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Name:_______________________

Dateassigned:______________

Band:________

Precalculus|PackerCollegiateInstitute

Boxes,LotteryTickets,andInfiniteElephants,Ohmy!:SequencesandSeries

Thesectionstothisunitarebelow.Sectionswhichmaycorrespondtothebookhavethatinformationincluded,along

Comment [sjs1]: Printsinglesidedon11x16

paperwiththetextontheLHSandblankspaceon
theRHSthiswaytherewillbemoreroomforkids
toworkChopoffaninchontheRHSsothatthe
studentcanfoldovertheblankpartsothepacket
fitsinafolder/binder.

Section1:Puzzles!
Book:

Section2:MathematicalTerminology
Book:

Section3:ArithmeticSequences
Book:

Section4:GeometricSequences
Book:

Section5:TheForwardsProblem:GoFromFormulatoSequence
Book:

Section6:TheBackwardsProblem:GoFromSequencetoFormula
Book:

Section7:AnIntroductiontoArithmeticSeries
Book:

Section8:SigmaTerminologyandNotation
Book:

Section9:AnIntroductiontoFiniteGeometricSeries!
Book:

Section10:InfiniteGeometricSeries!
Book:

AnAmazinglyTrueMathematicalFact!

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ...
4
3 5 7 9 11 13 15

`
1

Name:_______________________

Dateassigned:______________

Band:________

Precalculus|PackerCollegiateInstitute

Boxes,LotteryTickets,andInfiniteElephants,Ohmy!

Section1:Puzzles!

Puzzle#1

Howmanylittlesquaresareinthe42nd1figure?
(FYI:thelonesquareisthefirstfigure)

Generalizetheresult:Howmanylittlesquaresareinthenthfigure?

Extendthegeneralization:Howmanylittlesquaresareinthezerothfigure?

Graphtheresult:
squares

Comment [sjs2]: Printsinglesidedon11x16

paperwiththetextontheLHSandblankspaceon
theRHSthiswaytherewillbemoreroomforkids
toworkChopoffaninchontheRHSsothatthe
studentcanfoldovertheblankpartsothepacket
fitsinafolder/binder.
Comment [sjs3]: Allpuzzlesinsmallgroupsof3.
Hinttokens.

HaveallgroupsworkonPuzzle1,butthenafterthat
andgoingoverit,assignsomegroupsPuzzle2,3,or
4tostartworkingon(andthentheycycle
through)

Giveeachgroup3hinttokens(jollyranchers?)and
saytheycanteatthem.Buttheycanexchange
themforhintsfrommewhenthewholegroupis
stuck.

Whengroupscallmeover,rememberNOTtocall
groupmemberforthequestion/problemThis
ensurestheyallareonthesamepageandworking
together

(OrmaybemakeitaclasspolicythatALLhandsina
groupmustberaisedformetocomeover,andIll
randomlycallononeofthem)

means

Whatdoestheyinterceptmean(ifyougraphedit)?

Commondifference=slope!

Domain?Canweextendthepointsbackwards?
Whatwouldthatmean?Ifnot,howdowe
mathematicallyexplainourfunction?

figure number

http://ind.pn/NfegPy

`
2

Puzzle#2

PartI:Howmanysquaresareinthe42ndfigure?
(FYI:thefirstfigurehas1square,thesecondfigurehas5
squares,etc.)

Generalizetheresult:Howmanysquaresareinthenth
figure?

Graphtheresults:

whatistheareaofthe42ndfigure?

Generalizetheresult:Whatistheareaofthenthfigure?

hinttokenhere

Graphtheresults:

squares

area

Comment [sjs5]: Afterstudentsaredonewith

Puzzle#2,havethemcallmeovertogooverthings
withthem

theythinkwillhappenastheygettomoreandmore
figureswhathappenstothenumberofsquares
(getssuperlarge)andwhathappenstothearea
(getssupersmall)Willtheareaofanyfigureever
be0?

Whatwouldhappentotheequationfortheareaif
theoriginalsquarehasanareaof17?Howwould
thegraphchange?

figure number

figure number

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3

Puzzle#3a

Thenumberofsmalltilesinthenthfigureis:

the3rdfigure(youdonthaveenoughtilestobuildthe4thfigure).
wouldbethe___figure.

Explanation:

Thenumberofsmalltilesinthenthfigureis:

the3rdfigure(youdonthaveenoughtilestobuildthe4thfigure).
wouldbethe___figure.

Explanation:

Puzzle#3b

Puzzle3a:

small squares

Puzzle3b:

small squares

figure number

figure number

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4

Puzzle#4:Gardensareframedwithasinglerowofbordertilesasillustratedhere

Drawthe4thgarden:

PartII:Howmanybordertilesarerequiredforagardenof
length30?

gardenoflength1000.

PartIV(generalizetheresult):Ifyouknowthegardenlength(callitn),explainhowyoucandeterminethenumberof
bordertiles.

PartV:Showhowtofindthelengthofthegardenif152
PartVI:Cantherebeagardenthatusesexactly2012
bordertilesareused.

Explainyourreasoning.

PartI:Howmanybordertilesarerequiredforagardenof
length10?(FYI:Thelengthofthefirstgardenis3.)

`
5

PartVII:Graphtheresults

border tiles

figure number

Comment [sjs7]: Afterthesepuzzlesareover,

spendthestartofthenextclassgoingoverthese
questionstothetrickyparts.

Possibleoptionalextension:
Havestudentscomeupwithaproblemsimilarto
oneoftheseontheirown!

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6

Section2:MathematicalTerminology
mathematics,wecallthisasequence.
Forexample,forPuzzle#1,yousawthepattern1,3,5,7,
Andwehavenotationforthis.Wellcallthissequence {Rn } (butwecouldjustaswellcallit {Badgern } or {Snaken } ).
Weusethesuperextrafancycurlybracketstoindicateitsasequence,andweusethesubscripttosaywhereinthe
sequenceweare.So:

the5thnumberinthissequence R

wesay R5

th

the27 numberinthissequence R wesay R27

thenthnumberinthissequence R wesay Rn

Asyouveseen,thetermsinasequencecangrowbiggerorsmaller,andweshallseethattheycanbecrazyandget
biggerandsmallerandbiggerandsmaller!2

Althoughthereareanumberofdifferentkindsofsequences(asweshallsee),wewillreallyfocusontwoparticular
kinds.
InPuzzle#1andPuzzle#4,wesawthegraphslooklinearandtheequationforthenthtermwasalinearequation.You
cannowlaugh,becausewedontcallthesesequenceslinear.Wecallthemarithmetic.Thatsbecausearithmeticis
hallmarkofanarithmeticsequenceisthatthereisacommondifferencebetweeneachterm(ifyousubtractanyterm
fromthepreviousterm,youalwaysgetthesamecommondifference).
InPuzzle#2,wesawthegraphslookexponentialandtheequationforthenthtermwasanexponentialequation.You
cannowlaughagain,becausewedontcallthesesequencesexponential.Wecallthemgeometric,whichhassomething
todowiththegeometricmean(ageometryconceptthatIamgoingtoignorehere).Thehallmarkofageometric
sequenceisthatthereisacommonratiobetweeneachterm(ifyoudivideanytermbythepreviousterm,youalways
getthesamecommonratio).

Somesequencesaretrickytofigureout.Heresafunone:

LookAndSay 1, 11, 21, 1211, 111221, 312211,...

Canyoufigureout LookAndSay6 ?_____________________________________(solution:http://bit.ly/KBeiSd)

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7

Section3:ArithmeticSequences

thingsup.

1. Ifyouknowthefirstnumberinanarithmeticsequenceis 5 andeachterminthesequencegoesupby 3 ,come

upwithaformulaforthenthterm.(Checkyourformulaknowingthatthefourthtermis14.)

2. Ifyouknowthefirstnumberinanarithmeticsequenceis 5 andeachterminthesequencedecreasesby 3 ,
comeupwithaformulaforthenthterm.(Checkyourformulaknowingthatthefourthtermis4)

3. Ifthefirstterminanarithmeticsequenceis a1 andthecommondifferenceis d ,whatistheformulafor an ?

(Checkyourformulausingthesequencesintheprevioustwoquestionsitshouldbeaformulathatworks!)

4. Ifyouknowtheseventiethnumberinanarithmeticsequenceis 5 andeachterminthesequencedecreasesby
3 ,comeupwithaformulaforthenthterm.(Hint:yourworkforthepreviousproblemwillhelpyou!)

5. Ifyouknowthefifthnumberinanarithmeticsequenceis 5 andtheeleventhnumberis 71 ,comeupwitha

formulaforthenthterm.

6. Ifyouknowthefifthnumberinanarithmeticsequenceis 5.2 andtheeleventhnumberis 9.4 ,comeupwith

aformulaforthenthterm.

`
8

Section4:GeometricSequences
7. Ifyouknowthefirstnumberinageometricsequenceis 5 andthecommonratiois 3 ,comeupwithaformula
forthenthterm.

8. Ifyouknowthefirstnumberinageometricsequenceis5andthecommonratiois 1 / 3 ,comeupwithaformula
forthenthterm.

forthenthterm.

10. Ifyouknowthefifthnumberinageometricsequenceis 80 / 81 andthecommonratiois 2 / 3 ,comeupwitha

formulaforthenthterm.(Hint:yourworkforthepreviousproblemwillhelpyou!)

11. Ifyouknowthethirdnumberinageometricsequenceis 54 andthefifthnumberis 486 ,comeupwitha

formulaforthenthterm.

12. Ifyouknowthefourthnumberinageometricsequenceis 156.25 andtheninthnumberis 488281.25 ,come

upwithaformulaforthenthterm.

Comment [sjs9]: Gooverthesetogetherin

classStudentsproject36,912ondocument
camera

CreateFoldableforArithmeticvs.Geometric(two
tab)?(p.9inFoldablebook)maybeforhomework.
GiveFoldabletemplate.

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9

Section5:TheForwardsProblem:GoFromFormulatoSequence

Example: {sn } {

(1)n 1
} ,so:
n

Comment [sjs10]: Individually.Couldbe

homework.

s1 s2
s3 s4
s5 s6
s7
1 1
1 1
1 1

2 3
4 5
6 7

Noticewhatishappeningtothissequenceaswegofurtherandfurtheralongalthoughthenumbershopaboveand
belowthexaxis,weseethatthetermsaregettingcloserandcloserto0.
Willanyofthedotseverlieonthexaxis?Howdoyouknow?Convinceme.

GeogebraInterlude
Tomakethisgraph,openGeogebra.Intheinputbaratthebottomtype:
Sequence[(n,(1)^(n+1)/n),n,0,16]
Whatthisdoesisitgraphsthepoints (n,

(1) n 1
) forn=0ton=16.Becarefulwiththeparenthesesandwatchoutfor
n

thatextranwhichIbolded.

Toresizeyourwindowsoyoucanseeeverything,clickonthe
buttonatthetop,andthenplaceyourarrowonthe
yaxis,clickandholddownthebuttonwhiledragthecursorupanddown.Thesamegoesforthexaxis.

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10

Giventhefollowingsequences,writeoutthefirstseventermsandthengraphbothingeogebra.
1.(a) {an } {

n2 1
}
2n

(b) {bn } {

2n
}
n2

a1

a2

a3

a4

a5

a6

a7

b1

b2

b3

b4

b5

b6

b7

UseGeogebratographthefirst16valuesofthesesequences.
WhatIenteredinGeogebrafor {an } :

WhatIenteredinGeogebrafor {bn }

Sequence[]

Sequence[]

Changeyourwindowto[0,16]x[0,10]

Changeyourwindowto[0,16]x[0,250]

AroughsketchofwhatIsee:

AroughsketchofwhatIsee:

`
11

Section6:TheBackwardsProblem:GoFromSequencetoFormula
1. Giventhefirstfewtermsofasequence,canyoucomeupwithaformulathatdefinesit?Isthesequencearithmetic,
geometric,orneither.Brieflyexplainhowyoudecidedyourchoice.

WORKSPACE

(a) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ... thus sn

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither

Explanation:

(b) 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, ... thus sn

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither

Explanation:

(c) 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, ... thus sn

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither

Explanation:

1 1 1 1
,
, ... thus sn
(d) 1, , ,

3 9 27 81

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither

Explanation:

Comment [sjs11]: Maybeachoicework

individuallyorworkinpartnersDependingon
theircomfortlevel.

`
12

(e) 1,

1
1 1
1
, ,
, , ... thus sn
3
9 27
81

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither
Explanation:

(f)

2 4 6 8 10
, , , ,
, ... thus sn
11 9 7 5 3

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither
Explanation:

(g) .2, .02, .002, .0002, .00002,... thus sn

(circleone)arithmetic,geometric,orneither
Explanation:

(h) (babychallenge)
1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720 ... thus sn

Hintsforthechallenges:
(h)http://bit.ly/Mcg3FT
interesting!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

(j)itsacubic

(i) (challenge)

2, 6, 12, 20, 30, 42, 56 ... thus sn

(j) (uberchallenge)

0, 1, 10, 33, 76, 145, 246, 385, 568, 801,

... thus sn

(k) (ultrachallenge)

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21... thus sn

(1 5) n (1 5) n
.Weird,huh.
2n 5

strangethateventhoughtheformulainvolves 5 ,you
alwaysgetanintegeroutput.

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13

Section7:AnIntroductiontoArithmeticSeries

Aprelude(fromhttp://bit.ly/MC7YHk... therearemanyversionsofthisstory!)

About 100 years ago, a young boy (who grew up to be a great mathematician) by the name of Gauss (pronounced
"Gowss") was at school when the class got in trouble for being too loud and misbehaving. Their teacher, looking for

About 30 seconds later, the 10yearold Gauss tossed his slate (small chalkboard) onto the teacher's desk with the

Letuslookatthefollowingdiagram.Wecancomeupwithasequenceforthenumberofboxesineachfigure.

Thesequenceis1,3,6,10,15,21,
However,ifwewanttofindthenthterminthesequence,wehaveaproblem.Itturnsout(andwellshowthis)thatthe
formulais: sn

1 2 1
n(n 1)
n n orwrittenmoreelegantly, sn
.
2
2
2

WHATINTHEWHAT?Howintheworlddoesthatwork?
1. Compareeachfiguretothepreviousone.Describehowthenthfigureischangingbasedonthen1thfigure.

Comment [sjs12]: Thisshouldbeindividual

work(orhomework)becauseitissoselfguided

Forthefifthfigure,weadd s5 1 2 3 4 5
Fortheninthfigure,weadd s9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Forthenthfigure,weadd sn 1 2 3 ... (n 2) (n 1) n

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14

toitself,butinaspecialway.

s5 1 2 3 4 5
s5 5 4 3 2 1

2s5 6 6 6 6 6
Nowweseethat 2 s5 6(5) 30 .Thus s5 15 .Whichweknow.

Checkyoself!Usingthismethod,find s10 .

Practiceonemoretime.BeGauss.Findthesumofthefirst100positiveintegers: s100 .

3. Nowtryitmoregenerallyfor sn 1 2 3 ... (n 2) (n 1) n

`
15

4. Doesthisworkforothersequences?
4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19...

FindthesumofthefirstfivenumbersbyusingthetechniqueDoesthetechniquework?(Ifitdoesnt,explain
whynot.)

2, 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, ...

FindthesumofthefirstsixnumbersbyusingthetechniqueDoesthetechniquework?(Ifitdoesnt,explain
whynot.)

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, ...

FindthesumofthefirstfivenumbersbyusingthetechniqueDoesthetechniquework?(Ifitdoesnt,explain
whynot.)

Whenyouaretakingasumofanarithmeticsequence,wecallthat(naturally)anarithmeticseries.(Thesame
holdsforgeometricsequencesandgeometricseries.)

theterms,worksfor__________________________seriesbecause___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________.
Itwillnotworkfor___________________________seriesbecause___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________.

questiononassessment.WHYdoesntthisprocess

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16

7. Generalizethingsnow!Tofindthesumofanarithmeticseries,youneedtoknowthefirstterm,thelastterm,
andthenumberoftermstotal.Writeanequation(usingonlythetermsfirsttermlasttermandnumberof
terms)whichgivesyouthesum.

Sum of an Arithmetic Series

8. Aproofwithoutwords.

Yeah,itmaybeaproofwithoutwords,butyouneedtowordstoexplainthatyouunderstandit.Explainhowthis
proofwithoutwordsisavisualillustrationoftheequationyoucameupwithinthepreviousproblem.

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17

Section8:SigmaTerminologyandNotation
looksfancyandpossiblyscary,butitisnt!Promise.
100

1 2 3 ... 98 99 100 k
k 1

Comment [sjs14]: Thissectionisprettyself

guided.ThoughIthinkitwouldbegoodtohavekids
classwouldmakesurethatthenotationitselfisnt
whatmakesthemshutdownandNOTdothe
problems

Caneasilygoovertheproblemsfromthissectionby
projectingthesolutionsDontneedtomakea
hugedealoutofthis.

Ifyoudontunderstandthis,letmeshowyouafewotherexamplesofourfancynotationinaction:
6

1 4 9 16 25 36

n 1

(2 p 5) 1 1 3 5 7 9
p2

2 3
k 5

n
n 1

1
1
1
1
2 2 2 2
3
3
3
3

1 1 1 1 1
1
... (weirdfact3)
1 4 9 16 25 36

Thevariableitselfisjustaplaceholderanyletterwilldo!Justmakesureyoupayattentiontothetopandbottom
numbers!
1. Representthefollowingsumsusingsigmanotation:

(a)(problem4fromtheprevioussection): 4 7 10 13 16

(b)(problem5fromtheprevioussection): 2 3 8 13 18

(c)(problem6fromtheprevioussection): 2 4 8 16 32

3
INVOLVEDINTHISATALL?!Iknow,soverystrange.Isitrelatedtocircles?Calculuscanhelpyouunderstandthishere.Iknow,I
know,youllhavetowaitabit.Also,thisseriesistiedupwithsomethingcalledtheRiemannZetafunction.Youmightnothave
problems(includingtheRiemannHypothesis)here:http://bit.ly/LX4nHv

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18

2. Expandthesigmanotationtoshowthesum(e.g. 2 0 2 4 ).Youdonotneedtoactuallyfindthesum.
Note:Theproblemswith i donotindicateimaginarynumbers!Wecanuseanyvariable.Sometimesweuse i .

(a)

5 3(i 1)
i 1

(b)

9 3

k 1

(c)

(10)

i1

(d)

issue,andalsothattheyhavetowriteenough
termssothatarandompersonwouldbeabletosee
thepattern(so2or3termsisnotenoughgood
ruleofhandistowrite4or5)

i2

i 2
i 3

(e)

n2

2
4

n
n 3

3. Nowweregoingtocyclebacktoarithmeticseriesandtheformulayouderivedinthelastsection.

Nowlookatthefollowingproblemsbelowandbeforeyoufindthesum,explain(inwords)howyouknowthese
areallarithmeticseries(asopposedtogeometric,orsomethingelse).Then,thistime,actuallyfindthesum!

Explanation:

Comment [sjs16]: Iwantthemtonotethat

theyarealllinearandthesloperepresents
howmuchtheyareeachgoingup

ButtheyinterceptDOESNOTrepresentthefirst
terminthesequenceusually.Theyhaveto
CALCULATEthefirstterm!!!Thisisimportantto
makesuretheyunderstand!Forwhentheyre
applyingtheirformula

`
19

10

(a)

2 3i
i 5

10

(b)

2 3(i 1)
i 5

15

(c)

5i 2
i 1

(d)

1 67i

i 6

100

(e)

1 67i

i 23

`
20

Section9:AnIntroductiontoFiniteGeometricSeries!

Comment [sjs17]: Thebeginningofthiscould

bedoneathome,butitwouldbefuntodoinclass
inpairsortrios!Goingover#8and#9togetherasa
studentstoattacktherestathome.

Lotto!MoneyforLife!
scratchedoffthefirsttwocircles.Ifthethreescratchoffsallshow\$underthem,youwinamilliondollarsthatwillbe
paidtoyouin\$50,000installmentsattheendofeachyearfor20years.Ifyouseeacherry,youwinapieceofcandy.If
youseeanythingelse,youwinnothing.

Comment [sjs18]: Obviouslyabitofapain,but

youhavetoremembertodrawinthecherriesand
otherrandomdoodlesandputthescratchoff
stickeroverit!

Someofyouwon,someofyoulost.Forus,here,now,inmathclass,letsassumeyouwon,andyouwanttomaximize
yourmoneyinsafeway,sowhenyoure36or37youhaveapileofmoneythatyouaresittingon.4Youhaveatonof
patience,soyouhavethismoneydirectdepositedinabankaccountwhichgivesyou2%interest,earnedatthe
beginningoftheyear.Letschecktoseehowmuchmoneyyourbankaccountwillshowattheendoftheeachyear.
1. Howmuchmoneydoyouhaveattheendofthefirstyear?

beginningofthefollowingyear.)

2. Howmuchmoneydoyouhaveattheendofthesecondyear?

3. Howmuchmoneydoyouhaveattheendofthethirdyear?

4. Howmuchmoneydoyouhaveattheendofthefourthyear?

6. Canyouwritehowmuchmoneyyoullhaveattheendof20yearsusingsummationnotation?

Wearegoingtoignoretaxesfornow.However,theycouldbefactoredinwithalittleeffort.

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21

7. Doyouseethateachterminthesumaboveformsageometricsequence?

Thefirsttermis_______________andthecommonratiois_______________.

Whatwehaveisageometricseries!Andwesawthatthetechniquetosumanarithmeticseriesdoesntworkfor
geometricseries.

5andacommonratioof4.

s 5 5(4) 5(4)2 5(4)3

Letsmultiply s bythecommonratiotoget 4 s .

4s 5(4) 5(4)2 5(4)3 5(4)4

Andnowletssubtractthetwoequations!

4s

Comment [sjs19]: Atsomepoint,besureto

equationssotheliketermsmatchupIts
importanttolinethingsups!!!

3s 5(4) 5
4

Thuswehave s

5(4)4 5
425
3

Willthistechniquealwayswork?Letsgobacktothelotteryproblem!Trythistechniqueoutbycalculatinghow
muchmoneyyoullhaveattheendofthefourthyear!Seeifthealgebraworksout.Andthencompareyour

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22

8. Usethistechniquetocalculatehowmuchmoneyyoullhaveattheendofthetwentiethyear!Becauseof

Practice!

5 5 5 5 5
5

2 4 8 16 32 64

11. Usingthisnewtechnique,exactlyfindthesumofthefirstfifteenterms.

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23

12. (a)Usingthisnewtechnique,exactlyfindthesumofthefirstnterms.

(b)Asngetsbiggerandbigger,whathappenstothesum?

13. (a)Iftheserieswerealtered,sothatitis: s

1 1 1 1
... ,exactlyfindthesumofthefirstnterms.
3 9 27 81

Comment [sjs20]: Ashortdiscussionneedsto

happenonthe5/2^(n+1)terminthesumand
howthatgetscloserandclosertozerosoeach
smallerandsmalleramountsothesumisgetting
bigger,butveryslowly.

(b)Asngetsbiggerandbigger,whathappenstothesum?

14. (a)Iftheserieswerealtered,sothatitis: s

23 23 23 23
... ,exactlyfindthesumofthefirstnterms.
3 9 27 81

(b)Asngetsbiggerandbigger,whathappenstothesum?

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24

15. Iftheserieswerealtered,sothatitis: s

3 3 3
6
12

...
4 10 25 125 625

(a)Explainhowyouknowthisseriesisageometricseries.

(b)Exactlyfindthesumofthefirsteightterms.Writethesigmanotationforthesumofthefirst8terms.

(c)Whatisthenthterminthisseries?

(d) Exactlyfindthesumofthefirstnterms.Writethesigmanotationforthesumofthefirstnterms.

(e) Asngetsbiggerandbigger,whathappenstothesum?

16. Iftheserieswerealtered,sothatitis: s 1 2 4 8 (itisfiniteanddoesntgoonforever!),usethis

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25

17. Doesinfinityequal1?

Usingyourbrain,whatisthesumofthisinfinitegeometricseries: s 1 2 4 8 16 ...

Nowletsusethetechniqueweveperfectedabove.

s 1 2 4 8 16 ...

2s
2 4 8 16 ...
s 1
(Noticethe2s,4s,8s,16s,andallothertermssubtracttobe0.)
Thuswecanseethat s 1 .

correctsum?

Comment [sjs21]: Clearlythisdoesntwork.Let

themdiscussandconjecture,butyoudontneedto
cometoanysolidconclusions.Itsjustthatinfinityis
WEIRDandsoyouhavetobecarefulwhenusingit.

basistocalculusandweneedcalculustohelpus
dealwiththeseinfinitiesandtheseweirdnesses

18. Iftheserieswerealtered,sothatitis: s a ar ar ar ar ... ,wearedesignatingthefirsttermas a

andthecommonratioas r .

(a)Explainhowyouknowthisseriesisageometricseries.

(b)Exactlyfindthesumofthefirsteightterms.Writethesigmanotationforthesumofthefirst8terms.

(c)Whatisthenthterminthisseries?

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26

(d) Exactlyfindthesumofthefirstnterms.Writethesigmanotationforthesumofthefirstnterms.

(e) Asngetsbiggerandbigger,whathappenstothesum?

KeyMathematicalConclusion:Thistechniqueispowerfulandcanbeusedtofindthesumofthefirstntermsof
________________sequences.Thereasonthistechniqueworksisbecause_____________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
ConceptualQuestion:Explainthedifferencebetweenasequenceandaseries.

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27

Section10:InfiniteGeometricSeries!

Comment [sjs22]: Thissectionshouldbedone

inpartnersof2.However,fortimingsake,youcould
givethesumsforhalfofthemsothepartnersonly
all10.

Infinity!
0. First,watchthis:http://bit.ly/NbitTN

(a)

(f)

3 2

n 1

(g)

(c)

n 1 3

(d)

1.01

2
n 1

2
5

n 1 3

(i)

n 1

(h)

n 1

(e)

n1

n 1

n 1

n 1

n 1

(b)

4 10

(j)

1

2
n 1

3. Explainwhy(g)shoulddefinitelyhavean*nexttoit.

4. Explainwhyyouchosetogiveornotgive(c)anasterisk.

5. Explainwhyyouchosetogiveornotgive(b)anasterisk.

6. Explainwhyyouchosetogiveornotgive(d)anasterisk.

7. Explainwhyyouchosetogiveornotgive(i)anasterisk.

Comment [sjs23]: Agroupdiscussionhasto

happenaftertheseconceptualquestions.The
absolutekeyconclusionthathastocomeoutofitis
thatifthecommonratiois>=1,theserieshasto
(logically)diverge!Done.Ifitis<1,itwillsettle
down/converge.

`
28

8. Proofwithoutwords.
Yeah,itmaybeaproofwithoutwords,butyouneedtowordsto
explainthatyouunderstandit.Explainwhatthisproofwithout
wordsisavisualillustrationof.(Hint:Thelargesquareisa1by1
square.Thinkarea.)

termsusingtheformulayoucameupwith!Usethesesums(wecallthempartialsums)toconjecturewhether
theinfiniteseriesisconvergentordivergent.Puta*nexttotheonesyouthinkaredivergent).

(i)

2
k 1

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

(k)

3 2

(l)

m 1

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

p 1

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

1
4

n 1 10

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

i1

(m)

(j)

Comment [sjs24]: Again,someofthesecould

begiventothestudentsifthereisalackoftime

Thekeyconclusionfromthisisthateventhougha
negativeratiocausesthingstofluxuate,thesame
logicholdsifthecommonratiois<=1,theseries
willdiverge.Andifitis>1,itwillconverge.

(n)

2
5

3
n1

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

`
29

(o)

1.01

(p)

k 1

5 3

n1

n 1

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

20terms:
21terms:
22terms:
23terms:

KeyMathematicalConclusion:Infinitegeometricserieswillshootouttoinfinityif___________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________.
Mathematicallywecallthissortofseriesdivergent.Howeverinfinitegeometricserieswillgetcloserandcloserand
closertoparticular(finite)numberif________________________________________________________________.
Wecallthissortofseriesconvergent.

Iftheseriesisconvergent,youcanfigureoutwhatthesumisapproaching!Inproblem18oftheprevioussection,
youdeterminedthatthesumofthefirstntermsofageometricseriesis:

Asnincreasestoinfinity,wecansaythatoneterminthatequationbecomesnegligible.Whattermisthat,and
why?

Asaresult,wecandeterminethatthesum,aswehavemoreandmoreterms,approaches:

Comment [sjs25]: Havethemreally

box/star/asterisksthisresult!!!

10. Decideifeachoftheseseriesareconvergentordivergent.Iftheyareconvergent,writedownwhatnumberthe
seriesconvergestonexttothesum.

(a)

2 (3)

(d)

convergent/divergent

convergent/divergent

1
3

n 1 2

(e)

5 2

convergent/divergent

n 1

convergent/divergent

100(1.72)
n1

convergent/divergent
(c)

n 1

n1

(b)

10 (1)

(f)

100(0.72)

convergent/divergent
n1

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30

11. (a)Aconvergentgeometricserieshasaninitialtermof 3 andcommonratioof

1
.Whatisthesum?
6

(b)Aconvergentgeometricserieshasinitialterm

1
andsumsto 1.Whatisthecommonratio?
2

(c)Aconvergentgeometricserieshasinitialterm

3
9
andsumsto .Whatisthecommonratio?
4
8

(d)Aconvergentgeometricserieshasacommonratioof

1
andsumsto 5 .Whatistheinitialterm?
4

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31

NOTFORSTUDENTS:
SomeIdeas/Problemsforthispacketcomefrom:
http://brainopennow.wordpress.com/2011/10/09/thegardenproblem/
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/11690266/Activities%20%20Intro%20and%20Linear/ATVP_Gr612_Lesson1.pdf<useto
makeaposterproject!
PossibleExtension/Projects/ProblemSettopics:
Havestudentsinvestigatenottriangularorsquarenumbers,butpentagonalnumbers
Introducestudentstorecursiveseries(Fibonacci?)
Kochsnowflake!(Perimeterversusareainfiniteperimeter,finitearea!)
Comeupwithsequencesthatsatisfycertainproperties

{mn }

2.Anequationforasequencewhichwillhavetermsthatalternatebetweenpositiveandnegativenumbers

{an }

3.Anequationforasequencewhichwillapproachthenumber 0 asyouwritemoreandmorenumbers.

{tn }

4.Anequationforasequencewhichwillapproachthenumber 2 asyouwritemoreandmorenumbers.

{hn }

Divisionofsequencestoseewhattheirlimitisasn>infinity(e.g.

an 2n and bn n 2 ... Use your calculators and investigate what happens to the value of

an
as n gets very large. )
bn

Ifyoucomeupwithgoodsequences,canlatertiethistorationalfunctionsandasymptotes.
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