Geometrical Optics

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Geometrical Optics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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becomes vertical after reflection. The coordinates of the point(s) where this ray is incident is

(A)

L 4

2L

(B)

L 3

3L

(C)

3L 4

2L

(D)

2L 3

3L

2.

A cubical block of glass of refractive index n1 is in contact with the surface of water of refractive index n2. A beam of light is incident on vertical face of the block (see figure). After refraction, a total internal reflection at the base and refraction at the opposite vertical face, the ray emerges out at an angle . The value of is given by :

n12 n22

1 n12 n22

1 n12 n22

A beam of diameter d is incident on a glass hemisphere as shown. If the radius of curvature of the hemisphere is very large in comparison to d, then the diameter of the beam at the base of the hemisphere will be:

(A)

3 d 4

(B) d

(C)

d 3

(D)

2 d 3

4.

A glass sphere of index 1.5 and radius 40 cm has half its hemispherical surface silvered. The point where a parallel beam of light, coming along a diameter, will focus (or appear to) after coming out of sphere, will be:

(A) 10 cm to the left of centre (C) 50 cm to the left of centre Question No. 5 to 8(4 questions)

The figure shows a transparent sphere of radius R and refractive index . An object O is placed at a distance x from the pole of the first surface so that a real image is formed at the pole of the exactly opposite surface.

5.

If x = 2R, then the value of is (A) 1.5 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none of these

6.

If x = , then the value of is (A) 1.5 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none of these

7.

If an object is placed at a distance R from the pole of first surface, then the real image is formed at a distance R from the pole of the second surface. The refractive index of the sphere is given by (A) 1.5 (B) 2 (C) (D) none of these

8.

In previous problem, if the refractive index of the sphere is varied, then the position x of the object and its image from the respective poles will also vary. Identify the correct statement. (A) If the value of increases the value of x decreases (B) If the value of becomes equal to unity, then x tends to infinity (C) The value of must not be less than 1 (D) All the above

9.

A point objects O moves from the principal axis of a converging lens in a direction OP. I is the image of O, will move initially in the direction

(A) IQ

(B) IR

(C) IS

(D) IU

10.

A thin symmetric double - convex lens of power P is cut into three parts A, B and C as shown. The power of

(A) A is P

(B) A is 2P

(C) B is P

(D) B is P/4

11.

When the object is at distances u1 and u2 the images formed by the same lens are real and virtual respectively and of the same size. Then focal length of the lens is: (A)

1 u1u2 2

(B)

1 (u1 + u2 ) 2

(C)

u1u2

12.

Two planoconvex lenses each of focal length 10 cm & refractive index 3/2 are placed as shown. In the space left, water (R.I = 4/3) is filled. The whole arrangement is in air. The optical power of the system is (in diopters):

(A) 6.67

(B) 6.67

(C) 33.3

(D) 20

13.

A concave mirror is placed on a horizontal surface and two thin uniform layers of different transparent liquids (which do not mix or interact) are formed on the reflecting surface. The refractive indices of the upper and lower liquids are 1 and 2 respectively. The bright point source at a heightd (d is very large in comparison to the thickness of the film) above the mirror coincides with its own final image. The radius of curvature of the reflecting surface therefore is (A)

1 d 2

(B) 1 2d

(C) 1d

(D) 2d

14.

If an object is placed at A (OA>f); Where f is the focal length of the lens the image is found to be formed at B. A perpendicular is erected at o and C is chosen on it such that the angle BCA is a right angle. Then the value of f will be

(A) AB/OC2

(D) (OC)(AB)/AC+BC

15.

A parallel beam of light is incident on the upper part of a prism of angle 1.8 and R.I. 3/2. The light coming out of the prism falls on a concave mirror of radius of curvature 20 cm. The distance of the point (where the rays are focused after reflection from the mirror) from the principal axis is :

(A) 9 cm

(B) 0.157 cm

(C) 0.314 cm

16.

A ray of light strikes a plane mirror at an angle of incidence 45 as shown in the figure. After reflection, the ray passes through a prism of refractive index 1.5, whose apex angle is 4. The angle through which the mirror should be rotated if the total deviation of the ray is to be 90 is :

(A) 1 clockwise

(B) 1 anticlockwise

(C) 2 clockwise

(D) 2 anticlockwise

17.

The diagram shows five isosceles right angled prisms. A light ray incident at 90 at the first face emerges at same angle with the normal from the last face. Which of the following relations will hold regarding the refractive indices?

2 2 2 2 (A) 1 + 3 + 5 = 2 + 2 4 2 2 2 2 (C) 1 + 3 + 5 = 2 + 2 + 2 4

2 2 2 (B) 1 + 3 + 5 = 1 + 2 + 2 2 4

D) none

18.

An achromatic convergent doublet of two lens in contact has a power of + 2 D. The convex lens is power + 5 D. What is the ratio of the dispersive powers of the convergent and divergent lenses? (A) 2 : 5 (B) 3 : 5 (C) 5 : 2 (D) 5 : 3

19.

A flat mirror M is arranged parallel to a wall W at a distance l from it. The light produced by a point source S kept on the wall is reflected by the mirror and produces a light spot on the wall. The mirror moves with velocity v towards the wall.

(A) The spot of light will move with the speed v on the wall. (B) The spot of light will not move on the wall.

(C) As the mirror comes closer the spot of light will become larger and shift away from the wall with larger then v. (D) The size of the light spot on the wall remains the same.

speed

20.

In the figure shown consider the first reflection at the plane mirror and second at the convex mirror. AB is object.

(A) the second image is real , inverted of 1/5 th magnification (B) the second image is virtual and erect with magnification1/5 (C) the second image moves towards the convex mirror (D) the second image moves away from the convex mirror.

21.

The figure shows a ray incident at an angle i = /3. If the plot drawn shown the variation of | r i | versus k, (r = angle of refraction)

1 = 2

22.

In the figure shown a point object O is placed in air on the principal axis. The radius of curvature of the spherical surface is 60 cm. If is the final image formed after all the refractions and reflections.

(A) If d1 = 120 cm, then the If is formed on O for any value of d2. (B) If d1 = 240 cm, then the If is formed on O only if d2= 360 cm. (C) If d1 = 240 cm, then the If is formed on O for all values of d2. (D) If d1 = 240 cm, then the If cannot be formed on O. Two refracting media are separated by a spherical interface as shown in the figure. PP is the principal axis, 1 and 2 are the refractive indices of medium of incidence and medium of refraction respectively. Then :

23.

(A) if 2 > 1, then there cannot be a real image of real object. (B) if 2 > 1, then there cannot be a real image of virtual object. (C) if 1 > 2, then there cannot be a virtual image of virtual object. (D) if 1 > 2, then there cannot be a real image of real object.

24.

The radius of curvature of the left and right surface of the concave lens are 10cm and 15cm respectively. The radius of curvature of the mirror is 15cm.

(A) equivalent focal length of the combination is -18cm. (B) equivalent focal length of the combination is +36cm. (C) the system behaves like a concave mirror. (D) the system behaves like a convex mirror.

25.

For the refraction of light through a prism (A) For every angle of deviation there are two angles of incidence. (B) The light travelling inside an equilateral prism is necessarily parallel to the base when prism is set for

minimum deviation. (C) There are two angles of incidence for maximum deviation.(for A < 20C) (D) Angle of minimum deviation will increase if refractive index of prism is increased keeping the medium unchanged if P > S. outside

26.

The image (of a real object) formed by a concave mirror is twice the size of the object. The focal length of the mirror is 20cm. The distance of the object from the mirror is (are) a) 10cm b) 30cm c) 25cm d) 15cm

27.

A point source of light is 60cm from a screen and is kept at the focus of a concave mirror which reflects light on the screen. The focal length of the mirror is 20cm. The ratio of intensities of the illumination on the screen when the mirror is present and when the mirror is removed is: (do not consider any interference and consider only paraxial rays effect) a) 36:1 b) 37:1 c) 49:1 d) 10-1

28.

A particle is moving towards a fixed convex mirror. The image also moves. If V1=speed of image and VO= speed of the object, then

b) Vi > Vo if u > F d) Vi = Vo if u = F

29.

The internal surface of the walls of a sphere is specular (i.e. reflecting). The radius of the sphere is R=36cm. A point source S is placed at a distance R/2 from the centre of the sphere and sends light to the remote part of the sphere. Where will the image of the source be after two successive reflections from the remote and then the nearest wall of the sphere? How will the position of the image change if the source sends light to the nearest wall first? Consider paraxial rays.

30.

A point object O is placed between two spherical mirrors of equal focal length as shown in the

figure.

Considering first reflection on the concave mirror find the position of the image (after 2 successive reflections) relative to the convex mirror. ( is small angle)

31.

For a real object, all of the following statements are correct except: a) the magnification produced by a convex mirror is always less then one. b) a virtual, erect, same sized image can be obtained by using a plane mirror. c) a virtual, erect, magnified image can be formed using a concave mirror. d) a real, inverted, same sized image can be formed using a concave mirror.

32.

Point A(0,1) and B(12,5) are object image pair (one of the point acts as object and the other point as image) xaxis is the principal axis of the mirror. Then this object image pair is: a) due to a convex mirror of focal length 2.5cm b) due to a concave mirror having its pole at (2,0) c) real virtual pair d) data is insufficient for (A) and (B)

33.

In the figure shown M1 and M2 are two spherical mirrors of focal length 20cm each. AB and CD are their principal axes respectively. Which are separated by 1cm? PQ is an object of height 2cm and kept at distance 30cm from M1. The separation between the mirrors is 50cm. Consider two successive reflections first on M1 then on M2. Find the size of the 2nd image. Also find distances of end points P" and Q" of that image from the line AB.

34.

The position of a real point object and its point image are as shown in the figure. AB is the principal axis. This can be achieved by using.

a) convex mirror

b) concave mirror

35.

In the figure, an object is placed 25cm from the surface of a convex mirror, and a plane mirror is set so that the image formed by the two mirrors lie adjacent to each other in the same plane. The plane mirror is placed at 20cm from the object. What is the radius of curvature of the convex mirror?

36.

The table below lists objects and image distances for four objects placed in front of mirrors, using coordinate sign convention. In the following cases, the cases in which image is formed by a convex spherical mirror, is Object distance a) b) c) d) - 25.0 cm - 5.0 cm - 20.0 cm - 40.0 cm Image distance - 16.7 cm 10.0 cm 5.71 cm 80.0 cm

37.

A Composite slab consisting of different media is placed in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 150cm. The whole arrangement is placed in water. An object O is placed at a distance 20cm from the slab. The R.I. of different media is given in the diagram. Find the position of the final image formed by the system.

38.

A particle lies on the bottom of a tank T filled with water up to a height of 90cm. The medium above the surface of water is of R.I. = 1.2 above which there is mirror M. Beyond the mirror M the region contains air ( = 1 ).

The distance of the image formed by the mirror after reflection of the rays coming from P is __________(w.r.t mirror).

39.

A person standing in air looks at the bottom of a filled lake. The apparent depth: a) is maximum at normal incidence b) is maximum at grazing incidence c) increases as angle of incidence decreases from / 2 d) depends on refractive index for a given real depth. The index of refraction of a certain medium (present only in first quadrant) is given by n = ( h + kx )

40.

1/2

, where h

and k are certain constants. Obtain the equation of the trajectory of the ray passing through the origin and almost grazing with the y-axis. Assume that everywhere else other than first quadrant is air.

41.

A man is standing at the edge of a 1m deep swimming pool, completely filled with a liquid of refractive index 3 / 2 . The eyes of the man are

3 m above the ground. A coin located at the bottom of the pool appears

to be at an angle of depression of 30 0 with reference to the eye of man. Find the direct distance of the coin from the eye of the man.

42.

Three is a gradient of refractive index near the surface of the earth considering upward as Z direction. Find curvature of the ray at a height where refractive index is & gradient of refractive index is d /dZ.

43.

An insect at point P sees its two images in the water mirror system as shown in the figure. One image is formed due to direct reflection from water surface and the other image is formed due to refraction, reflection & again refraction by water mirror system in order. Find the separation between the two images. M has focal length 60 cm.

44.

A pendulum of length ' ' is free to oscillate in vertical plane above point O. An observer is viewing the bob of the pendulum directly from above. The pendulum is performing small oscillations in water (refractive index is ) above its equilibrium position. The equation of trajectory of bob as seen by observer is:

a) x + y =

2 2 2

x2 y2 b) 2 + 2 2 = 1

x2 y2 c) 2 + =1 2 ( / )

d) x + y =

2 2

45.

The following figure represents a wave front AB which passes from air to another transparent medium and produces a new wave front CD after refraction. The refractive index of the medium is (PQ is the boundary between air and the medium).

a)

cos 1 cos 4

b)

cos 4 cos 1

c)

sin 1 sin 4

d)

sin 2 sin 3

46.

A man starting from point P crosses a 4 km wide lagoon and reaches point Q in the shortest possible time by the path shown. If the person swims at a speed of 3 km/hr and walks at a speed of 4 km/hr, then his time of journey is salt water = 4 / 3 :

c) 3 hr and 50 min

d) 5 hr and 10 min

47.

The critical angle of light going from medium A to medium B is . The speed of light is medium A is v. The speed of light in medium B is:

a)

v sin

b) v sin

c) v cot

d) v tan

48.

In the figure ABC is the cross section of a right angled prism and BCDE is the cross section of a glass slab. The value of so that light incident normally on the face AB does not cross the face BC is (given

sin 1 ( 3 / 5 ) = 37 0 )

a) 37 0 49.

b) < 37 0

c) 53 0

d) < 53 0

A triangular prism of glass is located inside water. A ray, incident normally, on one of the faces, is totally reflected from face BC. Find refractive index of glass.

50.

A person of height h (you can assume that eye level is at height h) stands on the bottom of a lake of depth H (>h). Compute the minimum distance from the point where the person stands, to the point of the bottom that he can see by totally reflected light from the surface of water. [ n water = 4 / 3 ] .

------------------------------------------------------------------KEY-----------------------------------------------------------------

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

13)

14)

15)

16)

17)

18)

19)

B,D

20)

B,C

21)

B,C,D

22)

A,B

23)

A,C

24)

A,C

25)

B,C,D 26)

A,B

27)

28)

29) 30)

5R R from near end towards source: image will be at from remote end. 6 2

32) A,B,C

33)

34)

35)

R=75 cm.

36)

37)

38)

150cm

39)

A,C,D

40)

y = ( 2 / k )( h + kx 1 )

1/2

( 2 / k )( h 1 )

1/2

41)

4.84 m

42)

1

43)

44)

45)

46)

47)

48)

49)

n>

4 2 3

50)

3 ( 2H h ) 7

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