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HkkLorh
izFkeks Hkkx%

,dkn'koxkZ; laLd`rL; ikB~;iqLrde~
(osQfUædikB~;Øe%)

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iqjksoko~Q

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2005 bZLoh;ka jkf"Vª;&ikBÔp;kZ&:ijs[kk;ke~ vuq'kaflra ;r~ Nk=kk.kka
fo|ky;thoua fo|ky;srjthousu lg ;kstuh;e~A fl¼kUrks¿;a iqLrdh;&
KkuL; rL;k% ijEijk;k% i`Fko~Q orZr]s ;L;k% izHkkokr~ vLekoaQ f'k{kkO;oLFkk
bnkuha ;kor~ fo|ky;L; ifjokjL; leqnk;L; p eè;s vUrjkya iks"k;frA
jkf"Vª;ikBÔp;kZoyfEcrkfu ikBÔØe&ikBÔiqLrdkfu vL; ewyHkkoL;
O;ogkjfnf'k iz;Ru ,oA iz;kls¿fLeu~ fo"k;k.kka eè;s fLFkrk;k% fHkRrs%
fuokj.ka KkukFk± jVuizoÙ` ks'p f'kfFkyhdj.kefi lfEefyra orZrAs vk'kkLegss
;r~ iz;klks¿;a 1986 bZZLoh;ka jkf"Vª;&f'k{kk&uhrkS vuq'kaflrk;k%
ckyosQfUnzrf'k{kkO;oLFkk;k% fodklk; Hkfo";frA
iz;RuL;kL; lkiQY;a fo|ky;kuka izkpk;kZ.kke~ vè;kidkuk×p rs"kq
iz;kls"kq fuHkZja ;=k rs lokZufi Nk=kku~ LokuqHkwR;k KkuetZf;rqa]
dYiuk'khyfØ;k% fon/krqa] iz'uku~ iz"Vaq p izksRlkg;fUrA vLekfHk%
vo';eso Lohdj.kh;a ;r~ LFkkua] le;%] LokrU=;a p ;fn nh;sr] rfgZ
f'k'ko% o;LoSQ% iznÙksu Kkusu la;qT; uwrua Kkua l`tfUrA ijh{kk;k%
vkèkkj% fu/kZfjr&ikBÔiqLrdeso bfr fo'okl% KkuktZuL; fofo/lkèkukuka
Ïksrlka p vuknjL; dkj.ks"kq eq[;ree~A f'k'kq"kq ltZu'kDrs% dk;kZjEHkizoÙ` ks'p
vk/kua rnSo lEHkosr~ ;nk o;a rku~ f'k'kwu~ f'k{k.kizfØ;k;k% izfrHkkfxRosu
LohoqQ;kZe] u rq fu/kZfjrKkuL; xzkgdRosu ,oA
bekfu mís';kfu fo|ky;L; nSfuddk;ZØes dk;Zi¼rkS p
ifjorZueis{kUrsA ;Fkk nSfud≤&lkj.;ka ifjorZu'khyRoe~ visf{kra
rFkSo okf"kZddk;ZØek.kka fuoZg.ks rRijrk vko';dh ;su f'k{k.kkFk± fu;rs"kq
dkys"kq oLrqr% f'k{k.ka HkosrA~ f'k{k.kL; ewY;kÄuï L; p foèk;% Kkif;";fUr

iv

;r~ ikBÔiqLrdfena Nk=kk.kka fo|ky;h;&thous vkuUnkuqHkwR;Fk± fd;r~
izHkkfo orZrs] u rq uhjlrk;k% lk/ue~A ikBÔp;kZHkkjL; funkuk;
ikBÔØefuekZr`fHk% ckyeuksfoKkun`"VÔk vè;kiuk; miyC/&dkyn`"VÔk
p fofHkUus"kq Lrjs"kq fo"k;KkuL; iqufuZ/kZj.ksu iz;Ruks fofgr%A iqLrdfena
Nk=kk.kka Ñrs fpUruL;] foLe;L;] y?kqlewgs"kq okrkZ;k%] dk;kZuqHkokfn&
xfrfoèkhuka p Ñrs izkpq;sZ.k volja nnkfrA ikBÔiqLrdL;kL; fodklk;
fof'k"V;ksxnkuk; jkf"Vª;'kSf{kdkuqlUèkkuizf'k{k.kifj"kn~ Hkk"kkijke'kZnkr`lfers%
vè;{kk.kka izk-s ukeojflagegksn;kuka] laLÑrikBÔiqLrdkuka eq[;ijke'kZdkuka
izks- jk/koYyHkf=kikfBegkHkkxkuka] ikBÔiqLrdfuekZ.klfers% lnL;kuk×p
Ñrs gkfnZoQha ÑrKrka Kki;frA iqLrdL;kL; fodkls uSosQ fo'ks"kKk%
vuqHkfou% f'k{kdk'p ;ksxnkua ÑroUr%] rs"kka laLFkkizeq[kku~ laLFkk'p
izfr /U;oknks O;kfß;rsA
ikBÔiqLrdfodklØes mUurLrjk; fujUrja iz;Ru'khyk ifj"kfn;a
iqLrdfena Nk=kk.kka Ñrs mi;qDrrja drq± fo'ks"kKS% vuqHkfofHk% vè;kidS'p
izsf"krkuka lRijke'kkZuka lnSo Lokxra fo/kL;frA

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uo nsgyh

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Ñ".koqQekj%
funs'kd%
jkf"Vª;'kSf{kdkuqla/kuizf'k{k.kifj"kn~

vè;{k Hkk"kk lykgdkj lfefr & ukeoj ¯lg

laLÑr ikB~;iqLrd fuekZ.k lfefr

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eq[; ijke'kZd & jk/koYyHk f=kikBh] vè;{k] laLÑr foHkkx] gjhflag
xkSj fo'ofo|ky;] lkxjA

eq[; leUo;d & jketUe 'kekZ] vè;{k] Hkk"kk foHkkx] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-]
ubZ fnYyhA

leUo;d

& deykdkUr feJ] izksisQlj laLÑr] Hkk"kk foHkkx] ,ulh-bZ-vkj-Vh-A

lnL;

jktsUnz feJ] iwoZ oqQyifr] lEiw.kkZuUn laLo`Qr fo'ofo|ky;] okjk.klhA
nhfIr f=kikBh] vè;{k] laLÑr foHkkx] fnYyh fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyhA

txnh'k lseoky] funs'kd] oh- oh- oh- vkbZ- ,l-] ,.M vkbZ- ,l- iatkc
fo'ofo|ky;] gksf'k;kjiqj] iatkcA
;ksxs Üoj nÙk 'kekZ] lsokfuo`Ùk] jhMj laLÑr] fgUnw dkyst] fnYyh
fo'ofo|ky;] fnYyhA

lqjs'k pUæ 'kekZ] izkpk;Z] jktdh; ofj"B ekè;fed cky fo|ky;] 'kfDr
uxj] fnYyhA
NfoÑ".k vk;Z] miiz/kukpk;Z] osQUnzh; fo|ky;] lsosQ.M f'kÝV] ,.MªÔwt
xat] ubZ fnYyhA

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ljkst xqykVh] ih-th-Vh- laLÑr] oqQykph galjkt ekWMy LowQy] v'kksd
fogkj] isQt&III] fnYyhA

ih- ,u- >k] ih- th- Vh- laLÑr] jktdh; ofj"B ekè;fed cky
fo|ky;] vkn'kZ uxj] fnYyhA
vfurk 'kekZ] ih- th- Vh- laLÑr] foosdkuUn ifCyd LowQy] vkuUn
fogkj] fnYyhA

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vkHkkj

jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqlaèkku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ mu lHkh fo"k;&fo'ks"kKksa]
f'k{kdksa ,oa foHkkxh; lnL;ksa osQ izfr ÑrKrk Kkfir djrh gS ftUgksaus
bl iqLrd osQ fuekZ.k esa viuk lfØ; ;ksxnku fn;k gSA
ifj"kn~ izks- osQ'kopUnz nk'k] gks- uk- osÄïVs'k 'kekZ (ekfLr osÄïV's k
vÕ;Äkõ j osQ lqCc..k osQ laLÑr vuqoknd) izHk`fr vk/qfud lkfgR;dkjksa
dh Hkh vkHkkjh gS ftudh Ñfr;ksa ls izLrqr iqLrd esa ikB~; lkexzh
ladfyr dh xbZ gSA

iqLrd dh ;kstuk&fuekZ.k ls ysdj izdk'ku i;ZUr fofo/ dk;ks±
esa ;Fkkle; lfØ; Hkwfedk fuHkkus osQ fy, laLÑr ikB~;iqLrd lfefr
osQ leUo;d o muosQ foHkkxh; lg;ksxh Ñ".k pUnz f=kikBh] izokpd]
j.kftr csgsjk] izoDrk rFkk n;k'kadj frokjh] izkstsDV ,lksfl,V lk/qokn
osQ ik=k gSaA izdk'ku dk;Z esa lfØ; lg;ksx osQ fy, Hkk"kk foHkkx
dEI;wVj LVs'ku osQ bUpktZ ij'kjke dkSf'kd] foHkwfr ukFk >k] oqQ- o#.kk
feÙky] lrh'k >k (dkWih ,MhVj)] Jh jkt eÄõy ;kno] oqQ- ehuk
(iziw Q jhMj) ,oa deys'k vk;kZ (Mh-Vh-ih- vkWijsVj) /U;okn osQ ik=k gSAa

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™™™

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Hkwfedk

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laLÑr fo'o dh izkphure Hkk"kk gS] ,slk ik'pkR; ,oa ikSjLR; lHkh
fo}ku~ ekurs gSAa LoxhZ; ckyxaxk/j fryd us ½Xosn dh eS=kk;.kh&lafgrk
esa of.kZr olUr&lEikr dh T;ksfr"kh; x.kuk dh vkSj ;g fl¼ fd;k
fd bZlk ls yxHkx 6500 o"kZ iwoZ ,slh [kxksyh; fLFkfr jgh gksxhA
teZuh osQ iz[;kr T;ksfrfoZn~ gjeu tSdksch us Hkh 'kriFk czkã.k
esa of.kZr ÑfÙkdk u{k=kksa dh fLFkfr dk vè;;u dj] mls bZlk ls 4500
o"kZ izkphu fl¼ fd;k FkkA rqfoZQLrku esa fLFkr cksxktdksbZ Vhys dh
[kqnkbZ esa izkIr] oSfnd nsoksa (bUnz] fe=k] o#.k rFkk uklR;) osQ dhfyr
ukek{kj ls ;qÙkQ f'kykiêð dk vè;;u dj psdksLykokfoQ;k osQ izkx
fo'ofo|ky; osQ egku~ iqjkrÙofon~ izks- ßkTuh us Hkh viuh fjiksVZ esa
;g er O;ÙkQ fd;k Fkk fd bZlk ls izk;% nks gtkj o"kZ iwoZ ,f'k;k
ekbuj {ks=k esa oSfnd laLÑfr vkSj laLÑr Hkk"kk fo|eku FkhA
bl izdkj fryd] tSdksch rFkk izks- ßkTuh osQ izek.k fl¼ djrs gSa
fd laLÑr Hkk"kk rFkk mldk okÄ~e; bZ-iw- NBh lglzkCnh dh lhekjs[kk
dk Li'kZ djrk gSA
laLÑr okÄ~e; dk fodkl osn] osnkÄõ] vk"kZdkO; (jkek;.k rFkk
egkHkkjr) iqjk.k rFkk vfHktkr&lkfgR; osQ Øe ls gqvk gSA blh osQ
lkFk ikfy rFkk izkÑr Hkk"kk,¡ Hkh fodflr gksrh jgh gSaA bZlk dh izFke
'krh ls pkSFkh 'krh osQ eè; laLÑr Hkk"kk lkglh ,oa LoIun'khZ
(egÙokdka{kh) Hkkjrh; jktoqQekjksa rFkk muosQ fu"Bkoku~ vekR;ksa ,oa
iqjksfgrksa osQ lkFk iz'kkUr egklkxjh; }hi&lewgksa esa Hkh ig¡qph rFkk mu
}hiksa dh cksfy;ksa osQ lkFk lefUor gksdj mRÑ"V lkfgR; dh Hkk"kk
cuhA lqo.kZ}hi (tkok rFkk ckyh)] pEik (fo;ruke)] dEcqt (dEcksfM;k)]
dVkg }hi (osQM~Mkg] eysf'k;k)] ';ke (FkkbZyS.M) rFkk lqo.kZHkwfe

viii

(E;kekj) vkfn }hiksa esa vkt Hkh laLÑr vFkok laLÑrcgqy mu }hiksa
dh LFkkuh; Hkk"kkvksa esa vikj ewY;oku~ lkfgR; lqjf{kr feyrk gSA
oSfnd&lkfgR; lokZf/d izkphu ekuk tkrk gS tks eU=kkRed gSA ;s
eU=k eq[;r% rhu izdkj osQ gSa & ½d~] ;tq"k~ rFkk lkeu~A ftu eU=kksa esa
nsoLrqfr;k¡ ladfyr gSa os ½d~ dgs tkrs gSaA bu ½pkvksa dk osn gh
½Xosn dgk tkrk gSA bl osn esa 10 e.My 85 vuqoko~Q rFkk 10580
½pk;sa gSaA ;K&;kx dh izfØ;k ftuesa crkbZ xbZ gS os eU=k ;tq"k~ dgs
tkrs gSa vkSj ;ktq"k~ eU=kksa dk laxzg ;tqosZn osQ uke ls fo[;kr gSA lke
dk vFkZ gS & nsorkvksa dks (laxhrkRed ek/qjh ls) izlUu djus okys
eU=k&lke;fr izh.k;fr nsoku~ bfr lke A bUgha lkeeU=kksa dk laxgz
lkeosn gSA
dkykUrj esa egf"kZ vFkokZ ,oa vafxjk us ,sls vof'k"V eU=kksa dk
Hkh ,d i`Fko~Q ladyu rS;kj fd;k ftuesa vusd yksdksi;ksxh fo"k;ksa dk
izfriknu Fkk tSls&HkS"kT;] fo"kkigkj] iz'kklu] vkfHkpkfjd deZ vkfnA
;g osn vius ladyf;rk osQ gh uke ij vFkoZosn] vkFkoZ.k&lafgrk
vFkok vFkokZfÄõjl lafgrk osQ uke ls fo[;kr gqvkA
bl izdkj osn dks ^=k;h* vFkok osnprq"V;h osQ :i esa izflf¼
izkIr gSA osnksa dh Hkk"kk vR;Ur jgL;e; gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd fofHkUu
lEiznk;ksa rFkk n`f"V;ksa okys vkpk;ks± us osneU=kksa dk LokHkh"V vFkZ fd;k
gSA ;fn vkpk;Z lk;.k dh n`f"V bfrgklijd gS rks Lokeh n;kuUn dh
bfrgklkHkkokRedA blh izdkj oqQN vkpk;Z uS#ÙkQ n`f"V osQ iks"kd gSa rks
oqQN izrhdkRed n`f"V osQA
tks Hkh gks] ijUrq blesa dksbZ la'k; ugha fd osn leLr fo|kvksa dk
ewyÏksr gSA izR;{k ,oa vuqeku izek.kksa ls Hkh dFkefi fl¼ u gksus okys
rF;ksa dh Hkh flf¼ osn ls gh laHko gS&
izR;{ks.kk¿uqfeR;k ok ;Lrwik;ks u cqè;rsA
,ua fonfUr osnsu rLekn~ osnL; osnrkAA
oSfnd dfork dk Loj fo'oeaxykRed gSA lkaeuL;lwDr esa
vR;Ur ljl yksdrkaf=kd Hkkoukvksa dh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gSA ½f"k ;g

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ladYi O;ÙkQ djrk gS fd ge ,d lkFk pysa] ,d tSlh ok.kh cksyas]
,d tSlk fpUru djsa!
lÄõPNèoa laonèoa la oks eukafl tkurke~A
nsok Hkkxa ;Fkk iwosZ latkukuk miklrsAA
oSfnd ½f"k leLr bfUnz;ksa dh v{kr lkeF;Z osQ lkFk lkS o"kZ
thus dh vkdka{kk O;Dr djrk gS rFkk nsorkvksa ls izkFkZuk djrk gS fd
os mlosQ vk;q"; dks eè;ekxZ esa gh [kf.Mr u djsaA
'krfeUuq 'kjnks vfUr nsok
;=kk u'pØk tjla ruwuke~A
iq=kklks ;=k firjks HkofUr
ek uks eè;k jhfj"kr vk;qxZUrks%AA
blh izdkj vHk;lwÙkQ essa gesa lEiw.kZ lalkj ls fuHkZ; jgus dk
lans'k fn;k x;k gSA lkjs lalkj dks Lo;a ls Hkh fuHkZ; jgus dh
vk'ofLr] osneU=kksa esa ckj&ckj nqgjkbZ x;h gSA ;g dgk x;k gS fd ge
fe=k dh n`f"V ls lEiw.kZ fo'o dks ns[ksa&
^^fe=kL; p{kq"kk leh{kkegsA**
osneU=kksa esa fo'ocU/qRo dh Hkkouk ij cy fn;k x;k gS rFkk
vusdrk esa Hkh ,drk LFkkfir dh x;h gSA lEiw.kZ fo'o dks gh vk;Z
cukus (laLdkjlEiUu cukus) dk n`<+ ladYi O;ÙkQ fd;k x;k gSA
oLrqr% oSfnd dfork dk iQyd vR;Ur foLr`r gSA mlesa izÑfr osQ
u;ukfHkjke n`';] ltho fcEc;kstuk;s]a dkSVfq Ecd lq[kksYykl] lkekftd
mRlo rFkk jk"Vªh; ;ksx&{kse lc oqQN ;Fkkolj] ;Fkkizlax of.kZr fd;k
x;k gSA
ijorhZ ;qx esa LorU=k :i ls fodflr gksus okys leLr n'kZu ,oa
'kkL=k osneU=kksa osQ gh xHkZ ls vaoqQfjr nh[krs gSaA ,d vksj nsoklqj&laxzke
osQ egkuk;d bUnz osQ vlqj&fojks/h j.kkfHk;kuksa esa izfrj{kkfoKku dk
lw{e fp=k.k feyrk gS rks nwljh vksj lw;kZ&lkse osQ fookg&izlax esa
fookg&laLdkj dk euksje fp=k.kA |wrdjlwÙkQ esa ;fn oSfnd;qx dh

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tuoknh psruk dk lkiQ&lqFkjk o.kZu gS rks okd~lÙw kQ ,oa f'koladYilwÙkQ
esa vkè;kfRed psrukvksa dk fp=k.kA
vFkoZosn dk i`FohlwÙkQ] bl lUnHkZ esa fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gS ftlesa
jk"Vªnsork dh vo/kj.kk osQ n'kZu gksrs gSaA laHkor% lEiw.kZ fo'ookÄ~e;
esa ;g izkphure lUnHkZ gS ftlesa Hkwfe dks okRlY;e;h tuuh osQ :i
esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gS&
^ekrk Hkwfe% iq=kks¿ga i`fFkO;k%A*
osnksa dk okÄ~e; fo'kky gSA egkHkk";dkj iratfy (bZ- iw- nwljh
'krh) us vius egkHkk"; esa ½Xosn dh 21] ;tqosZn dh 101] lkeosn
dh 1000 rFkk vFkoZosn dh 9 'kk[kkvksa dk mYys[k fd;k] tks
lEHkor% ml ;qx esa miyC/ FkhaA muosQ thoudky esa rks xk¡o&xk¡o esa
dkBd ,oa dkykid 'kk[kk;sa i<+kbZ tkrh Fkha (xzkes&xzkes dkBoaQ
dkykida izksP;rs) ijUrq dky osQ Øwj izokg rFkk fons'kh vkØe.kksa us
Kku&foKku dh ml foiqy jkf'k dks fou"V dj fn;kA ifj.kkeLo:i
vkt ek=k 21 osn 'kk[kk;sa gh miyC/ gksrh gSaA
osnksa osQ vuUrj vk"kZdkO;ksa& jkek;.k ,oa egkHkkjr dk Øe vkrk
gSA jkek;.k osQ vkfn iz.ksrk egf"kZ okYehfd gSa ftUgsa Hkkjrh; ijEijk
dFkkuk;d jke dk lelkef;d Lohdkj djrh gSA ikSjkf.kd lk{;ksa osQ
vuqlkj dFkkuk;d jke orZeku eUoUrj osQ 24osa =ksrk ,oa }kij ;qxksa dh
lfU/osyk esa mRiUu gq, FksA os v;ksè;k ujs'k n'kjFk osQ iq=k] jktf"kZ
fonsg tud osQ tkekrk rFkk Hkwfeiq=kh lhrk osQ ifr FksA mUgas e;kZnk
iq#"kksÙke dgk x;k gS D;ksafd muosQ pfj=k esa leLr lkekftd lEcUèkksa
dh vfUofr ,oa pfjrkFkZrk ifjiw.kZ e;kZnk osQ lkFk nh[krh gSA
jkek;.k esa oqQy N% dk.M rFkk 24000 'yksd gSaA lkrok¡
mÙkjdk.M] dFkk dh ,drk dh n`f"V ls fo Üak`[kfyr&lk gS] vr,o
izf{kIr Hkh ekuk tkrk gSA jkek;.k esa incU/ dh e×tqyrk osQ lkFk
vfHktkr laLÑr dfork dk vusdfo/ lkfgfR;d lkSUn;Z fn[kk;h iM+rk
gSA bl dkO; esa iz;qÙkQ Hkk"kk lkyadkj rks gS ijUrq vyadkjksa osQ nqoZg Hkkj
ls cksf>y ugha gSA Hkk"kk esa Hkkolaosnuk dh xgjkbZ ns[krs gh curh gSA

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ykfyek ls vksrizkrs lUè;k rFkk izdk'keku fnol ijLij vkeus&lkeus
gSa (uk;d&ukf;dk dh rjg) ijUrq fo/krk dh xfr dk D;k dguk\
nksuksa fiQj Hkh fey ugha ikrs! fnu osQ tkus osQ ckn gh lUè;k mrj ikrh
gS! bl izkÑfrd n`'; osQ lgkjs uk;d&ukf;dk osQ iw.kZlEHko feyu dks
Hkh fof?ur fn[kk dj dfo HkforO;rk dk izkcY; vR;Ur vkyadkfjd
<ax ls fl¼ djrk gSA
vuqjkxorh lUè;k fnolLrRiqjLlj%A
vgks nSoxfr% dhn`o~Q rFkkfi u lekxe%AA
izkph fn'kk esa mfnr gksrs pUnz dk o.kZu rks vius ltho fcEcksa osQ
dkj.k vR;Ur deuh; izrhr gksrk gS &
galks ;Fkk jktri×tjLFk%
flagks ;Fkk eUnjdUnjLFk%A
ohjks ;Fkk xfoZroqQ×tjLFk&
'pUnzks¿fi cHkzkt rFkk¿EcjLFk%AA
jkedFkk&uk;d jke dk pfj=k vius vuqdj.kh; vkn'kks± osQ
dkj.k lEiw.kZ fo'o esa O;kIr gks x;kA jke ekr`fir`HkDr] cU/qfu"B]
'kj.kkxroRly] lR;oko~Q] egkohj] vkrZj{kd] /eZikyd] ½rlR; osQ
j{kd] nq"Vlagkjd rFkk lokZuqxzgh egkekuo gSaA muosQ bl yksdoU| :i
dks lSdM+ksa Hkkjrh; ,oa fons'kh Hkk"kkvksa osQ dfo;ksa us iwjh fu"Bk osQ lkFk
of.kZr fd;kA Jhyadk esa jkeosQfÙk] FkkbZyS.M esa jkefd;su] ykvksl esa
iQkW ykWd&iQkW ykWe~ (fiz; y{e.k fiz; jke)] eysf'k;k esa fgdk;r
egkjktk jke rFkk tkok&ckyh esa jkek;.kddfou~ osQ uke ls jkedFkk
dh jpuk gqbZ tks vkt Hkh mu }hiksa dh /kfeZd] lkekftd ,oa
vkè;kfRed psruk dk ewyk/kj gSA
egkHkkjr Hkxoku~ Ñ".k}Sik;u O;kl dh Ñfr gS tks osnlafgrk osQ
f=k/k O;oLFkkid ,oa iqjk.kksa osQ Hkh jpukdkj ekus tkrs gSaA lkS y?kqioks±
rFkk 18 cM+s ioks± esa foHkÙkQ izk;% y{k 'yksdkRed ;g fo'kkyxzUFk
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl dk izkekf.kd Ïksr rks gS gh] /eZ] n'kZu] vè;kRe]

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Hkwxksy] [kxksy] T;kSfr"k] rU=k] xf.kr] 'kkfygks=k] xtfo|k] vkys[;]
jRufoKku] 'koqQufoKku rFkk leLr yksdijEijkvksa dh O;k[;k djus
okyk izkekf.kd nLrkost Hkh gSA blhfy;s egkHkkjr dh iz'kalk esa dgk
x;k gS&
^;fngkfLr rnU;=k ;UusgkfLr u rRDofpr~A*
vFkkZr~ tks fo"k; bl xzUFk esa of.kZr gS ogh vU;=k Hkh gSA ijUrq
tks ;gk¡ of.kZr ugha gS og vU;=k dgha Hkh ugha gSA
egkHkkjr esa dkSjoksa rFkk ik.Moksa] tks ewyr% ,d gh firk dh
lUrku Fks] osQ /eZ;q¼ dk o.kZu gS ftlesa ek=k 18 fnuksa osQ egklaxzke
esa 18 v{kkSfg.kh lsuk u"V gks xbZA bl Hkh"k.k ;q¼ osQ ckn lEiw.kZ
èkfj=kh ohjksa ls fjDr&lh gks xbZA ijUrq Hkxoku~ JhÑ".k dh fu"i{k
eè;LFkrk osQ ckotwn] dkSjoizeq[k nq;ksZ/u osQ gB rFkk jktk èk`rjk"Vª osQ
foosdghu iq=keksg osQ dkj.k] ;g egkfouk'k Vy ugha ldkA
egkHkkjr osQoy ;q¼ dh gh dFkk ugha gS izR;qr vusd fo|k'kk[kkvksa
dk ewy mn~xe Hkh gSA Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk] Hkh"eLrojkt rFkk fo".kqlgÏuke
tSls ijyksdflf¼&izo.k xzUFkjRu Hkh egkHkkjr osQ gh va'k gSaA /eZ osQ
'kk'or ,oa fpjUru :i osQ lkFk gh lkFk ;qx/eZ ,oa vkin~/eZ dk Hkh
vn~Hkqr fp=k.k egkHkkjr esa gqvk gSA ;qx/eZ vFkok vkin~/eZ dk ,d
lUnHkZ gS&
;fLeu~ ;Fkk orZrs ;ks euq"; &
LrfLeaLrFkk ofrZrO;a l /eZ%A
ek;kpkjh ek;;k ofrZrO;%
lkèokpkjLlk/quk izR;qis;%AA
iqu'p
u ueZ;qDra opua fgufLr
u L=kh"kqq jktu~ u fookgdkysA
izk.kkR;;s loZ/ukigkjs
i×pke``rkU;kgqjikrdkfuAA

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lPps if.Mr dh izKk ij egkHkkjr esa bl izdkj izdk'k Mkyk
x;k gS&
'kksdLFkku lgÏkf.k Hk;LFkku'krkfu pA
fnols fnols ew<ekfo'kfUr u if.Mre~AA
vk"kZdkO;ksa osQ lkFk gh lkFk ikSjkf.kd okÄ~e; dh Hkh izfr"Bk gqbZA
Hkkjrh; ijEijk esa jkek;.k vkfndkO; gS rks egkHkkjr bfrgkl rFkk
iqjk.k /eZxzUFkA iqjk.kksa osQ ikB ls /eZflf¼ ekuh tkrh gS D;ksafd buesa
,sfrg~;&rÙo xkS.k rFkk /eZrÙo iz/ku gSA oLrqr% iqjk.kksa dh jpuk dk
ewy mís'; Fkk osneU=kksa osQ xw<kfrxw< vfHkizk;ksa dh mik[;kukfn osQ
ekè;e ls mins'kijd O;k[;k djuk&
bfrgkliqjk.kkH;ka osna leqic`ag;sr~A
fcHksR;YiJqrkn~osnks eke;a izgfj";frAA
iqjk.kksa dh la[;k 18 gS&eRL;] ekoZQ.Ms;] Hkkxor Hkfo";] czãk.M]
czã] czãoSorZ] okeu] okjkg] ok;q] fo".kq] vfXu] ukjn] iÁ] fyÄ]õ
x#M] owQeZ rFkk LdUniqjk.kA fuEu'yksd ls bu egkiqjk.kksa dk lkaosQfrd
ifjp; fey tkrk gS &
e};a Hk};a pSo cz=k;a oprq"V;e~A
vukifYyÄõowQLdkfu iqjk.kkfu izp{krsAA
iqjk.kksa esa Hkkjr jk"Vª dh v[k.Mrk vkSj ,drk dk fu:i.k cgqr
izHkko'kkyh :i esa ckj&ckj fd;k x;k gS rFkk Hkkjr dh lUrfr;ksa esa
,drk dk lUns'k fn;k x;k gSA oqQN mnkgj.k ns[ksa&
mÙkja ;RleqnzL; fgeknzs'pSo nf{k.ke~A
o"k± rn~ Hkkjra uke Hkkjrh ;=k lUrfr%AA (fo".kqiqjk.k 2@3@1)
leqnz ls tks mÙkjfn'kk esa gS vkSj fgeky; ls nf{k.kfn'kk esa gS] ml
ns'k dk uke Hkkjr gS_ vkSj ogk¡ osQ yksxksa dks Hkkjrh (Hkkjrh;) dgrs gSAa
vËkfi Hkkjra Js"Ba tEcw}his egkequsA
;rksfg deZHkwjs"kk rrks¿U;k HkksxHkwe;%AA (fo".kqiqjk.k 2@3@22)

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gs egkequs! bl (loZJs"B) tEcw}hi esa Hkh Hkkjro"kZ loZJs"B gSA
D;ksafd ;g deZHkwfe gSA blosQ vfrfjDr lHkh (ns'k) Hkksx&Hkwfe;k¡ gSaA
xk;fUr nsok% fdy xhrdkfu
/U;kLrq rs HkkjrHkwfeHkkxsA
LoxkZioxkZLinekxZHkwrs
HkofUr Hkw;% iq#"kk% lqjRokr~AA
(fo".kqiqjk.k 2@3@24)
;g lp gS fd nsork (bl vk'k; osQ) xhr xk;k djrs gSa fd os
HkkX;'kkyh gSa tks LoxZ vkSj eks{k dk ekxZ cus gq, Hkkjrns'k esa] vius
nsoRo dh lekfIr ij iqu% euq"; cudj tUe ysrs gSaA
ikSjkf.kd dfork dk lkfgfR;d lkSUn;Z foy{k.k gSA Hkkxor iqjk.k
dk os.kqxhr] xksihxhr] Hkzejxhr] ,syxhr] #nzxhr vkfn lUnHkZ rks
mRÑ"V dkO; osQ mnkgj.k gSaA Ñ".k osQ fojg esa lUrIr mudh
jktefgf"k;ksa dh oqQjjh i{kh osQ izfr vfHkO;Dr] ;g vU;kins'kijd
mfDr yfyr vfHktkr dfork dk :i izLrqr djrh gS&
oqQjfj foyifl] Roa ohrfunzk u 'ks"ks
Lofifr txfr jk=;ke'ojks xqIrcks/%A
o;feo lf[k! fdf×pn~xk<fufHkZUupsrk
ufyuu;ugklksnkjyhysf{krsuAA
(Hkkxor- 20-90-15)
Jhen~Hkkxor Hkkjrh; n'kZu dh yfyr dkO;kRed vfHkO;fDr dh
n`f"V ls Hkh vuqie gSA gekjs ½f"k;ksa dh ok.kh esa lkekftd lerk vkSj
leku forj.k dh O;oLFkk dk fl¼kUr Hkh ;gk¡ bl izdkj O;Dr gqvk gS&
;kon~ fHkz;sr tBja rkor~ LoRoa fg nsfguke~A
vf/oaQ ;ks¿fHkeU;sr lLrsuks n.MegZfrAA
oLrqr% jkek;.k&egkHkkjr (vk"kZdkO;) rFkk iqjk.kksa dh Hkk"kk
oSfndHkk"kk ,oa yksdHkk"kk (ikf.kuh; laLÑr) osQ eè;orhZ lfU/&
dky dh lwpd gSA osnHkk"kk dh jgL;e;rk] cg~oFkZdrk rFkk :ikRed
f'kfFkyrkvksa us r|qxhu oS;kdj.kksa dks Hkk"kk:i fLFkj djus dh izsj.kk

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nhA vkfi'kfy] dk'kÑRLu] Hkkxqfj] LiQksVk;u rFkk 'kkdY;kfn vusd
egf"kZ bl dk;Z esa yxs Fks ijUrq Hkk"kkifjektZu dk ;g y{; iw.kZ gqvk
egf"kZ ikf.fu (bZ- iw- lkroha 'krh) dh v"Vkè;k;h dh jpuk osQ lkFkA
ek=k pkj gtkj lw=kksa esa ikf.kfu us fo'o dh fo'kkyre Hkk"kk dk Lo:i
lnk osQ fy, fLFkj dj fn;kA bl ubZ Hkk"kk dks fo}kuksa us laLÑr dgkA
vkpk;Z n.Mh us Hkh blh uke dh iqf"V dh&
laLÑra uke nSoh okxUok[;krk egf"kZfHk%A
egf"kZ ikf.kfu Lo;eso mn~HkV oS;kdj.k gksus osQ lkFk gh lkFk
jlfl¼ dfo Hkh FksA mUgksaus tkEcorhfot; uked yfyr egkdkO;
dk iz.k;u fd;k ftlls vusd m¼`r i| xzUFkksa es ;=k&r=k feyrs gSaA
o"kkZ dk rks foy{k.k o.kZu djrs gSa ikf.kfu! dkyh jkr Ñ".kk xk; gS
vkSj pUnzek mldk cNM+k] tks cknyksa osQ ou esa dgha [kks x;k gSA cPps
dks u ns[k ikus osQ dkj.k oRlyk xk; ?kuxtZu osQ cgkus j¡Hkk&j¡Hkk dj
mls cqyk jgh gSA
xrs¿/Zjk=kss ifjeUneUna
xtZfUr ;Rizko`f"k dkyes?kk%A
vi';rh oRlfeosUnqfcEca
rPNcZjh xkSfjo gq ÄïjksfrAA
oj#fp (dkR;k;u) v"Vkè;k;h osQ okfrZddkj gSa ftudk le;
bZ- iw- pkSFkh 'krh gSAS rRiz.khr LoxkZjZ ksg.k rFkk O;kfM&iz.khr y{k'yksdkRed
laxzgxzUFk dk mYys[k Hkh ikr×ty egkHkk"; esa gSA oklonÙkk] HkSejFkh
rFkk lqeuksÙkjk uked o`Qfr;ksa dk Hkh mYys[k egf"kZ ir×tfy djrs gSaA
bl izdkj ykSfdd laLÑr dfork dh ,d vfofPNUu ijEijk gesa
ekS;;Z qx rd fodflr nh[krh gSA
blosQ vuUrj gh vfHktkr&laLÑr okÄ~e; (Classical Sanskrit
Literature) dk vH;qn;&dky vkrk gS ftlosQ izorZd uk;d eq[;r%
dfooqQyxq# dkfynkl gSaA oLrqr% dkfynkl iz.khr okÄ~e; gh ijorhZ
laLÑr dkO;'kkL=k (Sanskrit Rhetorics) dh ltZuk dk ewyk/kj

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cukA dkO;'kkfL=k;ksa us cU/ vFkok jpuk dh n`f"V ls lkfgR; dks f=kèkk
O;ofLFkr fd;k – i|] x| rFkk feJ vFkok pEiwdkO;!
dkO;kuUn dh xzkárk osQ vk/kj ij Hkh lkfgR; dks nks :iksa esa
O;ofLFkr fd;k x;k&JO;dkO; ,oa n`';dkO;A i|] x| rFkk pEiw
vkfn JO;dkO; osQ vUrxZr vkrs gSa D;kasfd mudk vkuUn eq[;r%
Jo.ksfUnz;&xzká gksrk gSA nl izdkj osQ :id rFkk 18 izdkj osQ
mi:id] ftls vfHkus;] :i vFkok :id Hkh dgrs gSa&n`'; osQ
vUrxZr vkrs gSa D;kasfd budk vkuUn eq[;r% n'kZusfUnz; (us=k) xzká
gksrk gSA :id nl izdkj osQ gksrs gSa &
ukVdeFk izdj.ka Hkk.kO;k;ksxleodkjfMek%A
bZgke`xkÄïohF;% izglufefr :idkf.k n'kAA
lefUor :i ls fopkj djus ij dkfynklksÙkj laLÑr&lkfgR;
pkj izeq[k :iksa esa foHkDr nh[krk gS &
1- i| dkO; (egkdkO;] [k.MdkO; vkfn)
2- x| dkO; (dFkk ,oa vk[;kf;dk vkfn)
3- pEiw dkO; (x|&i|fefJr Ñfr;k¡)
4- n'k:id (lEiw.kZ ukV~;okÄ~e;)
dkfynkl;qx (bZ- iw- izFke 'krh) ls ysdj if.Mrjkt txUukFk
(17 oha 'krh bZ-) rd] vFkok ;g dgk tk; fd rc ls vkt rd laLÑr
lkfgR; dh pkjksa /kjk;sa vfofPNÂ xfr ls fodflr gksrh jgh gSAa
i|okÄ~e; esa eq[;r%] eqÙkQd&;qXed&lUnkfurd&dykid ,oa
oqQyd osQ vuUrj] egkdkO;&[k.MdkO; vkrs gSaA dkfynkl dks
lqoqQekjekxhZ dfo ekuk x;k gSA bl 'kSyh dh dfork esa Hkko&laosnuk
dh iz/kurk rFkk Hkk"kk&lTtk dh xkS.krk jgrh gSA dkfynkl bl dyk
esa fu".kkr dfo gSaA mUgkasus O;×tuko`fÙk osQ lgkjs vYikYi 'kCnksa ls
foiqy vFkZ dk izdk'ku fd;k gSA bl izdkj dh dfork vR;Ur
eeZLi'khZ gksrh gSA ,d mnkgj.k nz"VO; gS&
jE;kf.k oh{; e/qjka'p fu'kE; 'kCnku~
i;ZqRlqdhHkofr ;Rlqf[krks¿fi tUrq%A

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rPpsrlk Lejfr uwuecks/iwo±
HkkofLFkjkf.k tuukUrjlkSânkfuAA
bl dfork esa dfo us euq"; osQ eu dh vR;Ur lw{e euksoKS kfud
O;k[;k dh gSA oSHko&mYykl osQ okrkoj.k esa vkneh dk cq>k&cq>k&lk
jguk] nq%[koknh cuk jguk fu'p; gh mlosQ iwoZtUe osQ fulxZ dks
?kksf"kr djrk gSA
dkfynkl us nks egkdkO; oqQekjlEHkoe~ rFkk j?kqoa'ke~] rhu
ukVd&ekyfodkfXufe=ke~] foØeksoZ'kh;e~] vfHkKku'kkoqQUrye~ rFkk nks
[k.MdkO;&½rqlagkje~ ,oa es?knwre~ dk iz.k;u fd;kA dkfynkl;qxhu
vU; dfo;ksa esa izeq[k gSa& v'o?kks"k] vfHkuUn] oqQekjnkl] Hkr`Zes.B]
ekr`nÙk vkfnA
NBh 'krh bZ- esa fo|eku egkdfo Hkkjfo osQ lkFk vyadkjekxhZ
laLÑrdfork dk izkjaHk gqvk ftldk míss'; Fkk vyadkjksa ,oa fp=kcUèkksa
}kjkA dkO; osQ Hkk"kki{k dk ;FkklaHko iks"k.k jkek;.k] egkHkkjr rFkk
iqjk.kksa osQ vR;Ur laf{kIr dFkklw=kksa dks ysdj] dykRed foLrkj osQ
lkFk fo'kky egkdkO;ksa dh ltZuk dk nkSj izkjaHk gqvkA Hkkjfo&iz.khr
fdjkrtquZ h;e~] ek?k&iz.khr f'k'kqikyo/e~] jRukdjÑr gjfot;e~] Jhg"kZÑr
uS"k/h;pfjre~] dfojktÑr jk?koik.Moh;e~ vkfn Ñfr;k¡ vyadkjekxhZ
dkO;'kSyh ls gh tqM+h gSaA
x|jpuk esa dFkk ,oa vk[;kf;dk dks fo'ks"k dhfrZ feyhA dFkk
dYiukfJr gksrh gS rFkk vk[;kf;dk bfrgklkfJrA n.MhÑr
n'koqQekjpfjre~ rFkk vofUrlqUnjhdFkk] lqcU/qiz.khr oklonÙkk]
ck.kHkêðiz.khr dknEcjh] /uikyiz.khr frydeatjh] lksM~<yÑr
mn;lqUnjhdFkk laLÑr dh x|kRed dFkkÑfr;k¡ gSAa blh izdkj ck.kHkêðÑr
g"kZpfjre~] okeuHkêðck.kÑr oseHkwikypfjre~ rFkk vfEcdknÙkO;klÑr
f'kojktfot;e~ izeq[k vk[;kf;dk;sa gSaA dFkkÑfr;ksa esa dfo;ksa us vius
;qx osQ lekt dks cM+h bZekunkjh osQ lkFk izfrfcfEcr fd;k gSA

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ck.kHkêð bu x|dkjksa esa f'kjksjRu gSaA mUgksaus vfHkizk;ksa dh uwrurk]
mRÑ"V i|cU/ dk vknku] dksey'ys"k] LiqQV jlizrhfr rFkk funksZ"k
incU/ (Hkk"kk) dks ghs viuh x|'kSyh dk vkn'kZ fuf'pr fd;k&
uoks¿FkksZ tkfrjxzkE;k 'ys"kks¿fDy"V% LiqQVks jl%A
fodVk{kjcU/'p ÑRLuesd=k nq"dje~AA
bu vkn'kks± osQ ikyu ls ck.k us vizfre x| dh jpuk dh ftlosQ
dkj.k mUgsa v{k; dhfrZ feyh & ck.kksfPN"Va txRloZe~A
i| ,oa x| osQ vuUrj ukV~;okÄ~e; dk Øe vkrk gSA oLrqr%
lewph dkO;ijEijk esa ukV~; dks fof'k"V ekuk x;k &
dkO;s"kq ukVda jE;e~A
ukV~; vFkok ukVd dh jE;rk dk dkj.k gS mlosQ }kjk nks&nks
bfUnz;ksa (Jo.ksfUnz; ,oa n'kZusfUnz;) dk ;qxir~ vklspuA ukVd esa ;g
dk;Z laHko gksrk gS vfHku; osQ ekè;e lsA dkfynkl dh ukV~;Ñfr;k¡
laLÑr ukV~;okÄ~e; dk loZLo gSaA fo'ks"kr% mudh vej ukV~;o`Qfr
vfHkKku'kkoqQUrye~! ik=kksa osQ pfj=kfp=k.k] e;kZnk fuoZg.k (Poetic
Justice) ukVdh;&eksMk+ s dh l`f"V] (Poetic Situations) esa dkfynkl
vizfre gSaA mudh ukV~;Hkk"kk Hkh ek/q;Z] izlkn rFkk ykfyR; xq.kksa ls
lEiUu gSA
dkfynkl osQ ckn v'o?kks"k] fo'kk[knÙk] fnÄ~ukx] Hkêðukjk;.k]
HkoHkwfr] g"kZ vkfn dk uke laLo`Qr ukV~;lkfgR; esa mYys[kuh; gSA
buesa HkoHkwfr dk uke lokZf/d izfl¼ gSA mUgksaus rhu ukVdksa dh jpuk
dh gS& ekyrhek/o] egkohjpfjr vkSj mÙkjjkepfjrA buesa mÙkjjkepfjr
loZJs"B gSA ;g okYehfd jkek;.k osQ mÙkjdk.M dh dFkk ij vk/kfjr
gSA blesa d#.k jl dh vR;Ur lqanj ,oa ekfeZd fu"ifÙk ns[kus ;ksX;
gSA HkoHkwfr esa ;|fi dkfynkl dh&lh ljyrk vkSj lgtrk ugha gS
fiQj Hkh ukV~;lkfgR; esa mUgsa dkfynkl osQ leku gh lEeku feyrk gSA
vkn'kZ oSokfgd thou osQ fp=k.k esa HkoHkwfr ikjaxr gSaA jke vkSj lhrk
osQ dksey ,oa ifo=k izse dk fp=k.k Hkh mÙkjjkepfjr dh fof'k"Vrk gSA

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laLÑr ukVdksa dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk mudk lq[kkar gksuk gSA lEiw.kZ
ukVd esa ;|fi lq[k vkSj nq%[k dk lfEeJ.k n`f"Vxkspj gksrk gS] rks Hkh
mldk var lq[kkar gh gksrk gSA lq[k osQ miiknu osQ fy, gh ukVd esa
nq%[k dk fu"iknu gksrk gSA blosQ ihNs Hkkjrh; fparu gh eq[; gSA
izkphu Hkkjr osQ fuoklh vk'kkoknh FksA muosQ vuqlkj thou esa nq%[k
dh ifj.kfr lnSo lq[k vkSj ijekuan esa gksrh gSA
laLo`Qr ukVdksa esa laokn osQ fy, izk;% x| dk gh iz;ksx gksrk gS
ijarq jkspdrk] izÑfro.kZu] uhfrf'k{kk vkfn osQ fy, i| osQ iz;ksx dks
egRo fn;k tkrk gSA laLo`Qr osQ lkFk&lkFk izkÑr Hkk"kkvksa dk iz;ksx Hkh
laLÑr ukVdksa esa feyrk gSA lHkh izdkj osQ ik=k laLo`Qr le>rs rks gSa
¯drq vius&vius lkekftd Lrj osQ vuq:i laLo`Qr ;k izko`Qr cksyrs
gSaA uk;d osQ fe=k osQ :i esa fonw"kd dh dYiuk laLo`Qr ukVdksa dh
,d mYys[kuh; fo'ks"krk gSA bu ukVdksa esa vfHku; lacaèkh laosQr]
;Fkk&izdk'ke~] Loxre~] tukfUrde~] ljks"ke~] fogL; bR;kfn lw{erk
osQ lkFk fn, tkrs gSaA euksjatu osQ lkFk&lkFk uSfrdrk vkSj mPp
vkn'kks± dk tuekul esa lapkj djuk Hkh laLo`Qr&ukVdksa dk ,d y{;
gSA ykSfdd vkSj vykSfdd lHkh izdkj osQ ik=k buesa gksrs gSAa izoQ` fr&o.kZu
laLo`Qr&ukVdksa dh ,d cM+h fo'ks"krk gSA

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izLrqr ladyu dh i`"BHkwfe

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laLo`Qr osQ vf[ky Hkkjrh; egÙo dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd
vuqla/ku vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~ osQ rÙoko/ku esa ofj"B ekè;fed Lrj
ij osQfUnzd ikBÔozQe osQ vUrxZr oSdfYid fo"k; osQ :i esa laLo`Qr
i<+us okys Nk=kksa osQ fy, izLrqr ladyu dk laiknu fd;k x;k gSA
fo|ky;h; f'k{kk osQ fy, fnYyh fLFkr ^jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd vuqlUèkku
vkSj izf'k{k.k ifj"kn~* (,u- lh- bZ- vkj- Vh) }kjk vk;ksftr laxks"Bh esa
mifLFkr vè;kidksa ,oa fo'ks"kK fo}kuksa }kjk leosr :i ls jk"Vªh;
ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk&2005 ij xgu fopkj&foe'kZ fd;k x;kA bu

xx

y{;ksa esa lokZf/d egÙoiw.kZ gS&HkkjeqDr f'k{kkA fo}kuksa dk vuqHko gS
fd ikB~;xzUFkksa osQ nq:g Hkkj ls cksf>y Nk=k] ,d fcUnq ij igq¡p dj
ikB~;Øe dks Hkkj vuqHko djus yxrk gSA ikB~;Øeksa dh fofo/rk]
cgqyrk rFkk ek=kkf/D;&rhuksa feydj Nk=k dh vè;;u& vfHk#fp dks
izk;% lekIr gh dj nsrs gSaA vr% vko';d gS fd Nk=kksa dh
vè;;u&vfHk#fp dks fuR; uohu cukus osQ fy, f'k{kk osQ ikB~;Øe
dks HkkjeqDr fd;k tk;sA
tc f'k{kk HkkjeqDr gksxh rks fu'p; gh og Lo;eso ,d
^vkuUnizn vuqHkwfr* fl¼ gksxhA ;g ikB~;p;kZ&2005 dk nwljk y{;
gSA vkuUn rHkh izkIr gksrk gS tc fdlh dk;Z esa m}ssx u gks] v#fp u
gks] Fkdku u gksA f'k{kk osQ HkkjeqDr gksus ij ;s xq.k Lor% mn~Hkwr gksaxs
vkSj rc Nk=k Lo;a vius ikB~;Øeksa esa vkÑ"V ,oa vuqjDr gksxkA bl
vkuUno`f¼ osQ fy, ikB~;Øe esa ,sls Kku&lUnHkks± dk lekos'k fd;k
tkuk pkfg, ftuesa mnkÙk thou ewY; gksa] ?kVuk&oSfPk=; osQ lkFk gh
lkFk vk/qfud tuthou dk izfrfcEc Hkh gksA
oLrqr% f'k{kk ,oa ikB~;Øe dk ;g i{k vR;Ur egÙoiw.kZ gSA
laLÑr dk okÄ~e; osnksa ls izkjEHk gksdj vk/qfud ;qx rd O;kIr gSA
oLrqr% ;g okÄ~e; Hkkjro"kZ osQ fiNys ik¡p gtkj o"kks± dk ,d thoUr
nLrkos”k gS ftlesa jk"Vª dk bfrgkl] Hkwxksy] n'kZu] laLo`Qfr] lkekftd
mFky&iqFky] fuR; ifjorZu'khy tuthou&lc oqQN fo|eku gSA
,slh fLFkfr esa vko';d gS fd izkphu xzUFkksa ls ge ,sls gh va'k
ikB~;Øe esa lekfo"V djsa ftuesa vkt dk Hkh jk"Vªh; ,oa lkekftd
ifjos'k lejl gksA Jo.k oqQekj dh ekr`fir`HkfDr] gfj'pUnz dh
lR;fu"Bk] okYehfd&of.kZr Írqvksa dk 'kk'or lkSUn;Z rFkk dFkklfjRlkxj]
i×pra=k] fgrksins'k ,oa iq#"kijh{kk vkfn izkphu xzUFkksa dh f'k{kkizn
dgkfu;k¡ blh izdkj dh gSaA budk lUnHkZ lkoZdkfyd gS vr% budh
lEizs"k.kh;rk Hkh tSlh dh rSlh gSA
ikB~;p;kZ dk rhljk y{; Hkh ;gh fuf'pr fd;k x;k & thou
osQ ifjos'k ls f'k{kk dk ?kfUk"B laca/A bl y{; dh iwfrZ rHkh gks

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xxi

losQxh tc ladfyr ikBka'kksa ,oa vk/qfud thouifjos'k osQ chp lsrq
gks] vUr%laca/ gksaA
ikB~;p;kZ dk pkSFkk y{; fuf'pr fd;k x;k & f'k{kk dh
xq.koÙkk esa lq/kjA bl y{; dh iwfrZ osQ fy, gesa ;g è;ku j[kuk gksxk
fd gekjh ikB~;iqLrosQa loZFkk fujo| gksa] fookneqDr gksaA ladfyr ikB
jk"Vªh; vkn'kks± rFkk laoS/kfud ekU;rkvksa osQ loZFkk vuqowQy gksaA iqjkuh
ikB~;iqLrdksa esa izk;% ^ewyikB dh j{kk* osQ yksHko'k mi;qZDr rF;ksa dh
mis{kk dh xbZ gSA ijUrq vkt dk Hkkjrh; lekt vR;Ur laosnu'khy gSA
vr% ;g è;ku j[kk gh tkuk pkfg, fd fdlh Hkh ladfyr va'k ls
lekt osQ fdlh Hkh oxZ dh Hkkouk vkgr u gksA ikBksa ls loZèkeZ&leHkko]
loksZn; rFkk lkekftd lekurk vkfn dk leFkZu gksuk pkfg;sA fdlh
Hkh oxZ] tkfr] leqnk; vFkok izo`fÙk dh voekuuk ugha gksuh pkfg;s
vkSj u gh fdlh osQ izfr izR;{k vFkok ijks{kjhfr ls dksbZ vk{ksi gksuk
pkfg,A ikB~;p;kZ dk vfUre y{; vR;Ur egÙoiw.kZ gS] fo'ks"kdj
laLo`Qr ikB~;Øe osQ lUnHkZ esa! ;g y{; gS& Nk=kksa dks fpUru osQ fy,
izsfjr djukA ikB~;Øe ,slk cuk;k tkuk pkfg, tks Nk=kksa dks Lo;a
LiwQrZ cuk losQA izk;% f'k{kd Nk=kksa dks ^fu#ik;* cukrk gS ;g dgdj
fd ^d.BLFk djus osQ vfrfjDr vkSj dksbZ mik; ugha*A
'kCn:i ,oa /krq:i d.BLFk djrs&djrs vf/dka'k Nk=k fujk'k]
oqQf.Br ,oa grizHk gksdj laLo`Qrkè;;u ls fojr gks tkrs gSaA Nk=kksa esa
,d Hkze lk O;kIr gks tkrk gS fd laLo`Qr esa lc oqQN jVus ls gh fl¼
gksxkA tcfd ,slk drbZ ugha gSA dkSu ,slh Hkk"kk gS ftlesa Nk=k
egÙoiw.kZ va'kksa dks d.BLFk ugha djrk\ fo|k dk d.BLFk gksuk rks
iz'kaluh; ckr gS] bldh fuUnk oSQlh\
ijUrq laLÑr Hkk"kk esa izoh.k gksus osQ fy, lc oqQN jV Mkyus dh
dksbZ vko';drk ughaA vko';drk gS rks osQoy bl ckr dh fd Nk=k
loZ=k ^vè;kidkfJr* gh u gksA og Lo;a Hkh oqQN lkspuk fopkjuk
vFkok djuk lh[ksA fdlh ikB dks i<+dj og bruk leFkZ gks tk; fd

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xxii

ikBkfJr y?kqiz'uksa dk mÙkj ns losQ] fdlh va'k dk vk'k; crk losQ]
fjDr LFkkuksa dh ikB~;ka'k osQ vk/kj ij iwfrZ dj losQ] izo`Qfr&izR;;
dk leqfpr esyu dj losQ rFkk ;ksX;rk&foLrkj osQ vU;kU; ekudksa
dks Hkh vkRelkr~ dj losQA
fu"d"kZ ;g gS fd laLo`Qrkè;k;h Nk=k dk laLo`Qr osQ lkFk
uhj&{khj lEcU/ gksuk pkfg, u fd fry&r.Mqyor~ lal`f"V! ;fn Nk=k
^laLo`Qre;* ugha gqvk] mldh laLo`Qr le>us] fy[kus] cksyus dh
{kerk fodflr ugha gks ikbZ rks fiQj laLo`Qr i<+us dk ykHk D;k gqvk\
;g lc laHko gS ikB~;p;kZ osQ mi;qZDr y{;ksa dks viukus lsA
mi;qZDr y{;ksa dks pfjrkFkZ ,oa vuqiz;qDr djus dh n`f"V ls gh
^uohu ikB~;Øe* dh ladYiuk dh xbZ rFkk u;s ekun.Mksa osQ vkèkkj
ij NBh] uoha] rFkk X;kjgoha d{kk osQ Nk=kksa osQ fy, ubZ ikB~;iqLrdksa
dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k gSA bu iqLrdksa dk izeq[k oSf'k"V~; gS&
d & izkphu xzUFkka'kksa osQ lkFk gh lkFk vk/qfud laLo`Qr jpukvksa
dk Hkh lekos'kA
[k & vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ lkfgR; dh fofo/ vuwfnr
(laLo`Qr) jpukvksa dk Hkh ikB~;Øe esa lekos'kA
x & ikB~;p;kZ osQ fofo/ y{;ksa dh iwfrZ gsrq u;s vH;kliz'uksa]
fVIif.k;ksa ,oa ;ksX;rk foLrkj&mik;ksa dk lekos'kA
?k & f'k{k.k&laosQrksa dk funZs'kA
ikB~;p;kZ osQ y{;ksa dks n`f"V esa j[kdj lq/h izkè;kidksa ,oa
fo"k;&fo'ks"kKksa osQ leosr iz;kl ls fufeZr izLrqr ikB~;iqLrd fu'p;
gh laLo`Qrkè;;u osQ {ks=k esa ,d 'kqHkkjaHk gSA ;g ikB~;Øe
laLo`Qrk/hrh Nk=kksa esa mu xq.kksa dks fodflr djsxk tks ikB~;p;kZ osQ
y{;:i esa foU;Lr fd;s x;s gSaA
izLrqr ladyu esa eÄõykpj.k osQ vfrfjÙkQ oqQy nl ikB ladfyr
gSA eÄõykpj.k osQ izFke eU=k esa lewph l`f"V dh bZ'oje;rk dk
izfriknu djrs gq,] R;kx osQ ekè;e ls gh Hkksx dk mins'k fn;k x;k

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xxiii

gSA nwljk eÄy
õ kRed eU=k ÍXosn osQ n'ke e.My esa fo|eku lkSeuL;
lwDr ls vkg`r gS ftlesa yksdrU=kkRed psruk dh O;k[;k djrs gq,
crk;k x;k gS fd gekjk eU=k (fopkj)] eu (ladYi) rFkk lfefr
(fu.kZ;) leku gksuk pkfg,] D;ksafd fopkjksa dh ,drk] Hkksxksa dh
lekurk rFkk lejlrk esa gh okLrfod lq[k gSA eÄõy&ijEijk osQ vUr
esa 'kkfUrikB izLrqr gS tks ;tqosZn osQ 36osa vè;k; ls x`ghr gSA blesa
|qyksd] vUrfj{k] i`Foh] vks"kf/] ouLifr] fo'osnso rFkk loZO;kid
czã dh 'kkfUr (vkuqowQY;) dh dkeuk dh xbZ gSA
izFke ikB oqQ'kyiz'kklue~ okYehfdjkek;.k osQ v;ksè;kdk.M
osQ lkSosa lxZZ ls ladfyr gSA bl ikB esa LiQfVdfueZy Hkzkr`Lusg osQ
lkFk iz'kklfud fl¼karksa dk Hkh lqUnj fun'kZu gSA jkeouxeu ls
lUrIr Hkjr tc] i'pkÙkki&fo/qj Hkko ls mUgsa eukus osQ fy, iqj&ifjtu
lfgr fp=kowQV ig¡qprs gSa rks mnkjg`n; jk?ko mUgsa nkSM+dj Nkrh ls yxk
ysrs gSaA jke lR;osÙkk gSa] cU/qiz.k;h gSa rFkk ijfpÙkK gSaA os tkurs gSa fd
muosQ oukxeu izdj.k esa fu'Ny Hkjr dh dksbZ Hkwfedk ugha gSA
iQyr% os HkkbZ Hkjr dks lUrIr ns[k Lo;a Hkh VwV&fc[kj tkrs gSa fiQj
Hkh foo.kZonu èkwfyèkwlfjr] o`Q'kdk; cU/qjRu Hkjr dks lkURouk nssrs gSaA
os Hkjr osQ oqQ'ky&iz'u osQ ekè;e ls vkn'kZ iz'kklu dh uhfr;ksa dks
miLFkkfir djrs gSaA
oqQ'kyiz'u esa e;kZnkiq#"kksÙke jke dk fojkV~ O;fÙkQRo vfHkO;ÙkQ
gksrk gSA og ftrsfUnz;] oqQyhu] 'kwj] Jqroku rFkk o'kaon vkekR;ksa osQ
fo"k; esa] rFkk Lo;a Hkjr dh nSufUnu o`fÙk;ksa osQ fo"k; esa iwNrs gSaA
oLrqr% jke }kjk iwNs x, oqQ'ky&{kse lekpkjksa esa gh vkn'kZ
ekuothou&p;kZ izfrfcfEcr gSA
f}rh; ikB lkSo.kksZ uoqQy% egf"kZ O;kl&iz.khr 'krlkgÏh lafgrk
egkHkkjr osQ vk'oesf/d ioZ (vè;k; 92&93) ls ladfyr fd;k
x;k gSA bl ikB esa ,s'o;Z&oSHko dh rqqyuk esa fujgadkj&fujfHkeku
nSU;o`fÙk osQ egRo dks js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gSA
egkHkkjr&;q¼ esa fot;Jh izkIr djus osQ ckn egkjkt ;qfèkf"Bj

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xxiv

v'oes/ & ;K lEiUu djrs gSaA ;K dh lekfIr gksus ij ,d uoqQy]
ftldk vk/k 'kjhj lqo.kZe; Fkk] ;KHkwfe esa vkdj yksVus yxrk gS
rFkk ekuook.kh esa ÍfRotksa ls dgus yxrk gS fd ;g ;K ml czkã.k
osQ lÙkqQizLFk ;K osQ rqY; ugha gS ftlesa lÙkqQLi'kZ ek=k ls esjk vkèkk
'kjhj dk×puo.kZ gks x;k FkkA
vk'p;Zpfdr ;kfKdksa osQ lksRd.B iwNus ij uoqQy ,d czkã.k
osQ ;K dk o.kZu djrk gS ftlus iw.kZ lkfÙodrk fujgadkjrk rFkk
onkU;rk&'kj.kkxroRlyrk dk ikyu djrs gq, R;kxiwoZd ;K lEiUUk
fd;k FkkA
lwfÙkQlq/k uked r`rh; ikB esa lnqins'kijd lqHkkf"krksa dk laxzg
fd;k x;k gS tks pk.kD;uhfr rFkk fgrksins'k ls leq¼`r gSaA lqHkkf"kr
,sls i| dks dgrs gSa ftlesa thoup;kZ osQ fdlh i{k fo'ks"k dks]
mins'keq[ksu mn~Hkkflr fd;k tkrk gSA bu lqHkkf"kr i|ksa esa 'kk'or lR;
vFkok thouke`r&jlk;urÙo] vR;Ur ekfeZd inkoyh esa vfHkO;ÙkQ
gksrk gS] euq"; dks oSQls ns'k esa jguk pkfg,] dkSu euq"; dk lPps
vFkks± esa cU/q gksrk gS] lRlaxfr dk egÙo D;k gS] euLoh O;fÙkQ dh
thoup;kZ oSQlh gksrh gS] ekuothou osQ R;kT; nks"k dkSu gSa rFkk
thoyksd osQ Ng lq[k dkSu&dkSu gSa & bu fo"k;ksa dk ladfyr
lqHkkf"krksa esa #fpdj izfriknu fd;k x;k gSA
Írqp;kZ 'kh"kZd prqFkZ ikB vk;qosZn osQ iz[;kr vkdjxzUFk
pjdlafgrk osQ NBs vè;k; ls fy;k x;k gSA ;|fi Írqo.kZu osQ
lUnHkZ jkek;.k egkHkkjr rFkk ijorhZ dkO;ksa esa Hkh iw.kZ lkfgR;&lkSUn;Z]
dksey dYiuk ,oa thou fcEc osQ lkFk of.kZr gSaA ijUrq pjd&of.kZr
Írqp;kZ dk oqQN vkSj gh foy{k.k egÙo gS D;ksafd vkpk;ZJh us
Írqvksa dk o.kZu LokLF; ,oa vkjksX; dh n`f"V ls fd;k gSA
fdl Írq esa oSQlh fnup;kZ gksuh pkfg,] oSQlk v'ku&iku rFkk
iF; gksuk pkfg,] bldk vR;Ur lVhd o.kZu ladfyr i|ka'kksa esa fd;k
x;k gS tks vkt Hkh izklafxd izrhr gksrk gSA gseUr] f'kf'kj] olUr]
xzh"e] o"kkZ rFkk 'kjn~ osQ o.kZuek=k esa vkpk;Z pjd mu Írqvksa osQ

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xxv

lEHkkO; jksxksa ls ikBdksa dks lko/ku djrs gq,] xzkáp;kZ dk mins'k nsrs gSAa
ohj% loZneu% 'kh"kZd i×pe ikB dfooqQyxq# dkfynkl iz.khr
fo'oizfl¼ vej ukV~;Ñfr vfHkKku'kkoqQUrye~ osQ lIrekÄï ls
ladfyr fd;k x;k gSA blesa nq";Ur ,oa 'koqQUryk osQ iq=k loZneu
dk vR;Ur ijkØeiw.kZ fuHkZ; 'kS'ko jkspd 'kSyh esa of.kZr fd;k x;k
gSA
nqokZlk 'kki&O;kew< nq";Ur }kjk Hkjs njckj esa viekfur ,oa
frjLÑr mudh iRuh 'koqQUryk] viuh tUenk=kh esudk vIljk osQ
iz;Ru ls gseowQV ioZr fLFkr ekjhpkJe esa jgus yxrh gS tgk¡ loZneu
dk tUe gksrk gSA
nsoklqjlaxzke esa nsojkt bUnz osQ lgk;rkFkZ LoxZyksd igq¡ps nq";Ur
fot;ksijkUr ykSVrs gq, egf"kZ ekjhp ,oa nsoekrk vfnfr dks iz.kke
vfiZr djus muosQ vkJe esa vkrs gSa rFkk ohj loZneu dks ns[krs gSa tks
flag'kkodksa osQ nk¡r fxUkus dk ;Ru dj jgk gSA mls flagh osQ Øks/ dk
Hkh Hk; ughaA nq";Ur cPps dk 'kkS;Z&ijkØe rFkk fuHkZ;rk ns[k fofLer
gks mBrs gSaA
vUrr% tc mUgsa Kkr gksrk gS fd ohj loZneu mUgha dk iq=k gS
rks og vkuUnfoày gks mBrs gSa rFkk iq=k ,oa iRuh ls lefUor gks
egf"kZ&nEirh dks iz.kke djrs gSaA
'kqd'kkodksnUr% 'kh"kZd "k"B ikB o';ok.khpØorhZ egkdfo
ck.kHkêð iz.khr dknEcjh&dFkk osQ dFkkeq[k Hkkx ls ladfyr gSA fofn'kkujs'k
'kwnd
z osQ njckj esa ,d fnu pk.MkydU;k }kjk] migkj& :i esa jktk dks
vfiZr djus osQ fy,] ,d tkfrLej 'kqd'kkod yk;k tkrk gS tks viuh
iz'kfLr osQ gh vuqoQw y] nkfguk iatk (vk'kh% eqnkz es)a mQij mBk dj]
jktk dh iz'kalk esa ,d vR;Ur yfyr ,oa lkfHkizk; ^vk;kZ* i<+rk gS
ftls lqurs gh fofn'kkujs'k fofLer gks mBrs gSaA
mRdf.Br ,oa foLe;foeqX/ jktk osQ }kjk ifjp; iwNus ij
'kqd'kkod oS'kEik;u] egf"kZ tkckfy }kjk lqukbZ xbZ viuh vkRedFkk
dks ;Fkkor~ izLrqr djrk gSA d#.kk ,oa vuqdEik] o`QrKrk ,oa

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xxvi

o'kaonrk ls vksrizksr] dkSVqfEcd Lusg&okRlY; esa vuqL;wr 'kqd'kkod
dh ;g vkRedFkk gesa vJqfoXkfyr cuk nsrh gSA thou dh mPpkop
laosnukvksa dk vR;Ur ekfeZd fp=k.k bl x|ka'k esa dfo us fd;k gS tks
vizfre gSA
HkO;% lR;kxzgkJe% 'kh"kZd lIre ikB] foxr 'krkCnh dh
fonq"kh ysf[kdk rFkk xk¡/hfopkj/kjk dh leFkZ dof;=kh Jherh if.Mrk
{kekjko&iz.khr lR;kxzgxhrk osQ prqFkZ vè;k; ls fy;k x;k gSA 1926
bZ- esa nf{k.k vizQhdk ls Hkkjr ykSVs] eksgunkl deZpUn xk¡èkh osQ
Hkkjrh; Lok/hurk&laxzke dk usr`Ro laHkkyrs gh Lora=krk dk la?k"kZ rhoz
gks mBk FkkA xk¡/h th us vgenkckn osQ lehi lkcjerh unh osQ rV
ij lR;kxzg&vkJe dh LFkkiuk dh tks muosQ fopkjksa rFkk ÑR;ksa dk
osQUnz cu x;kA ;gha ls mUgksaus lR;&vfgalk] lR;kxzg] rFkk lfou;
voKk vkfn osQ egkeU=kksa dk mn~?kks"k rFkk dk;kZUo;u fd;k ftlls gesa
vUrr% Lora=krk izkIr gks ldhA
if.Mrk {kekjko us mlh lR;kxzg&vkJe rFkk viuh vk¡[kksa ns[kh
xfrfof/;ksa dk jkspd o.kZu izLrqr i|ka'k esa fd;k gSA bl ikB esa
egkRek xk¡/h dh fopkj/kjk dk izkaty :i i<+us dks feyrk gSA
if.Mrk {kekjko vokZphu laLÑr dkO;/kjk osQ lkfgR;dkjksa esa
vR;Ur lEekfur dof;=kh gSa ftudk ys[ku ikjEifjd gksus osQ lkFk gh
lkFk] ijEijkeqÙkQ Hkh jgk gSA mUgksaus viuh Ñfr;ksa esa fo/okfookg]
;kSrdfojks/ rFkk ckyfookg&fojks/ tSlh ubZ lekftd izo`fÙk;ksa dks Hkh
fuHkZ;rk osQ lkFk fpf=kr fd;k gSA
lÄõhrkuqjkxh lqCc..k% 'kh"kZd v"Ve ikB ewyr% dÂM+ osQ
KkuihBiqjLdkj ef.Mr ;'kLoh lkfgR;dkj ekfLr osÄïVs'k vÕ;Äõk;Z
dh dÂM+ Hkk"kk esa iz.khr y?kq miU;kfldk (Novelette) lqCc.k% osQ
laLo`Qr :ikUrj ls fy;k x;k gSA
lqCc.k% ekfLr osÄVï s'k vÕ;Äkõ ;Z&iz.khr dÂM+ Hkk"kk dk ,d
y?kq miU;kl gSA osÄïVs'k vÕ;Äõk;Z dÂM+ y?kqdFkk ijEijk osQ tud
ekus tkrs gSa ftUgkasus chloha 'krh bZ- osQ f}rh; n'kd esa loZizFke viuh

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jpuk izdkf'kr dhA LoHkkor% og tkWu vkWfLVu rFkk pkYlZ fMosQal
ljh[ks vaxzsth miU;kldkjksa osQ iz'kald jgs rFkk mlh vkSiU;kfld
vkn'kZ ij dÂM+ esa jpuk djrs jgsA
lqCc..k% ekfLr osÄïVs'k vÕ;Äõk;Z dk ,d ,slk yksdfiz; rFkk
eeZLi'khZ miU;kl gS ftlesa eè;oxhZ; la;qÙkQ ifjokj dh lkekftd
cqjkb;ksa rFkk ikfjokfjd mis{kkvksa dk fo'oluh; fp=k.k fd;k x;k gSA
dFkkuk;d lqCc..k osQ firk jktkJ; izkIr ,d Js"B fo}ku~ gSa ijUrq
ckyd lqCc..k dh vfHk#fp firk ls fHkUu gSA og lÄõhrkuqjkxh gSA
firk iq=k dk ;g euks}s"k tc f'k[kjLFk gksrk gS rks vlfg".kq lqCc..k
viuh iRuh ,oa cPph osQ lkFk] ,d fnu pqipki ?kj NksM+ nsrk gS vkSj
dydÙkk igq¡p tkrk gSA ;|fi mlosQ oqQN o"kZ ogk¡ lq[k ls chrrs gSa
ijUrq HkkX; dh fu"Bqjrk] iRuh ,oa cPph dks Nhu dj mls fuiV
,dkdh cuk nsrh gSA vUrr% dydÙkk egkuxj esa thou ls for`".k ,oa
eksgHkXu gksdj lqCc..k] ekrk&firk rFkk lxs&lEcfU/;ksa osQ fpjfo;ksx
ls lUrIr gqvk iqu% vius xk¡o ykSVrk gS rFkk xk¡o osQ cPpksa dks
fu%'kqYd lÄhõ r dh f'k{kk nsrk] 'kkfUriwoZd e`R;q dk oj.k djrk gSA
KkuihB iqjLdkj ls Jhef.Mr ekfLr osÄïVs'k dh bl dkyt;h
o`Qfr dk laLÑr vuqokn fo}ku~ ,p~- ,u~- osÄïVs'k 'kekZ 'kkL=kh us fd;k
gS tks f'keksxk tuin osQ gkslgYyheFkwj uked xk¡o esa iSnk gq, rFkk
dukZVd jkT; osQ f'k{kkfoHkkx esa if.Mr osQ :i esa gtkjksa yksxksa dks
laLÑr dh f'k{kk nsrs jgs gSaA vf[ky dukZVd&laLÑr ifj"kn~ caxykSj
}kjk ;g y?kq miU;kl izFke ckj 1993 bZ- esa izdkf'kr fd;k x;k gSA
uoe ikB oL=kfoØ;% e- e- ia- eFkqjkizlkn nhf{kro`Qr
Hkkjrfot;ukVde~ osQ izFke vad ls fy;k x;k gSA
chloha lnh osQ izkjfEHkd pj.k esa ftu Js"B lkfgR;dkjksa
us viuh Ñfr;ksa ls laLÑr&okÄ~e; dks le`¼ fd;k muesa
ia- vfEcdknÙk O;kl] gfjnkl fl¼kUrokxh'k] Hkêð eFkqjkukFk 'kkL=kh] ee- ia- jkekorkj 'kekZ] if.Mrk {kekjko] okbZ- egkfyÄõ 'kkL=kh rFkk
ewy'kadj ekf.kD; yky ;kfKd vkfn izeq[k gSaA

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e- e- ia- eFkqjkizlkn nhf{kr lksyu&ujs'k (lEizfr fgekpyizns'k
dk tuin&fo'ks"k) osQ lEekfur jktdfo Fks ftUgksaus fczfV'k 'kkludky
esa Hkh iwjh fuHkZ;rk ,oa fujaoqQ'krk osQ lkFk Lok/hurk dks leFkZu djus
okys Hkkjrfot; uked ØkfUrdkjh mRiszjd ukVd dk iz.k;u 1937
bZ- esa fd;k A bl ukV~;Ñfr dh foy{k.k fo'ks"krk ;gh gS fd blesa
ØkUrn'khZ dfo us Hkkjr dh Lok/hurk&izkfIr dk fp=k.k 1947 bZ- ls
,d n'kd iwoZ gh viuh ØkUr izfrHkk osQ cy ij fd;kA fpjdky rd
;g jpuk 'kklu }kjk tCr jgh_ Lora=krk izkfIr osQ ckn gh bldk
izdk'ku gks ldkA
eqxy ckn'kkg 'kkgvkye ls caxky vkSj fcgkj dh ekyxqtkjh
olwyus dk vf/dkj izkIr dj xkSjkÄõ vf/dkjh iztk ij vR;kpkj
djus yxrs gSaA tc Hkkjrh; tqykgs] ijEijkuqlkj viuk oL=k cspus
cktkj esa vkrs gSa rks ;s vaxzst viQlj] 'kkgh iQjeku fn[kkdj lkjk
oL=k] vR;Ur lLrs nke ij Lo;a [kjhn ysrs gSa rFkk mUgsa lsB&lkgwdkjksa
rd ugha tkus nsrs A bl izdkj Hkkjrh; tqykgksa dh lkjh vFkZ&O;oLFkk
u"V&Hkz"V gks tkrh gS rFkk os xjhch dh ekj >syus dks foo'k gks
tkrs gSaA
izLrqr ikB esa blh lUnHkZ dk eeZLi'khZ o.kZu ukV~;dkj }kjk fd;k
x;k gSA oLrqr% ;g ikB gesa Hkkjrh; Lok/hurk&la?k"kZ dh i`"BHkwfe ls
ifjfpr djkrk gSA
;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~ uked n'ke ikB ewyr% ,d f'k{kkizn y?kq
dFkk gSA izLrqr y?kqdFkk MkW- osQ'kopUnz nk'k osQ y?kqdFkklaxzg ^,dnk*
ls ladfyr dh xbZ gSA Jh txUukFk laLÑr fo'ofo|ky;] iqjh osQ
U;k;n'kZufoHkkxkè;{k cgqJqr fo}ku~ vkpk;Z osQ'kopUnz nk'k us vokZphu
laLÑr okÄ~e; dks viuh tuoknh dforkvksa rFkk dFkksiU;klÑfr;ksa
ls le`¼ cuk;k gSA MkW- nk'k dh izeq[k Ñfr;k¡ gSa& egku jkf'kjs[kk]
f'k[kk] folxZ%] irkdk] v×tfy% fn'kk&fofn'kk] 'khryr`".kk] izfrin~
vkfnA

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^,dnk* esa MkW- nk'k&iz.khr nl y?kq dFkk;sa ladfyr gSaA ;s
dFkk;sa firkegh }kjk vius ukrh ek/o rFkk ukfru iqyksetk dks lqukbZ
tkrh gSa tks dFkk lqukus dh izkphu Hkkjrh; xzkeh.k&i¼fr gSA ;s dFkk;sa
laf{kIr gksrh gqbZ Hkh vR;Ur HkkoxfHkZr] eeZLi'khZ ,oa #fpo/Zd gSaA
ewyr% ^lR;e~* 'kh"kZd ls ladfyr izLrqr dFkk esa ;g crk;k
x;k gS fd ^ftlls yksdfgr fl¼ gksrk gks ogh lR; gSA* xk¡o osQ Nksj
ij fLFkr ifÁuh uked iq"dfj.kh osQ fdukjs vkJe esa ,d eqfu jgrk
FkkA og xzkeh.kksa rFkk muosQ i'kqvksa }kjk iafdy dh xbZ iq"dfj.kh dh
nhu&n'kk ns[k vR;Ur nq[kh jgrk FkkA og fujUrj ;gh lksprk jgrk Fkk
fd bl ckoyh dk m¼kj&laLdkj oSQls gks\
vdLekr~ ,d lqo.kZ volj eqfu osQ gkFk yx gh x;kA ,d fnu
xk¡o okys ,d cPps dks ^fEkF;kHkk"kh* crk dj ihVus yxsA eqfu us
chp&cpko djrs gq, cPps ls iwNk & rqe HkwQB oSQls cksyrs gks\ cPps
us dgk & tSlk ilUn vkrk gS] oSLkk gh cksyrk gw¡A eqfu us iqu%
iwNk & vPNk rks bl iq"dfj.kh osQ fo"k; esa oqQN cksyks! cPps us dgk
bl iq"dfj.kh osQ ty esa ,d fo'kky eNyh gS! vkvks Hkkb;ks! ns[kks]
ns[kks! og oSQlk [ksy jgh gS!
eqfu osQ fl[kkus&i<+kus ls vxys fnu losjs cPpk fpYyk&fpYyk
dj ogh ckr xk¡o okyksa ls dgus yxk vkSj ns[krs gh ns[krs egkeRL;
dks [kkstus dk iz;kl djus okys xzkeh.kksa us rkykc dk lkjk dhpM+
ckgj iasQd dj mls fueZy cuk fn;kA
rkykc osQ dhpM+ ls fdlkuksa osQ [ksr vR;Ur mitkmQ cu x;sA
dhpM+ fudkyus ls rkykc xgjk Hkh gks x;k vkSj o"kkZ vkrs gh fueZy
ty ls yckyc Hkj mBkA rVorhZ >qjeqVksa osQ dVus rFkk u;k rVcU/
cukus ls rkykc dh 'kksHkk Hkh c<+ xbZA rkykc dh og 'kksHkk ns[k xk¡o
osQ cM+s&cw<ksa us fu;e cuk fn;k fd vc vkxs ls tks dksbZ Hkh ty dks
nwf"kr djsxk og nf.Mr gksxkA
eqfu us xk¡o okyksa dks le>k;k fd ftl cPps dks vki yksx
feF;kHkk"kh dgrs Fks og lPps vFkks± esa lR;oknh fl¼ gqvkA D;ksafd

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mlosQ feF;kHkk"k.k esa Hkh yksddY;k.k dk cht fo|eku Fkk vkSj lR;
ek=k mls gh ugha dgrs tks ;FkkFkZ:i esa cksyk tkrk gS] cfYd tks
(vkikrr% vlR; izrhr gksrk gks ijUrq) yksddY;k.kdkjh gks mls Hkh
lR; gh dgrs gSaA
HkkLorh (izFke Hkkx) uked izLrqr ikB~;xzUFk dk fuekZ.k d{kk
X;kjg (osQfUnzd) osQ Nk=kksa dks n`f"V esa j[k dj fd;k x;k gSA
LoHkkor% bl ikB~;xzUFk dks d{kk X;kjg (,sfPNd) osQ ikB~;xzUFk dh
rqyuk esa ljy] #fpdj] laf{kIr ,oa vkd"kZd gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd ;g
ikB~;xzUFk fo'ks"k :i ls mu Nk=kksa osQ fy, gS tks laLÑr dks fo"k;
osQ :i esa u i<+ dj Hkk"kk osQ :i esa i<+rs gSaA vr% bl vUrj dks
gh n`f"V esa j[krs gq, izLrqr ikB~;xzUFk dks Hkk"kk&lkSUn;Z] Hkk"kkizokg]
Hkk"kkfodkl ,oa Hkk"kk&lkjY; dh n`f"V ls lqlfTtr djus dk ;koPND;
iz;Ru fo}kuksa }kjk fd;k x;k gSA
oSfnd eÄõy i|ksa osQ vuUrj jkek;.k&egkHkkjr ls] blh n`f"V ls
Nk=kksa dks ifjfpr djk;k x;k gS rkfd os ijorhZ lewps laLÑr&okÄ~e;
osQ fu";anHkwr vk"kZdkO;}; dk egÙo tku losaQA 'ks"k ikBksa dks Hkh blh
n`f"V ls p;fur fd;k x;k gS rkfd Nk=k Hkk"kkxr ,oa 'kSyhxr Hksnksa ls
ifjfpr gks losaQ A pk.kD;] pjd] dkfynkl rFkk ck.kHkêð laLÑr Hkk"kk
osQ pkj ekud gSaA ,d uhfrdkO; gS rks nwljk oS|d dk xzUFkA ,d
laokncgqy ukV~;xzUFk gS rks nwljk yfyr x| dkA bl izdkj pkjksa izdkj
osQ xzUFk laLÑr Hkk"kk osQ pkj fHkUu :i izLrqr djrs gSa ftlesa dkyxr]
fo"k;xr rFkk 'kSyhxr Hksn gSA fu'p; gh bu ikBksa osQ vè;;u ls Nk=k
laLÑr dh fofo/ Hkkf"kd lajpuk ,oa le`f¼ ls ifjfpr gks losaQxsA
ikB~;xzUFk osQ vfUre pkj ikBksa esa laLÑr Hkk"kk dk vokZphu
Lo:i miU;Lr fd;k x;k gSA oLrqr% ;g laLÑr chloha&bDdhloha
'krh bZ- dh gSA blesa ins&ins uwru 'kCnkoyh vFkok LofufeZr (self
coined) 'kCnkoyh dk Hkh iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA lqCc..k 'kh"kZd ikB
esa gh ok;fyu (ok|&fo'ks"k)] fpfVdk (fVdV)] i=kd (Note)]
izf.kf/&lUns'k (Draft) tSls u;s 'kCnksa dk iz;ksx jpukdkj us fd;k gSA

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iqLrd osQ vkjaHk esa nh xbZ Hkwfedk }kjk Nk=kksa dks laLÑr&lkfgR;
dh fofHkUu fo/kvksa osQ fodkl osQ laf{kIr bfrgkl dk ifjp;
djok;k x;k gSA blosQ lkFk&lkFk fu/kZfjr ikBksa osQ ewyxzUFk ,oa muls
lEcfU/r lkfgR;dkjksa dk ifjp;kRed Kku Hkh blesa lekfo"V gSA ikB
osQ vkjaHk esa ikB&lUnHkZ fn;k x;k gS ftlesa ladfyr va'k dk izlax
ljyrk ls Nk=kksa dks cks/xE; gks losQA d{kk esa Nk=kksa dks lh[kus osQ
vf/d volj iznku djus osQ fy, ikBksa osQ var esa fofo/ vH;kl&iz'u
Hkh fn;s x;s gSaA
izLrqr ladyu dh ik.Mqfyfi dks rS;kj djus osQ fy, le;&le;
ij vk;ksftr dk;Zxksf"B;ksa esa Hkkx ysus okys ftu fo"k;&fo'ks"kKksa ,oa
laLÑr vè;kidksa dk ekxZn'kZu rFkk lg;ksx lqyHk gqvk gS lEiknd
mu lHkh fo}kuksa osQ izfr gkfnZd vkHkkj O;Dr djrk gSA ;|fi bl
ladyu dks ;FkklaHko Nk=kksi;ksxh ,oa Lrj osQ vuq:i cukus dk iz;kl
fd;k x;k gS rFkkfi bls Nk=kksa osQ fy, vkSj vf/d mi;ksxh cukus osQ
fy, vuqHkoh laLÑr vè;kidksa osQ cgqewY; lq>koksa dk ge lnSo
Lokxr djsaxsA

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f'k{kdksa ls fuosnu
ikB~;lkexzh tgk¡ iqLrd dks yksdfiz; cukrh gS] ogha nwljh vksj f'k{kd
dh Hkwfedk dk Hkh viuk egÙoiw.kZ ;ksxnku gSA ikB~;lkexzh vkSj
f'k{kd nksuksa gh os vk/kj&LrEHk gSa tks vè;kiu dyk dks lqpk# :i
ls fodflr djrs gSaA osQoy f'k{kd dh ;ksX;rk Nk=kksa dk lgh
fn'kk&funsZ'k ugha dj ldrh vxj ikB~;lkexzh Nk=kksa osQ LrjkuqowQy u
gksA f'k{kdksa ls vuqjks/ gS fd os ikB~;lkexzh osQ vè;kiu osQ le;
fuEufyf[kr fcUnqvksa ij è;ku nsaA
1- lelkef;d fo"k; ij vk/kfjr izFke ikB esa efU=k;ksa dh fu;qfDr
vkfn fo"k;ksa ls Nk=kksa dks 'kklu O;oLFkk ls ifjfpr djok;saA
vuq"Vqqi~ NUn dk y{k.k crkdj Nk=kksa dks ikB~;Øe esa fuèkkZfjr
NUnksa dk ifjp; djk;k tk;sA vkfn dfo okYehfd osQ thouo`Ùk
dk ifjp; nsdj jkek;.k dh fo"k;oLrq ls ifjfpr djk;saA

xxxii

2- egkHkkjr osQ lkaLÑfrd&ewY;ksa osQ fo"k; esa Nk=kksa dks tkudkjh nsaA
3- thouksi;ksxh lwfDr;ksa ls ;qDr r`rh; ikB esa pk.kD; vkSj ukjk;.k
if.Mr }kjk fy[ks x;s i|ksa osQ fufgr egÙo dks Nk=kksa dks crk;saA
fuokl dgk¡ djuk pkfg,\ cU/q dkSu gS\ ;g Nk=kksa dks Li"V
djsaA lRlÄfõ r dk egRo crkdj vU; mnkgj.kksa osQ }kjk Nk=kksa dks
Hkko Li"V djsaA iq"ixqPN osQ mnkgj.k ls euLoh O;fDr;ksa osQ
thoun'kZu dks le>k;saA ijksidkj dh Hkkouk dks 'yksdksa }kjk
lqn`<+ djk;saA vkyL; dks NksM+us dk lans'k nsdj thoyksd osQ N%
lq[kksa ls ifjfpr djk;saA
;ksX;rk foLrkj esa fn;s x;s 'yksdksa dk vFkZ le>kdj ikB esa
iznÙk 'yksdksa dk Hkko lkE; Li"V djsaA
4- ½rqp;kZ ikB esa Nk=kksa dks ½rqvksa dk Kku nsrs gq, f'k{kd Nk=kksa
dks voxr djok;sa fd izR;sd ½rq esa gekjs }kjk D;k Hk{; vkSj
D;k vHk{; gS rFkk mldh mi;ksfxrk ls Nk=kksa dks ifjfpr djk,¡A
izÑfriznÙk bu oLrqvksa osQ iz;ksx osQ izfr è;ku nsaA
5- dkfynkl }kjk jfpr vfHkKku'kkoqQUrye~ ukVd ls ladfyr bl
ikB dk Nk=kksa ls vfHku; djk;saA
6- izkphu Hkkjr osQ riksou dh laLÑfr ls Nk=kksa dks ifjfpr djk;saA
oU; thou rFkk i;kZoj.k dk uk'k djus okyh vk[ksV o`fÙk osQ
izfrjks/ esa riksou fdl izdkj d#.kk o laosnuk osQ }kjk i;kZoj.k
dh lgt Hkko ls j{kk djrs jgs gSa&bl rF; dks js[kkafdr djsaA
7- xk¡/hoknh thou n'kZu ls Nk=kksa dk ifjp; djk;saA xk¡/h dh
vkRedFkk mUgsa i<+us dks izsfjr djsaA
8- nf{k.k osQ dfo }kjk vuwfnr bl ikB esa lÄõhr osQ egÙo dks
izfrikfnr fd;k x;k gSA Nk=kksa dh vfHk#fp ftl fo"k;fo'ks"k esa
gks mudks mlh vksj Kku izkIr djus osQ fy, izsj.kk nsaA
vfHkHkkodksa dks Hkh cPpksa osQ #fp&fo'ks"k dh vksj è;ku&vkdf"kZr
djkus dk iz;kl djsaA bfPNr fo"k; esa vè;;u ls Nk=k thou esa
mPp LFkku izkIr djsaxsA

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xxxiii

9- ia- eFkqjk izlkn nhf{kr vk/qfud ;qx osQ izfl¼ dfo ,oa
ukVddkj gSaA muosQ O;fÙkQRo ,oa ÑfrRo dk ifjp; Nk=kksa dks nsaA
oL=kfoØ;% ukVd osQ ekè;e ls vaxzstksa dh neuuhfr ls Nk=kksa
dks voxr djk;saA izLrqr ukVd osQ vfHku; dk vH;kl d{kk esa
djk;saA
10- izkphudky ls pyh vk jgh nknk&nknh] ukuk&ukuh osQ eq[k ls
lquk;h tkus okyh dFkk&ifjikVh ls Nk=kksa dks ifjfpr djk;saA
thou esa lR; dk egÙo crkdj ikB dk 'kh"kZd Li"V djsaA
;ksX;rk foLrkj esa nh x;h lwfDr;ksa }kjk Hkkoksa dks lqLi"V djsaA

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fo"k;kuqozQef.kdk

i`"BkÄïk%
iii

iqjksoko~Q
Hkwfedk

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vii

eÄõye~

1

izFke% ikB%

oqQ'kyiz'kklue~

3

f}rh;% ikB%

lkSo.kksZ uoqQy%

9

r`rh;% ikB%

lwfDrlq/k

15

prqFkZ% ikB%

Írqp;kZ

20

i×pe% ikB%

ohj% loZneu%

26

"k"B% ikB%

'kqd'kkodksnUr%

32

lIre% ikB%

HkO;% lR;kxzgkJe%

39

v"Ve% ikB%

lÄhõ rkuqjkxh lqCc..k%

45

uoe% ikB%

oL=kfoozQ;%

51

n'ke% ikB%

;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~

57

ifjf'k"V

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eÄy
õ e~

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bZ'kkokL;fena lo± ;fRd×p txR;ka txr~A
rsu R;ÙksQu Hkq×thFkk ek x`/% dL;fLo¼ue~AA1AA

(;tqosZn% & 40@1) bZ'kksifu"kn~

HkkokFkZ% l`f"V esa ;s lc tks oqQN Hkh tM+&psru inkFkZ gSa os bZ'oj ls
vkokflr ;k vkPNkfnr gSa vFkkZr~ lHkh esa bZ'oj dk fuokl gSA vr%
lHkh yksx ml ijes'oj osQ }kjk fn, x, inkFkks± dk gh ijLij R;kx dh
Hkkouk ls Hkksx djsaA fdlh vU; O;fDr osQ /u dk yksHk u djsaAA1AA

lekuks eU=k% lfefr% lekuh lekua eu% lg fpÙkes"kke~A
lekua eU=kefHkeU=k;s o% lekusu oks gfo"kk tqgksfeAA2AA
(ÍXosn% & 10@192@3)

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HkkokFkZ% bl ea=k esa ekuoek=k osQ fy, izsj.kk nh x;h gS fd lHkh osQ
fopkj leku gksaA lfefr vFkkZr~ lHkk,¡ vkSj muesa cSBdj fy, x, fu.kZ;
leku gksaA lHkh osQ eu vFkkZr~ ladYi rFkk fpRr vFkkZr~ fparu ,d tSls
gksaA eSa rqe lc dks ,d gh fopkj ls ;qDr djrk gw¡ rFkk lHkh osQ fy,
,d gh tSls (leku Hkko ls) gfo vFkkZr~ v vkfn HkksX; inkFkZ iznku
djrk gw¡A
vfHkizk; ;g gS fd ijekRek ,oa izÑfr dh vksj ls lHkh dks
miHkksx osQ lk/u leku Hkko ls fn, x, gSaA vr% fopkjksa dh ,drk]
Hkksxksa dh lekurk rFkk lejlrk esa gh lq[k gSAA2AA

|kS% 'kkfUrjUrfj{k ¤ 'kkfUr% i`fFkoh 'kkfUrjki%
'kkfUrjks"k/;% 'kkfUroZuLir;% 'kkfUr£oÜos nsok% 'kkfUrczZã
'kkfUr% loZ ¤ 'kkfUr%'kkfUrjso 'kkfUr% lkek 'kkfUrjsf/AA3AA
(;tqonZs % 36@17)

2

HkkLorh

HkkokFkZ % |qyksd 'kkafrnk;d gks] vUrfj{kyksd rFkk i`Fohyksd 'kkafrnk;d
gksa] ty ,oa vks"kf/;k¡ rFkk ouLifr;k¡ 'kkafr nsus okyh gksa] lHkh nsork
vFkok l`f"V dh fnO; 'kfDr;k¡ 'kkafr nsus okyh gksa] czã vFkkZr~ egku~
ijes'oj ;k mldk fn;k gqvk Kku osn] 'kkafrnk;d gks] lEiw.kZ pjkpj
txr~ 'kkafrizn gksa] lc txg 'kkafr gh 'kkafr gks] ,slh 'kkafr eq>s izkIr gks
vkSj og lnk c<+rh gh jgsA
vfHkizk; ;g gS fd l`f"V osQ d.k&d.k esa 'kkafr gksA lHkh inkFkZ
lHkh osQ fy, lq[k&'kkafrnk;d gksaA leLr i;kZoj.k gh gekjs fy, lq[kn
,oa 'kkafrizn gksA lq[k&'kkafr dh ;g /kjk dHkh de u gks] lnk c<+rh
gh jgsAA3AA

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izFke% ikB%

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oqQ'kyiz'kklue~

izLrqr va'k okYehfdjkek;.k osQ v;ksè;kdk.M osQ lkSosa lxZ ls ladfyr
gSA Hkxoku~ Jhjke fp=kowQV esa ouokl dj jgs gSaA Hkzkr`fojg ls ihfM+r
Hkjr Jhjke ls feyus vk, gSaA Jhjke Hkjr ls feyus osQ ckn muls
oqQ'ky&iz'u djrs gSaA bl izdj.k esa Hkjr jke ls jkT;O;oLFkk lapkyu
lacaèkh ,sls vusd iz'u djrs gSa ftuls jktuhfr foKku ij egRoiw.kZ
izdk'k iM+rk gSA
Jhjke us Hkjr ls iz'u fd;k gS fd D;k mUgksaus efU=k;ksa dh
fu;qfDr 'kkL=kksDr vis{kkvksa osQ vuq:i dh gS\ D;k os eU=k.kk 'kkL=kfof/
ls djrs gSa\ D;k mudk osru Hkqxrku le; ls fd;k tkrk gS\ ;g
ikB~;ka'k iz'kklfud O;oLFkk dh n`f"V ls vR;ar egRoiw.kZ gSA bUgha
fcanqvksa ij izLrqr ikB~;ka'k esa fo'kn foospu fd;k x;k gSA
tfVya phjolua izk×tfya ifrra HkqfoA
nn'kZ jkeks nqnZ'k± ;qxkUrs HkkLdja ;FkkAA1AA
dFkf×pnfHkfoKk; foo.kZonua Ñ'ke~A
Hkzkrja Hkjra jke% ifjtxzkg ikf.kukAA2AA

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n

vk?kzk; jkeLra ew£èu ifj"oT; p jk?koe~A
vÄ~osQ HkjrekjksI; i;Zi`PNr lknje~AA3AA

dfPpnkRelek% 'kwjk% JqroUrks ftrsfUnz;k%A
oqQyhuk'psfÄ~xrKk'p ÑrkLrs rkr efU=k.k%AA4AA
eU=kks fot;ewya fg jkKka Hkofr jk?ko!A
lqlao`rks efU=k/qjSjekR;S% 'kkL=kdksfonS%AA5AA

4

HkkLorh

dfPpfÂnzko'ka uSf"k dfPpRdkys¿ocqè;lsA
dfPpPpkijjk=ks"kq fpUr;L;FkZuSiq.ke~AA6AA
dfPpUeU=k;ls uSd% dfPpUu cgqfHk% lgA
dfPpÙks efU=krks eU=kks jk"Vªa u ifj/kofrAA7AA

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dfPpnFk± fofuf'pR; y?kqewya egksn;e~A
f{kizekjHkls deZ u nh?kZ;fl jk?ko!AA8AA

dfPpRlgÏkUew[kkZ.kkesdfePNfl if.Mre~A
if.Mrks áFkZÑPNsª"kq oqQ;kZfUu%Js;la egr~AA9AA
,dks¿I;ekR;ks es/koh 'kwjks n{kks fop{k.k%A
jktkua jktiq=ka ok izki;sUegrha fJ;e~AA10AA

dfPpUeq[;k egRLoso eè;es"kq p eè;ek%A
t?kU;k'p t?kU;s"kq Hk`R;kLrs rkr ;ksftrk%AA11AA
vekR;kuqi/krhrkfUir`iSrkegk×Nqphu~A
Js"Bk×Nªs"Bs"kq dfPpÙoa fu;kst;fl deZlqAA12AA
dfPp¼`"V'p 'kwj'p /`frekUefrek×Nqfp%A
oqQyhu'pkuqjÙkQ'p n{k% lsukifr% Ñr%AA13AA
dfPpn~cyL; HkÙkaQ p osrua p ;Fkksfpre~A
lEizkIrdkya nkrO;a nnkfl u foyEclsAA14AA
dkykfrØe.kkPpSo HkÙkQosru;ksHk`Zrk%A
HkrqZjI;froqQI;fUr lks¿uFkZ% lqegkULe`r%AA15AA

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n

'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

tfVye~
phjolue~
izk×tfye~
nn'kZ

&
&
&
&

tVk% lfUr ;L; l% re~] tVk $ byp~] tVk /kj.k fd;s gq,A
phja olua ;L; l% re~] isM+ osQ Nky osQ cus oL=k igus gq,A
ueLdkj djus okysA
n`'k~ $ fyV~ ydkj] izú iqú ,ú oú] ns[kkA

5

oqQ'kyiz'kklue~
nqnZ'kZe~
vfHkfoKk;
foo.kZonue~
ifjtxzkg
ifj"oT;
vk?kzk;
vkjksI;
i;Zi`PNr
vkRelek%
JqroUr%
ftrsfUnz;k%
eU=k%
fot;ewye~
'kkL=kdksfonS%
vocqè;ls
eU=k;ls
fofuf'pR;
nh?kZ;fl
vFkZÑPNsª"kq
fu%Js;le~
vekR;%
fop{k.k%
izki;sr~
t?kU;%
,f"k
fu;kst;fl
n{k%
HkDrosru;ks%
mi/krhrku~

&
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&
&
&
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&
&
&
&
&
&
&
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&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

/`"V%

&

nz"Vqe~ v'kD;e~] nq%[kiwoZd ns[kk tkus ;ksX;A
vfHk $ fo milxZ Kk /krq $ DRok > Y;i~] igpkudjA
foo.k± onua ;L; l% re~] iQhosQeq[k okykA
ifj $ xzg~ $ fyV~] izú iqú ,ú oú] xzg.k fd;kA
ifj $ "oLt~ $ DRok > Y;i~] vkfyÄuõ djosQA
vk $ ?kzk $ DRok > Y;i~] lw¡?kdjA
vk $ #g~ $ f.kp~ $ DRok > Y;i~] cSBkdjA
ifj $ i`PN~ $ yÄ~ (vkReusin] vk"kZiz;ksx)] iwNkA
vkReuk lek%] vius lekuA
Jqr $ erqi~ iqaú izú iqú cú oú] 'kkL=k i<+s gq,A
ftrkfu bfUnz;kf.k ;S% rs] bfUnz;ksa dks o'k esa djus okysA
eU=k.kkA
fot;% ewys ;L; rr~] fot; iznku djus okykA
'kkL=kL; dksfonS%] "k"Bh&rRiq#"k] 'kkL=k osQ Kkrkvksa osQ }kjkA
tkxrs gksA
eU=k.kk djrs gksA
fo $ ful~ $ fp $ DRok > Y;i~] fu'p; djosQA
foyEc djrs gksA
vFkZL; ÑPNsª"kq] "k"Bh&rRiq#"k] /u dh dfBukb;ksa esaA
fu%'ks"ks.k Js;kafl ;fLeu~ rr~] dY;k.kA
eU=khA
fuiq.kA
iz $ vki~ $ f.kp~] fof/fyÄ~] izú iqú ,ú oú] izkIr djk,A
fuanuh;A
izkIr gksrs gksA
fu;qDr djrs gksA
prqj] fuiq.kA
Hkkstu vkSj osru osQA
mièkk;k% vrhrku~] jktkvksa osQ }kjk fd;s x;s eaf=k;ksa osQ
ijh{k.k ls 'kq¼ gksdj fudys gq,A
fdlh osQ ncko esa u vkus okykA

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6

HkkLorh

lfU/foPNsn%
jkeks nqnZ'kZe~
;qxkUrs
dFkf×pnfHkfoKk;
jkeLre~
i;Zi`PNr
df'pnkRelek%
oqQyhuk'psfÄõrKk'p
efU=k/qjSjekR;S%
dfPpfUunzko'ke~
uSf"k
uSd%
áFkZÑZPNªs"kq
oqQ;kZfUu%Js;le~
dfPpn~/`"V'p
efrek×Nqfp%
oqQyhuk'p
Hk`R;k'p
dkykfrozQe.kkPpSo
HkrqZjI;froqQI;fUr
lks¿uFkZ%

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jke% $ nqnZ'kZe~A
;qx $ vUrsA
dFke~ $ fpr~ $ vfHkfoKk;A
jke% $ re~A
ifj $ vi`PNr (vk"kZiz;ksx)A
d% $ fpr~ $ vkRelek%A
oqQyhuk% $ p $ bfÄõrKk% $ p
efU=kèkqqjS% $ vekR;S%A
dr~ $ fpr~ $ funzko'ke~A
u $ ,f"kA
u $ ,d%A
fg $ vFkZÑPNªs"kqA
oqQ;kZr~ $ fu%Js;le~A
dfPpr~ $ /`"V% $ pA
efreku~ $ 'kqfp%A
oqQyhuk% $ pA
Hk`R;k% $ pA
dky $ vfrozQe.kkr~ $ p $ ,oA
HkrqZ% $ vfi $ vfroqQI;fUr
l% $ vuFkZ%

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vH;kl%

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1- laLÑrsu mÙkja ns;e~
(d) v;e~ ikB% dLekn~ xzUFkkr~ lÄ~dfyr%\
([k) tfVy% phjolu% Hkqfo ifrr% d% vklhr~\
(x) jke% de~ ikf.kuk ifjtxzkg\
(?k) Hkjre~ d% vi`PNr~\
(Ä) jkKka fot;ewya ¯d Hkofr\
(p) jkK% Ñrs dhn`'k% vekR;% {ksedj% Hkosr~\
(N) lsukifr% dhn`x~ xq.k;qÙkQ% Hkosr~\

7

oqQ'kyiz'kklue~
(t) cysH;% ;Fkkdkye~ ¯d nkrO;e~\
(>) eU=k% dhn`'k% Hkofr\
(×k) esèkkoh vekR;% jktkua dke~ izki;sr~\

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2- fjÙkQLFkkuiwfrZ% fozQ;rke~
(d) jke% nn'kZ nqnZ'k± ;qxkUrs ------------------------ ;FkkA
([k) vÄ~osQ ------------------------ vkjksI; jke% lknja i;Zi`PNrA
(x) dfPpr~ dkys ------------------------ \
(?k) if.Mr% fg vFkZÑPNªs"kq ------------------------ oqQ;kZr~A
(Ä) Js"Bk×Nªs"Bs"kq dfPpr~ ,oa ------------------------ fu;kst;flA
3- lizlÄaõ ekr`Hkk"k;k O;k[;k;srke~
(d) eU=kks fot;ewya fg jkKka Hkofr jk?ko!
([k) dfPpÙks efU=krks eU=kks jk"Vªa u ifj/kofr!

4- izFkeuoe'yksd;ks% Loekr`Hkk"k;k vuqokn% fozQ;rke~

5- v/ksfyf[krinkuka mfpreFk± dks"Bdkr~ fpRok fy[kr
-----------------------(d) nqnZ'kZe~
¾
-----------------------([k) ifj"oT;
¾
-----------------------(x) vk?kzk;
¾
-----------------------(?k) ew£èu
¾
-----------------------(Ä) fu%Js;le~
¾
-----------------------(p) fop{k.k%
¾
-----------------------(N) cyL;
¾
(vk¯yxu djosQ)] (lw¡?kdj)] (dfBukbZ ls ns[kus ;ksX;)] (fuiq.k)]
(lsuk dk)] (f'kj esa)] (dY;k.k dks)

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6- foijhrkFkZesyua fozQ;rke~
,d%
'kuS%
f{kize~
ew[kZ%
if.Mr%
y?kq
egr~
cgq
7- lfU/foPNsn% fozQ;rke~
;Fkk& oqQyhu'p
¾
Hk`R;k'p
¾

oqQyhu% $ p
------------------------

8

HkkLorh
/`"V'p
vuqjDr'p
'kwj'p

¾
¾
¾

----------------------------------------------------------------------

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8- v/ksfyf[krs"kq 'kCns"kq izѯr izR;;a p i`Fko~Q oqQ#r
ifrre~] vk?kzk;] efU=k.k%] if.Mrk%] esèkkoh] nkrO;e~] Le`r%A

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

(d) jkek;.k&ifjp;%
egf"kZokYehfdfojfprs jkek;.kk[;s egkdkO;s v;ksè;ku`irs% n'kjFkL; iq=kL;
jkeL; pfj=ka foLrjs.k of.kZre~A egkdkO;fena lIrdk.Ms"kq foHkÙkQe~A ;Fkk &
ckydk.Me~] v;ksè;kdk.Me~] vj.;dk.Me~] fdf"dU/kdk.Me~] lqUnjdk.Me~]
;q¼dk.Me~ mÙkjdk.M×psfrA

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([k) HkkofoLrkj%
jktk
dk;± lks¿os{; 'kfDra p ns'kdkykS p rÙor%A
oqQ#rs /eZfl¼~;Fk± fo'o:ia iqu% iqu%AA
;L; izlkns iÁk Jhfot;'p ijkØesA
e`R;q'p olfr Øks/s loZrstkse;ks fg l%AA

(euqLe`fr% 7@10] 11)

eU=kh
ekSyk×NkL=kfon% 'kwjkaYyC/y{kkUoqQyksn~Hkoku~A
lfpoku~ lIr pk"VkS ok izoqQohZr ijhf{krku~AA

(euqLe`fr% 7@54)

vekR;%
vekR;eq[;a /eZKa izkKa nkUra oqQyksn~xre~A
LFkki;snklus rfLefU[kUu% dk;sZ {k.ks u`.kke~AA

(euqLe`fr% 7@141)

osrue~
dfr nÙka fg Hk`R;sH;ks osrus ikfjrksf"kde~A
rRizkfIri=ka x`Êh;kr~ n|k}srui=kde~AA
lSfudk% f'kf{krk ;s ;s rs"kq iw.kkZ Hk`fr% Le`rk%A
O;wgkH;kls fu;qÙkQk ;s rs"oèkkZEHk`frekogsr~AA

('kqØuhfr%)

f}rh;% ikB%

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lkSo.kksZ uoqQy%

izLrqr ikB egf"kZ O;kl fojfpr egkHkkjr osQ vk'oesf/d ioZ
(vè;k; 91&93) ls lÄ~dfyr gSA egkHkkjr osQ ;q¼ osQ vuUrj
egkjkt ;qfèkf"Bj v'oes/ ;K dk vk;kstu djrs gaSA ;K osQ lEiUUk
gksus ij ,d uoqQy (usoyk) ;KHkwfe esa vkrk gS] ftldk vk/k 'kjhj
lksus dk gSA og ;KHkwfe esa mifLFkr ;kfKdksa ls dgrk gS fd ;g
v'oes/ ;K Hkh ml czkã.k osQ lÙkqQizLFk ;K osQ rqY; ugha gS] ftlesa
esjk vk/k 'kjhj Lo.kZe; gks x;k FkkA ml uoqQy dh ,slh vk'p;Ztud
okrkZ dks lqudj ;kfKdksa }kjk lÙkqQizLFk ;K osQ fo"k; esa ftKklk djus
ij uoqQy ;kfKdksa osQ le{k izLrqr dFkk dks lqukrk gSA

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Jw;rka jkt'kknZwy egnk'p;ZeqÙkee~A
v'oes/s egk;Ks fuo`Ùks ;nHkwf}Hkks!AA1AA

10

HkkLorh

fcykfUu"ozQE; uoqQyks #Deik'oZLrnku?k!A
ekuq"ka opua izkg èk``"Vks fcy'k;ks egku~AA2AA
lDrqizLFksu oks uk;a ;KLrqY;ks ujkf/ik%!A
m×No`ÙksoZnkU;L; oqQ#{ks=kfuokflu%AA3AA

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/eZ{ks=ks oqQ#{ks=kss /eZKScZgqfHko`ZrsA
m×No`fÙkf}Zt% df'pRdkiksfrjHkoRiqjkAA4AA

lHkk;Z% lg iq=ks.k lLuq"kLrifl fLFkr%A
o/wprqFkksZ o``¼% l /ekZRek fu;rsfUnz;%AA5AA

"k"Bs dkys dnkfpPp rL;kgkjks u fo|rsAA
HkqÄ~Drs¿U;fLeUdnkfpRl "k"Bs dkys f}tksÙke%AA6AA
diksr/feZ.kLrL; nqfHkZ{ks lfr nk#.ksA
{kh.kkS"kf/leok;ks nzO;ghuks¿HkoÙknkAA7AA

vFk "k"Bs xrs dkys ;oizLFkeqiktZ;r~A
;oizLFka p rs lDrwuoqQoZUr rifLou%AA8AA
ÑrtI;kfÉdkLrs rq gqRok ofÉa ;Fkkfof/A
oqQMoa oqQMoa losZ O;HktUr rifLou%AA9AA

vFkkxPNfn~}t% df'pnfrfFkHkqZ×trka rnkA
rs ra n`"V~okfrfFka r=k izg`"Veulks¿Hkou~AA10AA
oqQVha izos'k;keklq% {kq/krZefrfFka rnkA
bne?;± p ik|a p c`lh ps;a roku?kA

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n

'kqp;% lDro'pses fu;eksikftZrk% izHkks!A
izfrx`Êh"o Hknza rs e;k nÙkk f}tksÙke!AA11AA
bR;qDRok rkuqiknk; lÙkwQUizknkfn~}tkr;sA
rrLrq"Vks¿Hkof}izLrL; lk/ksseZgkReu%AA12AA

11

lkSo.kksZ uoqQy%

izhrkRek l rq ra okD;fenekg f}t"kZHke~A
okXeh rnk f}tJs"Bks /eZ% iq#"kfoxzg%AA13AA
'kq¼su ro nkusu U;k;ksikÙksu ;Rur%A
;Fkk'kfDr foeqÙksQu izhrks¿fLe f}tlÙke!AA14AA

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czãp;sZ.k ;Ksu nkusu rilk rFkkA
vxàjs.k /esZ.k rLekn~xPN fnoa f}tAA15AA

rfLefUoizs xrs Lox± llqrs lLuq"ks rnkA
Hkk;kZprqFksZ /eZKs rrks¿ga fu%l`rks fcykr~AA16AA

rrLrq lDrqxU/su Dysnsu lfyyL; pA
fnO;iq"ikoenkZPp lk/ksnkZuyoS'p rS%A
foizL; rilk rL; f'kjks es dk×puhÑre~AA17AA
rrks e;ksDra r}kD;a izgL; f}tlÙkek%!A
lDrqizLFksu ;Kks¿;a lfEerks usfr loZFkkAA18AA
'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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jkt'kknwZy!
v'oes/s
fuo`Ùks
#Deik'oZ%
vu?k!
fcy'k;%
m×No`Ùks%

&
&
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&

onkU;L;

&

gs u`iJs"B!
v'oes/ ;K esaA
lEiUu gksus ijA
lqo.kZe; cxy okyk@ik'oZHkkx okykA
gs ikijfgr!
fcys 'ksrs ;% l%] fcy esa jgus okykA
m×Nsu o`fÙk;ZL; l%] rL;A
fdlku }kjk vius [ksrksa ls vUu lax`ghr dj ysus ij
ogk¡ ls NwVs gq, vukt osQ nkuksa dks pqu dj ykuk vkSj
mUgha ls vkthfodk djuk m×No`fÙk dgykrh gS] blh
o`fÙk ls vkthfodk djus okys osQA
nkuh osQA

12

dkiksfr%

HkkLorh
&

diksro`fÙk okyk] ftl izdkj dcwrj b/j&m/j ls tks
oqQN fey tk;s mlls thou;kiu djrk gS] oSlh
o`fÙkokykA
iq=ko/w lfgrA
vdky iM+us ijA
Hk;kud esaA
,d izLFk tkS (lsj Hkj)A
lÙkqvksas dksA
Ñra tI;e~ vkfÉda p ;SLrs] os ftUgksaus ti ,oe~
fuR;deZ dj fy;k gksA
gou djosQA
fof/e~ vufrozQE;] fof/iwoZdA
izLFk dk prqFkZ Hkkx (iko Hkj)A
izg`"Va euks ;s"kka rs] izlUu eu okysA
oqQfV;k (osQ vUnj)A
Hkw[k ls ihfM+rA
iwtukFkZ tyA
iwtu osQ le; ikniz{kkyukFkZ tyA
vkluA
fu;eiwoZd izkIrA
izlUufpÙk okykA
f}t% ½"kHk% bo re~] Js"B czkã.k dksA
Js"B oDrkA
iq#"kL; foxzg bo foxzgks ;L; l% iq#"k 'kjhj okykA
U;k;su mikÙka rsu] èkeZiwoZd izkIr lsA
'kfDre~ vufrozQE;] lkeF;kZuqlkjA
mÙkeA
LoxZ (dks)A
fudykA
lÙkqvksa dh xU/ lsA
nku fn;s gq, (lÙkqvksa osQ d.kksa ls)A
g¡l djA
rqY;A

o
n

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lLuq"k%
nqfHkZ{ks lfr
nk#.ks
;oizLFke~
lDrwu~
ÑrtI;kfÉdk%

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&
&

gqRok
;Fkkfof/
oqQMoe~
izâ"Veul%
oqQVhe~
{kq/krZe~
v?;Ze~
ik|e~
c`lh
fu;eksikftZrk%
izhrkRek
f}t"kZHke~
okXeh
iq#"kfoxzg%
U;k;ksikÙksu
;Fkk'kfDr
vxàjs.k
fnoe~
fu%l`r%
lDrqxU/su
nkuyoS%
izgL;
lfEer%

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&

13

lkSo.kksZ uoqQy%

vH;kl%
1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k ns;kfu
(d) uoqQy% dhn`'k% vklhr~\
([k) fcykfUu"ozQE; uoqQy% ¯d dFk;fr\
(x) m×No`fÙkf}Zt% oqQ=k U;olr~\
(?k) diksr/ehZ f}t% nzO;ghu% dFke~ vHkor~\
(Ä) ;nk rL; f}tL; ifjokj% lDrwu~ HkksDrqa izo`Ùk% vHkor~ rnk r=k d%
vkxr%\
(p) f}t% lDrwu~ dLeS izknkr~\

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2- v/ks¿fÄrï s"kq lfU/foPNsna n'kZ;r
egnk'p;Ze~] fcykfUu"ozQE;] m×No`ÙksoZnkU;L;] HkqÄ~Drs¿U;fLeu~] nkuyoS'p]
{kh.kkS"kf/leok;%A
3- v/ks U;Lrs"kq lfU/a oqQ#r

rL; $ vkgkj%] ;r~ $ vHkwr~ $ foHkkss] m×No`fÙk% $ f}t%] fu;r $ bfUnz;%]
rr% $ vge~] U;k; $ mikÙksuA

4- vèkks¿fÄrï ;ks% 'yksd;ks% Loekr`Hkk"k;k vuqokn% dk;Z%
(d) lDrqizLFksu oks uk;a ;KLrqY;ks ujkf/ik%A
m×No`ÙksoZnkU;L; oqQ#{ks=kfuokflu%A
([k) fnO;iq"ikoenkZPp lk/ksnkZuyoS'p rS%A
foizL; rilk rL; f'kjks es dk×puhÑre~A

5- ^lkSo.kksZ uoqQy%* bR;L; ikBL; lkjka'k% ekr`Hkk"k;k ys[kuh;%

o
n

6- fjÙkQLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) jkt'kknZwy! ------------------------ Jw;rke~A
([k) v;a o% ;K% ------------------------ rqY;% ukfLrA
(x) iqjk m×No`fÙkf}Zt% ------------------------ vHkor~A
(?k) rnk {kq/krZe~ ------------------------ oqQVha izos'k;keklq%A
(Ä) rL; foizL; rilk es ------------------------ dk×puhÑre~A
(p) lDrqizLFksuk;a ------------------------ lfEerks ukfLrA

14

HkkLorh

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) egkHkkjre~ %& egf"kZO;kliz.khrs egkHkkjrukeosQ egkdkO;s y{kkf/dk% 'yksdk%
lfUrA vfLeu~ egkdkO;s v"Vkn'kiokZf.k lfUr & vkfnioZ] lHkkioZ] ouioZ]
fojkV~ioZ] m|ksxioZ] Hkh"eioZ] nzk.s kioZ] d.kZioZ] 'kY;ioZ] lkSfIrdioZ] L=khioZ]
'kkfUrioZ] vuq'kkluioZ] vk'oesfèkdioZ] vkJeokfldioZ] ekSlyioZ] egk&
izLFkkuioZ LoxkZjksg.kioZ pA
egkHkkjre~ osnksÙkjdkfydk[;kukuka erkuka p fo'kkya Hkk.Mkja fo|rsA fo"k;L;kL;
O;kidrk vL;kfUreioZ.k% opusukusu Li"Vk Hkofr&

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^^;fngkfLr rnU;=k ;UusgkfLr u rr~ Dofpr~A**

([k) v'oes/;K %& v'oes/;K% izkphudkys jkT;foLrkjk; jk"Vªle`¼;s p
dj.kh;% ;K% vklhr~A vfLeu~ jkKka cyL; ijkØeL; p ijh{kk Hkofr LeA
;KdrkZ u`i% Lojkf"Vª;izrhde'oa lSU;cyS% lg Hkwe.MyHkze.kk; izs"k;fr
LeA ;ks u`i% LojkT;s lekxre'oa fuckZ/a xUrqa izkfn'kr~ l% ;Kd=ksZ jkKs
djns;rka LohdjksfrLeA ;% re'oe#.kr~ l% vk'oesf/du`iL;k/hurka
ukÄhõ djksfr LeA rnk mHk;kscZy;kseZè;s ;q¼a Hkofr Le r=kSo p u`ik.kka
ijkØe% ijh{;rs LeA
'kriFkczkã.ks v'oina jk"VªkFksZ iz;qÙkQe~ & ^jk"Vaª oS v'o%* bfrA

o
n

r`rh;% ikB%

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lwfÙkQlq/k

izLrqr ikB pk.kD; }kjk jfpr pk.kD;uhfr rFkk ukjk;.k if.Mr iz.khr
fgrksins'k ls ladfyr fd;k x;k gSA eg£"k pk.kD; }kjk dgs x,
eqÙkQd i| thou dks ewY;oku cukus osQ fy, ije mi;ksxh gSaA i|
la[;k ,d ls rhu esa & fdl LFkku ij fuokl djuk pkfg,] dkSu
euq"; dk lPpk fe=k gS rFkk xq.kksa dh mi;ksfxrk dk o.kZu gSA i|
la[;k pkj ls vkB fgrdkjh mins'kksa dks lwfpr djrs gSa ;Fkk ew[kZ
O;fDr dk izoh.k gksuk] euLoh O;fÙkQ dk O;ogkj] iq#"k osQ Ng nks"kksa
dk o.kZu rFkk lkalkfjd thoulq[kksa osQ o.kZuA thou dks e/qj rFkk
mís';iw.kZ cukus osQ fy, dfri; ewY;ksa dh vko';drk gksrh gS vkSj
;s uhfrijd i| rFkk fgrdkjh mins'k thou dks lqlaLÑr ,oa lkFkZd
cukus esa mi;ksxh rFkk lgk;d fl¼ gksaxsA
;fLeu~ ns'ks u lEekuks u o`fÙkuZ p ckU/ok%A
u p fo|kxe% df'pn~ okla r=k u dkj;sr~AA1AA
vkrqjs O;lus izkIrs nq£Hk{ks 'k=kqladVsA
jkt}kjs 'e'kkus p ;fLr"Bfr l ckU/o%AA2AA

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dks¿frHkkj% leFkkZuka ¯d nwja O;olkf;uke~A
dks fons'k% lfo|kuka dks¿fiz;% fiz;okfnuke~AA3AA
dkp% dk×pulalxkZn~ /Ùks ekjdrha |qfre~A
rFkk lRlfÂ/kusu ew[kksZ ;kfr izoh.krke~AA4AA

oqQlqeLrcdL;so };h o`fÙkeZufLou%A
losZ"kka ew£èu ok fr"Bsn~ fo'kh;sZr ous¿FkokAA5AA

16

HkkLorh

/ukfu thfora pSo ijkFksZ izkK mRl`tsr~A
lfÂfeÙka oja R;kxks fouk'ks fu;rs lfrAA6AA
"kM~nks"kk% iq#"ks.ksg gkrO;k HkwfrfePNrkA
funzk rUnzk Hk;a Øks/ vkyL;a nh?kZlw=krkAA7AA

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vFkkZxeks fuR;ejksfxrk p fiz;k p Hkk;kZ fiz;okfnuh pA
o';'p iq=kks¿FkZdjh p fo|k "kM~ thoyksdL; lq[kkfu jktu~!AA8AA
'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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fo|kxe%
o`fÙk%
'k=kqladVs
O;olkf;uke~
/Ùks
lRlfÂ/kusu
oqQlqeLrcd%
fo'kh;Zrs
mRl`tsr~
lfÂfeÙka
nh?kZlw=krk

&
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&

vFkkZxe%
vFkZdjh
fiz;okfnuh
vjksfxrk

&
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&
&

fo|k;k% vkxe%] "k"Bh rRiq#"k lekl] fo|k dh izkfIrA
o`r~ $ fÙkQu~] vkthfodkA
'k=kks% ladV% rfLeu~] "k"Bh rRiq#"k] 'k=kq dk ladV gksus ijA
O;olk; $ f.kfu] "kú cú o] m|e'khyksa osQ fy,A
/kj.k djrk gSA
lrka lfÂ/kue~] rsu] "k"Bh rRiq#"k] lTtuksa dh laxfr lsA
oqQlqekuka Lrcd%] "k"Bh rRiq#"k] iwQyksa dk xqPNkA
fo $ Ük` $ deZokP; foú fyÄ~ú izú iqú ,ú oú] u"V gksoAs
R;kx nsA
Js"B y{; osQ fy,A
nh?kZlw=k $ ry~] L=khú izú ,ú oú] dk;Z osQ fo"k; esa
vf/d le; rd lksprs jguk] le; ij dk;Z u djukA
vFkZL; vkxe%] "k"Bh rRiq#"k] /u dh izkfIrA
/u mRi djus okyhA
fiz; cksyus okyhA
fdlh izdkj osQ jksx dk u gksuk (uhjksx gksuk)A

vH;kl%

1- laLÑrsu mÙkja ns;e~
(d) v;a ikB% dkH;ka xzUFkkH;ka ladfyr%\
([k) oqQ=k okl% u dÙkZO;%\

17

lwfÙkQlq/k
(x)
(?k)
(Ä)
(p)
(N)
(t)

ckUèko% oqQ=k oqQ=k fr"Bfr\
dkp% dL; lalxkZr~ ekjdrhe~ |q¯r /ÙksA
izkK% ijkFksZ ¯de~ fda mRl`tsr~\
ew[kZ% dFke~ izoh.krke~ ;kfr\
i#"ks.k osQ "kM~ nks"kk% gkrO;k%\
thoyksdL; "kV~ lq[kkfu dkfu lfUr\

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2- fjÙkQLFkkuiw£r% fØ;rke~
(d) ;% ------------------------ fr"Bfr l% ckU/o%A
([k) thoyksdL; ------------------------ "kV~ lq[kkfu HkofUrA
(x) eufLou% ------------------------ bo };h o`fÙk% HkofrA
(?k) "kM~nks"kk% ------------------------ gkrO;k%A
(Ä) lfUufeÙka oja R;kxks ------------------------ lfrA

3- v/ksfyf[kr;ks% i|ka'k;ks% ekr`Hkk"k;k HkkokFkZe~ fy[kr
(d) dks¿fiz;% fiz;okfnuke~A
([k) lfÂfeÙka oja R;kxks fouk'ks fu;rs lfrA
(x) losZ"kka ew£èu ok fr"Bsn~ fo'kh;sZr ous¿FkokA

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4- d&HkkxLFkinS% lg [k&HkkxL;kFkkZuka esyua fozQ;rke~
d
[k
fo|kxe%
fonq"kke~
O;lus
'kksHkke~
lfo|kuke~
fo|kizkfIr%
|qfre~
iq"ixqPNL;
oqQlqeLrcdL;
foiÙkkS
ew£èu
dY;k.ke~
Hkwfre~
f'kjfl
5- mnkgj.kkuqlkja foxzginkfu
foxzginkfu
;Fkk& fo|k;k% vkxe%
jkK% }kjs
lrka lfUu/kusu

vk/`R; leLrinkfu jp;r
leLrinkfu
¾
fo|kxe%
-----------------------¾
-----------------------¾

18

HkkLorh
dk×puL; lalxkZr~
vFkZL; vkxe%
thfork; bne~
u jksfxrk
vFkZe~ djksfr ;k lk

¾
¾
¾
¾
¾

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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6- v/kssfyf[krs"kq 'kCns"kq izÑfrizR;;ks% foPNsna oqQ#r
izkIrs] izoh.krke~] o`fÙk%] fu;rs] gkrO;kA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

lekukUrj'yksdk%

(1) ikikfUuokj;fr ;kst;rs fgrk;
xqg~;a fuxwg;fr xq.kkUizdVhdjksfrA
vkin~xra p u tgkfr nnkfr dkys
lfUe=ky{k.kfena izonfUr lUr%AA

(uhfr'krde~&73)

(2) eufl opfl dk;s iq.;ih;w"kiw.kkZ%
f=kHkqoueqidkjJsf.kfHk% izh.k;Ur%A
ijxq.kijek.kwu~ ioZrhÑR; fuR;a
futâfn fodlUr% lfUr lUr% fd;Ur%AA

(uhfr'krde~&79)

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(3) egktuL; lalxZ% dL; uksUufrdkjd%A
iÁi=kfLFkra okfj /Ùks eqÙkQkiQyfJ;e~AA
(lqHkkf"krjRuHkk.Mkxkje~&90@2)
(4) lalkjdVqo`{kL; }s iQys áe`rksiesA
lqHkkf"kra p lqLoknq laxfr% lqtus tusAA
(pk.kD;uhfrniZ.k%)
(5) larIrk;fl lafLFkrL; i;lks ukekfi u Jw;rs
eqDrkdkjr;k rnso ufyuhi=kfLFkra jktrsA
LokR;ka lkxj'kqfDreè;ifrra rTtk;rs ekSfDrde~
izk;s.kk/eeè;eksÙkexq.k% lalXkZrks tk;rsAA
(HkrZ`gfjuhfr'krde~)

lwfÙkQlq/k

19

(6) lR;a czw;kfRiz;a czw;kr~ u czw;kRlR;efiz;e~A
fiz;a p uku`ra czw;kr~ ,"k /eZ% lukru%AA
(euqLe`fr% 4@138)

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(7) Dofpn~HkwekS 'kÕ;k Dofpnfi p i;ZÄï'k;ue~A
DofpPNkdkgkjh Dofpnfi p 'kkY;ksnu#fp%A
DofpRdUFkk/kjh Dofpnfi p fnO;kEcj/jks
euLoh dk;kZFkhZ x.k;fr u nq%[ka u p lq[ke~AA

(8) vkRekFk± thoyksosQ¿fLeu~ dks u thofr ekuo%A
ija ijksidkjkFk± ;ks thofr l thofrA
(lqHkkf"krjRuHkk.Mkxkje~)
(9) jfo'pUnzks ?kuk% o`{kk% u|ks xko'p lTtuk%A
,rs ijksidkjk; ;qxs nSosu fufeZrk%AA
(10) vkyL;a fg euq";k.kka 'kjhjLFkks egku~ fjiq%A
ukLR;q|eleks cU/q% ÑRok ;a ukolhnfrAA

(uhfr'krde~)

o
n

prqFkZ% ikB%

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Írqp;kZ

;g ikB eg£"k vfXuos'k }kjk ewy :i esa fyf[kr rFkk eg£"k pjd }kjk
izfr&laLÑr pjdlafgrk uked vk;qosZn osQ xzUFk ls ladfyr fd;k
x;k gSA bl xzUFk osQ NBs vè;k; esa fofHk ½rqvksa esa vkgkj ls
lacafèkr fu;e crk, x, gSaA viuh fnup;kZ esa ¯dfpr~ ifjorZu djosQ
O;fDr nh?kZ vk;q rFkk LoLFk thou dks izkIr djrk gSA ladfyr i|ksa
esa gseUr] f'kf'kj] olUr] xzh"e] o"kkZ vkSj 'kjn~ bu N% Írqvksa esa euq";
dks viuh Hkkstup;kZ fdl izdkj dh j[kuh pkfg,] bldk foospu
fd;k x;k gSA
gseUr%

xksjlkfu{kqfoÑrhoZlka rSya uokSnue~A
gseUrs¿H;L;rLrks;eq".ka pk;quZ gh;rsAA1AA
otZ;snÂikukfu okrykfu y?kwfu pA
izokra izferkgkjeqneUFka fgekxesAA2AA

f'kf'kj%

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gseUrf'kf'kjkS rqY;kS f'kf'kjs¿Yia fo'ks"k.ke~A
jkS{;eknkuta 'khra es?kek#ro"kZte~AA3AA

rLek¼SefUrd% loZ% f'kf'kjs fof/fj";rsA
fuokreq".ka Rof/da f'kf'kjs x`gekJ;sr~AA4AA
dVqfrÙkQd"kk;kf.k okrykfu y?kwfu pA
otZ;snÂikukfu f'kf'kjs 'khrykfu pAA5AA

21

Írqp;kZ

olUr%
olUrs fufpr% 'ys"ek fnuÑn~HkkfHkjhfjr%A
dk;kfXua ck/rs jksxkaLrr% izoqQ#rs cgwu~AA6AA

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rLek}lUrs dekZf.k oeuknhfu dkj;sr~A
xqoZEyfLuX/e/qja fnokLoIua p otZ;sr~AA7AA

xzh"e%

e;w[kStZxr% Lusga xzh"es isih;rs jfo%A
Loknq 'khra nzoa fLuX/eÂikua rnk fgre~AA8AA

?k`ra i;% l'kkY;Âa Hktu~ xzh"es u lhnfrA
yo.kkEydVw".kkfu O;k;kea p footZ;sr~AA9AA

o"kkZ

Hkwok"ikUes?kfuL;Unkr~ ikdknEykTtyL; pA
o"kkZLofXucys {kh.ks oqQI;fUr ioukn;%AA10AA
O;ÙkQkEyyo.kLusga okro"kkZoqQys¿gfuA
fo'ks"k'khrs HkksÙkQO;a o"kkZLofuy'kkUr;sAA11AA

'kjn~

o"kkZ'khrksfprkÄ~xkuka lglSokoZQjf'efHk%A
rIrkukekfpra fiÙka izk;% 'kjfn oqQI;frAA12AA

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n

rFkkÂikua e/qja y?kq 'khra lfrÙkQde~A
fiÙkiz'keua lsO;a ek=k;k lqizdkfÄ~{krS%1113AA
'kkjnkfu p ekY;kfu oklkafl foeykfu pA
'kjRdkys iz'kL;Urs iznks"ks psUnqj'e;%AA14AA

22

HkkLorh

'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p
xkssjlku~
uokSnue~
olka
okrykfu
izokra
jkS{;a
fufpr%
'ys"ek
mneUFke~
oeuknhfu
fnokLoIue~
e;w[kS%
fuokre~
isih;rs

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

ek=k;k
l'kkY;Âe~
vfuy'kkUr;s
vdZjf'efHk%
iznks"ks
vknkuta
lqizdkfÄ~{krS%

&
&
&
&
&
&
&

xk; dk nw/] ngh ,oa NkNA
u;s pkoyA
dksbZ rsy vFkok ?khA
okrdkjd okra ykfUr ;kfu rkfu miin rRiq#"kA
rktk gok] goknkjA
#{kL; Hkko%] :{k $ ";×k~] :[kkA
fu $ fp $ Dr] Ck<+k gqvkA
diQA
tkS osQ ikuh ls fufeZr inkFkZA
oeue~ vkfn% ;s"kka rkfu (cú lú) mYVh vkfnA
fnu esa lksukA
fdj.kksa osQ }kjkA
ok;qjfgrA
ik $ ;Ä~] yV~] izú iqú ,ú oú] ckj&ckj vFkok
vR;f/d ihrk gSA
ek=kk osQ vuqlkjA
'kkfyfHk% lfgra] l'kkfy p rr~ vUue~] /ku lfgr vÂA
vfuyL; 'kkUr;s] ok;q dh 'kkafr osQ fy,A
voZQL; jf'efHk%] lw;Z dh fdj.kksa osQ }kjkA
jkf=k esaA
vknkukr~ tk;rs] ysus ([kkus&ihus) ls gksus okykA
lq $ iz $ dka{k~ $ Dr] r`ú cú oú] pkgs gq,A

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lfU/foPNsn%

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uokSnue~
pk;quZ
f'kf'kjs¿Yie~
fof/fj";rs
HkkfHkjhfjr%
l'kkY;Âe~
rLek¼SefUrosQ

¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾

uo $ vksnue~
p $ vk;q% $ u
f'kf'kjs $ vYie~
fof/% $ b";rs
HkkfHk% $ bZfjr%
l'kkfy $ vÂe~
rLekr~ $ gSefUrosQ

23

Írqp;kZ
jksxkaLrr%
o"kkZLofXucys
lglSokoZQjf'efHk%
psUnqj'e;%

¾
¾
¾
¾

jksxku~ $ rr%
o"kkZlq $ vfXucys
lglk $ ,o $ voZQjf'efHk%
p $ bUnqj'e;%

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vH;kl%

1- laLÑrsu mÙkjkf.k ns;kfu
(d) v;a ikB% dLekn~ xzUFkkr~ lÄ~dfyr% d'p rL; iz.ksrk\
([k) dfr Íro% HkofUr\ dkfu p rs"kka ukekfu\
(x) f'kf'kjs ¯d ¯d otZuh;e~\
(?k) olUrs dk;kfXua d% ck/rs\
(Ä) xzh"es dhn`'ke~ vÂikua fgra Hkofr\
(p) dfLeu~ ÍrkS ioukn;% oqQI;fUr\
(N) 'kjn`rkS fiÙkiz'keuk; ¯d ¯d lsO;e~ vfLr\
(t) fgekxes dhn`'kkfu vUUkikukfu otZ;sr~\
(>) f'kf'kjs dhn`'ke~ x`gekJ;sr~\
(×k) olUrs dkfu dekZf.k dkj;sr~\
(V) O;k;kea dnk otZ;sr~\
(B) bUnqj'e;% dnk iz'kL;Urs\
2- fjÙkQLFkkuiw£r% fØ;rke~
(d) fgekxes ------------------------- y?kwfu p vÂikukfu otZ;sr~A
([k) f'kf'kjs fuokre~ ------------------------- p x`ge~ vkJ;sr~A
(x) ------------------------- fnokLoIua otZ;sr~A
(?k) xzh"es ?k`ra i;% ------------------------- Hktu~ uj% u lhnfrA
(Ä) ------------------------- foeykfu oklkafl iz'kL;UrsA

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3- ekr`Hkk"k;k O;k[;k;Urke~
(d) gseUrf'kf'kjkS rqY;kS f'kf'kjs¿Yia fo'ks"k.ke~A
([k) e;w[kStZxr% Lusga xzh"es isih;rs jfo%A
(x) 'kjRdkys iz'kL;Urs iznks"ks psUnqj'e;%A

4- Írqp;kZikBe~ vf/ÑR; izR;sde~ ÍrkS ¯d ¯d dj.kh;e~ ¯d ¯d p u
dj.kh;e~ bfr ekr`Hkk"k;k lqLi"V;r

24

HkkLorh

5- v/ksfyf[krkfu foxzginkfu vk/`R; leLrinkfu jp;r
;Fkk & uoe~
vksnue~
uokSnue~
deZ/kj; lekl%
foxzginkfu
(d) vUukfu p ikukfu p
([k) gseUr% p f'kf'kj% p
(x) fgeL; vkxes
(?k) dk;L; vfXue~
(Ä) voZQL; jf'efHk%

leLrinkfu
lekl uke
------------------------- }U}%
------------------------- }U}%
------------------------- "kú rRiq#"k%
------------------------- "kú rRiq#"k%
------------------------- "kú rRiq#"k%

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6- v/ksfyf[krinkukeFkZesyua fØ;rke~

(d)
([k)
(x)
(?k)
(Ä)
(p)
(N)
(t)

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inkfu
'ys"ek
jkS{;e~
fuokre~
fufpr%
iou%
xq#%
y?kq
oklkafl

vFkkZ%
gokjfgr
c<+k gqvk (tek gqvk)
okr
Hkkjh
gYdk
oL=k
:[kkiu
diQ

7- v/ksfyf[krinkuke~ foijhrkFkZdinS% lg esyua fØ;rke~
inkfu
foijhrkFkZdinkfu
m".ke~
vf/de~
lhnfr
'khrkuke~
rIrkuke~
izlhnfr
xq#
'khre~
vYie~
y?kq

8- izÑfra izR;;a p ;kstf;Rok infuekZ.ka oqQ#r
gseUr $ Bd~] fLug~ $ Dr] Hkqt~ $ rO;r~] lso~ $ ;r~] 'kjn~ $ v.k~A

25

Írqp;kZ

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
(d) pjdlafgrk
pjdlafgrk vk;qosZn'kkL=kL; izfl¼% xzUFkks fo|rsA xzUFks¿fLeu~ v"VLFkkukfu
lfUr & lw=kLFkkue~] funkuLFkkue~] foekuLFkkue~] 'kjhjLFkkue~] bfUnz;LFkkue~]
fpfdRlkLFkkue~] dYiLFkkue~] flf¼LFkkua psfrA

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([k) HkkofoLrkj%
(1) ;qDrkgkjfogkjL; ;qDrps"VL; deZlqA
;qDrLoIukocks/L; ;ksxks Hkofr nq%[kgkAA
vk;q% lÙocykjksX;lq[kizhfrfoo/Zuk%A
jL;k% fLuX/k fLFkjk â|k vkgkjk% lkfÙodfiz;k%AA
(Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk 17&15]8)

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(2) vkgkj'kq¼kS lÙo'kqf¼%] lÙo'kq¼kS /zqok Le`fr%A
(NkUnksX;ksifu"kn~ 7@26@2)
(3) vukjksX;euk;q";eLoX;± pkfrHkkstue~A
viq.;a yksdfof}"Va rLEkkRrRifjotZ;sr~AA
(euqLe`fr% 2@57)
(4) Hkkstua izk.kj{kkFk± fo|rs uk=kla'k;%A
vf/da gku;s rLekr~ ;qÙkQkgkjijks Hkosr~AA
(pjdlafgrk O;k[;k)
(5) ferkgkjks uj% lks<aq 'kÙkQ% d"V'kra lq[ke~A
vuH;Lrks fg d"Vkukeè;'kuks foi|rsAA
(lqeuks okfVdk)
(6) rL;kf'krk|knkgkjkr~ cyo.kZ×p o/ZrsA
rL;rqZlkRE;a fofnra ps"VkgkjO;ikJ;e~AA
(lw=kLFkku 6@3)
(7) izkr% dkys O;k;ke% fuR;a nUrfo'kks/ue~A
LoPNtysu lqLukua cqHkq{kk;k×p Hkkstue~AA

i×pe% ikB%

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ohj% loZneu%

izLrqr ikB dfooqQyxq# egkdfo dkfynkl dh vej Ñfr txr~ izfl¼
¶vfHkKku'kkoqQUrye~¸ ukVd osQ lIre vÄï ls fy;k x;k gSA bl
ukVd dh ewy dFkk egkHkkjr osQ 'kkoqQUryksik[;kue~ ls yh xbZ gSA bl
ukVd esa jktk nq";Ur 'koqQUryk ls xkU/oZ fookg djrk gS ij nqokZlk
Íf"k osQ 'kki osQ dkj.k mls Hkwy tkrk gSA mlosQ }kjk BqdjkbZ xbZ
'koqQUryk vius iq=k loZneu osQ lkFk eg£"k ejhfp osQ vkJe esa jg jgh
gSA nsoklqj laxkz e esa fot; izkIr dj ykSVrs gq, nq";Ur ekxZ esa ekjhp
Íf"k osQ vkJe esa foJke gsrq vkrs gSa ogha ij mUgsa iq=k ,oa 'koqQUryk
dh izkfIr gksrh gSA jDr dk lEcU/ nq";Ur ,oa loZneu dks feykrk gSA
ckyd loZneu dk 'kkS;iZ .w kZ 'kS'ko ;gk¡ fpf=kr fd;k x;k gSA

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nq";Ur% & (fufeÙka lwpf;Rok)
euksjFkk; uk'kals ¯d ckgks LiUnls o`FkkA
iwokZo/hfjra Jss;ks nq%[kk; ifjorZrs AA1AA
(usiF;s)
ek [kyq pkiya oqQ#A dFka xr ,okReu% izÑfre~\
nq";Ur% & (d.k± nÙok)
vHkwfefj;efou;L;A dks uq [kYos"k fuf"kè;rsA
('kCnkuq l kjs . kkoyks D ; lfoLe;e~ ) v;s ] dks uq
[kYo;e~ vuqcè;ekuLrifLouhH;ke~ vckylÙoks
cky%A
vèkZihrLrua ekrqjkenZfDy"VosQlje~A
izozQhfMrqa ¯lgf'k'kqa cykRdkjs.k d"kZfrAA2AA

ohj% loZneu%

27

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cky%
izFkek

&
&

nq";Ur% &

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f}rh;k

&

cky%

&

izFkek

&

cky%
f}rh;k

&
&

t`EHkLo flag! nUrkLrs x.kf;";sA
vfouhr! ¯d uks ¿ iR;fu£o'ks " kkf.k "kÙokfu
foizdjksf"k\ gUrA o/Zrs rs lajEHk% A LFkkus [kyq
Íf"ktusu loZneu bfr Ñruke/s;ks¿flA
¯d u [kyq ckys¿fLeu~ vkSjl bo iq=ks fLuáfr es
eu%\ uwueuiR;rk eka oRly;frA
,"kk [kyq osQlfj.kh Roka yÄ~?kf;";fr ;|L;k% iq=koaQ
u eq×pflA
(lfLere~) vgks cyh;% [kyq Hkhrks¿fLeA (bR;èkja
n'kZ;fr)A
oRl! ,ua ckye`xsUnza eq×p] vija rs ØhMuda
nkL;kfeA
oqQ=k] nsfg rr~ (bfr gLra izlkj;fr)
lqozrs! u 'kD; ,"k okpkek=ks.k fojef;rqe~A xPN
Roe~A enh;s mVts e`fÙkdke;wjfLr"BfrA reL;ksigjA

28

HkkLorh

cky%

&

rkilh

&

vusuSo rkor~ ØhfM";kfeA (bfr rkilha foyksD;
glfr)A
HkorqA u eke;a x.k;fr (jktkueoyksD;) Hknzeq[k!
eksp;kusu ckè;ekua ckye`xsUnze~A
vkdkjln`'ka psf"VresokL; dFk;frA (vkRexre~)
vusu dL;kfi oqQykÄ~oqQjs.k
Li`"VL; xk=kss"kq lq[ka eeSoe~A
dka fuoZ`¯Ùk psrfl rL; oqQ;kZn~
;L;k;eÄïkr~ Ñfru% iz:<%AA3AA
(ckyeqiyky;u~) izdk'ke~
vFk dks¿L; O;ins'k%\
iq#oa'k%A
(vkRexre~) dFkesdkUo;ks ee\ (izfo';)
oRl loZneu! 'koqQUryko.;a izs{kLoA
oqQ=k ok eekEck\
(vkRexre~) ¯d ok 'koqQUrysR;L; ekrqjk[;k\
jksprs es ,"k e;wj%A (bfr ØhMudeknÙks)

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nq";Ur% &

nq";Ur%
rkilh
nq";Ur%
rkilh
cky%
nq";Ur%
cky%

&
&
&
&
&
&
&

'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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uk'kals
LiUnls
o`Fkk
iwokZo/hfjra
vkReu%
izÑfre~
fuf"kè;rs
vuqcè;eku%
vckylÙoks cky%

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

u $ vk'kals] laHkkouk ugha djrk gw¡A
iQM+drh gksA
csdkjA
iwoZe~ vo/hfjre~ (deZ/kú lú) igys ls R;kxk gqvkA
Lo;a dhA
iz $ Ñ $ fDru~ f}ú ,ú oú] LoHkko dks A
fu $ flèk~ $ deZokP; yV~ izú iqú ,ú oú] jksdk tkrk gSA
jksdk tkrk gqvkA
ckyL; lÙoe~ bo lÙoa ;L; l ckylÙo%] u ckylÙo
bfr vckylÙo%] ftldk izrki cPpksa tSlk u gks cM+s
tSlk gks (egku~ 'kwj)A

29

ohj% loZneu%
t`EHkLo
viR;fu£o'ks"kkf.k
lÙokfu
foizdjksf"k
lajEHk%
Ñruke/s;ks¿fl
vkSjl
fLug~;fr
vuiR;rk
oRly;fr

&

ØhMude~
okpkek=ks.k
fojef;rqe~
migj
vkdkjln`'ke~
psf"VresokL;
vkRexre~
fuo`Zfre~
Ñfru%
iz:<%
O;ins'k%
,dkUo;%
'koqQUryko.;e~

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

tEHkkbZ yksA
viR;S% fufoZ'ks"kkf.k] larku tSlsA
izkf.k;ksa dksA
d"V ns jgs gksA
gB@Øks/A
ukedj.k fd;k x;k gSA
vkReh;A
Lusg djrk gSA
u viR;rk] u×k~ rRiq#"k] fu%lUrkurkA
oRlya djksfr (uke/krq) yV~ iqú izú ,ú oú] Lusg ls
;qDr cukrk gSA
f[kykSukA
dgus ek=k lsA
jksdus osQ fy,A
ns nksA
vkdkjs.k ln`'ke~ (r`ú rRiqú)] vkdkj osQ lekuA
bldh ps"Vk ghA
eu gh euA
vkuUnA
Ñr $ f.kfu] "k"Bh ,ú oú] cukus okysA
iz $ #g~ $ Dr] izú iqú ,ú oú] mRiUUk gqvk gSA
oa'kA
,d ,o vUo;% ;L; l%] cgqú lú] ,d gh oa'k dkA
'koqQUrL; yko.;e~ "kú rRiqú] i{kh dh lqUnjrkA

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vH;kl%

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1- laLÑrHkk"k;k mÙkja ns;e~
(d) dL; dos% dLekr~ iqLrdkn~ x`ghrks¿;a ikB%\
([k) cky% dhn`'ka flagf'k'kqa d"kZfrLe\
(x) rkilh ckyk; ØhMkFk± ¯d nÙkorh\
(?k) ØhMkijL; ckyL; ekrq% ¯d uke/s;e~\
(Ä) ckyk; ¯d jksprs\

30

HkkLorh

2- fjDrLFkkukuka iwfrZ% dj.kh;k
(d) viR;fu£o'ks"kkf.k ------------------------ foizdjksf"kA
([k) iq=ks fLug~;fr es ------------------------ A
(x) ;|L;k% ------------------------ u eq×pflA
(?k) vija ØhMuda rs ------------------------ A
(Ä) ------------------------ psf"VresokL; dFk;frA

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3- fuEukfÄïrs"kq lfU/PNsnks fo/s;%
xr ,okReu%] vkSjl bo] nUrkLrs] ;|L;k%] 'koqQUrysR;L;] [kYo;e~] ckys¿fLeu~]
Hkhrks¿fLe] dL;kfi] ,dkUo;%] ,okL;] reL;ksigj] eSoe~] bR;/je~] eekEck]
vusuSoA
4- v/ksfyf[krs"kq foxzga ÑRok lekluke fy[kr
iwokZo/hfjre~] vHkwfe%] vfou;L;] 'kCnkuqlkjs.k] lfoLe;e~] vckylÙo%]
flagf'k'kqe~] vuiR;rk] lfLere~] e`fÙkdke;wj%] ckye`xsUnze~] ,dkUo;%]
vkdkjln`'ke~] ckyLi'kZe~A
5- v/ksfyf[krkuka inkuka laLÑrokD;s"kq iz;ksx% dj.kh;%
lfoLe;e~] d"kZfr] fLug~;fr] osQlfj.kh] mVts] O;ins'k%] izs{kLo] eekEckA

6- izÑfrizR;;ifjp;ks ns;%
lwpf;Rok] izØhfMrqe]~ voyksD;] vuqcè;eku%] fu"ØkUrk] miyH;] miyky;u~A
7- Loekr`Hkk"k;k lizlÄõa O;k[;k;rke~
(d) euksjFkk; uk'kals ------------------------ nq%[kk; ifjorZrsA
([k) v/ZihrLrua ------------------------ cykRdkjs.k d"kZfrA
(x) ¯d u [kyq ckys¿fLeu~ ------------------------ eka oRly;frA

8- Loekr`Hkk"k;k vk'k;a Li"VhoqQ#r
vusu dL;kfi oqQykÄïjsq .k ------------------------ ;L;k;eÄïkr~ Ñfru% iz:<%AA

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;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

ukVosQ lekxrkuka ikfjHkkf"kd'kCnkuka foospue~&
1- vÄï%
vÄï bfr :f<'kCnks HkkoS% jlS'p jksg;R;FkkZu~
ukukfo/ku;qÙkQks ;Lekr~ rLekn~ HkosnÄ%ï AA

ohj% loZneu%

31

;=kkFkZL; lekfIr;Z=k p chtL; Hkofr lagkj%A
fdf×pnoyXufCkUnq% lks¿Äï bfr lnk¿oxUrO;%AA (ukV~;'kkL=ke~ 20@14&16)
laLÑrukVosQ"kq i×p izHk`fr n'k i;ZUre~ vÄïk% HkofUrA ,dfLeUuÄïs izk;'k%
dFkk;k% Hkkx% iw.kZrkesfr vÄïL; lekIrkS jÄõe×pr% lokZf.k ik=kkf.k fuXkZPNfUrA
2- usiF;e~
oqQ'khyooqQVqEcL; x`ga usiF;eqP;rsA
;=kkfHkusrkj% ukVdkuq:ia os'ka /kj;fUr rRLFkkua usiF;fefr dF;rsA
3- vkRexre~
vJkO;a [kyq ;n~oLrq rfngkRexra ere~A
;nk df'pnfHkusrk Loa izfr (eufl) okrk± djksfr
vijku~ tuku~ Lookrk± Jkof;rqa u ok×Nfr rnk
laoknks¿;a Loxre~] vkRexrfe* fr oksP;rsA

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"k"B% ikB%

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'kqd'kkodksnUr%

izLrqr ikB dfooqQyf'kjksef.k egkdfo ck.kHkV~V dh vf}rh; dFkkRed
jpuk ^dknEcjh* osQ dFkkeq[k Hkkx dk ,d va'k gSA egkjkt 'kwnzd osQ
njckj esa ,d pk.Mky&dU;k Lo.kZ&fi×tj esa cUn rksrs dks migkj
Lo:i izLrqr djrh gSA foJke osQ {k.kksa esa ogh rksrk egkjkt dks
vkichrh lqukrk gS fd og fdl izdkj ?ku?kkssj foUè;kVoh esa fLFkr
iEik ljksoj osQ rV ij th.kZ lsey osQ o`{k osQ dksVj ls o``¼ 'kcj osQ
}kjk fudky dj isaQosQ tkus ij Hk;adj nqigjh esa tkckfy eqfu osQ
iq=k gkjhr osQ }kjk vkJe esa yk;k x;kA lEiw.kZ dFkk oqQrwgyiw.kZ ,oa
jkspd gSA

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vfLr eè;ns'kkyÄïkjHkwrk es[kyso Hkqoks foUè;kVoh ukeA rL;ka p
iEikfHk/kua iÁlj%A rL; if'pes rhjs egkth.kZ% 'kkYeyho`{k%A
rL;SoSdfLeu~ dksVjs fuolr% dFkefi firqjgeso lwuqjHkoe~A eeSo
tk;ekuL; izloosnu;k tuuh es yksdkUrjexer~A rkrLrq
lqrLusgknUrfuZx`á 'kksda eRlao/Zuij ,okHkor~A ijuhMfuifrrkH;%
'kkfyoYyjhH;Lr.Mqyd.kku~ 'kqdoqQykonfyrkfu p iQy'kdykfu
lekâR; eáenkr~A enqiHkqDr'ks"kesokdjksn'kue~A
,dnk rq izR;w"kfl lglSo rfLeu~ ous e`x;kdksykg&
yèofu#npjr~A vkd.;Z p regeqitkrosiFkqjHkZdr;k Hk;foày%
firq% i{kiqVkUrjefo'ke~A vfpjkPp iz'kkUrs rfLeu~ {kksfHkrdkuus
e`x;kdydys firq#RlÄkõ nh"kfno fu"ØE; dksVjLFk ,o f'kjksèkjka
izlk;Z fdfenfefr fnn`{kqjfHkeq[kekirPNcjlSU;enzk{ke~A eè;s p
rL; izFkes o;fl orZekua 'kcjlsukifrei';e~A

'kqd'kkodksnUr%

33

vklhPp es eufl&^vgks eksgizk;esrs"kka thfore~A vkgkjks
eèkqekalkfn%] Jeks e`x;k] 'kkL=ka f'kok#ra] izKk 'koqQfuKkue~A
;fLeUuso dkuus fuolfUr rnsoksR[kkrewye'ks"kr% oqQoZfUrA bfr
fpUr;R;so ef; 'kcjlsukifr% l vkxR; rL;So rjksj/'Nk;k;ka
ifjtuksiuhriYyoklus leqikfo'kr~A vkihrlfyyks HkqDre`.kkfyd&
'pksRFkk;kixrJe% ldysu lSU;su lgkfHkera fn'ke;klhr~A
,dreLrq tjPNcjLrfLeUuso r#rys eqgwrZfeo O;yEcrA
vUrfjrs p lsukirkS l lqfpjek##{kqLra ouLifrekewykni';r~A
mR=kQkUrfeo rfLeu~ {k.ks rnkyksduHkhrkuka 'kqdoqQykukelqfHk%A
fdfeo fg nq"djed#.kkuke~A ;r% l re;RusuSo ikniek#á
iQykuho rL; ouLirs% dksVjsH;% 'kqd'kkodkuxzghr~A vixrklwa'p
ÑRok f{krkoikr;r~A
rkrLrq rnoyksD; fo"kkn'kwU;keJqtyIyqrka n`'kferLrrks
fof{kiu~ i{klaiqVsukPNk| eka Lusgijo'kks enz{k.kkoqQyks¿Hkor~A
vlkofi iki% =kQes.k 'kk[kkUrjS% l×pjek.kks eRdksVj}kjekxR;
HkqtÄHõ kh"k.ka izlk;Z ckgqa eqgqeqZgqnZÙkp×pqizgkjeqRowQtUrekÑ"; rkr&
eixrklqedjksr~ eka rq LoYiRokr~ dFkefi uky{k;r~A mijra p
reofurys¿eq×pr~A vgefi rPpj.kkUrjkys izosf'krf'kjks/jks
fuHk`reÄïfuyhuLrsuSo lg iouo'klEiqf×trL; 'kq"diËjk'ks#ifj
ifrrekRekuei';e~A ;koPpklkS r#f'k[kjkUukorjfr rkonga
firjeqijreqRl`T; u`'kal bo LusgjlkufHkKks Hk;suSo osQoy&
efHkHkw;ekuks yqBfUurLrrks ukfrnwjo£ruLrekyikniL; ewyns'kefo'ke~A
vtkri{kr;k p eqgqeqZgqeZq[ksu irr% LFkwyLFkwya 'olrks èkwfy&
èkwlfjrL; laliZrks ee leHkwUeufl&ukfLr thforknU;nfHkerrjfeg
txfr loZtUrwuke~A ,oeqijrs¿fi rkrs ;nga ftthfo"kkfeA
f/Ä~eked#.kefrfu"BqjeÑrKe~A [kya fg [kyq es ân;e~A rkrsu
;RÑra lo± rnsdins e;k foLe`re~A loZFkk u df×pUu [kyhdjksfr
thouk'kk ;nhn`xoLFkefi ekek;kl;fr tykfHkyk"k%A fnolL;
ps;efrd"Vk n'kk orZrAs vkrilUrIrikaly
q k Hkwfe%A fiiklkolUukfu

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HkkLorh

xUrqeuYiefi es ukyeÄd
õ kfuA vizHkqjLE;kReu%A lhnfr es ân;e~A
vU/dkjrkeqi;kfr es p{kq%A vfi uke [kyks fof/jfuPNrks¿fi es
ej.ke|Soksiikn;sr~A

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lo;ksfHkjijSeqZfuoqQekjoSQ% lg rsuSo iFkk rnso deylj% flLuk&
lq#ikxer~A izk;s.kkdkj.kferzk.;frd#.kknzkZf.k p HkofUr lrka
psrkaflA ;r% l rnoLFkeoyksD; eka ljLrhjekuk;;r~] Lo;a
pknk; lfyyfcUnw u ik;;r~ A leq i tkriz k .ka eka Nk;k;ka
fu/k;kdjksr~ Lukufof/e~A vfHk"ksdkolkus ldysu eqfuoqQekj&
dnEcosQukuqxE;ekuks eka x`ghRok riksouexPNr~A

35

'kqd'kkodksnUr%

'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p
eè;ns'kkyÄ~dkjHkwrk &

eè;'pklkS ns'k'p eè;ns'k% (deZ/kj; lekl)
rL;kyÄ~dkjHkwrk] (rRiq#"k) eè;ns'k dh 'kksHkk c<+kus
okyhA
foUè;L; vVoh] foUè; ioZr ij yxk ?kuk taxyA
egku~ p vlkS th.kZ% p (deZ/kj;) cM+k iqjkuk
fu $ ol~ $ 'kr` "k"Bh ,úoú] jgus okys
tu~ $ deZokP; $ 'kkup~ "k"Bhs ,ú oú] iSnk gksrs
gq,A
xe~ èkkrq yqÄ~ ydkj izú iqú ,ú oú] xbZA
fu $ xzg~ $ DRok > Y;i~] jksddjA
ijs"kka uhMsH;% ifrrkH;% nwljksa osQ ?kksaslyksa ls fxjh
gqbZA
'kqdkuka oqQyS% vonfyrkfu] rRiq#"k] rksrksa osQ >q.M
}kjk drjs gq,A
iQykuka 'kdykfu&[k.Mkfu] rRiq#"k] iQyksa osQ VqdM+sA
le~ $ vk $ â $ DRok > Y;i~] ykdjA
mi $ Hkqt~ $ Dr] miHkqDrkr~ 'ks"ke~] [kkus ls cpk gqvkA
v'k~ $ Y;qV~ > vu] HkkstuA
mQ"kle~ izfr] v#.kksn; ls iwoZA
vk[ksV%] f'kdkjA
mitkr% osiFkq% ;L; l% cgqozhfg] d¡kirk gqvkA
'kkod gksus ls] 'kqd'kkod dk fo'ks"k.kA
i{k;ks% iqVL;kUrje~] rRiq#"k] ia[kksa osQ iqVd osQ HkhrjA
{kksfHkra dkuua ;su l% rfLeu~] taxy dks O;koqQy
djus okys
i $ l` $ f.kp~ $ DRok > Y;i~] iSQykdjA
n`'k~ $ lu~ $ m] nz"Vqe~ bPNq%] ns[kus dk bPNqdA
f'kok;k% & Ük`xkY;k% #re~ 'kCne~] rRiqjQ"k] fl;kfjuksa
dk jksukA
'koqQuhuka Kkue~] rRiqjQ"k] if{kfo"k;d KkuA

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foUè;kVoh
egkth.kZ%
fuolr%
tk;ekuL;

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vxer~
fux`g~;
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'kqdoqQykonfyrkfu

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iQy'kdykfu
lekâR;
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v'kue~
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mitkrosiFkq%
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i{kiqVkUrje~
{kksfHkrdkuus

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izlk;Z
fnn`{kq%
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'koqQfuKkue~

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36

HkkLorh

mR[kkrewye~

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ifjtuksiuhre~

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mR[kkra ewya ;L; re~ cgqohz fg] ftldh tMsa+ m[kM+ xbZ
gSaA
ifjtuS% & Hk`R;S% miuhre~] rRiqjQ"k] lsodksa }kjk yk,
x;sA
vkihra lfyya ;su l%] ikuh ihus ijA
vixr% Je% ;L; l%] Je lekIr gksus ijA
vfHk $ eu~ $ Dr] LohÑre~] fiz;] bfPNrA
pys tkus ijA
vk $ jQg~ $ lu~ $ m izR;;] p<+us dh bPNk lsA
mr~ $ =kQe~ $ Dr] fudy x;sA
izk.kS%] izk.kksa lsA
tjr~ pklkS 'kcj% p fHkYy%] deZ/kj;] cw<+k HkhyA
vixrk% vlo% ;L; l% re~ cgqohz fg] izk.kghu] e`rA
vJw.kka tyS% Iyqrke~] rRiqjQ"k] vk¡lw osQ ty ls
Hkhxh gqbZA
le~ $ pj~ $ 'kkup~] lapkj djrk gqvk] pyrk gqvkA
izosf'krk LFkkfirk f'kjks/jk xzhok ;su l%] cgqozhfg]
xnZu dks fNikus okykA
fu $ Hk` $ Dr] fu'pyA
uja 'kalfr fgufLr bfr] =kQwjA
vfHk $ Hkw $ 'kkup~] izHkkfor gksrk gqvk] vkØkUr
gksrk gqvkA
ia[k mRiUu u gksus lsA
vfHk] eu~ $ Dr $ rji~] fiz;rj] vHkh"VrjA
tho~ $ lu~ yV~] mú iqú] ,úoú] thuk pkgrk gw¡A
vkrisu ?kesZ.k lUrIrk ikalqyk p /wfy%] rRiq#"k $
deZ/kj; lekl] /wi ls rih /wy okyhA
Luk $ lu~ $ m] LukrqfePNq%] ugkus dh bPNk j[kus
okykA
equhuka oqQekjk.kka dnEcosQu oxsZ.k] rRiqjQ"k lekl]
eqfuoqQekjksa osQ lewg lsA
vuq $ xe~ $ deZokP; $ 'kkup~ iqú izú ,ú oú]
ihNk fd;k tkrk gqvkA

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vkihrlfyy%
vixrJe%
vfHkere~
vUrfjrs
vk##{kqq%
mR=kQkUre~
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lapjek.k%
izosf'krf'kjks/j%

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fuHk`re~
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vfHkHkw;eku%

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vtkri{kr;k
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vUkqxE;eku%

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'kqd'kkodksnUr%

vH;kl%
1- fuEufyf[kriz'ukuka mÙkje~ laLÑrssu fy[kr
(d) iEikfHk/kua in~elj% oqQ=kklhr~\
([k) 'kqd% Do fuolfr Le\
(x) 'kcjk.kka dhn`'ka thoua orZrs\
(?k) gkjhr% dL; lqr% vklhr~\
(Ä) thouk'kk foaQ djksfr\
(p) 'kqdL; firk dhn`'kkfu iQy'kdykfu rLeS vnkr~\
(N) e`x;kèofuekd.;Z 'kqd% oqQ=k vfo'kr~\
(t) 'kcjlsukifr% dfLeu~ o;fl oÙkZeku% vklhr~\
(>) osQ"kka fde~ nq"dje~\
(×k) d% 'kqdL; rkre~ vixrklqedjksr~\
2- ikBekèk`R; ck.kHk^L; x|'kSY;k% fo'ks"krk% fy[kr

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3- ekr`Hkk"k;k 'kcjlsukirs% pfj=ke~ fy[kr

4- v/ksfyf[krkuka HkkokFk± fy[kr
(d) fdfeo fg nq"djed#.kkuke~A
([k) ukfLr thforknU;nfHkerrjfeg txfr loZtUrwuke~A
(x) loZFkk u df×pUu [kyhdjksfr thouk'kkA
(?k) izk;s.k vdkj.kfe=kk.;frd#.kknzkZf.k p HkofUr lrka psrkaflA
5- 'kqd'kkodL; vkRedFkka la{ksis.k fy[kr

6- v/ksfyf[krs"kq 'kCns"kq izÑfrizR;;foHkkxa oqQ#r
lekâR;] vkd.;Z] fu"=kQE;] fof{kiu~] mijre~] x`ghRok] vfHkyk"k%] lapjek.k%A

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7- fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) vfLr Hkqoks es[kyso ------------------------ ukeA
([k) eeSo tk;ekuL; ------------------------ es tuuh e`rkA
(x) vgks eksgizk;e~ ------------------------ thfore~A
(?k) rkr% ------------------------ en~j{k.ks vkoqQy% vHkor~A
(Ä) loZFkk u ------------------------ u [kyhdjksfr thouk'kA

38

HkkLorh

8- lfU/foPNsna oqQ#r
rL;SoSdfLeu~] rkrLrq] izR;w"kfl] vfpjkPPk] fpUr;R;so] iQykuho] rkonge~]
rsuSo] pknk;A

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;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

iEik %& iEikfHk/kua izfl¼a lj% ;n~ v|Ros isUuflj bfr ukEukfHk/h;rsA ljl%
lehi ,o Í`";ewdioZrks orZrs iEik bfr unh vLekn~ ,o ljl% fuxZrkA

foUè;kVoh %& ,dk ioZrJs.kh ;k mÙkjHkkjra nf{k.kHkkjrkr~ foHktfrA lIroqQyioZrs"kq
b;a ifjx.;rsA b;a ioZrekyk eè;ns'kL; nf{k.klhfEu orZrsA
fgeof}Uè;;kseZè;s ;RizkfXou'kuknfiA
izR;xso iz;kxkPp eè;ns'k% izdhfrZr%AA

(euqLe`fr% 2@21)

,rklq ioZrekyklq xgukfu oukfu lfUr ;kfu ^foUè;kVoh* bfr insukfHk/h;UrsA
fdfeo fg nq"djed#.kkuke~&bfr vfLeu~ ikBs lwfrQ%A ,rkn`';% vU;k%
lwrQ;ks¿Uos"VO;k%A

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lIre% ikB%

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HkO;% lR;kxzgkJe%

izLrqr ikB Jherh {kekjkoÑr&lR;kxzgxhrk osQ prqFkZ vè;k; ls
mn~èk`r fd;k x;k gSA vk/qfud dof;=kh us lkcjerh osQ vkJe vkSj
egkRek xk¡/h osQ vkn'kZ vkpj.k dk o.kZu blesa fd;k gSA laLÑr
dfork dk orZeku izlaxksa esa izLrqrhdj.k ysf[kdk dk mís'; gSA oLrqr%
vk/qfud ;qx esa ns'k osQ dksus&dksus esa ftl vkradokn dh tM+ terh
tk jgh gS vkSj vius y{; (LokFkZ) dh flf¼ esa ftl rjg osQ u`'kal
vkSj funZ; ekxZ viuk;s tk jgs gSa] os jk"Vª osQ fy, ?kkrd gSaA vkt
muosQ izfrjks/ esa izR;sd O;fDr dks xk¡/h cuuk gS] vU;k; osQ fojks/
esa [kM+k gksuk gS vkSj lR;] vfgalk rFkk lnkpkj dk ekxZ viukuk gSA
rHkh laiw.kZ ekuo dk dY;k.k gksxkA
rrLrhjs lceZR;k ukEuk lR;kxzgkJe%A
egkRek LFkki;kekl lnua lkuq;kf=kd%AA1AA

lR;eso izek.ka ;UeuksokDdk;deZfHk%A
rfLeu~ iq.;fuokls rn~ ;FkkFkksZ fg l vkJe%AA2AA

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vfgalk lR;eLrs;a czg~ep;kZifjxzgkSA
Lons'koLrqfu"Bk p fuHkhZr#fpla;e%AA3AA

vUR;tkuka leq¼kjks uoSrkfu ozrkfu fgA
HkkjrksRd"kZfln~è;FkZekJeL; egkReu%AA4AA

fueZeks fuR;lÙoLFkks ferk'kh lqfLerkuu%A
lqdy=k% f'k'kqizseh firsokJeokfluke~AA5AA

40

HkkLorh

è;k;u~ Dys'kku~ LocU/wuka rf¼rSdijk;.k%A
fojktrs eqfucqZ¼ks cksf/nzqerys ;FkkAA6AA
lk{kkRlR;iznhiks¿;a nhI;rs¿f[kyHkkjrsA
LocU/wukeikoqQoZu~ g`n;kUeksgta re%AA7AA
cya loZcysH;ks¿fi lR;esokfrfjP;rsA
lR;okucy% Js;ku~ lcykr~ lR;oftZrkr~AA8AA
rn~ ;s pjfUr /esZ.k iztk ok jkT;'kkldk%A
le`f¼tkZ;rs rs"kkeU;s"kka rq {k;ks /zqo%AA9AA
bfr r=kHkoku~ xkU/hjk[;kfr lgokflu%A
vuq;kf;tuka'pkU;ku~ oplk ys[krks¿fi okAA10AA

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egkRek izkg&
v/eZefi n`"V~ok ;% izfrc¼aq u ok×NfrA
lR;s lR;fi ;ks HkhR;k u p rr~ izfri|rsAA11AA

41

HkO;% lR;kxzgkJe%

Dyhc;ks#Hk;ks'pkfi fu"iQya thoua r;ks%A
LokFkZuk'kHk;kn~ ;r~ rkS j{krks¿u`rthoue~AA12AA
fgalkefi lekfJR; oja e`R;qeq[ks xre~A
u iqu% LokRej{kkFk± Ñra fuU|a iyk;ue~AA13AA

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djksfr eulk fgalk l fg Hkh#% iykf;rkA
vkReuks e`R;qdkr;kZnkRefgalk djksfr pAA14AA
vr ,o e;k nÙka uke lR;kxzgkJe%A
lR;kuq;kf;;qDrk;k fouhrolrseZeAA15AA

bfr lR;kfn/ekZ.kkeeks?ka cyen~Hkqre~A
o.kZ;u~ xzkg;kekl ozrkfu lqcgwu~ xq#%AA16AA
vijk/s Ñrs¿I;U;S% lR;lkjs rnkJesA
Lohd`R; nks"kloZLoeqioklSLriL;frAA17AA

vkJekn~ cfgjU;=k yksdkuka dygs¿fi l%A
Loeso dkj.ka eRok rr~ dyÄïsu nw;rsAA18AA
vkReoRloZHkwrkfu i';rks¿L; inkuqxk%A
xq.kS% ijo'khHkwrk O;o/ZUr lgÏ'k%AA19AA

loZnkI;kpfj";ke% lR;kfnuoda ozre~A
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'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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vLrs;e~
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vUR;tkuka leq¼kj%

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vuq;kf;fHk% lfgr% cgqú lú] vius vuq;kf;;ksa osQ
lkFkA
vpkS;Ze~] pksjh ugha djukA
/ul×p;kHkkoo`fÙk%] /ul×p; u djus dk LoHkkoA
#fp&Lokn ij fu;U=k.k j[kukA
gfjtuks¼kj%] gfjtuksa dk m¼kjA

42

fuR;lÙoLFk%
ferk'kh

HkkLorh
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fuR;a lÙos fLFkr% loZnk lÙoxq.k ls ;qDrA
ifjferHkkstuoku~] fere~ v'ukfr rPNhy%] de Hkkstu
djus okykA
e`R;ks% dkr;kZr~ (nq%[k) Hk;kr~] e`R;q osQ Mj lsA
lqfLera vkuua ;L; l%] izlUu eq[k okykA
'kksHkua dy=ka ;L; l%] cgqú lú] lqUnj L=kh okykA
è;S /krq 'kr`ú izú iqú] izú ,ú oú] è;ku djrs gq,A
iz'kL; 'kCn~ bZ;l~ izR;;] iqaú izú ,ú oú] vf/d
dY;k.kdkjhA
fouhrk ¾ olfr%] fouhr olfr% rL;k%] lTtuksa dh
oLrhA
inkfu vuqxPNfUr ;s rs] miin rRiq#"k] ihNs pyus
okysA
/SS;sZ.k lg] vO;;hHkko] /S;ZlfgrA

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e`R;qdkr;kZn~
lqfLerkuu%
lqdy=k%
è;k;u~
Js;ku~

&
&
&
&
&

fouhrolrs%

&

inkuqxk%

&

lèkS;Ze~

&

vH;kl%

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n

1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqÙkjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k ns;kfu
(d) v;a ikB% dLekn~ xzUFkkr~ ladfyr%A
([k) egkRek (xk¡/h) lR;kxzgkJea dL;k% (u|k%) rhjs LFkki;kekl\
(x) vkJeokfluka Ñrs egkRek dhn`'k% vklhr~\
(?k) vfLeu~ ikBs egkReu% rqyuk osQu lg Ñrk\
(Ä) le`f¼% osQ"kka tk;rs\
(p) lR;kxzgkJe% bfr uke osQu dFka p nÙke~\
(N) vL; ikBL; jpf;=kh dk\
(Tk) egkReu% ozrkfu dkfu vklu~\
(>) egkRek osQ"kka nks"kS% miokledjksr~A
(×k) fde~ i';r% xkfU/u% xq.kS% tuk% rL; inkuqxk% tkrk%\
2- v/ksfyf[kr'yksdkuka lkUo;a ekr`Hkk"k;k vFkZe~ fy[kr
(d) vfgalk lR;eLrs;a ------------------------ fuHkhZr#fpla;e%AA
([k) lk{kkr~ lR;iznhiks¿;a ------------------------ ân;kUeksgta re%AA
(x) v/eZefi n`"V~ok ------------------------ rr~ izfri|rsAA

43

HkO;% lR;kxzgkJe%
3- v/ksfyf[krinkuka ifjp;a nÙk
leq¼kj%] izfrc¼qe~] le`f¼%] è;k;u~] n`"V~ok] lekfJR;] nÙke~] eRok
4- lfoxzge~ lekluke fy[kr
(d) lR;kxzgkJee~
([k) egkRek
(x) czãp;kZifjxzgkS
(?k) lqdy=k%
(Ä) fu"iQye~

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5- lR;kxzgegÙoef/ÑR; ekr`Hkk"k;k n'k okD;kfu fy[kr

6- v/ksfyf[kr'kCnkuka lfU/PNsna oqQ#r
uoSrkfu] ferk'kh] eqfucZq¼%] nhI;rs¿f[kyHkkjrs] lR;fi] firso] O;oèkZUr]
loZnkI;kpfj";ke%A
7- fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) rrLrhjs ------------------------ lR;kxzgkJe%A
([k) vfgalk ------------------------ izfrxzgkSA
(x) v/eZefi ------------------------ ok×NfrA
(?k) lR;s lR;fi ------------------------ izfri|rsA
(Ä) vkJekn~ ------------------------ nw;rsA

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

HkkofoLrkj%
(1) ------------------- bnegeu`rkr~ lR;eqiSfeA

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(2) lR;esoku`'kala p jkto`Ùka lukrue~A
rLekRlR;kReda jkT;a lR;s yksd% izfrf"Br%AA
(3) lR;L; opua lk/q u lR;kn~ fo|rs ije~A
lR;su fo/`ra lo± lo± lR;s izfrf"Bre~AA

(4) lR;ktZoa ija /eZekgq/ZeZfonks tuk%A
nqtsZ;% 'kk'orks /eZ% l p lR;s izfrf"Br%AA

(;tqosZn% & 1@5)

44

HkkLorh
(5) uklR;okfnu% l[;a iq.;a u ;'kks HkqfoA
n`';rs ukfi dY;k.ka dkyowQVfeok'ur%AA
(6) ^lR;izfr"Bk;ka fØ;kiQykJ;Roe~A*

(;ksxn'kZue~ & 2@36)

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(7) lR;L; uko% lqÑreihiju~A

(ÍXosn%)

(8) ;% leqRifrra Øks/a {ke;So fujL;frA
;FkksjxLRopa th.kk± l oS iq#"k mP;rsAA
(okYehfdjkek;.ke~ & 5@53@6)
(9) vfgalkizfr"Bk;ka rRlfUu/kS oSjR;kx%A

(;ksxn'kZue~] lk/uikn%)

(10) fujk'kh;ZrfpÙkkRek R;DrloZifjxzg%A
'kkjhja osQoya deZ oqQoZUukIuksfr fdfYo"ke~AA
(Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk&4@21)

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45

lÄõhrkuqjkxh lqCc..k%

v"Ve% ikB%

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lÄõhrkuqjkxh lqCc..k%

izLrqr ikB dUuM+ Hkk"kk osQ iz[;kr lkfgR;dkj ^ekfLr osÄ~dVs'k
vÕ;Ä~xkj fojfpr* lqCc..k 'kh"kZd miU;kl osQ laLÑr vuqokn ls
ladfyr fd;k x;k gSA
blosQ vuqoknd gks- uk- osÄ~dVs'k 'kekZ gSaA bl miU;kl dk
uk;d lqCc..k ,d ikSjkf.kd 'kkL=kh dk iq=k gSA cpiu ls gh mldh
laxhr esa #fp gSA vkxs pydj og egku~ laxhrdkj curk gSA izLrqr
va'k esa mlosQ cpiu dh ,d ?kVuk of.kZr gSA

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lqCc..kL; lÄõhrs ;% lgtkfHkyk"k% vklhr~] l ,dnk jktHkous
lao`Ùk;k lÄõR;k iqujf/oaQ n`<hcHkwoA ,dfLeu~ fnus iq=ks.k lkoaQ
iqjkf.kd'kkL=kh jktHkouesR; r=kkUr%iqjL=khtule{ks iqjk.k&
izopuekjHkek.k vknkS Loiq=ks.k 'kqDykEcjèkjfeR;kfnÜyksoQa
xki;keklA rPNªRok
q r=kR;k% losZ i;ZuUnu~A vFk fdf×pRdkykuUrja
r=k lekxrks jktk leqifo'; iqjk.kekd.kZ;fr LeA firq% ik'osZ
mifo"V% lqCc..k% iqjk.kizopua oqQrwgysu 'k`.oÂso eè;s egkjktefHk
lfoLe;a i';fr LeA egkjktL; lqUnja eq[ke~] eq[ks c`gfÙk&
ydkyÄkï j%] r=kkfi fo'kkyL; x.MLFkyL; 'kksHkkoga 'eJqowQpZe~
bR;kfn loZefi rL; foLe;dkj.keklhr~A jktkfi ra ckyoaQ
f}f=kokjefHkoh{; prqjks¿;a cky bR;eU;rA ,oeoflrs iqjk.ks
jktk 'kkfL=k.keqfí'; Hkks%] ,"k cky% HkoRoqQekj% fde~\ bR;i`PNr~A
vke~] egkizHkks] bfr 'kkL=kh izR;qokpA iqu% Le;iwoZda jktk ckya
lEcksè; v;s oRl] fda Hkokufi fir`or~ iqjk.kizopua dfj";fr!
bfr i;Zi`PNr~A rnk l cky%&vga iqjk.kizopua u djksfeA lÄõhra
xk;kehfr O;kgjr~A rnk jktk&vkg] rFkk uuqA rfgZ ,da xkua

46

HkkLorh

'k`.kqeLrkor~ bR;onr~A vuqineso lqCc..k% Jhjk?koa n'kjFkkRet&
feR;kfnÜYkksda lÄõhrekxsZ.k vJko;r~ rnUrs iqu% l% dLrwjh&
frydfeR;kfnÜyksdks¿fi ee d.BLFkks¿LrhR;xnr~A

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egkjktL; cgq lUrks " kks ¿ Hkor~ A ,oa ifjrq " Vks jktk
ikfjrksf"kdRosu ckyk; lrkEcwyeqÙkjh;oL=ka nRok] gs oRl] Roa
esèkkO;fl lq"Bq lÄõhra f'kf{kRok lE;Xxkrqa Hkoku~ vH;L;rqA
brks¿I;f/oaQ ikfjrksf"koaQ Hkors o;a nkL;ke bfr ckydeqDRok
iqu'p 'kkfL=k.keqfí'; Hkks% 'kkfL=k.k% oqQekj% prqjks¿fLrA f'k{k.ka
lE;o~Q fØ;rke~A izk;% egkoqQ'kyks Hkfo";rhR;'kalr~A rnuUrja
'kkL=kh p iq=k'p Lox`gk; laU;orsZrke~A
'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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lÄõhrkuqjkxh

&

vuqjkxh
lgtkfHkyk"k%

&
&

lao`Ùk;k

&

lÄRõ ;k

&

iqujf/de~
n`<hcHkwo

&
&

jktHkouesR;
&
,R;
&
r=kkUr%iqjL=khtule{ks &
vUr%iqjL=khtule{ks

&

lÄhõ r $ vuqjkxh lÄõhrs vuqjkx% ;L; l% (cgqohz fg
lú) lÄõhr esa vuqjkx j[kus okykA
vuqjkx $ f.kfu] izsehA
lgt $ vfHkyk"k% lgt% vfHkyk"k% (deZ/kj;
lú) LokHkkfodh bPNkA
la $ o`r~ $ Dr $ L=khfyax r`rh;k ,ú oú] gksus
okyhA
la $ xe~ $ fDru~ $ L=khú fyú r`rh;k ,dopu]
lÄõfr lsA
iquj~ $ vf/de~ (la;ksx)] fiQj vf/dA
vn`<k n`<k cHkwo n`< $ fPo $ Hkw fyV~ ydkj izFke
iq#"k ,dopu] izcy gks x;hA
jktHkoue~ $ ,R; (la-)] jktHkou esa vkdjA
vk$ b $ DRok >Y;i~_ vkdjA
r=k $ vUr%iqjL=khtule{ks] vUr%iqj dh fL=k;ksa osQ
lkeusA
vUr%iqjL=kh.kke~ le{ks "k"Bh rRiqú] vUr%iqj dh
fL=k;ksa osQ lEeq[kA

47

lÄõhrkuqjkxh lqCc..k%
iqjk.kizopuekjHkek.k
iqjk.kizopue~
vkjHkek.k%
xki;kekl
rPNªRq ok
r=kR;k%

&
&
&
&
&
&

i;ZuUnu~

&

fdf×pRdkykuUrje~

&

lekxr%

&

leqifo';
vkd.kZ;fr Le
mifo"V%
'k`.oUuso
lfoLe;e~
c`gfÙkydkyÄïkj%

&
&
&
&
&
&

x.MLFkyL;
'kksHkkoge~
'eJqowQpZe~

&
&
&

jktkfi
vfHkoh{;
prqjks¿;e~
bR;eU;r
voflrs

&
&
&
&
&

mfn~n';
HkoRoqQekj%

&
&

iqjk.kizopue~ $ vkjHkek.k (la)
iqjk.kL; izopue~ "k"Bh rRiqú] iqjk.k dh dFkkA
vk $ jHk~ $ 'kkup~] vkjaHk djrs gq,A
xS $ f.kp~ $ fyV~ yú izFke iq#"k ,dopu] xok;kA
rr~ $ JqRok] ;g lqudjA
r=k $ R;i~ izR;; iqaú izFkek foú cgqú oú] ogk¡
mifLFkrA
ifj $ uUn~ $ yÄ~ ydkj izFke iq#"k cgqopu]
izlUu gq,A
df'pr~ dky% bfr fdf×pRdky% deZ/kj; lekl
rL; vuUrja "k"Bh rRiq#"k] oqQN le; i'pkr~A
le~ $ vk $ xe~ $ Dr iqaú izú foú] ,ú oú] vk;k
gqvkA
le~ $ mi $ fo'k~ $ DRok >Y;i~] ikl cSBdjA
Le osQ dkj.k yV~ydkjkFkZ Hkwrdky] lqu jgk FkkA
mi $ fo'k~ $ Dr iqú izú foú ,ú oú] cSBk gqvkA
'k`.ou~ $ ,o lqurs gq, ghA
foLe;su lg vO;;hHkko lekl] vk'p;Z lfgrA
c`gr~ fryde~ bfr c`gfÙkyde~ deZ/kj; lekl
c`gfÙkyde~ ,o vyÄkï j% ;L; l%] fo'kky fryd
/kj.k fd;s gq,A
diksy ;k xky dkA
'kksHkke~ vkogfr miú rRiqú] 'kksHkk nsus okykA
'eJo% p owQp± p rs"kka lekgkj% lekgkj}U}] nk<+h
vkSj ew¡NA
jktk $ vfi] jktk HkhA
vfHk $ fo $ bZ{k~ $ DRok >Y;i~] ns[kdjA
prqj% $ v;e~] prqj ;gA
bfr $ veU;r] ,slk ekukA
vo $ "kks $ Dr] lIreh foú ,ú oú] lekIr gksus
ijA
mr~ $ fn'k~ $ DRok Y;i~] y{; djosQA
Hkor% oqQekj% "k"Bh rRiqú_ vkidk iq=kA

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48

bR;i`PNr~
izR;qokp

HkkLorh
&
&

bfr $ vi`PNr~] ,slk iwNkA
izfr $ mokp] izfr $ czw fyV~ ydkj izú iqú] ,ú
oú] dgkA
Le;% iwoZa ;fLeu~ rr~ cgqú lú] eqLoqQjkrs gq,A
le~ $ cqèk~ $ f.kp~ $ DRok >Y;i~] lEcksf/r
djosQA
ifj $ vi`PNr~] iwNkA
xk;kfe $ bfr] xkrk gw¡A
fo $ vk $ â $ yÄ~ izú iqú ,ú oú] dgkA
iz $ xS $ DRok > Y;i~] xkdjA
rL; vUrs] "kú rRiqú] mlosQ vUr esaA
'yksd% $ vfi] 'yksd HkhA
d.Bs fr"Bfr] miin rRiq] Lej.kA
xn~ $ yÄ~ yú izú iqú ,ú oú] cksykA
lUrks"k% $ vHkor~] lUrks"k gqvkA
ifj $ rq"k~ $ Dr_ iqa izú foú] ,ú oú] lUrq"V
gqvkA
rkEcwysu lfgre~] cgqozhfg lú] (rkEcwysu lg
orZekue~)] iku lfgrA
es/koh $ vfl] cqf¼eku~ gksA
lE;d~ $ xkrqe~] vPNh rjg xkus osQ fy,A
vfHk $ vl~ (fnokfnx.k) yksV~ yú] izú] iqú] ,ú
oú] vH;kl djksA
br% $ vfi $ vf/de~] blls Hkh vf/dA
czw $ DRok] cksydjA
iqu% $ p] vkSj fiQjA
Ñ $ deZú yksV~ ydkj izú iqú] ,ú oúA
Hkfo";fr $ bfr $ v'kalr~] gksxk ,slk dgkA
'kal~ $ yÄ~ izú iqú ,ú oú] dgkA
rLekr~ vuUrje~ i×peh rRiqú] blosQ cknA
le~ $ fu $ o`r~ % yÄ~ izú iqú f}ú oú] ykSV x,A

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Le;iwoZde~
lEcksè;

&
&

i;Zi`PNr~
xk;kehfr
O;kgjr~
izxh;
rnUrs
'yksdks¿fi
d.BLFk%
vxnr~
lUrks"kks¿Hkor~
ifjrq"V%

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

lrkEcwye~

&

es/kO;fl
lE;Xxkrqe~
vH;L;rq

&
&
&

brks¿I;f/de~
mDRok
iqu'p
fØ;rke~
Hkfo";rhR;'kalr~
v'kalr~
rnuUrje~
laU;orsZrke~

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

49

lÄõhrkuqjkxh lqCc..k%

vH;kl%
1- laLÑrsu mÙkja nh;rke~
(d) lqCc..kL; lgtkfHkyk"k% dfLeu~ vklhr~\
([k) iqjkf.kd'kkL=kh osQu lg jktHkoue~ vxPNr~\
(x) iqjkf.kd'kkL=kh Loiq=ks.k ¯d xki;kekl\
(?k) iqjk.kizopua Ük`.ou~ lqCc..k% egkjkta dFka i';fr Le\
(Ä) egkjktL; foLe;dkj.ka fde~ vklhr~\
(p) jktk ckya dfr okje~ vi';r~\
(N) jktk ckya fde~ vi`PNr~\
(t) l cky% jktkua ¯d O;kgjr~\
(>) ifjrq"V% jktk ckyk; fde~ v;PNr~\
(×k) jkK% dFkukuUrja 'kkL=kh rRiqq=k% p oqQ=k vxPNrke~\

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2- js[kkfÄïrkfu inkfu vkfJR; iz'ufuekZ.ka oqQ#r
(d) lqCc..kL; lÄhõ rs¿fHkyk"k% jktHkous lao`Ùk;k lÄRõ ;k n`<hcHkwoA
([k) rPNªRok
q r=kR;k% losZ i;ZuUnu~A
(x) lekxrks jktk iqjk.ke~ vkd.kZ;fr Le!
(?k) lqCc..kL; firq% ik'osZ egkjkta lfoLe;a i';fr LeA
(Ä) egkjktL; eq[ks frydkyÄïkj% vklhr~A
(p) jktk ckyk; lrkEcwye~ mÙkjh;oL=ke~ v;PNr~A

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3- fo'ks";S% lg fo'ks"k.kkfu la;ksT; esy;r
fo'ks"k.k
fo'ks";
lao`Ùk;k
'eJqowQpZe~
lekxr%
'yksd%
lfoLe;e~
eq[ke~
lqUnje~
x.MLFkyL;
fo'kkyL;
lÄõR;k
d.BLFk%
egkjkte~
'kksHkkoge~
jktkA

4- vk'k;a Li"VhoqQ#r
(d) vga iqjk.kizopua u djksfeA lÄhõ ra xk;kfeA
([k) Roa es/koh vfl lq"Bq lÄõhra f'kf{kRok lE;d~ xkraq Hkoku~ vH;L;rA

50

HkkLorh

5- dks"Bd'kCnS% lg foHkfDra iz;qT; fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) -------------------------- fnus iqjkf.kd'kkL=kh jktHkoue~ vxPNr~ (,d)
([k) --------------- ik'osZ mifo"V% lqCc..k% egkjkta lfoLe;a i';fr LeA
(fir`)
(x) jktk -------------------------- lEcksè; i;Zi`PNr~A (cky)
(?k) Roa -------------------------- vflA (es?kkfou~)
(Ä) ikfjrksf"koaQ -------------------------- o;a nkL;ke% (Hkor~)

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6- vFk± fyf[kRok laLÑrokD;s"kq iz;ksxa oqQ#r
lkde~] ik'osZ] i=k] lq"Bq] lE;d~] iqu%A
7- ikBkr~ foykseinkfu fpRok fy[kr
vkxR;] v=kR;k%] ijkxr%] nwj]s mnrjr~] izkjC/s] dnk] ew[kZ%] vlUrks"k%] vYie~A

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

1- dLrwjh fryda yykViVys o{k%LFkysdkSLrqHke~A
uklkxzs ojekSfDrda djrys os.kq% djs dÄï.ke~AA
lokZÄõs gfjpUnua lqyfyra d.Bs p eqDrkoyhA
xksiL=khifjosf"Vrks fot;rs xksikypwMkef.k%AA
vfLeu~ ikBs mfYyf[krL; vL; 'YkksdL; lLoja xk;uL; vH;kl% dj.kh;%A
2- vfLeu~ ikBs jkK% pfj=ks rsu o`Qrs lqCc..kL; lRdkjs foaQ oSf'k"V~;e~ bfr
vfUoPNrA

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uoe% ikB%

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oL=kfoØ;%

izLrqr ikB egkegksikè;k; ia- eFkqjkizlkn nhf{kro`Qr ¶Hkkjr&
fot;ukVde~¸ osQ izFkekÄ~d ls laoQfyr gSA vfXu ls tyh gqbZ
'kkgtgk¡ dh oqQekjh dh vks"kf/&fpfdRlk djus osQ i'pkr~ fons'kh
(vaxzst) Hkkjr lezkV~ ('kkgtgk¡) ls caxky esa fuokl osQ fy, Hkwfe
rFkk oL=kksa osQ Ø; vkSj foØ; osQ fy, jkteqnzkfÄ~dr izek.k&i=k izkIr
dj ysrk gSA Hkkjrh; tqykgs LofufeZr oL=kksa dks cspus osQ fy, cktkj
esa mifLFkr gksrs gSAa ogk¡ oL=k O;kikfj;ksa osQ lkFk tqykgksa dk oL=k&foØ;
gsrq okrkZyki gksrk gSA mlh le; fons'kh xkSjkÄ~x dk izos'k gksrk gSA
mlosQ gkFk esa jktdh; eqnzk ls vafdr izek.ki=k gSA og izek.ki=k
fn[kkdj cgqr de ewY; nsdj oL=k [kjhn ysrk gSA og tqykgksa dks csar
ls ihVrk gS vkSj muosQ }kjk fufeZr lHkh oL=k Lo;a dks nsus dk funsZ'k
nsrk gSA ;gh izlax bl ikB esa of.kZr gSA
(rr% izfo'kfUr iVa foØsraq Øsraq p df'pRrUrqok;% Jsf"BukS p)

Js"Bh
rUrqok;%
Js"Bh

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& rUrqok;! fdeL; iVL; ewY;e~\
& foa'kR;f/da 'kre~A
& ufg]ufg] fdf×pnf/desrr~A 'kra ewY;a x`g~.kh"o
(rr% izfo'kfr lkuqpjks oSnsf'kdks xkSjkÄ~x%A l
jkteqnzkfÄïrizek.ki=ka n'kZf;Rok Jsf"BukS rUrqok;×p
HkRlZ;frA)
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & rUrqok;! i'; jkteqnzkfÄ~dra izek.ki=ke~A u Roa
foØsrqa izHkq%A

52

HkkLorh

rUrqok;% & rfgZ fdegesua iVa oqQ;kZe~\
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & bea iVa eáa nsfg] vgesua iVa foØs";s] x`g~.kh"o
bek% i×pk'kUeqnzk%A (bfr i×pk'kUeqnzk nnkfr)A
rUrqok;% & (lk'p;Zfeo i';u~) fdfena fo/h;rs\ dFkesrsu
ee oqQVqEcL; Hkj.kiks"k.ks Hkfo";r%A "kfM~HkekZlS%
dFkefi jkf=kfUnoa ifjJE; fu"ikfnrks¿;a iV%A
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & bek eqnzk x`Êh"o] ukga fdefi tkukfeA ekSuekLLo]
xPNA vij×p iVa fuekZ; eRlehi ,oku;A
;q"eRoqQVqEcj{kk;S u izfrKk Ñrk e;kA dFka j{kk
Hkosnsrr~ Roa tkuhfg oztkèkqukAA
(l eqnkz u x`Êkfr vFkkijLrUrqok;% iVfoØ;kFk± izfo';
iVØ;kFk± Jsf"Buaa y{k;frA)

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53

oL=kfoØ;%

rUrqok;%
Js"Bh
rUrqok;%
Js"Bh

&
&
&
&

oSúxkSjkÄõ%

&

rUrqok;%
oSúxkSjkÄõ%

&
&

Jsf"Bu~A x`gk.k iVe~A
(HkzwlaK;k) v;a Øs";frA ukga Øsraq 'kDuksfeA
dLekr~\
vL; lehis jkK% izek.ki=ke~ v;eso Øs";fr]
ukij%A
br vkxPNA (rUrqok;ekg~o;fr] izek.ki=ka n'kZZ;frA
iVa x`Êkfr) x`gk.ksek'pRokfja'kUeqnzk%A (bfr eqnzk
nnkfrA)
egkjkt! fdfena fo/h;rs\ fde;eso U;k;%\
xPN xPNA ukga U;k;eU;k;a ok tkukfeA ;Ue;k
fu'ph;rs nh;rs p rnso ewY;e~A (mHkkS rn~nÙka
ewY;a x`g~.khr%A)
ukr% ija iVa fuekZL;ko% (bR;qDRok xPNr%)
(vuqpjeqfn~n';) i';A ,rkH;ka càheqZnzk xzgh";sA
vfuoZpuh;e~ ,rRiV;ks% lkSUn;Ze~A vfr&
lw{erjks¿;a iV% A i';] ,rL; i×Pk"kS% iVyS%
ifjosf"VreI;iVeso & izrh;rs¿Ä~xe~A vk%
dFkesrRle{keLen~ns'kh;kuka iVkuka foØ;ks
Hkfo";fr] bfr greLen~ns'kh;a okf.kT;e~A
(iqufoZfpUR;)
,rRlw{eiVL; fufeZfrfo/ss#Uewyus¿ga {keks
fuekZr`fug n.MrkMuijLrku~ ekspf;";kE;r%A
dkS'kY;a fß;rkeèkLrnf/da okf.kT;eR;qUura
ns'kL;kL; leqUufrtZudFkkek=ks lek/h;rke~AA
(izfo';) t;rq t;rq nso%A
nkSokfjd! lRoja f=kprqjkaLrUrqok;ku~ leku;A
;n~nso vkKki;frA (cfgxZRok =khu~ rUrqok;ku~
lekuh; izfo'kfrA)

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mHkkSS rUrqok;kS &
oSúxkSjkÄõ% &

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nkSokfjd%
oSúxkSjkÄõ%
nkSokfjd%

&
&
&

54

HkkLorh

oSúxkSjkÄõ% & (rUrqok;kuqfn~n';) Hkks Hkks! ;w;a fufeZrku~ iVku~
eg~;a nÙkA
rUrqok;k% & u o;e;ksX;ewY;Rokr~ iVa fuekZe%A
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & vLrq 'kksHkua iVa fuekZ; eáa nRr] ;ksX;a ewY;a
Hkfo";frA x`gk.k bek% eqnkz % (bfr i×Pkn'keqnkz nnkfr]
rs u x`g~.kfUr] gBkÙks"kka olus fucè; xygLrsu
fu"dkl;fr)A
rUrqok;k% & (}kfj fLFkrk%) egkjkt! u o;a 'krewY;a iVa
i×pn'kfHkjso eqnzkfHk£uekZL;ke%A
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & (lk{ksie~) d bes dksykgya oqQoZfUr (}kfj xRok
lke"kZZe~] d'k;k rkaLrkM;frA) xPNr vija 'kksHkua
iVa fuekZ; leku;r (eqnzk% izf{kI; rs xPNfUrA)
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & (vuqpjeqfn~n';) Hkks!Hkks! vijkafL=kprqjkaLrUrq&
ok;kuku;rA (l fuxZR; prqjLrUrqok;kukuh;) egkjkt!
,rs lekxrk%A
oSúxkSjkÄ%õ & (rUrqok;kufHky{;) fufeZrku~ dkS'kss;iVku~ eáa nÙkA
rUrqok;k% & u o;a iVkfUuekZe%A
oSúxkSjkÄõ% & feF;Srr~A ;w;a iVkfUuekZ; Jsf"Buka lfoèks
foØh.khèos A (lokZu~ d'k;k rkMf;raq HkRlZ;fr)
losZ
& u o;a fuekZe%A (bfr c¼gLriqVk% dEiUrsA)
(fu"ØkUrk% losZ)

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'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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rUrqok;%
oSnsf'kd%
HkRlZ;fr
jkf=kafnoe~
Js"Bh
y{k;fr

&
&
&
&
&
&

tqykgkA
fons'khA
HkRlZ~ $ yV~ izFke iq:"k ,dopu] Mk¡Vrk gSA
fnu jkrA
lsBA
fn[kykrk gSA

55

oL=kfoØ;%
vfuoZpuh;e~
i×p"kS% iVyS%
ifjosf"Vre~
lw{eiVL;
fufeZfrfof/%
dkS'kY;e~
v;ksX;ewY;Rokr~
gBkr~
dksykgye~
d'k;k
dkS'ks;iVku~
foØh.khèos

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

vo.kZuh; (ftldk o.kZu djuk lEHko ugha gSA)
ik¡p N% ijrksa lsA
<dk gqvkA
eghu oL=k osQA
fuekZ.k dh jhfrA
fuiq.krkA
vuqfpr dher osQ dkj.kA
cyiwoZdA
'kksjA
dksM+s lsA
js'keh oL=kkssa dksA
fo $ Øh $ yV~ eú iqú cgqopu] csprs gksA

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vH;kl%

1- v/ksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqRrjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k ns;kfu
(d) v;a ikB% dLekr~ xzUFkkr~ lÄïfyr%] d'p rL; iz.ksrk\
([k) oSnsf'kdks xkSjkÄ~x% ¯d lan';Z Jsf"BukS rUrqok;×p HkRlZ;fr\
(x) rUrqok;su dFka iV% fu"ikfnr%\
(?k) ;Ue;k fu'ph;rs nh;rs p rnso ewY;fefr dFkua dL;kfLr\
(Ä) rUrqok;k% dhn`'kL; iVL; fuekZ.keoqQoZu~\
(p) ;w;a fufeZrku~ iVku~ eáa nRr bfr d% dku~ izfr dFk;fr\
(N) xkSjkÄ~x% rUrqok;ku~ dFka fu"dkl;fr\
(t) oSnsf'kdks xkSjkÄ~x% rUrqok;ku~ d;k rkMf;raq HkRlZ;fr\

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2- fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) dFkesrsu ee oqQVqEcL; ------------------------ Hkfo";r%A
([k) vfuoZpuh;e~ ------------------------ lkSUn;Ze~A
(x) dFkesrRle{keLen~ns'kh;kuka ------------------------ foØ;ks Hkfo";frA
(?k) 'kksHkua iVa fuekZ; eg~;a ------------------------ ;ksX;a ------------------------ Hkfo";frA
(Ä) ;w;a iVku~ fuekZ; ------------------------ lfo/s foØh.khèosA

56

HkkLorh

3- lizlÄaõ O;k[;k;Urke~
(d) ;q"eRoqQVqEcj{kk;S ------------------------ tkuhfg oztk/qukA
([k) vfuoZpuh;esrRiV;ks% lkSUn;Ze~A vfrlw{erjks¿;a iV%A i';] ,rL;
i×p"kS% iVyS% ifjosf"VreI;iVeso izrh;rs¿Ä~xe~A
(x) u o;e;ksX;ewY;Rokr~ iVa fuekZe%A

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4- lfUèkfoPNsn% fØ;rke~
foa'kR;f/de~] eqnzkfÄ~dre~] fo/s#Uewyue~] ekspf;";kE;r%] lke"kZe~] feF;Srr~A
5- ^,rRlw{eiVL;sfr* 'yksdL; Loekr`Hkk"k;k vuqokn% dk;Z%

6- v/ksfyf[krs"kq ins"kq /krqa izR;;a p i`FkDÑR; fy[kr
foØsrqe~] vfuoZpuh;e~] fofpUR;] xRok] fucè;] fuekZ;] vfHky{;A

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%

vfXunX/k;k% 'kkgtgk¡oqQekfjdk;k% fpfdRlk xsofj;yokmQVusu fofgrkA osQ"kkf×pr~
,sfráfonka erkuqlkja lRFkkelegksn;su fofgrkA vuUrjekjksX;a tkre~A iqucZÄõkf/irs%
'kkgtknkjktoqQekj'kqTtkiRU;k vfi fpfdRlk vusuSo o`Qrk] vkjksX;a p izkIre~A iqu%
iQ#[kf'k;jlezkt vkjksX;a ltZufofy;egsfeYVu}kjk tkre~A

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57

;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~

n'ke% ikB%

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;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~

izLrqr dFkk fo'oizfl¼ laLÑr dFkkdkj vkpk;Z osQ'kopUnz nk'k
fyf[kr dFkklaxzg ls ladfyr dh x;h gSA Hkkjro"kZ esa izkphu dky ls
gh nknk&nknh vkSj ukuk&ukuh dh dgkfu;k¡ izpfyr gSaA ijEijkxr :i
esa fy[kh gqbZ ;s dFkk,¡ ckyikBdksa osQ ekufld laLdkj dks cuk;s j[kus
esa l{ke gSaA
izLrqr dFkk esa ml lR; dh okLrfod lR;rk izekf.kr dh x;h
gS tks lnSo fo'o osQ fy, Js;Ldj gksA

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,dfLeu~ xzkeksikUrs ifÁuh ukEuh ,dk iq"dfj.kh vklhr~A r=k
xzkeL; tuk% Lukua oqQoZfUrA olua {kky;fUrA rL;k ,o tyekuh;
ficfUr] ikdkfndeZ p oqQoZfUrA r=kSo xkses"kPNkxknhuka Lukuefi
lEikn;fUrA iq"dfj.kha ifjr% ukuk o`{kk% lfUrA osQpu o`{kk%
rVlayXuk'p oÙkZUrsA iq"dfj.;k% vijHkkxs ,d% vkJe% vfLrA
r=k ,dks eqfu% fuolfrA lks¿fi riZ.kkfnoaQ deZ r=k djksfrA l%
tuku~ vuqu;frA okja okjefi mifn'kfrA ija u dks¿fi rL; opua
'k`.kksfrA
,dnk eqfu% fpUrkeXu%& osQu izdkjs.k bes tuk% cksèkf;rO;k%\
iq"dfj.khr% iVks¼kjks u HkofrA izfrfnua p tya iznwf"kra HkofrA
rr~ iznwf"kra tya ihRok tuk vfi #X.kk HkofUrA dFka p bes
okj.kh;k%---\
lglk dksykgy%Jqr%A eqfu% cfgjkxR; vi';r~A osQpu
tuk ,da ckyda rkM;fUrA ra p HkRlZ;fUrA ckyd% Hk;su dEirs
ØUnfr pA eqfu% r=k mifLFkr%A tuku~ okjf;Rok vi`PNr~A fde~

58

HkkLorh

vHkor~\ fdeFk± HkoUr% ,ua rkM;fUr\ tuk% vonu~A ,"k
feF;koknhA lnSo feF;kHkk"k.ka djksfrA o`Fkk lokZu~ izrkj;frA
l|% vLeku~ izrkfjroku~A
eqfu% ckyde~ vi`PNr~A
vjs! lR;a u onfl\
ckyd% dfEird.Bsu vonr~A
lR;a fde~\
eqfu% rek'okflroku~A
& u tkukfl\ rfgZ e;k lg vkxPNrqA
,oe~ mDRok rL; dja /`Rok eqfu% vkJea izfr ckyde~ vkuhroku~A
eqfu% vfpUr;r~ & v;eso leqfpr% le;%A vfLeÂoljs xzkE;tuk%
vo';a f'k{kf;rO;k%A rr% eqfu% ckydei`PNr~A
& ¯d ro uke\
& ukEuk¿ga Ñ".k%A
& Hkorq] osQu izdkjs.k feF;k dFk;fl\
& ;FksPNa onkfeA
& rfgZ beka iq"dfj.kha n`"V~ok fdefi dFk;A
ckyd% Ñ".k% izlUu% l×tkr%A lg"k± p vo.kZ;r~&
tys¿fLeu~ ,dks egku~ eRL;% vfLrA Hkks%! tuk%
vkxPNr ------------------- i';r ----------------] dhn`'ka l% [ksyfrA
eqfu% vonr~ % lk/q ---------------- lE;d~ fpfUrre~A rfgZ 'o%
izHkkrs xzkE;tuku~ lk/q ,rkon~ onA
Ñ".k% fdf×pr~ oqQf.Brks¿Hkor~A
& ufg] rs eka rkMf;";fUrA
& vjs] ufg ----------------A vuUrja ekeso lk{khdfj";flA
vijizHkkrs Ñ".k% xzkeL; izfrekx± tuku~ vonr~&iq"dfj.;ke~
,dks egku~ eRL;ks e;k n`"V%A

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;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~

59

osQpu vonu~&
& vjs] Roa feF;koknhA ro opus dks fo'okl%\
rr~ {k.ka Ñ".k% mDroku~A
rnkuha e;k lg eqfu% vklhr~A lks¿fi n`"Voku~A vkxPN ----------r=k
i`PN -----------------------A
eqfua lkf{k:is.k LohÑR; xzkE;tuk% vijfnus eRL;kUos"k.ka ÑroUr%A
vUrr% losZ fefyRok iq"dfj.kha izfo"Vk%A eRL;ku~ p /`roUr%A
fdUrq egkeRL;L; lU/kua u izkIre~A fnuiw.k± rs vfUo"VoUr%A
lk;adkys furjka fojDrk% vHkou~A eqfueqixE; ljks"keonu~&
& ¯d Hkokufi vLeku~ izrkj;fr\
eqfu% /hjHkkosu vonr~A
& vjs ! egkeRL;% ¯d
ljyr;k /rq± 'kD;rs\!
rnFk± Je% vko';d%A 'o%
izHkkrs cU/PNsna ÑRok tya
fu"dkl;rA
rnzk=kkS xzkE;tukuka us=k;ks%
funzk ukfLrA rs izkrjkxR;
iz F ker% rVofrZ o ` { kk.kka
Nsnua ÑroUr%A cU/PNsna
ÑRok tya p cfg"ÑroUr%A
,oa izdkjs.k dfr fnukfu
O;rhrkfuA rr% iÄïks¼kja
ÑRok iq " dfj.kha xHkhjka
ÑroUr%A iÄaï p vkuh;
'kL;{ks=ks izlkfjroUr% & bRFka funk?kdky% mixr%A lglk
o`f"VjHkor~A iq"dfj.kh p iw.kkZ latkrkA fueZya tya n`"V~ok losZ
izlUuk% vHkou~A rVkuka ifj"dj.ksu loZ=k lkSfoè;euqHkwre~A

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60

HkkLorh

& br% ;fn df'pr~ tya nw"kf;";fr l% n.M~;ks Hkfo";frA
,dnk eqfu% ,dfLeu~ rVs Ñ".ka n`"V~ok vkdkfjroku~A re~ vkJe&
ekuh; vi`PNr~A
& vjs] Ñ".k! lR;a ¯d Kkra u ok\
& u Kkre~A
& vjs! lR;dFkusu osQoya lR;a u HkofrA ;r~ dY;k.kdja opua
rnfi lR;e~A
& firkegh iqyksetkecks/;r~A vr ,o vLekoaQ 'kkL=ks orZrs&
lR;L; opua Js;% lR;knfi fgra Hkosr~A
;n~HkwrfgreR;Uresrr~ lR;a era eeAA

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'kCnkFkkZ% fVIi.;'p

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xzkeksikUrs
iq"dfj.kh
rL;k ,o
r=kSo
xkses"kPNkxknhuke~
rVlayXuk'p
lks¿fi
fpUrkeXu%
cks/f;rO;k%

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

iÄïks¼kj%
iznwf"kre~

&
&

izfrfnue~
okj.kh;k%

&
&

cfgjkxR;

&

xzkeL; mikUrs] xk¡o osQ iklA
L=khú izFkek ,ú oú] ckoM+hA
rL;k% $ ,o] mlls ghA
r=k $ ,o] oghaA
xkses"k $ Nkx $ vknhuke~] xk;] HksM+] cdjh vkfn osQA
rVlayXuk% $ p] fdukjs osQ lkFk yxs gq,A
l% $ vfi] og HkhA
fpUrk;ka eXu% lIreh rRiqú fpUrk esa Mwck gqvkA
cq/~ $ f.kp~ $ rO;r~A iqa- iz- fo- cgq- o-] le>k;k
tk;sA
iÄïL; m¼kj%] "k"Bh rRiqú dhpM+ dks fudkyukA
iz $ nw"k~ $ f.kp~ $ Dr] uiqaú] izú foú] ,ú oú] xUnk
fd;k gqvkA
fnua fnua izfr] vO;;hHkko lekl izfrfnuA
o` $ f.kp~ $ vuh;j~] iqú izú foú cgqú oú] jksdk
tk;sA
cfg% $ vkxR;] ckgj vkdjA

61

;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~
vkxR;
HkRlZ;fUr
mifLFkr%
okjf;Rok
lnSo
l|%
izrkfjroku~
dfEird.Bsu
vk'okflroku~

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

vfLeUuoljs
xzkE;tuk%
f'k{kf;rO;k

&
&
&

ukEuk¿ge~
;FksPNe~
n`"V~ok
l×tkr%
tys¿fLeu~
lg"kZe~
oqQf.Brks¿Hkor~
lk{khdfj";fl

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

izfrekxZe~

&

vk $ xe~ $ DRok >Y;i~] vkdjA
HkRl~Z & yV~ yú] izú iqú cgqú oú] Mk¡Vrs gSaA
mi $ LFkk $ Dr] iqaú izú foú ,ú oú] vk;k gSA
o` $ f.kp~ $ DRok >Y;i~ jksddjA
lnk $ ,o] lnSoA
'kh?kz (vO;;)A
iz $ r` $ f.kp~ $ Drorq] BxkA
dfEir% d.B% ;L; l% rsu] cgqú lú] Mjs Loj lsA
vk $ 'ol~ $ f.kp~ $ Drorq iqaú izú foú ,ú oú]
vk'oklu fn;kA
vfLeu~ $ voljs] bl volj ijA
xzkE;k% tuk%] deZ/kj;] xk¡o osQ yksxA
f'k{k~ $ f.kp~ $ rO;r~A iqaú izú foú cgq oú] f'kf{kr
fd;s tkus pkfg,A
ukEuk $ vge~] uke ls eSaA
bPNke~ vufrØE;] vO;;hHkko] bPNk osQ vuqlkjA
n`'k~ $ DRok] ns[kdjA
le~ $ tu~ $ Drú iqaú izú foú] ,ú oú] gks x;kA
tys $ vfLeu~ bl ikuh esaA
g"ksZ.k lg] vO;;hHkko lú [kq'k gksdjA
oqQf.Br% $ vHkor~ nq%[kh gqvkA
vlkf{k.ka lkf{k.ka dfj";flA lkf{ku~ $ fPo $ Ñ $
y`V~ eè;e iqú ,ú oú] lk{kkr~ djksxsA
ekx± ekx± izfr] vO;;hHkko] izR;sd ekxZ esaA

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vH;kl%

1- vèkksfyf[krkuka iz'ukukeqRrjkf.k laLÑrHkk"k;k ns;kfu
(d) vL;k% dFkk;k% ys[kd% d% vfLr\
([k) iq"dfj.;k% uke fdeklhr~\

62

HkkLorh
(x)
(?k)
(Ä)
(p)
(N)

eqfu% oSQ% dkj.kS% fpfUrr% vklhr~\
eqfu% tuku~ fde~ vi`PNr~\
ckyd% Ñ".k% iq"dfj.;k% fo"k;ss fde~ vdFk;r~\
egkeRL;L; lUèkkue~ oqQ=k u izkIre~\
okLrfode~ lR;e~ fdefLr\

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2- ekr`Hkk"k;k HkkokFk± fy[kr
(d) iq"dfj.khr% iÄïks¼kjks u HkofrA
([k) xzkE;tuk% ty'kksèkukFkZe~ vo';a f'k{kf;rO;k%A
3- ekr`Hkk"k;k vk'k;a Li"VhoqQ#r
¶lR;L; opua Js;% lR;knfi fgra Hkosr~A
;n~HkwrfgreR;Uresrr~ lR;a era eeAA¸

4- vèkksfyf[krkuka 'kCnkuka inifjp;a fy[kr
vkuh;] vlarq"V%] okjf;Rok] izrkfjorku~] lE;d~] vklhr~] izlUuk%] Js;%]
ifj"dj.ke~] izFker%A
5- fjDrLFkkukfu iwj;r
(d) iq"dfj.khe~ ------------------------ ukuk o`{kk% lfUrA
([k) osQu izdkjs.k ------------------------ cks/f;rO;k%A
(x) iznwf"kra tya ------------------------ tuk% vfi #X.kk% HkofUrA
(?k) tys¿fLeu~ ------------------------ vfLrA
(Ä) 'o% izHkkrs ------------------------ ÑRok tya fu"dkl;rA
6- lfU/PNsna oqQ#r
r=kSo] lks¿fi] iÄïks¼kj%] vfLeUuoljs] ;FksPNe~] rnzk=kkSA

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7- lfoxzga lekluke fy[kr
rVlayXuk%] vlarq"V%] feF;koknh] dfEird.Bsu] xzkE;tuku~] cUèkPNsne~]
fueZye~A

63

;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~

;ksX;rkfoLrkj%
lekukUrjlwDr;%

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(1) lR;a uke euksokDdk;deZfHk% HkwrfgrkFkZefHkHkk"k.ke~A
('kkf.MY;ksifu"kn~)
(2) vuqn~osxdja okD;a lR;a fiz;fgra p ;r~A
Lokè;k;kH;lua pSo okÄ~e;a ri mP;rsAA (Jhen~Hkxon~xhrk 17@15)
(3) lR;a p ¯d Hkwrfgra lnSoA

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('kÄïjkpk;Ziz'uksÙkjh&22)

(4) lR;L; opua Js;% lR;knfi fgra onsr~A
;n~HkwrfgreR;Ura rRlR;fefr dF;rsAA

(O;k[;kuekyk 4@9)

(5) ukfLr lR;leks /eksZ u lR;kf}|rs ije~A
u fg rhozrja fdf×pn~ vu`rkfng fo|rsAA

(O;k[;kuekyk 4@2)

ifjf'k"V

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vuq'kaflr xzUFk

ozQ-la- xzUFkuke
1-

2345-

67-

891011-

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1213-

14-

½Xosn

ys[kd

----------

laiknd@izdk'kd

la- iz- ,u- ,l- lksuVDosQ] oSfnd
la'kks/u e.My] iwuk & 2
;tqosZn
mOoVeghèkjHkk"; pkS[kEck izdk'ku] okjk.klh] 1912
---------vFkoZosn
lkroysdj ikjMh] 1957
jkek;.k
okYehfd
ukx ifCy'klZ fnYyh 1990 iqueqZfnzr
laLdj.k
i×pjk=k
Hkkl
HkklukVdpozQe~] la- lh- vkj- nsoèkj]
vksfj,.Vy cqd ,tsUlh] iwuk & 1954
egkHkk";
iratfy
pk#nso 'kkL=kh] eksrhyky cukjlhnkl]
caxyksjksM] fnYyh & 7
tkrdekyk
vk;Z'kwj
lw;uZ kjk;.k pkS/jh] eksrhyky cukjlhnkl]
fnYyh & 1971
e`PNdfVd
'kwnzd
fu.kZ;lkxj izsl] eqEcbZA
fgrksins'k
ukjk;.k'kekZ
eksrhyky cukjlhnkl] fnYyh & 7
pjd lafgrk pjd
pkS[kEck laLÑr laLFkku] okjk.klhA
n'koqQekjpfjr n.Mh
Jhfo'oukFk >k] eksrhyky cukjlhnkl]
fnYYkh & 7
dFkklfjRlkxj lksenso
eksrhyky cukjlhnkl] fnYyh & 7
laLÑr ukVd ,- ch- dhFk
mn;Hkkuq flag] (fgUnh vuqokn)
eksrhyky cukjlhnkl] fnYyh & 7
laLÑr lkfgR; cynso mikè;k; 'kkjnk eafnj] okjk.klhA
dk bfrgkl

65

;n~Hkwrfgra rRlR;e~
ifjf'k"V
15- oSfnd lkfgR;
vkSj laLÑfr
16- egkHkkjr
17- vfHkKku&
'kkdqUrye~
18- dknEcjh
19- lR;kxzgxhrk
20- Hkkjrfot;
ukVde~
21- e`PNdfVd

cynso mik?;k; 'kkjnk eafnj] okjk.klhA

22- dFkklfjRlkxj

'kwnzd

23- lqCc..k%

ekfLr osÄïVs'k
vk;axkj

O;kl
dkfynkl

eksrhyky cukjlhnkl fnYyhA
eksrhyky cukjlhnkl] fnYyhA

ck.kHkêð
{kekjko if.Mrk
eFkqjkizlkn
nhf{kr
'kwnzd

eksrhyky cukjlhnkl] fnYyh & 7
pkS[kEck izdk'ku] okjk.klhA
eksrhyky cukjlhnkl fnYyh & 7

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fgUnh vuqokn eksgujkds'k] jktdey
izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh] 1962
fgUnh:ikUrj izks- jk/k oYyHk f=kikBh]
us'kuy cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyh] 2005
laLÑr vuqoknd gks- uk- osÄïVs'k 'kekZ
'kkL=kh] vf[ky dukZVd laLÑr ifj"kn~
caSxywj] 1993

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