
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« =∂~°^∞Œ , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ `«Q∞Æ #æ ∞
4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« QÍx, ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ QÍx =∂~°^∞Œ
„H˜Ok"åxÖ’ U QÆ}ÏOHõ H˘Å`« Jxfl JOâßÅÃÑ#· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2000)
(2)
2. HM
3. "åºÑ≤Î
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
1.QD
124

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

56.
57.

JOHõ =∞^Œº=∞O 6, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 0.50 qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO (CV) ZO`«?
1. 4.0%
2. 8.3%
3. 16.0%
4. UnHÍ^Œ∞
Meso Kurtic ѨOÑ≤}x
© WÖÏ Jx‰õÄ_® JO\Ï~°∞ (ã≤qÖòû 2000)
3. c\Ï Ñ¨OÑ≤}©
4. ™ê=∂#º ѨOÑ≤}©
1. QÍ=∂ ѨOÑ≤}©
2. x ѨOÑ≤}©
Circular Test x ã¨O`«$Ñ≤Ñ
Î i¨ KÕk (ã≤qÖòû 2000)
1.™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ 2. áêâ‹Û ã¨∂p
3. ÖÏ¿ãÊÜ«∞~üã∂¨ p 4. HÔ b¡ ã¨∂p
ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ yx QÆ∞}HõO WÖÏ H˘Å∞™êÎ~∞° (ã≤qÖòû 2000)

(2)
(4)

2

58.
59.

1.

Area x
Area y

3.
60.

OAD

(1)
(3)

2.
4.

ѨOÑ≤}© yx QÆ∞}HõO ZO`«? (ã≤qÖòû 2000)

1.

2.

3.

4.

(1)

AAD
xDO
aO
yearaA
eerrAA
C
)yC
D
A
BxO
x( aerA
B+D

=ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ áê~ÚO@∞¡ :

Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p HÍŠѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõÅΔ #∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° ∞« @ =Å¡ Jk P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂pQÍ Ñ≤Å=|_»∞#∞.

ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}Ïxfl ÉèÏ~°OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx QÆ}O˜ K«_"» ∞≥ Oÿ k.

áê¿+ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº, „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«~Î ° =ã¨∞ΠѨ i=∂}O#∞ ÉèÏ~°OQÍ fã¨∞‰õΩx QÆ}O˜ K«_"» ∞≥ #ÿ k.

z~°Orq

125

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

„áêH©ìãπ a\òû
61. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú J<Õk
1. ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
2. QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
3. ÃÑ· ~Ô O_»∞#∂
62. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« J<Õk
1. ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
2. QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
3. ÃÑ· ~Ô O_»∞#∂
63. qzÛù#fl „âı}∞Ö’¡ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨∂„`«O Uq∞?
1.

X=A+

∑d
N

2.

X=

∑ fx
N

3.

∑x
N

( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

64. JqzÛù#fl „âı}Ö˜ ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ã¨∂„`«O
2.

1.
65.

X=

∑ dx
N

3.

( )
∑ x=A+

∑ dx
N

4.

X =A +

∑ fdx
×c
N

ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xfl „H˜Okã¨∂„`«O ^•fi~å QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
1.

2.

Xw=

∑ fx
N

3.

X

w

=A +

( )
∑ fd
N

4.

X w =A +

∑ fd1
×C
N

66. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ „H˜Okã¨∂„`åxfl LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞° .
1.
3.

G.M.= Anti log

∑fd
N

( )

∑fx

∑∑
w
x gol f∑
. f.gco−ldxdN
G.M.= Anti log
2.
+
+
=
=
A
M
X
=
i
t
n
A
=
.
M
.
G
2
w
N
+ 1L = M
w
N∑
Ni × f N

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

67. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« J#QÍ
1.

M=

( )

N
2

2.

3.

4.

M=

∑ fx
N

68. ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl <åÅ∞QÆ∞ ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí Oz# =∂<åxfl D „H˜Ok q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞°
1. â◊`åOâ◊O
2. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
69. ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 10 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí Oz# =∂<åxfl D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞°
1. â◊`åOâ◊O
2. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

61.(2)

z~°Orq

62.(1)

63.(2)

64.(4)

65.(1)
126

66.(1) 67.(2) 68.(3)

( )
( )

69.(2)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

70. ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 100 ã¨=∞ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ qÉèlí Oz# =∂<åxfl D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞°
1. â◊`åOâ◊O
2. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
71. XHõ ѨOÑ≤}#© O^Œ∞ QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞=‰õΩ,Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=‰õΩQÆÅ =º`庙êxfl D q^èOŒ QÍ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û.
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. "åºÑ≤Î
72. TÇ≤ÏOz# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞O_ç „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
1.

σ=

∑ fd 2 ⎛ ∑ fd ⎞
−⎜

N
⎝ N ⎠

3.

σ=

∑ d 2 ⎛ ∑ fd 2
−⎜
⎜ N
N

σ=

( )

2.


⎟ ×C

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

∑ d2
N

2.

3.

σ=

( )

∑ fd2 ⎛ ∑ fd ⎞2

×C
N ⎜⎝ N ⎟⎠

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

74.

ÖÏÔ~O*ò =„Hõ~ˆ Y ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O`À nxx J^躌 Ü«∞#O KÕÜ∞« =K«∞Û
1. ã¨ÇϨ HõHHõ ãõ O¨ |O^èOŒ 2.2)ã¨d∂∑p( ã¨O22ddYºÅ#∞
3.ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å#∞
4. qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ#∞



σ

=
75. K«Å~åâ◊√Å=∞^躌 QÆÅ ã¨O|O^èŒ ™ê÷N~Úxx~°NN~‚ ÚOK«∞@‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ Õ qâı+¡ }
¨ Uk?
1. qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ∞
2.ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ 3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
4.ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
76. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«∞@Ö’ ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~üLѨÜ∂≥ yOz# Ѩ^uúŒ
1.

P01 =

∑ P1Q1
×100
∑ P0 Q0

2.

P01 =

∑ P1Q
×100
∑ P0 Q

3.

P01 =

∑ P1Q0
×100
∑ P0 Q0

4.

P01 =

∑ P1Q0 + ∑ P1Q1
×100
∑ P0 Q0 + ∑ P0 Q1

77. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«∞@Ö’ áêâ‹Û (Paache) Ѩ^uúŒ Uk?
P01 =

∑ P1 Q0
×100
∑ P0 Q1

2.

P01 =

∑ P1 Q1
×100
∑ P0 Q1

3.

P01 =

∑ P1 Q1 ∑ P1 Q0
+
×100
∑ P0 Q1 ∑ P0 Q0

4.

P01 =

∑ P1 Q0 + ∑ P1 Q1
×100
∑ P0 Q0 + ∑ P0 Q1

71.(4)

72.(1)

73.(2)

74.(4)
127

( )
( )
( )

( )

1.

70.(1)

z~°Orq

( )

2

73. ™Èáê# qK«Å# Ѩ^uúŒ ^•fi~å „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl „H˜Okã¨∂„`«O ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞O`À QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞°
1.

( )

75.(3) 76.(3) 77.(2)
Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

78. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ QÆ}#Ö’ É∫ÖË Ñ¨^uúŒ Uk?
1.
3.

P01 =

∑ p1q0 ∑ p1q1
+
×100
∑ p0 q0 ∑ p0 q1

∑ p1q0 ∑ p q
11
+
∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1
P01 =
×100
2

( )
∑ p1q 0 + ∑ p1 q1
×100
∑ p0 q 0 + ∑ p0 q1

2.

P01 =

4.

∑p q
P01 = 1 ×100
∑ p0q

79. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞ QÆ}#Ö’ Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p Ѩ^uúŒ Uk?

( )

∑p q
P01 = 1 ×100
∑ p0q

1.

∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1 q1
P01 =
× 100
∑ p0 q 0 + ∑ p0 q1

2.

3.

∑ p1q0 ∑ p1q1
+
×100
P01 =
∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

80. =∂~°¬Öò – Z_£=˚ ~üΠѨ^uúŒ Ö’ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ QÆ}#‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O

( )

∑ P1
×100
∑ P0

1.

P01 =

∑ P1 q 0 + ∑ P1 q1
×100
∑ P0 q 0 + ∑ P0 q1

2.

P01 =

3.

P01 =

∑ P1 q
×100
∑ P0 q

4.

P
P01 = 1 ×100
Q1

81. „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2.=∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú 4. QÆ}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
( )
82. Fl"£ (Ogive) =„Hõ~ˆ Y nxx QÆ∞iÎOK«_®xH˜ ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞Ѩ_∞» #∞
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞=Ú 4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞=Ú
83. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊OÖ’ Zxfl K«`∞« ~å÷OHÍÅ∞LO\Ï~Ú
( )
1. ~Ô O_»∞
2. =¸_»∞
3.<åÅ∞QÆ∞
4. S^ΰ
84. 15 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ ∞ QÆÅ `«~Q° uÆ Ö’ 5 QÆ∞~°∞ q^•º~°∞Å÷ ∞ ѨsHõΔ `«ÑÊ≤ i. ѨsHõÖΔ ’ LfÎ~∞° Ö‚ #·ˇ "åi =∂~°∞¯Å∞ D
q^èOŒ QÍ L<åfl~Ú. 9, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 6, 5, 4, 7 J~Ú# "≥Ú`«OÎ 15 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ZO`«?
1. 4
2. 5
3. 6
4. 7
( )
( )
85. "Mode" (ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ) J<Õ Ñ¨^OŒ U ÉèÏ+¨ #∞O_ç Pq~°ƒqù OzOk?
1. „ÃÑO¶ Kü
2. ÖÏ\˜<£
3. „wH±
4. [~°‡<£
86. "åºÑ≤^Î xÕ x H˘Å∞K«∞#∞.
( )
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å#∞
2. qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ#∞ 3. ã¨ÇϨ –ã¨O|O^èOŒ #∞ 4. ã¨∂pã¨OYºÅ#∞

78.(3)

z~°Orq

79.(3)

80.(1)

81.(2)

82.(4)
128

83.(2) 84.(3) 85.(1)

86.(2)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

87. J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞= – J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=
---------------------J<Õ ã¨∂„`«O nxx QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞°
J`«ºkèHõ qÅ∞=Ù { J`«ºÅÊ qÅ∞=
(
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. "åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HõO 3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO 4. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞
88. Lxfl ^Œ∞ã¨∞ÅÎ J=∞‡HÍxH˜ ^≥x· Hõ LëÈ‚„QÆ`‰« Ωõ U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨O|O^èOŒ LO@∞Ok?
(
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
89. =~°¬áê`«O#‰õΩ =∞iÜ«Ú Ñ¨O@Å∞ ѨO_»∞@‰õΩ D ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»∞#∞.
(
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
90. ^èiŒ OKÕ ^Œ∞ã¨∞ÅÎ ~°OQÆ∞‰õΩ, ¢ãΑ `≥eq`Õ@ʼnõΩ QÆÅ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
(
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
91. rq`« c=∂ (Life Insurance) Ö’ áêÅã‘^•~°∞x =Ü«∞ã¨∞û‰õΩ Hõ@=ì Åã≤#„Ñ‘q∞Ü«∞O‰õΩ =Ù#fl ã¨O|O^èOŒ (
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
(
92. x~°∞^ÀºQÆ ã¨∂p (Unemployment Index) H˜ ™ê=∂#º =∂#=Ùx H˘#∞QÀÅ∞ â◊HHΘ ˜ QÆÅ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
93. ™ê^è•~°} Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« ÅÖ’ =ã¨∞Î ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ , ^•x _ç=∂O_»∞‰õΩ QÆÅ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
(
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
94. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO
(
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõOQÍ LO_»Háõ È=K«∞Û
2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍ LO_»Háõ È=K«∞Û
3. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_»^∞Œ
4. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõOQÍ QÍx ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍ QÍx LO_»=õ K«∞Û
(
95. ''Pi÷Hõ =∂~°∞ÊÅ#∞H˘eKÕ ÉèÏ~°q∞u—— (Barometers) QÍ „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ^Õxx Jaè=i‚™êÎ~∞° ?
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
2. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O 4. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞
96. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ Uk L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞.
(
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
(
97. áêâ‹Û (Paasche) ã¨∂p ã¨OYº nxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞.
1. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}O
2. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}O
3. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « =∞iÜ«Ú P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅÃÑ·
4. ÃÑ"· qÕ HÍ=Ù
87.(2)
96.(2)

z~°Orq

88.(2)
97.(2)

89.(1)

90.(3)

91.(1)
129

92.(2) 93.(2) 94.(4)

)
)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)
)
)

95.(4)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

98. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ∞.
( )
1. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêâıÛ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« 2. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêâıÛ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
3. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêâıÛ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
99. K«„H©Ü∞« ѨsHõΔ P P P J<Õ 3 ã¨∂pÅ∞#flѨÙ_»∞ ã¨~∞° ¯ ºÅ~ü >ˇãìπ nxx ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ΠѨ~∞° K«∞#∞
( )
1) P xP xP = 0 2) P xP xP = 1 3) P x P xP = 1 4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
100. "Circular Test" nxx ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ ∞° K«∞#∞.
( )
1. ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì Ѩ^uúŒ 2. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº 3. áêjÛã¨∂p ã¨OYº 4. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
101. HÍ~üÑ¡ Ü
≤ ∞« ~°û<£ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO "Õ\ ˜ "Õ\ =˜ ∞^躌 LO_»∞#∞?
( )
1) -2 #∞O_ç{2
2) 0#∞O_ç {1
3) -1 #∞O_ç {1 4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
102. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°O (Base period) ZÅ¡ÑÙ¨ Ê_»∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ LO_»∞#∞
1. r=# =ºÜ«∞O(cost of living)
2. qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞_»∞ (consumer)
3. HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#Î
4. ™ê^è•~°} (normal)
103. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛ ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ‰õΩ Uã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞QÆ}¿˜ ãΠѶ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p =K«∞Û#∞
( )
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O
1. Factor reversal
104. ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥\˚ ò Ѩ^uúŒ ^•fi~å D ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂pã¨OYº#∞ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞°
( )
1. \’‰õΩ^è~Œ Å° ∞
2. zÅ¡~^° ~Œè Å° ∞
3. qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞Å ^è~Œ Å° ∞
4.ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
105. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Uk XѨÙÊ
( )
2. AM>GM>HM 3. AM > GM > HM 4. HM > GM > AM
1. AM<GM<HM
106. qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =~°=æ ¸ÖÏxfl Dq^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 3. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 4. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O
107. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz fã≤# qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ
( )
3) 0
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
1) 1
2) ∞
( )
108. Ogive is a (Fl"£ ~ˆ Y)
2. ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º =„Hõ~ˆ Y
1. áœ#óѨÙ#º |ǨïÉè∞í l (frequency polygon)
3. Öˇ·<£ _»Ü«∂„QÆ"£∞ (line diagram)
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
109. XHõ„âı}˜ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« 10. D „âı}H˜ ˜ 5, 20 J<Õ ~Ô O_»∞K«~~° åâ◊√Å∞ J^Œ#OQÍ Hõeã≤#q. J\Ï¡O@ѨC_»∞
#∂`«# „âı}Ö˜ ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« .
( )
1) 9
2) 20
3) 7
4) 10
110. 13 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ ∞ QÆÅ ã¨=¸Ç¨ÏOÖ’ 4 QÆ∞~°∞ ѨsHõΔ `«ÑÊ≤ i. LfÎ~∞° Å‚ ∞ J~Ú#"å~°∞ =∂~°∞¯Å∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ
=Ù<åfl~Ú. 41, 57, 38, 61, 36, 35, 71, 50 =∞iÜ«Ú 40. J~Ú#KÀ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« =∂~°∞¯ ZO`«? ( )
1) 40
2) 50
3) 41
4) 38
1

12

98.(3)
106.(2)

z~°Orq

23

2

3

31

99.(2) 100.(1)
107.(3) 108.(2)

12

23

31

21

32

31

101.(3) 102.(4) 103.(2) 104.(3) 105.(3)
109.(4) 110.(4)
130

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

111. 9 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 100. 6 QÆ∞~°∞ q^•º~°∞Å÷ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 80. J~Ú#KÀ "≥Ú`«OÎ 15 =∞Ok
L=∞‡_ç ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ZO`«?
( )
1. 100
2. 80
3. 90
4. 92
( )
112. XHõ ™œ+¨=ª ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ Q = 20, Q = 40 J~Ú`Õ P ZO`« ?
1. 40
2. 20
3. 30
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
113. XHõ ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ P = 40, P = 60 J~Ú<å =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ZO`«?
1. 50
2. 40
3. 60
4. 100
114. D „H˜Ok ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’Ô~_ô"∞Õ _£ ^Œ∞ã¨∞ÅÎ ÃãA
· #∞ x~°~‚ ÚOK«∞@Ö’Uk ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ # ã¨Q@
Æ ∞.
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
115. =∂q∞_çÑO¨ _»¡ Ѩi=∂}O x~°~‚ ÚOK«∞@‰õΩ ã¨∞=∂~°∞QÍ ã¨~Ô #· ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk?
( )
1. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
116. QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ JOâßÅ∞ QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ Õ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞.
( )
2. GM
3. H.M.
4. Median
1. A.M
117. nx #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ''0——‰õΩ ã¨=∂#OQÍ =ÙO_»∞#∞.
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
Æ ∞.
( )
118. qѨs`« JOâßÅ (Extreme observation) KÕ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«O JÜÕ∞º ã¨Q@
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
( )
119. Z‰õΩ¯= ã≤~÷ `° fi« O Hõey# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk? (Most stable)
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
120. 6, 3, 8, 9, 5, 7Å =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ZO`«?
( )
1. 5.5
2. 6.0
3. 6.5
4. 7
121. „H˜Ok ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’Uk QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞HÍ^Œ∞.
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. ÉèÏi`« JOHõ=∞^ŒºO4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
122. XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« , ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ã¨=∂#OQÍ =ÙO>Ë ^•xx D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞==K«∞Û.
1. ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O
2. J™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O 3. |∞∞}Ï`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO 4. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO ( )
123. 5= ^ŒâßOâ◊O J#QÍ
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O 4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
124. Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å#∞ U ~°H"õ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. „Ѩ^=Œè ∞„âı}˜
2. kfifÜ«∞ „âı}˜
3. `«$fÜ«∞ „âı}˜
4.ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
125. XHõ ѨOÑ≤}Ö© ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ XHõ ã≤~÷ "° ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨OYº#∞ KÕi¿ãÎ P ѨOÑ≤}© JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O qÅ∞= =∂~°^∞Œ
2. J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ ѨÓ~°fi JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú#‰õΩ HõÅáêe
3. J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú#‰õΩ fã≤"Ü
Õ ∂« e
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
111.(4)
120.(3)

z~°Orq

1

3

25

75

112.(3) 113.(1)
121.(4) 122.(1)

50

114.(3) 115.(1) 116.(4) 117.(1) 118.(1)
123.(2) 124.(1) 125.(2)
131

119.(1)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

126. XHõ `«~Q° uÆ ÉÏÅ∞~°∞ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ =Ü«∞ã¨∞û 20 ã¨O=`«û~åÅ∞. 2 ã¨O=`«û~åÅ `«~∞° "å`« "åi =Ü«∞ã¨∞û
( )
1. q∞QÆ`åq ã≤~÷ O°
2. 18 ã¨O.
3. 22 ã¨O.
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
127. Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞ ^•fi~å D ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û.
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
128. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k HÍ^Œ∞.
( )
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxfl ~ˆ MÏz„`«O ^•fi~å x~°~‚ ÚOK«=K«∞Û#∞
2. „ѨuK«Ü∞« # KåOK«ÅºOʼnõΩ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«O JQÆ∞#∞
3. Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘`«ÅÖ’ ZÅ¡ÑC¨ _»∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú KåÖÏ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ H˘Å=∂#=Ú
4. q=$`åO`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û
129. „H˜Ok "åHõº=ÚÅÖ’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ''0——‰õΩ ã¨=∂#OQÍ LO_»∞#∞
2. ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. QÆ∞}Ï`«‡Hõ JOâßÅ x~°Ü
‚ ∞« OÖ’ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ã¨~Ô #· k
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
130. „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k.
( )
1. Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘`«Å<Õ „Ѩ^=Œä ∞„âı}˜ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅO^Œ∞~°∞ 2. Mode #∞ˆ~MÏz„`«OÖ’ Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞ ^•fi~å K«∂Ѩ=K«∞Û
3. AM = =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ã¨=∂#OQÍ =ÙO>Ë P ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O JO^Œ∞~°∞
4. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ã¨QÉÆ Ïè QÍxflã¨∂zOK≥#∞
1) 1, 2 =∞iÜ«Ú 3
2) 2, 3 =∞iÜ«Ú 4 3) 1, 2 =∞iÜ«Ú 4 4) ÃÑ· <åÅ∞QÆ∂
131. Z‰õΩ¯=™ê~°∞¡ ѨÙ#~å=$`«O J~Ú# ã¨OYºÜÕ∞
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
132. K«`∞« ~å÷OâßÅ#∞ ~ˆ MÏz„`«OÖ’K«∂ѨÙ@‰õΩ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕk.
( )
1. Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞
2. `«‰Ωõ ¯= Fl"£
3. Ç≤Ï™Èìi„QÍ"£∞
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
133. 50 â◊`åOâ◊O J#QÍ
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. 2= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O 4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
134. 5= ^ŒâßOâ◊O J#QÍ
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. 2= K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O 4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
1) 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2
2) 2 =∞iÜ«Ú 3 3) 3 =∞iÜ«Ú 4 4) 2 =∂„`«"∞Õ
135. „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ã¨~Ô #· ¿ã\ì ò"∞≥ O\ò Uk
( )
1. q=$`åO`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ QÆÅ =sæH$õ `« ^Œ`åÎOâßxH˜ =∞^ŒºQÆ`åxfl QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û
2. JO`«º qÅ∞=Å „ѨÉÏè =O =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ÃÑ· =ÙO@∞Ok
3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ZÅ¡ÑC¨ _»∂ Hˆ O„^Œ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘`«ÅÖ’ÔHÖÏ¡ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ k
4. „âı}˜ Ü«∞O^Œ∞ U^≥#· qÅ∞= `«ÑÊ≤ ##∞ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞=Ú#∞ =∞#O QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û#∞
126.(3)
135.(1)

z~°Orq

127.(2) 128.(3)

129.(4) 130.(4) 131.(4) 132.(2) 133.(2)
132

134.(2)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

136. „H˜Ok"å\˜Ö’Uk QÆ}`˜ « ã¨O|O^è"Œ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
137. 50 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« 60. J~Ú`Õ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« QÆ}O˜ z# `«~∞° "å`« XHõ q^•ºi÷ =∂~°∞¯Å∞ 75H˜ |^Œ∞Å∞
65QÍ QÆ}O˜ K«_"» ∞≥ #ÿ k Jx `≥eã≤Ok. J~Ú`Õã~Ô¨ #· =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ZO`«?
( )
1. 60
2. 61
3. 60.2
4. 58.8
138. „âı}Ö˜ ’„Ѩu JOâ◊OÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ Õ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=Ú Uk?
( )
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
139. q=$`åO`« `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’‰õÄ_® QÆ}O˜ K«QeÆ Qˆ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O Uk?
( )
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
3. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O
4. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
140. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å<åxfl ZÅ¡ÑC¨ _»∂ nx^•fi~å<Õ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
141. „H˜Ok"å\˜Ö’ ^Õxx Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=, QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞= P^è•~°OQÍ QÆ}™˜ êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O 2. "åºÑ≤Î
3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
142. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O ZѨC_»∂
( )
2. S.D. Hõ<åfl Z‰õΩ¯=
1. S.D Hõ<åfl `«‰Ωõ ¯=
4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O#‰õΩ ã¨=∂#OQÍ =ÙO_»∞#∞
3. S.D. `À ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË^∞Œ
( )
143. qK«~}° QÆ∞}HõO (co-efficient of variation) σx
001×

1.

2.

σx

3.

4.

σ
×100
x

144. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O nxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞.
1. 50% HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= JOâßÅÃÑ·
2. 25% HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= JOâßÅÃÑ·
3. 25% HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= JOâßÅÃÑ·
4. =∞^躌 Ö’QÆÅ 50 JOâßÅÃÑ·
145. Hˆ O„^Œ ™ê÷#Ѩ٠H˘Å`«Å#∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ∞ JOHõ=∞^ŒºO
2. M.D (Mean Deviation) 3. qã¨Î $u 4. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O
1. S.D
146. JO`«~° K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ "åºÑ≤Î Zxfl JOâßÅ#∞ q∞#Ǩ~ÚOK«∞#∞?
1. 50% qÅ∞=Å∞
2. 100% qÅ∞=Å∞ 3. 25% qÅ∞=Å∞ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
147. "Õ\ ˜ qâ◊fiã¨hÜ«∞`«#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«∞@‰õΩ qã¨~Î }
° =∂<åÅ#∞LѨÜ∂≥ y™êÎ~∞°
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
2. "ÕiÜ«∞ae\©
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`« `«~Q° uÆ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
148. JOHõ=∞^躌 O ± 3σ J<Õk ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ ZO`« qã‘~Î O‚°
1. 90% JOâßÅ∞
2. 99% JOâßÅ∞ 3. 95% JOâßÅ∞ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
136.(4)
145.(2)

z~°Orq

137.(1) 138.(2)
146.(1) 147.(1)

139.(4) 140.(1) 141.(2) 142.(1) 143.(4)
148.(2)
133

( )

( )
( )
( )
( )

144.(4)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

149. XHõ ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ Q = 25 =∞iÜ«Ú Q = 45 J~Ú# =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ZO`«?
1) 20
2) 25
3) 35
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
150. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« J#QÍ
1. 4= ^ŒâßOâ◊O
2. 50= â◊`åOâ◊O 3. 8= ^ŒâßOâ◊O 4. 75= â◊`åOâ◊O
151. U qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O qѨs`« JOâßÅKÕ `«‰Ωõ ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«=∞QÆ∞#∞.
2. Range
3. Mean Deviation 4. Q.D
1. S.D
152.
=∞iÜ«Ú
J~Ú#KÀ qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO (Co-efficient of Variation (CV)) ZO`«?
1) 200%
2) 25%
3) 50%
4) 75%
153. qѨs`« JOâßÅKÕ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ „ѨÉÏè q`«O JÜÕ∞ºk.
1. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 2. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊Hõ qK«Å#O 3. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O 4. "åºÑ≤Î
154. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’Uk ™ê¿ÑHõΔ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O
1. qã¨Î $u
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 3. "åºÑ≤Î
4. qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO
155. 10, 12, 18, 14, 15, 7, 17, 20Å Ü≥ÚHõ¯ "åºÑ≤Î Uk?
1) 9
2) 10
3) 12
4) 13
156. W=fi|_ç# JOâßÅÖ’ ~Ô O_»∞ JOâßÅÃÑ· =∂„`«"∞Õ P^è•~°Ñ_¨ Õ H˘Å=∂#O Uk?
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O 3.„áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 4. "åºÑ≤Î
157. qѨs`« JOâßÅKÕ „ѨÉÏè q`«O HÍxk
4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
0552 = σ
x3. S.D
158. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’„Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº K #∞HõeÑ≤`,Õ ^•x "åºÑ≤Î D q^èOŒ QÍ LO_»∞#∞
1. "åºÑ≤Î WO`«‰Ωõ =ÚO^Œ∞=Öˇ =ÙO@∞Ok
Õ ∂« e
2. =ÚO^Œ∞ "åºÑ≤HÎ ˜ K J<Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ fã≤"Ü
4. K J<Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº‰õΩ ã¨=∂#O
3. =ÚO^Œ∞ "åºÑ≤HÎ ˜ K J<Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞HõÅáêe
159. XHõ ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ qã¨~Î }
° ÖË#ѨÙ_»∞ „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #k
1. JxflQÆ}`˜ ,« ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ã¨=∂#O
2. Jxfl QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ ã¨=∂#O HÍx ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ã¨=∂#O HÍ=Ù
3. Jxfl™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ ã¨=∂#O HÍh QÆ}`˜ « qÅ∞=Å∞ã¨=∂#O HÍ=Ù
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
160. „H˜Ok qã¨~Î }
° =∂#=ÚÅÖ’ ^Õxx "Root Mean Square deviation" JO\Ï~°∞
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O 3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 4. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O
161. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ ^ÕxH˜ L=∞‡_ç QÆ}`˜ « qÅ∞=#∞ QÆ}O˜ K«ÖOË (cannot be combined mathematically)
1. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 2. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 3. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
1

149.(3)
158.(1)

z~°Orq

150.(2) 151.(4)
159.(1) 160.(3)

3

152.(3) 153.(4) 154.(4) 155.(4) 156.(4)
161.(4)
134

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

( )

( )
( )

157.(4)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

162. ã¨Q@Æ ∞ qK«Å#O ZѨC_»∞.
( )
1. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯=
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O`À ã¨=∂#OQÍ =ÙO_»∞#∞
3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
Ö’x JOâßÅ∞.
( )
163.
1) 58.26%= JOâ◊O 2) 68.27%= JOâ◊O 3) 31.74%= JOâ◊O
4) 41.74%= JOâ◊O
164. XHõ „âı}Ö˜ ’ qK«~}
° QÆ∞}HõO (coefficient of variation) 64 =∞iÜ«Ú JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O 10 J~Ú# „áê=∂}˜Hõ
qK«Å#O ZO`«?
( )
1) 6.4
2) 5.4
3) 7.4
4) ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
165. D „H˜Ok JOâ◊=ÚÅÖ’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k?
( )
Z. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ∞ Hõx+¨Oì QÍ LO\Ï~Ú
a. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz fã¨∞‰õΩ#fl qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ Hõx+¨Oì
ã≤. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O x~°¿ÑHõΔ H˘Å=∂#O
_ç. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O, „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO ~Ô O_»∂ XˆH Ü«¸x\òÖ’ =ºHõÑÎ ~¨ K° |« _»∞#∞
1. Z, a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ 2. a, ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç 3. Z, a =∞iÜ«Ú _ç 4. Z, ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
166. "åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HõO#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ x~°fizOK«=K«∞Û.
( )

167.

1.

2.

3.

"Inter quartile Range

(JO`«~ü K«`∞« ~å÷O1Qâ◊σS−"åºÑ≤
Œ QÍ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û.

+3S
Lx )Î ——x D q^èO
Q
±

1. Q

2.

S2+
−LSL

– Q1
3

3.

4.
Q3 − Q1
Q3 + Q

( )

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

168. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ x~°fizOK«=K«∞Û.
1. Q

3

2.

– Q1

3.

( )
Q3 − Q1
Q3 + Q

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

169. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O QÆ∞}HõO D q^èOŒ QÍ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û#∞.
1. Q

3

2.

– Q1

3.

( )

Q3 − Q1
Q3 + Q1

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

170. ^≥#· OkHõ LëÈ‚„QÆ`Å« Ö’ =º`庙êÅ#∞ nx^•fi~å ÖˇH¯˜ ™êÎ~∞° .
( )
1. "åºÑ≤Î
2. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊ qK«Å#O 3. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å#O 4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
( )
171. ™œ+¨=ì ѨOÑ≤}© (Symmmetrial distribution) H˜ K≥Ok ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #k.
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ Q { K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O
1. Q – =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« – Q
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ Q – K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú#∞
3

1

1

3

162.(3)
171.(4)

z~°Orq

163.(2) 164.(1)

165.(1) 166.(1) 167.(1) 168.(2) 169.(3)

135

170.(1)

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

172. ã¨Q@Æ ∞ qK«Å#O (MD) #∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ x~°fizOK«=K«∞Û#∞.
1.

∑ f dx
n

2.

∑(x i − x) 2
n

3.

∑ dx12
n

( )
4.

∑ f1x i 2
∑f

173. ã¨Q@Æ ∞ qK«Å#O#∞ ^Õx#∞Oz ÖˇH¯˜ ™êÎ~∞° .
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
174. "Average deviation" #∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ ‰õÄ_® Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
1. Mean deviation 2. Standard deviation 3. Quartile deviation 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
175. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O#∞ ^Õx#∞O_ç ÖˇH¯˜ ™êÎ~∞° .
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
176. qK«~}° QÆ∞}HõO (Coefficient of variation) D q^èOŒ QÍ K≥Ñʨ =K«∞Û.
1.

Mean
×100
MD

2.

MD
×100
Mean

3.

Mean
×100
SD

4.

( )
( )
( )
( )

SD
×100
Mean

177. XHõ ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 1 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O ( x ± 1σ ) ZO`« qã‘~Î O‚° #∞ K«∂ѨÙ#∞.( )
1. 68.27%= JOâ◊O 2. 95.45%= JOâ◊O 3. 99.99%= JOâ◊O 4. 99.73%= JOâ◊O
178. ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 2 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O ( x ± 2σ ) ZO`« qã‘~Î O‚° #∞ K«∂ѨÙ#∞. ( )
1. 68.27%= JOâ◊O 2. 95.45%= JOâ◊O 3. 99.99%= JOâ◊O 4. 99.73%= JOâ◊O
179. ™ê=∂#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÖ’ JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 3 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O ( x ± 3σ ) ZO`« qã‘~Î O‚° #∞ K«∂ѨÙ#∞. ( )
1. 68.27%= JOâ◊O 2. 95.45%= JOâ◊O 3. 99.99%= JOâ◊O 4. 99.73%= JOâ◊O
( )
180. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO (Coefficient of correlation).
1. nxH˜ Ѩiq∞u ÖË^∞Œ 2. XHõ\ H˜ Oõ >Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯= 3. XHõ\ ˜ HõO>Ë Z‰õΩ¯= 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
181. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõOÖ’ QÆi+¨ì ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ qÅ∞= (Maximum Positive value).
1. 0.50
2. 1.00
3. 2.00
4. QÆi+¨ì qÅ∞= ÖË^∞Œ
182. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõOÖ’ Hõx+¨ì qÅ∞=.
( )
1. 1.00
2. 0
3. – 1.00
4. UnHÍ^Œ∞
183. ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ , _ç=∂O_£‰Ωõ QÆÅ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
( )
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 3. Z =∞iÜ«Ú a 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
184. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ^è~Œ ‰° Ωõ , ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü ‰õΩ U q^ŒOQÍ LO@∞Ok?
( )
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 2. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ 3. Z =∞iÜ«Ú a 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ^Œ∞
185. x =∞iÜ«Ú y Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO 0.75 J~Ú# "å\˜ =∞^躌 U q^è"Œ ∞≥ #ÿ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ =ÙO_ç#@∞¡.
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO, HÍx ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ HÍ^Œ∞
( )
3. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚
4. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO, HÍx ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ HÍ^Œ∞
172.(1) 173.(4) 174.(1) 175.(1) 176.(4) 177.(1) 178.(2)
179.(4) 180.(4) 181.(2) 182.(3) 183.(2) 184.(1) 185.(2)

z~°Orq

136

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

186.

187.

188.

189.

190.

191.
192.
193.

Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}HõO –1.00 J~Ú# "å\˜ =∞^躌 ã¨O|O^èOŒ D q^èOŒ QÍ LOk.
( )
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO HÍx ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ HÍ^Œ∞
3. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚
4. ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO HÍx ã¨OѨÓ~°O‚ HÍ^Œ∞
D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k.
( )
Z. ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ J#QÍ ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ `«Q∞Æ @
æ .
a. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ J#QÍ ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@.
ã≤. ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√ÅÖ’x =∂~°∞Ê kâ◊, XˆH q^èOŒ QÍ LO>Ë, P ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å =∞^躌 ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ Hõey
L#fl@∞¡.
_ç. ~Ô O_»∞ K«Å~åâ◊√Å∞ =ºuˆ~Hõ kâ◊Ö’ =∂i`Õ, "åx =∞^躌 ~°∞<å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ L#fl@∞¡.
1. Z =∞iÜ«Ú a
2. a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ 3. ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç 4. Z =∞iÜ«Ú _ç
( )
~ˆ MÏ z„`«OÖ’ x, y Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
1. ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO
2. ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO
3. JkèHõ ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO
4. JkèHõ ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO
( )
D „H˜O^Œ WzÛ# Ѩ@OÖ’ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ x, y Å =∞^躌 U q^èOŒ QÍ =ÙOk?
1. JkèHõ ^è<Œ å`«‡HõO
2. JkèHõ ~°∞}Ï`«‡HõO
3. `«‰Ωõ ¯= _ç„w ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
4. `«‰Ωõ ¯= _ç„w ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
( )
„H˜Ok "åºÑ¨Hõ Ѩ@O x, y Å =∞^躌 ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ .
1. JkèHõ _ç„w ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. JÅÊ _ç„w ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
3. JkèHõ _ç„w ~°∞}Ï`«‡Hõ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
4. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ ÖË^∞Œ
ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz# ÉèÏi`«O Uk?
( )
2. q
3. p
4. p
1. q
ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü Ѩi=∂} ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÖ’ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz#k.
( )
2. q
3. p
4. p
1. q
áêtÛ (Paasche's) ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÖ’ ÉèÏi`«=ÚQÍ ^Õxx ã¨∂zOK«∞#∞.
( )
1. q
2. q
3. p
4. p
x, y

o

1

o

o

o

1

o

1

o

1

o

1

186.(3)

z~°Orq

187.(3) 188.(4)

189.(3) 190.(4) 191.(1) 192.(3) 193.(2)
137

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

194. áêtÛ Ñ¨i=∂} ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÖ’ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ ^Õxx LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞.
(
1. q
2. q
3. p
4. p
195. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`«OQÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz# ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì ã¨∂p Uk
(
2. Passche's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
1. Laspayre's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
3. Bowley's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
4. Fscher's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
196. „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « (=~°=Î ∂# current year) ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`åÅ∞QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOz# ÉèÏi`« ã¨q∞+≤ì
Uk?
(
1. Laspayre's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
2. Passche's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
4. Fscher's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
3. Bowley's ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
197. ÖÏ¿ãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p, áêjÛ ã¨∂pÅ QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞O.
(
1. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂zHõ 2. É∫ÖË ã¨∂zHõ
3. =∂~°¬Öò, Z_£=˚ ~üÎ ã¨∂zHõ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
198. „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ `«ÑC¨ QÍ K≥Ñʨ |_ç#k.
(
1. P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~°O ™ê^è•~°} ã¨O=`«û~°"∞≥ ÿ LO_®e
2. ™ê=∂#º ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ HõO>Ë, ÉèÏi`« ã¨∂pÅ∞ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ q =∞iÜ«Ú Z‰õΩ¯= „áêux^躌 O Hõey#q
3. ã¨∂p ã¨OYºÅ x~å‡}OÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ÅÖ’ QÆ∞} =∞^躌 =∞O L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ k
4. áêjÛ `«# ã¨∂p ã¨OYº x~å‡}OÖ’ P^è•~° ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ ÉèÏi`åÅ∞QÍ LѨÜ∂≥ yOK≥#∞
199. ™ê=∂#º ™ê¿ÑHõHΔ ÍÅ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ã¨∂zHõ‰Ωõ ã¨∂„`«O Uk?
(
o

1.

1

P
∑ 1 × 100
P0
N

2.

o

∑ P1
×100
∑ P0

3.

1 Q1

×100
N Q0

1

P1
×100
P0

2.

P0
×100
P1

3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2

∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q0

2.

∑ p0q1
×100
∑ p1q0

3.

∑ p1q0
×100
∑ p0q1

∑ p1q0
×100
∑ p0q0

2.

3.

1 ⎡⎢ ∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1q1 ⎤⎥ ×100
2 ⎢ ∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1 ⎥

4.

194.(4)
202.(1)

z~°Orq

195.(1) 196.(2)
203.(1) 204.(1)

)
)

)

( )
( )
( )

( )
4.

∑ p0q0
×100
∑ p1q1

204. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~üû ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p ã¨OYº QÆ}#‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O.
1.

ã¨∂p
)

4. ÃÑ· ~Ô O_»∂

203. qÅ∞= ã¨∂p ã¨OYº (Value Index Number) ‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O.
1.

)

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

200. qxÜ≥∂QÆ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p nxx H˘Å=_®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞.
1. zÅ¡~° ^è~Œ Å° Ö’ =∂~°∞Ê 2. \’‰õΩ ^è~Œ Å° Ö’ =∂~°∞Ê 3. ÃÑ· ~Ô O_»∂#∂ 4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
201. ã¨∂p ã¨OYº ^Õxx ã¨∂zOK≥#∞.
1. x~°¿ÑHõ"Δ ∞≥ #ÿ =∂~°∞Ê 2. ™ê¿ÑHõ"Δ ∞≥ #ÿ =∂~°∞Ê 3. 1 =∞iÜ«Ú 2 4. UnHÍ^Œ∞
202. ™ê^è•~°} ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨∂„`«O.
1.

)

( )
∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q1
1 ∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1q1
2 ∑ p0q 0 ∑ p0q1

197.(1) 198.(4) 199.(1) 200.(1) 201.(2)
138

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

205. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü P^Œ~≈° ã¨∂p nx ^•fi~å á⁄O^Œ=K«∞Û.

( )

1.

∑ p1q0
×100
∑ p0q0

2.

3.

1 ⎡⎢ ∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1q1 ⎤⎥ ×100
2 ⎢⎣ ∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1 ⎥⎦

4.

∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q1
∑ p1q 0 ∑ p1q1
×
× 100
∑ p 0 q 0 ∑ p 0 q1

206. áêjÛ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p ã¨OYº‰õΩ ã¨∂„`«O.

( )
∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q1

1.

∑ p1q0
×100
∑ p0q 0

2.

3.

1 ⎡⎢ ∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1q1 ⎤⎥ ×100
2 ⎢ ∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1 ⎥

4. 100

∑ p1q0 ∑ p1q1
×
∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1

207. D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ É∫ÖË ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p ã¨OYº ^Õxx `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜÚ« #∞.
1.

∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q0

2.

3.

1 ⎡⎢ ∑ p1q0 + ∑ p1q1 ⎤⎥ ×100
2 ⎢ ∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1 ⎥

4. 100

( )

∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p0q1
∑ p1q0 ∑ p1q1
×
∑ p0q0 ∑ p0q1

208. [`«Ñ~¨ Û° O_ç.
Z.
a.

∑ P1Q1
×100
∑ P0Q1

1. =∂~°¬Öò, Z_£=˚ ~üÎ

∑ P1Q0 ∑ P1Q1
×
×100
∑ P0 Q0 ∑ P0 Q1

2. áêjÛ

ã≤.

∑ P1Q
×100
∑ P0Q

3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü

_ç.

∑ P1 (Q0 + Q1 )
×100
∑ P0 (Q0 + Q1 )

4. HÔ b¡

1. Z – 1, a – 2, ã≤ – 3, _ç – 4

2. Z – 2, a – 3, ã≤ – 4, _ç – 1

3. Z – 2, a – 1, ã≤ – 4, _ç – 3

4. Z – 4, a – 3, ã≤ – 2, _ç – 1

205.(4)

z~°Orq

( )

206.(2) 207.(3)

208.(2)
139

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

209. D „H˜Ok [`«Ñi¨ z# "å\˜Ö’ Uk 㨄Hõ=∞"≥∞#ÿ k HÍ^Œ∞.
1.

∑ p1q1
×100
∑ p 0q1
∑ p1q 0 ∑ p1q1
×
×100
∑ p 0 q 0 ∑ p 0 q1

2.

ÖÏã≤ÊÜ«∞~ü

Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü

3.

∑ P1 q 0 + ∑ P1 q1
×100
∑ P0 q 0 + ∑ P0 q1

=∂~°¬Öò

4.

1 ⎡ ∑ P1q 0 ∑ P1q1 ⎤
+

⎥ ×100
2 ⎣ ∑ P0 q 0 ∑ P0 q1 ⎦

É∫ÖË

( )

H˜ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iHÍxk.
(
1. „âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ XHõ ã≤~÷ ã° O¨ Yº#∞ HõeÑ≤`,Õ áê`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜ J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYº#∞ KÕ~åÛe
2. „âı}Ö˜ ’ „Ѩu qÅ∞=‰õΩ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYºKÕ ÃÇÏzÛ¿ã,Î áê`« JOHõ=∞^Œº=∂xH˜ J^Õ ã≤~÷ ° ã¨OYºKÕ ÃÇÏzÛOKåe
3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞Oz fã≤# qK«Å<åÅ "≥Ú`«OÎ ã¨∞#fl
4. q=$`åO`« (open ends) `«~Q° `Æ ∞« ÅÖ’ ‰õÄ_® A.M. #∞ QÆ}O˜ K«=K«∞Û
(
211. "Upward Bias" `À W|ƒOkѨ_Õ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº Uk?
2. Paasche's Index number
1. Laspeyere's Index Number
3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
(
212. "Down ward Bias" `À W|ƒOkѨ_Õ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº Uk?
2. Paasche's Index number
1. Laspeyere's Index Number
3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
213. HÍÅѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõΔ ~°∞A=Ù HÍ|_®ÅO>Ë.
(
210.

A.M.

3. P X P X P = 1
214. HÍ~°Hõ Ѩi=Î# ѨsHõΔ ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.

z~°Orq

20

)

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
( )
∑ P1Q1
X Q01 = ∑ P Q
0 0

1. P

01

X P10 = 1

2. P

3. P

01

X P12 X P20 = 1

4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù

209.(1)

)

∑ P1q1
X
Q
=
01
01
∑ P0q0

X P10 = 1
01
12

)

2. P

1. P

01

)

210.(4) 211.(1)

01

212.(2) 213.(1) 214.(2)
140

Cell : 9490942125, 9959513530

ECONOMY

215. K«„H©Ü∞« ѨsHõΔ (Circular Test) ^Õxx `≥Å∞ѨÙ#∞.
1. P

01

( )
2. P

X P10 = 1

01

∑ P1q1
X P01 = ∑ P q
0 0

3. P X P X P = 1
4. ÃÑ"· gÕ HÍ=Ù
„H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Ü«¸x\ò >ˇã#ìπ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ΠѨ~K° x« ã¨∂p.
1. ™ê=∂#º ã¨q∞+≤ì ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
2. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
3. É∫Öˇ ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
4. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº
~Ô O_»∞ qÅ∞=Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O, QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 10 =∞iÜ«Ú 8. J~Ú#KÀ P ~Ô O_»∞ qÅ∞=Å∞ Uq?
1) 11 =∞iÜ«Ú 9
2) 12 =∞iÜ«Ú 8 3) 14 =∞iÜ«Ú 6 4) 16 =∞iÜ«Ú 4
=∞^ŒºQÆ`O« =∞iÜ«Ú ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ~Ô O_»∞#∂.
1. QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
2. ™ê÷# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 3. ã¨OH˜+¡ ì¨ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞ 4. `«~K° ∞« QÍ =KÕÛ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
D „H˜Ok"å\˜Ö’ Uk =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ‰õΩ ã¨=∂#O J~Ú#k?
4. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. Q
„H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ ã¨∞ÅÉè"í ∞≥ #ÿ qã¨~Î }
° =∂#O Uk?
1. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O 2. =∂^躌 q∞Hõ qK«Å#O 3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O 4. "åºÑ≤Î
D „H˜Ok ^•xx 㨄Hõ=∞OQÍ [`«Ñ~¨ K° O« _ç.
σσ3
22±
eãπì – 1
eãπì – 2
01

216.

217.
218.
219.

12

20

( )

( )
( )
( )

2

220.
221.

3

Z. Quartile deviation

1. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’

a. Mean deviation

2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’

4
5

( )
( )

= =O`«∞
= =O`«∞

ã≤. 68.27% JOâßÅ∞
_ç. 95.45% JOâßÅ∞

3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
4. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
5. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
1) Z – 2, a – 1, ã≤ – 3, _ç – 4
2) Z – 1, a – 2, ã≤ – 4, _ç – 3
3) Z – 1, a – 2, ã≤ – 5, _ç – 3
4) Z – 2, a – 1, ã≤ – 3, _ç – 5
222. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x qq^èŒ `«~Q° `Æ ∞« Å ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ<åºÅ#∞ P^è•~°OQÍ KÕã∞¨ H˘x wÜ«∞|_ç# ~ˆ Y#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
1. ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º ~ˆ Y (Fl"£)
2. ™Èáê# z„`«O (Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞)
( )
3. Ñ≤HÀì„QÍ"£∞
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú#∞

215.(3)

z~°Orq

216.(1) 217.(4)

218.(2) 219.(3) 220.(4) 221.(1) 222.(1)
141

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ECONOMY

223. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x qq^èŒ JOâßʼnõΩ "å\˜ „áê^è•#º`«#∞|\˜ì ÉèÏ~åÅ#∞ Wã¨∂Î QÆ}# KÕÜ∞« |_ç# ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉèÏi`« ã¨Q@
Æ ∞
3. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O 4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
( )
224. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’x qÅ∞=Å#∞ ~Ô O_»∞ ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞ KÕ¿ã@ѨC_»∞ =KÕÛ qÅ∞=.
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
4. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O
225. ^Œ`åÎOâ◊OÖ’ Z‰õΩ¯=™ê~°∞¡ HõxÑ≤OKÕ qÅ∞=, Z‰õΩ¯= áœ#óѨÙ<åºxfl Hõey# qÅ∞= Uk?
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O 4. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
226. WzÛ# qÅ∞=Å =º„`«¯=∂Å JOHõQ}
Æ `˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ =Ùº„`«¯=∂xfl WÖÏ JO\Ï~°∞.
( )
1. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞} =∞^Œº=∞O 3. ÉÏǨïÅHõO
4. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O
227. P~ÀǨÏ} ÖËHõ J=~ÀǨÏ} „Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞iÛ# ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl <åÅ∞QÆ∞ ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ KÕ¿ã =¸_»∞ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞.
1. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
2. ѨOK«=∂Oâ◊O 3. K«`∞« ~å÷Oâ◊O
4. â◊`åOâ◊O
( )
228. ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl J~ÀǨÏ} ÖËHõ J=~ÀǨÏ} „Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞iÛ#ѨÙ_»∞ S^Œ∞ ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ KÕ¿ã <åÅ∞QÆ∞ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞.
1. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
2. ѨOK«=∂Oâ◊O 3. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊O
4. â◊`åOâ◊O
( )
229. P~ÀǨÏ} ÖËHõ J=~ÀǨÏ} „Hõ=∞OÖ’ J=∞iÛ# ^Œ`åÎOâßxfl 8 ã¨=∂# ÉèÏQÍÅ∞QÍ KÕ¿ã U_»∞ aO^Œ∞=ÙÅ∞. ( )
1. ^ŒâßOâ◊O
2. ѨOK«=∂Oâ◊O 3. JëêìOâ◊O
4. â◊`åOâ◊O
230. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ÖËHõ =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« #∞O_ç „Ñ¨u qÅ∞=‰õΩ QÆÅ qK«Å#O ^è#Œ , |∞∞} QÆ∞~°∞ÅÎ #∞ =^Œe"Õã∂¨ Î x~°~‚ ÚOK«|_ç#
qã¨Î~°}=∂#=Ú.
( )
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O
2. =∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#O
3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
4. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O
231. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O #∞O_ç =zÛ# qK«Å<åÅ =~åæÅ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ =~°=æ ¸Å qÅ∞=#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
( )
1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ qK«Å#O
2. =∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å#O
3. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
4. K«`∞« ~åúOâ◊ qK«Å#O
232. qÉèÏ[HõO Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨fiÉèÏ"åxfl, ~°∂Ѩ٠~ˆ Y#∞ `≥e¿Ñk?
( )
1. ™Èáê# z„`«O
2. "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
3. ™ê=∂#º ã¨OÉèÏ=º`«~ˆ Y 4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
233. =∂^Œºq∞Hõ qK«Å<åxfl ã¨Q@
Æ ∞KÕ ÉèÏyOK«QÍ ÅaèOKÕk?
( )
1. "åºÑ≤Î QÆ∞}HõO
2. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO
3. =∂^Œº=∞ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO
4. K«`∞« ~åÌOâ◊ qK«Å# QÆ∞}HõO
234. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å# =~°=æ Ú#∞ U=∞O\Ï~°∞?
( )
1. "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
2. qK«~}
° O
3. |ǨïÉè∞í l
4. qã¨Î $u
223.(2)
231.(3)

z~°Orq

224.(3) 225.(4)
232.(2) 233.(3)

226.(1) 227.(3) 228.(2) 229.(3) 230.(2)
234.(4)
142

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ECONOMY

235. ~Ô O_»∞ ÖË^• JO`«HOõ >Ë Z‰õΩ¯= K«Å<åÅ =∞^躌 L#fl ã¨O|O^è•xfl `≥eÜ«∞*ËÜ∞« _®xH˜ LѨÜ∂≥ yOKÕ
™ê^è#Œ O.
1. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^èOŒ
2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
3. "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
4. qã¨Î $u
236. Hˆ O„^Œ QÆ}ÏOHõ =º=ã¨#÷ ∞ ZѨC_»∞ ™ê÷ÑO≤ Kå~°∞ (CSO).
1. 1950
2. 1951
3. 1952
4. 1953
237. Hˆ O„^Œ QÆ}ÏOHõ ã¨Oã¨÷ (CSO) „Ѩ^•è # HÍ~åºÅÜ«∞O ZK«Û@ =ÙOk?
1. HÀÖòH`õ å
2. #∂º_èbç ¡
3. =ÚOɡ·
4. ÃÇÏ· ^Œ~åÉÏ^£
238. WO_çÜ∞« <£ ™êì\ 㘠Hì≤ Öõ ò W<£ã@
ì≤ ∂º\ò (ISI) L#fl „Ѩ^âÕ "◊ ∞Õ k?
1. HÀÖòH`õ å
2. _èbç ¡
3. =ÚOɡ·
4. ÅHÀfl
239. <Õ+#¨ Öò âßOÑ≤Öò ã¨~ˆ fi (NSS) ZѨC_»∞ „áê~°OaèOz<å~°∞?
1. 1930
2. 1940
3. 1950
4. 1951
240. N.S.S. (National Sample Survey), N.S.S.O. QÍ ZѨC_»∞ =∂iOk?
1. 1960
2. 1965
3. 1970
4. 1975
241. qÉèÏ[#OÖ’ QÆÅ `å~°`=« ∂ºÅ#∞ `≥Å∞ã¨∞HÀ=_®xH˜ Wk LѨÜ∂≥ QÆO.
1. "≥+· =¨ ∞º=Ú
2. ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º=Ú 3. Ç≤Ï™Èì„QÍ"£∞ 4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
242. Hˆ O„^Œ ™ê÷#Ѩ٠qÅ∞=‰õΩ, Jã¨Å∞ qÉÏ[#=Ú`À QÆÅ JOâßʼnõΩ QÆÅ `Õ_®Å∞.
1. qã¨~Î }
°
2. "≥+· =¨ ∞ºO
3. qã¨Î $u
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
243. áêi„âßq∞Hõ L`«Ê`«∞ÅÎ ã¨∂p J<Õk.
1. ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
2. r=# =ºÜ«∞ ã¨∂p 3. Jaè=$kú ã¨∂p 4. Ѩi=∂} ã¨∂p
244. ~Ô _ô"∞Õ _£ ^Œ∞ã¨∞ÅÎ , |∂@¡ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ÃãA
· Å#∞ Hõ#∞Q˘#_®xH˜ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk.
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^躌 QÆ`O«
245. ã¨Oz`« áœ#óѨÙ#º =„Hõ~ˆ YÅ#∞ D q^èOŒ QÍ Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° .
1. Fl"£ =„Hõ~ˆ Y
2. ™Èáê# z„`«O 3. ã¨OÉèÏ=º`« =„Hõ~ˆ Y 4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
246. ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ ÖË^• `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ ~ˆ @¡#∞ Hõ#∞Q˘#_®xH˜ Wk LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» #∞.
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
247. XHõ áêi„âßq∞Hõ ã¨Oã¨Ö÷ ’ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ "Õ`#« O x~°~‚ ÚOK«_®xH˜ L`«=Î ∞"≥∞#ÿ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ Uk?
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ
3. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`O«
248. „H˜Ok "åiÖ’ QÆ}ÏOHõâßG Ñ≤`« Z=~°∞?
1. Ñ≤Ü∞« ~üã<¨ £
2. ~À<åÖò¤ Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü
3. H˜ÖòÉË
4. ÃÑ· =ÚQÆ∞~æ ∞°
235.(1)
243.(4)

z~°Orq

236.(2) 237.(2)
244.(2) 245.(1)

QÆ}ÏOHõ
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

238.(1) 239.(3) 240.(3) 241.(1) 242.(1)
246.(3) 247.(1) 248.(2)
143

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ECONOMY

249. L=∞‡_ç QÆ}`˜ « ã¨Q@
Æ ∞#∞ D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ ^ÕxH˜ QÆ}O˜ K«ÖOË ?
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O
2. QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O 3. ǨÏ~°=∞^Œº=∞O 4. =∞^躌 QÆ`O«
250. ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ^Õxx ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° ∞« #∞?
( )
1. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú – Q > Q – =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú 2. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú – Q = Q – =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
3. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú – Q < Q – =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú 4. =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú + Q = Q – =∞^ŒºQÆ`=« Ú
251. „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk ã¨~Ô #· k
( )
1. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 1 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ 68.27%= JOâ◊O
2. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 2 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ 95.45%= JOâ◊O
3. JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ± 3 „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#OÖ’ 99.73%= JOâ◊O
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #"Õ
252. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p ã¨OYº‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #k.
( )
1. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü, áêjÛÅ QÆ∞}=∞^Œº=∞O
2. Wk P^•~° ã¨O=`«û~°, „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « ã¨O=`«û~° Ѩi=∂}ÏÅ#∞ fã¨∞‰õΩO@∞Ok
3. Wk HÍŠѨi=~°#Î , HÍ~°HÍŠѨi=~°#ΠѨsHõ#Δ ∞ ã¨O`«$Ñ≤ÑÎ ~¨ K° ∞« #∞
4. ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #"Õ
253. ™È=∞"å~°O #∞Oz â◊x"å~°O =~°‰Ωõ XHõ #QÆ~° ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ =~°¬áê`«O 0.3 Inches. Pk"å~°O JkèHõ =~°¬áê`«O =Å¡
x
Pk"å~°O =~°¬áê`«O ZO`«?
( )
ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ =~°¬áê`«O 0.5 Inches ʼnõΩ ÃÑiyOk.
5532==22,J~Ú`Õ
1x
1) 1.2 Inches
2) 1.8 Inches
3) 1.7 Inches
4) 2.0 Inches
254. 5, 8, 13, 7, 6, 3Å JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O.
( )
1) 5
2) 6
3) 7
4) 8
( )
255. U^≥<· å áœ#óѨÙ#º qÉèÏ[# „âı}Ö˜ ’ GM, HM, AM Å ã¨=∂#`« D q^èOŒ QÍ LO_»∞#∞.
1. HM ≥ GM ≥ AM 2. GM ≥ AM ≥ HM 3. GM ≥ HM ≥ AM 4. AM ≥ GM ≥ HM
256. ÉÏǨïà◊HOõ ´ 174, =∞^ŒºQÆ`O« ´ 142 J~Ú`Õ P ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O.
( )
1. ^è<Œ å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞º ѨOÑ≤}© 2. ~°∞<å`«‡Hõ "≥+· =¨ ∞º ѨOÑ≤}© 3. ™œ+¨=ì ^Œ`åÎOâ◊O 4. ÃÑk· <Õn HÍ^Œ∞
,
J~Ú<å L=∞‡_ç JOHõ=∞^Œº=∞O ZO`«?
( )
257. N = N = 10 =∞iÜ«Ú
1) 6
2) 60
3) 30
4) 3
258. 300 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ J~°â÷ ßGOÖ’ =∂~°∞¯Å ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ 45. "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ 100 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ 70, `«~∞° "å`«
100 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ 20. q∞ye# 100 =∞Ok q^•º~°∞Å÷ =∂~°∞¯Å ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ ZO`«?
( )
1) 30
2) 45
3) 60
4) UnHÍ^Œ∞
1

3

1

3

1

1

3

3

1

1

2

249.(4)
257.(3)

z~°Orq

250.(2) 251.(4)
258.(2)

252.(4) 253.(3) 254.(3) 255.(4) 256.(2)

144

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ECONOMY

259. =sæH$õ `« ^Œ`åÎOâßxH˜ "åºÑ≤Î gx =∞^躌 =º`åºã¨=Ú.

( )

1. z#fl `«~Q° uÆ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ZQÆ∞= J=kè, kQÆ∞= J=kè =∞^躌 `Õ_®
2. ÃÑ^ŒÌ `«~Q° uÆ JO`«~O° Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ZQÆ∞=, kQÆ∞= =º=^è∞Œ Å =∞^躌 `Õ_®
3. z#fl `«~Q° uÆ JO`«~O° Ü≥ÚHõ¯ kQÆ∞= J=kè, ÃÑ^ŒÌ `«~Q° uÆ JO`«~O° Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ZQÆ∞= J=kèÅ =∞^躌 `Õ_®
4. Un HÍ^Œ∞
260. [`« KÕÜÚ« =Ú.

261.

( )

Z. Semi-Inter Quartile Range

1.

a. Inter Quartile Range

2.

ã≤. Co-efficient of Quartile deviation

3. Q

Q3 − Q1
2
3

– Q1

1) Z – 3, a – 2, ã≤ – 1

2) Z – 1, a – 3, ã≤ – 2

3) Z – 2, a – 3, ã≤ – 1

4) Z – 2, a – 1, ã≤ – 3

Variance

1)

(qã¨Î $u) J#QÍ.

σ

2)

( )
2−M2Q
1QD
D3M
σ

3)

4)

1Q + 3Q

262. ã¨∂pÅ#∞, ÉèÏi`åÅ#∞ [`«KÜ
Õ ∞« O_ç.

( )

eãπì – 1 (ã¨∂p)
Z. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p

1. Q

a. ÖÏÃãÊÜ«∞~ü Ѩi=∂} ã¨∂p

2. Q

ã≤. áêjÛ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p

3. P

_ç. áêjÛ Ñ¨i=∂} ã¨∂p

4. P

1) Z-1, a-2, ã≤-3, _ç-4

2) Z-2, a-3, ã≤-4, _ç-1

3) Z-1, a-4, ã≤-2, _ç-3

4) Z-2, a-3, ã≤-1, _ç-4

259.(3)

z~°Orq

eãπì – 2 (ÉèÏi`«O)

260.(3) 261.(2)

1

0

o

1

262.(4)

145

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ECONOMY

27.04.2008# [iy# Endowment
E.O. Examination Economics Paper

1. '„âı}—˜ H˘Å=∂#=Ú :

(2)

Range is the measure of :

1. XHõãQ¨ @
Æ ∞
2. qã¨~Î }
°
3. ã¨ÇϨ –ã¨O|O^èOŒ 4. ã¨OYºÅ ã¨∂p
2. HÍ~ü¡ Ñ≤Ü∞« ~°û<£ Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨ÇϨ [ ã¨O|O^èŒ QÆ∞}Hõ=Ú ^ÕxH˜ =∞^躌

(3)

Karl Pearson's co-efficient of correlation lies between :

1. -2 #∞O_ç {2
2. â◊¥#ºO #∞O_ç {1 3. -1 #∞O_ç {1 4. ÃÑ^· nÕ HÍ^Œ∞
3. ~ˆ MÏ QÆ}`˜ =« ÚÖ’ 'ÖÏÔ~O*ò~ˆ Y— ^Õxx J^躌 Ü«∞#=Ú KÕÜÚ« #∞ :

(4)

Lorenz curve is a graphic method of studying :

1. ã¨ÇϨ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú
2.ã¨OYºÅ -ã¨∂p 3. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
4. qã¨~Î }
°
4. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ qâı+¡ }
¨ K«ÖÏOHõ=ÚÅ =∞^躌 HÍÅ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú#∞ `≥Å∞Ê=Ú

(3)

which analysis help us to determine the degree of relationship between variables?

1. qã¨~Î }
°
2. ã¨OYºÅ - ã¨∂p 3. ã¨ÇϨ -ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú 4. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞Å∞
5. ‰õΩ@∞O| |_≥@
˚ ∞#∞ ÖˇH¯˜ OK«∞ q^è•#=Ú#∞... ^è~Œ ° ã¨∂p :

(3)

Family budget method is a method to calculate .... price index.

1. \’‰õΩ^è~Œ °
2. zÅ¡~°
3. qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞x 4. ÃÑ^· nÕ HÍ^Œ∞
6. `«‰Ωõ ¯=-Z‰õΩ¯= qÅ∞=Å∞ Hõey# JOâ◊=ÚÅ =∞^躌 JO`«~=° Ú#∞ :

(4)

The difference between the value of the smallest item and the value of the largest item included in
the distribution is called :

1. =∞^躌 =∞=Ú
2. =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú
3. su
4. "åºÑ≤Î
7. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ U ã¨OMϺ âßG H˘Å=∂#=Ú JuÃÑ^ŒÌ =∞iÜ«Ú z#fl qÅ∞=Å =Å# „ѨÉÏè q`«OHÍ^Œ∞

(1)

Which one of the following statistical measures is not affected by extremely large or small values?

1. =∞^躌 QÆ`=« Ú
2. ǨÏ~° =∞^躌 =∞=Ú 3. QÆ∞}Hõ =∂~°∞Ê 4. „áê=∂}˜Hõ qK«Å#O
8. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ U ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂zHõ =¸Å ã¨O=`«û~°=Ú#∞ ÉèÏ~°=ÚQÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥^~Œ ∞° :

(2)

The price index that uses base year quantities as weights is called :

1. áêºjÛ ã¨∂p
2. ÖÏÃÑûº~ü ã¨∂p
9. '=∂Ô~¯@∞ K«@=ì Ú—#∞ Z=~°∞ =$kúÑi¨ z<å~°∞?

3. Ѷ+≤ ~¨ ü ã¨∂p

4. \’‰õΩ ^è~Œ Å° ã¨∂p
(2)

Who developed the 'Market Law' ?

1. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü

z~°Orq

2. *ˇ.a.¿ã

3. \˜.P~ü.=∂Å÷ãπ
146

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10. =¸Å^è#Œ – L`«ÊuÎ x+¨ÊuÎ J#QÍ :

(2)

Capital - output ratio refers to :

1. =¸Å^è#Œ Pã≤xÎ á⁄O^Œ∞Ѩ~∞° Û@HõQ∞Æ =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú
2. XHõ Ü«¸x\ò L`«ÊuÎx KÕÜÚ« @HõQ∞Æ =¸Å^è#Œ Ü«¸x@∞¡
3. qxÜ≥∂QÆ =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ#∞ L`«ÊuÎ KÕÜÚ« @HõQ∞Æ =¸Å^è#Œ Ü«¸x@∞¡
11. ''Hõh㨠H˜+¡ ì¨ ™ê=∞~°`÷ —« — ã≤^•úO`«=Ú#∞ Z=~°∞ „ѨuáêkOz<å~°∞?

4. ÃÑ^· nÕ HÍ^Œ∞
(1)

The 'critical minimum effort' theory is put forth by :

1. ÃÇÏKü.Öˇ|· <£ ã‘ì º<£
2. ~Àl<£ã<ì¨ £ ~À_≥<£ 3. _»|∞¡ º.Z.Öˇqãπ
12. '„ѨH\õ H˜ õ - „ѨÉÏè ==Ú#∞— Z=~°∞ "å_ç<å~°∞ :

4. *ˇ.ÃÇÏKü.É’ˆH
(4)

The 'demonstration effect' was coined by :

1. *’<£ ~åa#û<£
2. *ˇ.HÔ .QÍÅ„ÉË`ü 3. *ˇ.ZO.H©<û£
13. Z=~°∞ ''„â◊=∞ qÉè[í ##∞ =∂Ô~¯@∞ Ѩiq∞`«=Ú—— Jxi :

4. *Ë"∞£ û _çÃãû<£ ɡ„s
(1)

The statement "The division of labour is limited by the extent of the market" is given by :

1. P_»"∞£ ã≤‡`ü
2. *ˇ.a.¿ã
14. ã¨O`«∞e`« =$kú J#QÍ :

3. _Õq_£ iHÍ~À¤

4. P¢ÖÊˇ _ù £ =∂~°¬Öò
(3)

Balanced growth means :

1. L`«ÊuÎÖ’ ã¨=∞ - âß`« Hˆ \Ï~ÚOѨÙ
2. =#~°∞Å Hˆ \Ï~ÚOѨÙÅÖ’ ã¨=∂# ÃÑOѨÙ
3. Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’x Jxfl ÉèÏQÆ=ÚÅ∞ „Hõ=∞"≥∞#ÿ =$kú
4. qq^èŒ ~°OQÆ=ÚÅ =$kú ã¨ÇϨ ["≥∞#ÿ =$kú
15. q+¨=ÅÜ«∞=ÚÖ’x U JOâ◊=ÚÅ∞ :

(3)

The vicious circle argument points the connection between :

1. P^•Ü«∞=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú [<åÉèÏ
2. ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =∞iÜ«Ú ™êOˆHuHõ
3. L`åÊ^ŒH`õ « =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞=Ú
4. á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠=∞iÜ«Ú =¸Å^è#Œ =Ú
16. L^Œº=∞^•~°∞_»∞ ^Õx`À ^ŒQiæÆ ã¨O|O^è=Œ Ú HõÅ^Œ∞ :

(1)

Entrepreneurship is most closely associated with :

1. #= HõÅÊ#Å∞
2. #∂`«# HõÅÊ#Å∞
3. =º=Ǩ~° ÉÏ^躌 `«Å∞
4. >ËH-± F=~üû ...
17. XHõ ^Õâ=◊ Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ Jaè=$kú ~ˆ @∞ x~°Ü
‚ ∂« Oâ◊=Ú :

(4)

A country's rate of growth is determined by the :

1. ã¨Q@
Æ ∞ á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠„Ѩ=$uÎ
3. Ѩ~㰠ʨ ~° ^è~Œ Å° K«@=ì Ú

z~°Orq

2. ã¨ÃÑ-¡· y~åH©Å PKåÛù^#Œ
4. =¸Å^è~Œ ° ã¨g∞Hõ~}
° ~ˆ @∞

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18. ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ‰Ωõ Z=~°∞ =¸Å=Ú?

(2)

The Second Five year Plan of India was based on :

1. Ǩτ~å_£ -_À=∂~ü #=¸<å
2. =∞ǨÏÖò <Àaãπ - #=¸<å
3. ~å*ò =∞iÜ«Ú ¿ã<£û #=¸<å
4. ÃÑÖ¶ ò¤ =∂º<£ #=¸<å
19. 'rq`« ã¨∂zHõ Éè∫uHõ ÅHõ}
Δ =Ú— (PQLI) ^ÕxÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ç Ü«Ú##k?

(1)

The physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is based on :

1. JHõ~Δ å㨺`« âß`«=Ú, ÉÏź =∞~°}=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú rq`« HÍÅ=ÚÃÑ·
2. ã¨iѨ_∞» PǨ~° ã¨ÑÜ
¡¨ ∞ü , h~°∞ QÆ$ǨÏã¨=u =∞iÜ«Ú P~ÀQƺ ¿ã=Å∞
3. áêiâ◊√„Éè`í « =ã¨`∞« Å∞, q^Œº =∞iÜ«Ú ã¨OHˆ =Δ ∞ HÍ~°º„Hõ=∞=ÚÅ∞
4. ÃÑ=· hfl#∞
20. Jaè=$kú P~°OÉèí ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ [<åÉèÏ-q™ÈÊù@#=Ú ZO^Œ∞=Å# [~°∞QÆ∞#∞ :

(2)

In the initial stages of development, population explosion occurs primarily due to :

1. [#<åÅ ~ˆ @∞Ö’ f„= =$kú
3. [## – =∞iÜ«Ú =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞Ö’ `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ
21. Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ '^ŒfiO^Œfi`«fi=Ú— J#QÍ

2. =∞~°}ÏÅ ~ˆ @∞Ö’ `«Q∞Æ ^æ ÅŒ
4. =Å㨠~ˆ @∞Ö’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
(2)

Dualism in development economies refers to :

1. ^ŒfiO^Œfi ^è~Œ Å° q^è•#=Ú
2. #¨=º =∞iÜ«Ú ™êO„Ѩ^•Ü«∞ ~°OQÆ=ÚÅ∞O_»∞@ =Å#
3. ¢ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi ~°OQÆ=ÚÅ∞ ã¨=∞HÍb#=ÚQÍ Ü«ÚO_»∞@ =Å#
4. =º=™ê÷Q`Æ "« ∞≥ #ÿ =∞iÜ«Ú J=º=™ê÷Q`Æ "« ∞≥ #ÿ =º=ã¨Å÷ ∞ ã¨=∞HÍb#=ÚQÍ Ü«ÚO_»∞@ =Å#
22. D „H˜Ok"åxÖ’ Uk Z‰õΩ¯= '=ÚO^Œ∞ -J#∞|O^èOŒ —‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz#k :

(3)

Which among the following has the highest forward linkage?

1. `«∞áê‰õΩÅ∞
2. PǨ~°^•è #º=ÚÅ∞ 3. W#∞=Ú - L‰õΩ¯ 4. Ü«∞O„`«=ÚÅ∞
23. +¨μOÑ‘@~ü, Pi÷HÍaè=$kúÖ’ ^ÕxH˜ „áê^è•#ºq∞KåÛ~°∞?

(3)

For economic development, Schumpeter gives importance to :

1. Ѩ~Ñ° u¨ ^•~°∞Å∞
2. L^Œº=∞^•~°∞Å∞ 3. #=HõÅÊ#Å∞
4. #∂`«# HõeÊ`«∞Å∞
24. ã¨fi~°‚ ^ŒâÖ◊ ’ ã¨OѨÓ~°‚ L^Àºy`« ã¨=∞`Òź=Ú#∞ Z=~°∞ „ѨuáêkOKå~°∞?( 2 )
The term 'Golden age of full employment equilibrium' has been coined by :

1. l. q∞~°Ö÷ ò

z~°Orq

2. *ˇ. ~åa<£ã<¨ £

3. =∂~ü¯û

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A.P.P.S.C
GROUP - II 2008
1. 2006 ã¨O.Ö’ „Ѩ"âÕ Ã◊ Ñ\˜#ì *ÏfÜ«∞ „QÍg∞} Láêkè Ѩ^HŒä =õ Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ x*ÏÅ#∞ ѨijeOѨÙ=Ú?
Z) <≥Ñ· Ù¨ }º=ÚÖËx "åiH˜ 100 ~ÀAÅ Láêkè Qͺ~°O\© Ѩ^HŒä =õ Ú
a) Hˆ O„^Œ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi=Ú D Ѩ^HŒä =õ Ú #_»∞ѨÙ`«∞Ok.
ã≤) D Ѩ^HŒä =õ ÚÖ’ *ÏfÜ«∞ PǨ~°=Ú HÍ^Œ∞ Ѩx J<Õ Ñ¨^HŒä =õ Ú HõÅã≤#k.
_ç) „QÍg∞} „áêO`åÅÖ’ Pã¨∞ÅÎ ~°∂ѨHÅõ Ê# J<Õk D Ѩ^HŒä Oõ =ÚYº ÅHõΔ ºO.
ÃÑ· "å\˜Ö’:
1) Z, a =∞iÜ«Ú ã≤ Å∞ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q
2) a, ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç Å∞ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q
3) Z, a =∞iÜ«Ú _ç Å∞ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q
4) Z, ã≤ =∞iÜ«Ú _ç Å∞ ã¨iÜ≥∞ÿ #q
2. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ =◊ Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÉèÏs "≥Ú`«=Î ÚÖ’ ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞ ZHõ¯_çH˜ "≥à√◊ §K«∞#flq?
3) Ü«Ú.Zãπ.Z. 4) Ü«Ú.Z.W.
1) WOQÍ¡O_»∞ (U.K.) 2) K≥<· å
3. Ju `«‰Ωõ ¯= eOQÆ x+¨Êu („ã‘,ΠѨÙ~°∞+¨) QÆÅ ~å„+¨=ì Ú ?
1) ˆH~°à◊
2) `«q∞à◊<å_»∞
3) PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò 4) ǨÏiÜ«∂<å
4. J<ÕHõ ~°HÍÅ â◊‰Ωõ ÅÎ Ö’ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi=Ú Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ P^è•~°Ñ_¨ kÕ
1) J}∞ q^Œ∞º`ü
2) ^ä~Œ ‡° Öò q^Œ∞º`ü
3) Ѩ=# q^Œ∞º`ü 4) [Å q^Œ∞º`ü
5. "åºáê~°=Ú =Å# ѨÓiÎQÍ ÖÏÉè=í ÚÖˉΩõ O_»∞@ =Å# "åºáê~°=Ú ÖˉΩõ O_»∞@
1) ¿ãflÇ¨Ï Ñ¨Ó~°fiHõ ^ÕâßÅ =∞^躌 "åºáê~°=Ú
2) á⁄~°∞QÆ∞"åi =∞^躌 "åºáê~°=Ú
3) ^ÕâßÅ =∞^躌 "åºáê~°=Ú ÖˉΩõ O_»∞@
4) "åºáê~°=Ú =Å# ѨÓiÎQÍ ÖÏÉè=í Ú ÖËHáõ È=@O =Å# "åºáê~°=Ú ÖˉΩõ O_»∞@
6. ÉèÏ~°`« ^ÕâO◊ Ö’ J`«ºkèH=õ ÚQÍ ÉÁQÆ∞#æ ∞ L`«ÊuÎ KÕ¿ã ~å„+¨=ì Ú Uk?
1) "≥ãìπ ɡOQÍÖò
2) =∞^躌 „Ѩ^âÕ ò
3) Xi™êû
4) cǨ~ü
7. RBI Ü≥ÚHõ¯ „Ѩã∞¨ `Î « QÆ=~°fl~°∞ Z=~°∞?
1) ~°OQÆ~å[<£
2) "≥.· a.Ô~_ç¤
3) JǨï¡"åeÜ«∂ 4) _®Hõì~ü =∞<£"≥∂ǨÏ<£ ã≤OQ∑
8. á⁄^Œ∞Ѩ٠^ÕxH˜ „áêux^躌 =Ú =Ç≤Ïã¨∞OÎ k.
1) P^•Ü«∞ K«„H©Ü∞« „Ѩ"åǨÅÖ’ ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ
2) Ѷ∞¨ <å`«‡HõOQÍ#∞ =∞iÜ«Ú |∞∞}Ï`«‡HõOQÍ#∞
3) K«„H©Ü∞« „Ѩ"åǨÏ=ÚÖ’ `«~∞° QÆ∞^ŒÅ
4) ÃÑq· Un HÍ^Œ∞
9. Ѩ^HŒ ˘O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ =$kú ~ˆ @∞ ÅHõΔ º=Ú (\ÏÔ~\æ ò) ZO`«?
1) 7%
2) 8.5%
3) 9%
4) 9.2%
10. ~Ô O_»∞ ~°OQÍÅ #=¸<å ã¨=∞`ÒźOÖ’ LO_»\ÏxH˜ HÍÅ=Åã≤# Ѩiã≤`÷ ∞« Å∞
1) ã¨q∞+≤ì P^•Ü«∞=∞Ú ´ ã¨q∞+≤ì =ºÜ«∞=Ú
2) á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙÅ∞ ´ ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞
3) ZQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞ ´ kQÆ∞=∞`«∞Å∞
4) Ѩ#∞flÅ∞ ´ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi =ºÜ«∞=Ú
11. D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ XHõ\ ˜ „^Œ=ºO ã¨Ê+≤Oì KÕ U*ˇhû HÍ^Œ∞
1) ‰õΩ@∞O|=ÚÅ∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ~å|_ç 2) "å}˜[º ÉϺO‰õΩÅ∞ 3) Hˆ O„^Œ ÉϺO‰õΩÅ∞ 4) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi=Ú

z~°Orq

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(4)

(3)
(4)
(2)
(3)

(3)
(2)
(3)

(3)
(2)

(1)

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12. XHõ Ѩi„â◊=∞ ZѨC_»∞ MÏ~ÚÖÏ Ñ¨_∞» `«∞Ok.
(1)
1) x~°O`«~O° QÍ q∞QÆ∞Å∞ L`«ÊuÎ ÖˉΩõ O_»áÈ=Ù@ 2) P^•Ü«∞ ~å|_»∞Å J#∞QÆ∞}OQÍ „^Œ=º „Ѩ"åǨÏ=Ú ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@
3) Y~°∞ÛÅ∞ áÈQÍ q∞ye# ÖÏÉèÏÅ∞ LO_»=Åã≤# ^•xHõ<åfl `«‰Ωõ ¯= LO_»∞@
4) ^è#Œ =Ú ^•fi~å Hõ<åfl K≥‰Ωõ ¯Å ^•fi~å ^è#Œ =Ú#∞ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ fã¨∞H˘<≥ L#∞‡Y`«
13. XHõ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨Ö÷ ’ „ÃÑ"· \Õ ò–ѨaH¡ ± ~°OQÍÅ ã¨ÇϨ r=<åxfl U=∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
(4)
1) xÜ«∞O„`«} Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç^•s q^è•#=Ú
3) =∞^躌 O`«~° ~°OQÆ=Ú
4) q∞„â◊=∞ Pi÷Hõ =º=ã¨÷
14. LáêO`« =º=™êÜ«∞ Éè∂í q∞ Ѩiq∞u
(1)
1) XHõ ÃÇψH~ì ∞° HõO>Ë `«‰Ωõ ¯=
2) XHõ\ ˜ =∞iÜ«Ú ~Ô O_»∞ ÃÇψH~ì ¡° =∞^躌
3) ~Ô O_»∞ #∞O_ç <åÅ∞QÆ∞ ÃÇψH~ì ¡° =∞^躌
3) <åÅ∞QÆ∞ #∞O_ç Ѩk ÃÇψH~ì ¡° =∞^躌
15. Pi÷Hõ Jã¨=∂#`«Å#∞ `«yOæ KÕ „Ѩ`º« HõΔ Ñ¨^uúŒ D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ Uk?
(4)
2) ã¨OѨ^ÃŒ Ñ· Ѩ#∞fl
1) =∞~°} (Estate) ã¨∞OHõ=Ú
3) P^•Ü«∞ ÖÏÉèÏŠѨ#∞fl
4) =º=™êÜ«∞ Éè∂í q∞ÃÑ· QÆi+¨ª Ѩiq∞u
16. *ÏfÜ«∞ P^•Ü«∞=Ú Z‰õΩ¯= "≥Ú`«=Î ÚÖ’ U ~°OQÆ=Ú #∞O_ç =K«∞ÛK«∞#flk?
(2)
1) „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi ~°OQÆ=Ú 2) „ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ ~°OQÆ=Ú 3) ™ê÷xHõ ~°OQÆ=Ú 4) ÃÑ"· å\˜Ö’ Un HÍ^Œ∞
17. qxÜ≥∂QÆ^•~°∞x q∞QÆ∞Å∞ J<Õ ÉèÏ=# U q^è•#=ÚÖ’ LѨÜ∂≥ QÆÑ_¨ ∞» `«∞Ok?
(2)
1) „^Œ=º q^è•#=ÚÖ’
2) Ѩ#∞flÅ q^è•#=ÚÖ’
3) ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å q^è•#=ÚÖ’
4) HÍ~°HÍÅ „ѨuѶ֨ ÏÅ∞ x~°~‚ ÚOK«_O» Ö’
18. _»|∞¡ º.*ˇ. É∫=∞Öò L^ÕâÌ º◊ „ѨHÍ~°=Ú „Ѩ`º« HõΔ „^Œ=º _ç=∂O_»∞ g\˜ÃÑ· P^è•~°Ñ_¨ ∞» #∞
(1)
1) P^•Ü«∞=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú =_ô¤ ~ˆ @∞
2) =_ô¤ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú ÉÏO_»∞¡ ^è~Œ Å° ∞
3) „^Œ=º ã¨ÃÑ¡· =∞iÜ«Ú P^•Ü«∞=Ú
4) =_ô¤ ~ˆ @∞ =∞iÜ«Ú „^Œ=º ã¨ÃÑ¡·
19. i[~°∞fi ÉϺO‰õΩ PѶπ WO_çÜ∂« XHõ\ ˜ `«Ñʨ Jxfl Hõ~Ô hû <À@¡#∞ *Ïs KÕã∞¨ OÎ k.
(4)
1) 500 ~°∂áêÜ«∞Å <À@∞
2) 100 ~°∂áêÜ«∞Å <À@∞
3) 10 ~°∂áêÜ«∞Å <À@∞
4) 1 ~°∂áê~Ú <À@∞
(4)
20. NABARD _≥~Ô· ‰õΩQì Í g\˜H˜ Ö’#∞ (JѨC) Wã¨∞OÎ k.
1) z#fl ~Ô `· ∞« ʼnõΩ 2) „QÍ=∞ "åºáê~°∞ʼnõΩ 3) z#fl "åºáê~°∞ʼnõΩ 4) ÃÑ"· å\˜Ö’ ^ÕxH© HÍ^Œ∞
21. WO_»„ã≤Ü
ì ∞« Öò _≥=ÅÑπ"∞≥ O\ò ÉϺOH± PѶπ WO_çÜ∂« J<Õk XHõ
(3)
1) P~ü.a.S Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞Hõ ã¨Oã¨÷
2) P~ü.a.S Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÉèÏQÆ=Ú
3) ã¨fi`«O„`« „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi ~°OQÆ ã¨Oã¨÷
4) „ÃÑ"· @
Õ ∞ ~°OQÆ ÉϺO‰õΩ
22. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ ‰õΩ\©~° =∞iÜ«Ú ÅѶڨ Ѩi„â◊=∞ʼnõΩ =ÚYº"≥∞#ÿ áê„`«#∞ áÈ+≤OK«∞K«∞#flq ZO^Œ∞Hõ#QÍ
(4)
1) L^ÀºQÆ J=HÍâ◊=Ú ÃÑOá⁄O^Œ∞K«∞#flq 2) Pi÷Hõ â◊HΘ Hˆ O„nHõ~}
° `«yOæ K«∞K«∞#flq
3) Pi÷Hõ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞ `«yOæ K«∞K«∞#flq
4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú

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23. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ #QÆsHõ~}
° ÃÑ~°Q\Æ ÏxH˜ HÍ~°}"Õ∞q∞\˜?
(4)
1) #QÆ~O° Ö’ Ѩi„â◊=∞Å∞ =∞iÜ«Ú "åºáê~°=Ú ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞@=Å# 2) „QÍg∞} „áêO`åÅÖ’ JkèHõ [<åÉèÏ =uÎ_ç
3) =º=™êÜ«∞ ~°OQÆ=ÚÖ’ JÅÊ L`åÊ^ŒH`õ «
4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
24. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ ^è~Œ Å° ÃÑ~°∞QÆ∞^ŒÅ „ѨÉÏè ==Ú
(4)
2) ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞ÅÃÑ· „Ѩu‰õÄÅ „ѨÉÏè ==Ú
1) BoP ÃÑ#· „Ѩu‰õÄÅ „ѨÉÏè ==Ú
3) P^•Ü«∞ Jã¨=∂#`«Å∞
4) ÃÑ=· xflÜ«Ú
25. Zxq∞^Œ= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ "≥Ú^ŒÅ∞ ÃÑ\˜#ì k U ã¨O=`«û~°=ÚÖ’ ?
(3)
1) [#=i 1, 1989 2) [#=i 1, 1990 3) U„Ñ≤Öò 1, 1992 4) U„Ñ≤Öò 1, 1991
26. ÉèÏ~°`« *ÏfÜ«∞ P^•Ü«∞=ÚÖ’ „áê^äqŒ ∞Hõ ~°OQÆ=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ã¨=Úz`« âß`«=Ú ZO`«?
( )
1) 40
2) 50
3) 60
4) 70 ã¨iÜ≥ÿ∞# ã¨=∂^è•#=Ú 20%
27. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ ◊ „Ѩ}ÏoHÍ ã¨OѶ∞¨ K≥~· ‡° <£
(2)
1) ÉèÏ~°`« „ÃÑã≤_O≥ @∞
2) ÉèÏ~°`« „Ѩ^•è x
3) Pi÷Hõ =∞O„u
4) ÃÑ· =ÚQÆ∞~æ ∞° ~˘>ˇ+<¨ £ (XHõi `«~åfi`« XHõ~∞° =O`«∞Å∞) Ѩ^uúŒ Ö’
28. PǨ~°=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú Z~°∞=ÙÅ ã¨aû_ôÅ∞ g\˜Ö’ Wq∞_ç L<åfl~Ú?
(2)
1) =¸Å^è#Œ =ºÜ«∞O 2) ~Ô "≥#∞º =ºÜ«∞O 3) q^è•# |∞∞}=Ú 4) ÃÑ· =xflÜ«Ú
29. Hˆ O„^Œ „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi=Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =ã¨∂à◊§ ÃÑ^ŒÌ =¸ÖÏ^è•~°=Ú#∞ `≥Å∞ѨÙ=Ú.
(1)
1) =∂Ô~¯@∞ |∞∞}ÏÅ∞ 2) |Ç≤Ï~°`æ « |∞∞}ÏÅ∞ 3) z#fl á⁄^Œ∞ѨÙÅ∞ 4) „áêq_»O\ò ѶO¨ _£
30. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Ö’ Z‰õΩ¯= Ѩ@}
ì ÏÅ∞ Hõey# ~å„+¨=ì Ú Uk?
(4)
1) =∞Ǩ~å„+¨ì 2) L`«~Î „° Ѩ^âÕ ò 3) =∞^躌 „Ѩ^âÕ ò 4) `«q∞à◊<å_»∞
31. P^•Ü«∞=Ú =∞iÜ«Ú =ºÜ«∞=Ú‰õΩ ã¨O|OkèOz# „ѨÉ∞íè `«fi q^è•<åxfl U=∞x Ñ≤Å∞™êÎ~∞° ?
(4)
1) „^Œ=º q^è•#=Ú 2) "åºáê~° q^è•#=Ú 3) Pi÷Hõ q^è•#=Ú 4) HÀâ◊ q^è•#=Ú
32. D „H˜Ok "å\˜x [`« Ѩ~∞° K«∞=Ú :
(3)
Z) <åQÍ~°∞˚# ™êQÆ~ü
1) "≥ãπì ɡOQÍÖò
a) Ç‘Ï~å‰õΩ_£
2. Xi™êû
ã≤) ^•"≥∂^Œ~ü "åb
3) PO„^茄Ѩ^Õâò
4) Hõ~åfl@Hõ
Z a ã≤
1) 1 2
3
2) 4 3
2
3) 3 2
1
4) 2 1
4

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ECONOMY

33. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ =◊ Ú Ü≥ÚHõ¯ ~Ô O_»= ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoHõ ~°∂Ѩ HõÅÊ# KÕã#≤ k Z=~°∞?
(2)
1) „|Ǩ‡#O^Œ 2) =∞ǨÏÖÏ<Àaãπ 3) ǨÏ~å_£–_À=∞~ü 4) K«„Hõ=iÎ
34. U ѨOK«=~°¬ „Ѩ}ÏoÅHõÖ’ PtOz# =$kú ~ˆ @∞‰õΩ q∞Oz# "åã¨=Î =$kú ~ˆ @∞ LO_ç#k.
(1)
1) "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ áê¡#∞ 2) ~Ô O_»= áê¡#∞ 3) S^Œ= áê¡#∞ 4) U_»= áê¡#∞
35. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Ѩi„â◊=∞ʼnõΩ n~°H… ÍeHõ q`åÎxfl JOkOKÕ ã¨Oã¨÷ Uk?
(1)
1) S._ç.a.S. 2) Zãπ.a.S. 3) ZÖò.S.ã≤. 4) P~ü.a.S.
36. ÉèÏ~°`« ^ÕâO◊ Ö’ „a\˜+π ѨiáêÅ<å HÍÅ=ÚÖ’ D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ Uk B^ÀºyHõ ÃÑ@∞ì|_ç =∞iÜ«Ú =Å㨠"å}˜[º=Ú#‰õΩ
QÆ∞i HÍ|_»Ö^Ë ∞Œ .
(3)
1) ã¨∞OHÍÅ∞ ÖËx `«Ü∂« s=ã¨∞=Î ÙÅ ÉèÏ~°`=« ÚÖ’ kQÆ∞=∞`«∞ÅÃÑ·
2) ÉèÏ~°`« kQÆ∞=∞`«∞ÅÃÑ· „a\˜+"π å~°∞ qkèOz# Z‰õΩ¯= Hõã"ì¨ ∞£ ã¨∞OHÍÅ∞
3) ~Ô Ö· fiË x~å‡}=Ú#‰õΩ „a\˜+"π å~°∞ KÕã#≤ Pi÷Hõ ã¨Ç¨ Ü«∞=Ú
4) [#∞Ѩ<å~° Ѩi„â◊=∞Ö’ „a\˜+"π å~°∞ ÃÑ\˜#ì Z‰õΩ¯= ÃÑ@∞ì|_»∞Å∞
37. ÉèÏ~°`« ^Õâ=◊ ÚÖ’ ™êfi`«O„`«º=Ú ~åHõ=ÚO^Œ∞ "≥Ú^Œ\ ˜ ™êiQÍ *ÏuÜ«∂^•Ü«∂xfl ÖˇH¯˜ Oz#^≥=~°∞?
(4)
1) Z"£∞.Z<£.~åÜü∞ 2) q.ÔH.P~ü.q.~å"£ 3) HÔ .Z<£.~å*ò 4) ^•^•ÉèÏÜü∞ <Ò~Àl
38. D „H˜Ok "åxÖ’ ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ =◊ ÚÃÑ· „a\˜+π ѨiáêÅ<å „Ñ¨ÉÏè =O QÆ∞iOz Uk x[=Ú HÍ^Œ∞?
(2)
1) `«Ü∂« s =ã¨∞=Î ÙÅÃÑ· Ѩ#∞fl ÖˉΩõ O_® kQÆ∞=∞u KÕã∞¨ H˘#∞@
2) Ѩ#∞flÖˉΩõ O_® ÉèÏ~°`« <Õ`« =„ã¨=Î ÚÅ∞ Ü«Ú.ÔH.Ö’ kQÆ∞=∞u
3) „a\˜+"π å~°∞ ÉèÏ~°`=« ÚÖ’ [#∞Ѩ<å~° Ѩi„â◊=∞#∞ Jaè=$kú Ѩ~K° ∞« @
4) ÉèÏ~°`« ^Õâ=◊ ÚÖ’ ‰õΩ\©~° =∞iÜ«Ú z#fl`«~Ç° ¨ Ѩi„â◊=ÚÅ∞ `«yáæ È=Ù@
39. ¿Ñ^ŒiHõOÃÑ· „Ѩ`º« HõΔ P„Hõ=∞} J<Õ =ӺǨ~°K#« D „H˜Ok "å\˜Ö’ XHõ\ ˜ ÉèÏQÆO HÍ^Œ∞
(4)
1) ã¨=∞„QÆ „QÍg∞} Jaè=$kú Ѩ^HŒä =õ Ú
2) [=ǨÏ~° ~À[QÍ~ü Ü≥∂[<å
3) *ÏfÜ«∞ „QÍg∞} L^ÀºQÆ Ñ¨^HŒä =õ Ú
4) ‰õΩ@∞O| xÜ«∞O„`«} Ѩ^HŒä =õ Ú
40. ÉèÏ~°`^« âÕ O◊ Z‰õΩ¯= "≥Ú`«OÎ Ö’ "åºáê~°=Ú KÕ¿ã ^ÕâßÅ∞
(4)
1) Dãπ–ì Ü«¸~ÀÑ≤Ü∞« <£ ^ÕâßÅ∞
2) X¿ÑH± (OPEC) ^ÕâßÅ∞
3) Jaè=$kú K≥Ok# X¿ÑH± (OPEC) HÍx ^ÕâßÅ∞
4) _ç.W.ã≤._ç.^ÕâßÅ∞
41. ÃÇÏ· áÈuã≤ãπ („áêH± HõÅÊ#) J<Õk
(3)
1) ÅHΔͺÅ#∞|\˜ì "åã¨qÎ Hõ`«
2) HõÅÊ#Ö’ "åã¨qÎ Hõ`« ÖËHáõ È=_»O
3) xiÌ+"ì¨ ∞≥ #ÿ "å\˜x TÇ≤ÏOKÕ â◊HΘ
4) ÃÑ· ^•xÖ’ Un HÍ^Œ∞
42. L`«ÊuÎ HÍ~°HÍÅ ^Œ$ëêì º *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎH#õ fl =∂Ô~¯\ò ^è~Œ Å° Ö’ *ÏfÜ≥∂`«ÊuÎ Z‰õΩ¯=QÍ LO_»∞@‰õΩ HÍ~°}O ( 3 )
1) Ѩ~ÀHõÑΔ Ù¨ Ѩ#∞flÅ∞
2) ã¨aû_ôÅ∞
3) Ѩ~ÀHõÑΔ Ù¨ Ѩ#∞flÅ∞ – ã¨aû_ôÅ∞
4) Ѩ~ÀHõÑΔ Ù¨ Ѩ#∞flÅ∞{ã¨aû_ôÅ∞

z~°Orq

152

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