(During June-July, 2011) AT


Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree IN BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (Electronics & Communication Engineering)

New Delhi




RITESH JAIN ECE-T3 0311562808

1. Certificate 2. Acknowledgement 3. Company Profile (a) Introduction (b) The organization – CEL (c) Departments at CEL (d) Products of CEL (e) Nation’s Pioneer & World leader in SPV (f) Innovative Electronic System (g) Quality Policy of CEL 4. Universal Axle Counter (a) Introduction (b) Flow chart of manufacturing (c) Principle of working (d) Brief description (e) Specifications 5. Description of various modules of Axle Counter System 6. Other products of CEL (a) SPV products (b) Cathodic Protection System (c) Ferrite Products 7. New Products 8. Self Evaluation


This is to certify that Mr. Ritesh Jain of Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi has undergone summer training at CENTRAL ELECTRONICS LIMITED (CEL), 4, Industrial Area, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (U.P.) in SYSTEMS PRODUCTION DIVISION (SPD) from 09/06/2011 to 21/07/2011. We wish him all the success for his future.

Mr. P.C. Awasthi (AGM)

Mrs. Savitri Kashyap (CM- SPD QC)


I am highly thankful to Mr. P.C. Awasthi (CMD) and Mrs. Savitri Kashyap (CM SPD QC) for providing me the opportunity to undergo the practical training in the Systems Production Division (SPD) at Central Electronics Limited. They guided me from time to time and gave me dynamic ideas and suggestions by which I am able to complete my training successfully. I am also thankful to manager of various departments who guided me about the works & processing that are being done in their respective departments. I am also thankful to all those employees at CEL who classified my doubts and confusions during my training period at the firm. It was a greatly satisfying experience to work in such an excellent professional organization where the process of learning is never ending.

I also want to thank all the other directly or indirectly associated people who helped me in completing my practical training with great success

RITESH JAIN ECE-T3 Northern India Engineering College New Delhi


pioneer in the field of Railways Safety & Signaling. has been identified as a major indigenous agency for design an development of modern electronic signaling and safety equipment by Indian Railways. CEL is one of the rare companies which utilized the homegrown technologies during all these years of its existence CEL has developed a number of products for the first time in the country through its own R&D efforts and in close association with the premier National & International laboratories including Defense Laboratories. . CEL has been awarded a number of times with prestigious awards including “NATIONAL AWARD for R&D by DSIR”. CEL is pioneer in the country in the field of Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) and it has developed state of the art technology with its own R&D efforts. and ISPRA.INTRODUCTION Central Electronics Limited is a public sector Enterprise under the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). ITALY. Its solar products have been qualified to International Standards EC503/IEC1215 by the European Commission. 1974 with an objective to commercially exploit the indigenous technologies developed by national laboratories and R & D institutions in the country. CEL’s Digital Axle Counter is approved as per European CENELEC safety level SIL-4 by RDSO(Research Design and Standard Organization of Indian Railways )as an approved source in part-1 for various railway safety and signaling equipments for more than 25 years CEL has developed a number of critical components for strategic application and is supplying these items to Defense. Ministry of Science & Technology. Axle Counter Block System and Train Approach Warning devices. Government of India. The equipment manufactured in CEL finds extreme usage in Railways in the form of Axle Counter. CEL. In recognition of all these efforts. It was established on 26th June. joint Research center.



E.Products from CEL The organization manufactures different products that can be classified according to the divisions of CEL as follows: Solar Photovoltaic Group : • • • • • Solar Cells/Modules Solar Lantern Street Light System Home Light System Water Pumping System Electronic Systems Group : • • • • • • • • Single / Multiple Entry / Exit Axle counters Universal Axle counters Block proving system Railway Level Crossing Warning system Solid State Interlocking System for Railways Cathodic Protection system Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Electronic Switching Equipments Components Group : • • • • • • Different types of ferrite cores like Pot. RM. etc Piezoelectric transducer elements Special Bearings used in Heavy Water Plants Microwave Ferrite Phase shifters Direction Finding Systems Frequency / Phase Correlators . U. I.

India in 1985 and very recently to Scientific Studies and Research Center (SSRC). Backed by an integrated production facility. The company has not only given a fillip to the Indian SPV market but also exported products to Indonesia. ISPRA. Syria in May 1997. Mali.5 lacs SPV systems (20 MW) spread over 28 different types. the abundant and pollution free non-conventional energy source. CEL has made accumulative supply of over 1. Nepal. CEL. has opened up new vistas in the field of solar photovoltaics. Italy.NATION’S PIONEER & WORLD LEADER IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC In an era of growing energy needs and rising concern for environment. Bangladesh. CEL is the poignant and the largest producer of solar photovoltaics. CEL SPV Modules were certified by European Solar Test Installations (ESTI). This is the first case of SPV Technology Export from the Developing World. Columbia and Costa Rica. CEL has successfully transferred technology for manufacturing SPV Modules and Systems to Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Ltd. solar energy. CEL’s SPV Modules conform to the international specifications – JPL Block V and IEC specification no. CEI / IEC 61215. with its commitment to harness the solar energy. JRC. offers the best alternative solution. Bhutan. Egypt. covering both rural and industrial applications. . Cuba.

ONGC and GAIL. The product is expected to be deployed in Indian Railway’s Signaling network in large numbers by the end of year 2002. CEL continually identifies new requirements of the Railways and develops / manufactures the same in association with Research. The Company is currently engaged in development of Digital Axle Counter in association with RDSO and Department of Scientific Industrial Research (DSIR). Cathodic Protection Systems CEL supplies Automatic Cathodic Protection Systems for the protection of oil / gas pipelines to organizations like Indian Oil Corporation. The product is undergoing extensive field trials in different zones of Indian Railways and software validation is under progress. The Company supplies different types of Cathodic Protection Systems operating with solar photovoltaic or thermoelectric power sources or operating on grid supply. Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) and Railway Board.INNOVATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Signaling and Safety Systems for the Indian Railways CEL is the pioneer Public Sector Company supplying Railway Signaling and Safety equipments to Indian Railways. .

vendors.QUALITY POLICY The complete manufacturing operation.” . The company has enunciated the following quality policy to meet customer needs and expectations through supply of quality products and services. marketing and installation services of the company are certified under ISO 9002: 1994. “CEL is committed to strive for leadership in the product marketed by the way of continuous improvements in the quality of its products and services and meeting the consumers needs in time and every time at a competitive price. Quality is our basic business principle. These shall be achieved through continuous upgrading of technology and process improvement by involving all the employees. dealers and customers.


prohibitive cost and environmental consciousness in the country and the world at large. points and crossings still suffers for want of adequate supply and insertion of concrete sleepers. Having gained acceptability for introduction on a wide scale on Indian Railways. Based on the feedback from field. Advantages: The advantages of Axle Counter over a conventional track circuit are: (i) It does not require wooden sleepers (where concrete sleepers are not available) except for short track circuits to suppress the counts due to movement of insulated trolleys. known as “UNIVERSAL AXLE COUNTER”. Two models of axle counters known as single entry/exit axle counter and multi entry/exit axle counters emerged and after extensive laboratory and field trails under various conditions. (ii) An Axle Counter System can cover a very long section of up to 15 km as compared to 750 meters of maximum length of operation of conventional track circuit. rails can be continuously welded. Initially axle counters were imported from Germany to gain experience and to evaluate their suitability for adoption on Indian Railways. thus. lower wear and tear of tracks and vehicles and to increase traveling comfort. a new axle counter has been developed by RDSO. Various Accident Enquiry Committees have recommended to bring more and more tracks under track circuiting to safeguard against reception of trains on occupied lines. (iii) (iv) . Availability of concrete sleepers have solved the problem to some extent but track circuiting on loop lines. The track circuiting could not achieve desired progress due to virtual scarcity of wooden sleepers. It does not get affected either by flooding of track or poor maintenance of tracks unlike track circuits. NEED FOR AXLE COUNTERS: The track circuits are considered as the vital components of signaling system to achieve safety of train operations. It does not require insulating joints. This reduces track maintenance cost. which was taken up in collaboration with IIT. which is highly susceptible to these conditions. the design was finalized and commercialized through private sector as well as public sector. Delhi and DOE.INTRODUCTION Axle counters were developed as a substitute for track circuiting. it was considered to take up indigenous development of axle counters.

Level crossing warning system. Monitoring of point zones in station areas and yards.Applications: Axle counters are finding more and more uses on modern safety signaling systems in the railways. These are being used presently for the following applications: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Monitoring of berthing tracks in station areas and yards. (v) . Automatic signaling systems. Block section monitoring (between stations) through axle counters using multiplexers with cable or radio communication (18 GHz).


In all other conditions TRACK OCCUPIED signal is given. The axle counter compares the IN and OUT counts and in case of count equality TRACK CLEAR signal is given. Signal Signal R1 T1 R2 T2 Entry Point Railway Track R3 T3 R4 T4 Exit Point Track Section EJB 1 Signal Control Relay Output EJB 2 Cable EVALUATOR Cable BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AXLE COUNTER INSTALLATION .PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Signal aspect for train movement is controlled based on clear or occupied status of the track section. When the track section is clear the signal is made GREEN and the train is allowed to proceed into the section. signal at the entry point of the section is made RED and the next train is stopped from entering into the section. The clear or occupied condition of the track section is decided by Axle Counter by counting the number of axles of train at entry and exit points of the section. If a train occupies the track section.

Electronic junction box is powered by 24 V DC supply. Reset box.BRIEF DESCRIPTION The Axle Counter is an electronic device and the complete system consists of: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Track mounting and trackside equipment. Transmission media between trackside equipment and central evaluator: The connection between trackside equipment and central evaluator is made using balanced twin twisted quad cables of specification IRS: TC/41/90. Other media such as optic fiber and wireless system may also be used in place of cable by incorporating appropriate interfacing equipment at transmitting and receiving ends. which limits the length of the cable. Track mountings and track side equipments: The track mounting equipment consists of a pair of transmitter and receiver coils housed in specially designed housings. The output of two receiver coils of a detection point serve as inputs to two receivers amplifiers housed in the same electronic junction box through cables which are part of the track mounting equipment. There is attenuation of signal from electronic junction box to central evaluator. . Line verification box. Central evaluator with EV relays and SUP relays as its output. which are fixed to flange of a rail section by means of suitable rail clamps using bolts and nuts. The two transmitter coils of a detection point are connected in series to 5 kHz oscillators housed in electronic junction box which is installed in a location box by the side of the track. The output of electronic junction box and input of central evaluator are matched for an impedance of about 180 ohms at 5 kHz. Each detection point has two sets of such tracks devices mounted on same rail with a fixed stagger between them. Transmission media between trackside equipment and central evaluator.

generate count pulses in a fail safe manner. will report to SM if track is found clear who in turn will handover the key of line verification box for operation. Yellow and Green). This is a box consisting of a lock with a key fixed inside. Reset Box: This equipment is installed in the station master’s room to enable resetting of central evaluator in case of failure of system after observing prescribed procedure. Whenever there is a failure of axle counter. after verification of the track. The output of the EV and SUP relays is used to indicate “TRACK CLEARED” or “TRACK OCCUPIED” conditions. the counter and 3 LED indications (Red. These pulses are identified as ‘IN COUNTS’ or ‘OUT COUNTS’ depending on the direction of movement of vehicles over the monitored section. The lock gets actuated only when the key is inserted. The evaluator is provided with its own power supply unit known as DC – DC converter mounted in the same rack and requires 24 V DC supply for its operation. . This unit requires 24 V DC supply for its operation. ASM/Switchman. The reset unit consists of a RESET key (which gets actuated after inserting. SM will depute his ASM/Switchman to verify whether the track section controlled by axle counter is clear or not. turned and pressed. This unit functions in conjunction with the line verification box. The counts are also displayed through the 7segment display on the front panel of the evaluator. The DIPs generated by wheels as they pass over the track devices installed at detection points. Line Verification Box: This box is required to be kept near monitored track portion outside Station Master’s (SM) office for achieving co-operative feature. after they get processed.Central Evaluator with EV relay and SUP relay as its output: The signals received from electronic junction boxes are processed in the central evaluator first by analog circuits and then by digital circuits to produce suitable output in terms of picking up or dropping of EV and SUP relays. turning and pressing). The display unit is useful in fault localization and initial and periodical adjustments.

sidings and points and diamond crossings. there is a common detection point at entry and exit point of monitored section. When the IN COUNTS and OUT COUNTS are equal. This system is useful for providing track circuiting on berthing track. 3-D System: In this system. . A train after passing the detection point generates pulses equal to axles in it and these pulses are counted and stored by the evaluator as ‘IN COUNTS’. Four Devices (4-D) System. there are three detection points. there are four detection points. The principle of working of this system is similar to 2-D system. crossings and sidings. the system gives a “Track clear” indication otherwise it gives the “Track occupied” indication. The design of 4-D system is such that it can be converted into a 2-D system or a 3-D system and vice–versa. At the time of exit of train. one at each end of the monitored section. This system is useful for monitoring the berthing track of terminal yard. This system is useful for providing track circuitry on points. These pulses are counted and recorded as ‘OUT COUNTS’ by the evaluator. The principle of working of this system is similar to 2-D system. 2-D System: The principle of working of this system is similar to 1-D System except that in this system there are two detection points. They are named below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) One Device (1-D) System. The system is useful for providing track circuiting on branch lines. 4-D System: In this system.TYPE OF SYSTEMS: There are four types of system used in the Indian Railways. Two Devices (2-D) System. 1-D System: In this system. Three Devices (3-D) System. the same detection point will be encountered and it generates the same number of pulses as that during the entry.

2 Nos. Rack.rms > 10 V . 4 Nos.RB – 257B -. Maximum Train Speed 3. Electronic Junction Box.(inside Evaluator only as 10th Card) -. Evaluator 3. 1500 mv. ACS-55/56/57 2.(Common type for all models) -. JB-533 -. 1 No.LV – 261 1 No. 4F / 4B SPECIFICATIONS 2/3/4 200 Kmph 1023 20 dB Min. Reset box 6. 150 mv. 3 Nos. Max. No.for 4D system (ACS-57-4D) -. TR – 556 7.for a 4D system (ACS-57-4D) -. 5. 2 Nos. 1 No. Track Device Assembly.for a 2D system (ACS-55-2D) -.for a 3D system (ACS-56-3D) -. 1 No.for 3D system (ACS-56-3D) -. 4 Nos. Line verification box PARAMETER 1. 1 No.rms Max. Line Attenuation (over cable) 5.EV – 542 / 543 / 544 -. DC-DC converter 4. 3 Nos. of Detection Points ACS-55 / 56 / 57 2.for 2D system (ACS-55-2D) -. Counting Capacity 4. Relay Drive Voltage for 1000 ohm Shelf type 4F / 4B relay or Q Style Plug in Relay 1000 ohm.SPECIFICATIONS Universal Axle Counter System mainly comprises of following equipments: 1. Signal Input (5 KHz) sinusoidal 6.

8 V DC) Reset Box 24 V (21.5 Amp max.5 Amps < 250 mA 500 mA (only when reset key is pressed) Environmental Conditions: Relative Humidity 95 % .6 – 28.8 V DC) 1.98% Non-Condensing Temperature range: Universal Evaluator Junction Box & Track Devices 0 to +60 ˚C 0 to +70 ˚C .6 – 28.Power Requirement: Powers required by various units are as follows: DC – DC Converter 24 V (-10% to +20%) Evaluator 24 V (21.8 V DC) Junction Box 24 V (21. 1.6 – 28.

The track devices are painted in black colour.3 15 SINGLE RACK DOUBLE EVALUATOR JUNCTION BOX RESET BOX TRACK DEVICE ASSEMBLY LINE VERIFICATION BOX 150 135 80 1. Evaluator. . Junction box and Reset box are also painted in the same colour combination.PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: The approximate dimensions and weights of various units of Universal Axle Counter are given as follows: Name of UNIT WIDTH (mm) 570 600 482 208 255 515 DEPTH (mm) 650 650 439 280 175 330 HEIGHT (mm) 1065 1460 310 170 115 170 WEIGHT (kg) 70 100 21 5 2.20 Colour: The rack is painted in a combination of light and dark grey colours.

ACS – 57 with EV .543” or “EV .544”. 3D or a 4D system respectively is marked on the front side of the evaluator. Line Verification Box: The label “LINE VERIFICATION BOX. No.IDENTIFICATION: Rack: The identification label of the rack is put at the left hand top on the front side of the rack with inscription. EV . label is on the back side.261” is put on the front side and the Sr. DC – DC Converter: It is the 10th Card Module inside the Evaluator and it is marked as “POWER SUPPLY”. (JB-533)” is given while the serial no. LV . “EV . for a 2D. label is on the right side cover. The Sr.542”.544 Evaluator. b) For a 3D Universal Axle Counter System. The serial no. . ACS – 56 with EV – 543 Evaluator. ACS – 55 with EV – 542 Evaluator. Evaluator: The label “Evaluator. a) For a 2D system Universal axle Counter. label is on the back side. c) For a 4D Universal Axle Counter System. Track Devices: Labels indicating the TX and RX coil of the Track Devices are given on each track transducer. The serial no. Reset Box: The label “RB – 257B” is given on the front side. label is mounted on the right hand top side of the rack at the back. label is on the back plate. Junction Box: On the top (front) of the Junction Box the label “JUNCTION BOX. No.

a two stage amplifier and a full wave rectifier. (a) Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no. of such cards (Card nos. For 1D and 2D Systems. In the Universal Axle Counter System manufactured by Central Electronics Limited. The output of each channel can be set precisely by means of a lockable shaft potentiometer mounted at the front end of the PCB module. an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. each consisting of a low pass filter. 2): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). a two stage amplifier and a full wave rectifier. a Schmitt trigger. a line matching transformer. . (d) Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. a line matching transformer. each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter. In addition to above. A brief description of each P. The interconnections between the various PCB cards are made with the help of a motherboard. Hence it is important to ensure correct fitting of modular shield in each card. In addition to above. EVALUATOR: The Evaluator consists of 10 PCB modules. there will be one such card (Card no. assembly is given below. (c) Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. each consisting of a low pass filter. 1): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). 3): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). a Schmitt trigger. each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit. Typical output is 300 mV (P-P) or 105-mv rms. attenuator pads. Typical output is 300 mV (P-P) or 105-mv rms. 4): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). The outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit. The output of each channel can be set precisely by means of a lockable shaft potentiometer mounted at the front end of the PCB module. It contains four identical channels. It contains four identical channels. It contains four identical channels. each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter.DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS MODULES OF AXLE COUNTER SYSTEM 1. attenuator pads.C. It contains four identical channels. the evaluator will have two nos. The outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. relevant card number has been number punched for easy identification to ensure correct fitting of modular shields. The polarization arrangement (to avoid wrong insertion of modules) is provided on the aluminum modular sheets in each. 1) while for 3D and 4D Systems. 1 & 2). (b) Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no.

In addition to above. duplicate INCOUNT and OUTCOUNT pulses are also generated here for supervision purpose. This generates four clock pulse trains.7): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm).For 1D and 2D Systems. to check the integrity of the counters. CD. G. In case of any malfunction the system latches to failure condition. of such cards (Card nos. The ‘IN COUNT’. with each of these pulse trains having a phase difference of 25 µs. ‘OUT COUNT’. (f) Logic – II (Card no. ‘DUPLICATE IN COUNTS’ and ‘DUPLICATE OUT COUNTS’ due to the dips caused from channel inputs from the track detection points A. the final count pulses fed to the counter card get staggered and thus counts are not circuits. This card generates ‘IN COUNTS’ and ‘OUT COUNTS’. (g) Counter Comparator (Card no. the evaluator will have two nos. H. ‘OUT COUNTS’. due to the dips caused form the track transducers E. Card 6 also has an ‘INTERROGATOR’ circuit. In addition. one being a duplicate . B. This card houses two 10 stage digital counters-one for counting the ‘IN COUNTS’ and the other for ‘OUT COUNTS’. F. 3 & 4). In addition to main count pulses. ‘Duplicate In count’ and ‘Duplicate Out count’ pulses are fed separately to different combiner gates housed in card 6 (Logic II) and thereafter fed to the counter card (Card 7) for further processing. which combine the count pulses generated from all the detection points AB. 7) for counting and counts supervision. (e) Logic – I (Card no. It also has combiner gates. All these four pulse trains are staggered in phase. This card houses the logic circuitry to generate ‘IN COUNTS’. 3) while for 3D and 4D Systems. It also has count super. The outputs of these gates are fed to the counter card (Card no. 6): This is also a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). 5): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). As E. there are two comparators. as compared to the subsequent one. H channel inputs are used only in case of 3D or 4D Systems. both for in counts as well as the out counts. EF and GH. this PCB also houses the IN/OUT supervision circuits. The interrogator ensures that even if more than one INCOUNT or more than one OUTCOUNT are fed simultaneously from different detection point. G. F. there will be one such card (Card no. depending upon the direction of the train movement. card 5 will be used only with the 3D and 4D Evaluators. This card also houses the 1st OUTCOUNT inhibit circuit which ensures latching up of the system in the event of 1st count getting registered being an ‘OUT COUNT’ instead of an ‘IN COUNT’. C and D. both counter checking each other.

The ‘VOLTAGE MONITOR’. (h) General Supervision Card (Card no. (b) A series of mono shot pulses forming a chain for static supervision i. Q-style 4F/4B plug-in relays which are used to indicate the track clear or track occupied indications to control signal aspects. (c) Pulse Shaper (Card no.of the other. to compare the counts from the two counters the ‘IN COUNTER’ and the ‘OUT COUNTER’. 9): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) and it houses the following circuits: (i) Level detector circuits for all the 8 channel inputs to ensure the presence of proper channel input levels. 3 and 4) supervision for all the eight channels. (k) EV & SUP Relay Indication LEDs: The output of the Evaluator is used to drive two 12 Volts DC. (ii) (iii) Relay driver outputs for driving the EV relay and the supervisory relay. This card is mounted on front panel of evaluator and counts are recorded in decimal system. Two 10 mm dia. (i) Relay Driver (Card no. These LEDs have to be suitably wired at the time . (j) Counts Display Card : This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) containing four seven segment LED’s for ‘IN COUNTS’ and four seven segment LED’s for ‘OUT COUNTS’ and it can count up to 1023 counts in both the display. The outputs of the comparators are further compared with EX-OR chain to ensure integrity of the comparators. (d) Failure supervision. LEDs (Green and Red) have been provided in the front side of the Axle Counter Rack in a metallic strip for locally displaying the position of the above relays. a ‘WATCH DOG’ for the +5V power supply to the Evaluator. which serves as. to prove the effectiveness of a number of DC levels of the system and a few ground points. 8): This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm).e. 4F/4B shelf type relays or 12 Volts DC. It houses the following evaluator circuits: (a) Comparator Supervision.

2. power supply and trolley protection and to feed outputs to the EV and the Supervisory Relays kept in the rack. The PCB is mounted at right angles to the other 10 PC Cards and serves the purpose of providing various interconnections between them. to feed various inputs like channel inputs from the tracks. The mother board also provides access. The sequence of cards is. All the incoming / outgoing signals are terminated on the MS Couplers (7 pin) mounted at the back of the junction box. (m) Reset Relay: This is mounted at the back of the Evaluator on the motherboard.of installation as per requirements from the terminal strip connections provided at the rear side of the Axle Counter Rack. through MS Couplers. The female parts of the Euro Connectors are mounted on this PCB and corresponding male parts which are mounted on the PCBs (Cards 1 to 10) mate with them when the card modules are inserted in the unit. This Relay resets the System whenever required to do so. (Size: 200 mm X 110 mm) . Two types of outputs are available from the EJB. ELECTRONIC JUNCTION BOX (EJB): The Electronic Junction Box houses PCB modules which are inter-connected through motherboard. A 67DP-24-4C3 OEN Relay is mounted on this PCB with a mounting socket. The output of the EJB is sent to the Evaluator either through a 4 wire or a 2-wire system. two pairs of under ground cable are required to send transition signal to evaluator for counting the dips. (l) Mother Board: This is a double sided PCB (Size: 420 mm X 260 mm) mounted at the back of the Evaluator. one for each receiver coil. (a) 4-Wire System: In a 4-Wire System. In this system there are three PCBs consisting of common oscillator feeding to two transmitter coils in series and two number of receiver amplifiers.regulator and oscillator in first position. 1 : Regulator / Oscillator Card. first amplifier in second position and second amplifier in the 3rd position from left to right. Detail of individual cards: CARD No.

(b) 2-Wire System : In 2-wire system. the receiver amplifier card-2 and 4W / 2W card. 4W / 2W Converter Card. The sequence of cards is: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Regulator / Oscillator Card. which converts the frequency of the second receiver amplifier signal to 3.This is a single sided PCB (Size: 200mm X 110 mm). namely the regulator / oscillator card. Receiver Amplifier Card-2. Receiver Amplifier Card-1. The output of the receiver coil (1) is fed to the input of the amplifier. . RESET BOX: This box houses one 12 way PIRI terminal strip for terminating IN / OUT signals. The output voltage is 60 V ± 10% (RMS) and current supplied is 420 mA ± 10% in the coils in series. Thus. The Yellow LED indicates co-operative permission for resetting the Axle Counter. This is used in block working at Advance starters only. 2 : Receiver Amplifier-1. Green and Red indications are given for track clear and track occupied conditions. 3 : Receiver Amplifier-2. CARD No. which generates 5 KHz ±20 Hz sinusoidal signal which is fed to the transmitter coils in series.5 KHz with the use of converters. 2-wire system is having output on 2-wire and consists of 4 cards. The output of the amplifier is connected to the Evaluator and voltage is more than 1. (Size: 200 mm X 110 mm) This card is exactly similar to card no.2 V (RMS). a 4th card is inserted in the EJB. CARD No. (Size: 200 mm X 110 mm) This is a single sided PCB of size same as that of card 1 and it rejects any noise over riding in the signal by means of a two stage tuned amplifier. 2 and is used for receiver coil (2). 3. the receiver amplifier card-1. The indication LEDs of the reset box are fitted in LED holders and projected to the front for indication.

1% line & load regulation.1% line & load regulation. . which forms an electromagnetic field across the receiver coils.2 volts. 24 / 0. The Junction Box (JB . The various output voltages of the DC–DC Convertor are as follows: + 5 V@ 5Amp. with ± 0. The two transmitter coils at each of the detection point are fed in series by a 5 KHz sinusoidal signal from the junction box. which are fitted with suitable mounting arrangements on the rail camp. The receiver housing is fixed on the base clamp on the inner side of the rail. The receiver coil in turn generates induced voltage. All the supplies have over current protection while 5V supply has additional crow bar protection at 6.2 PVC cable. + 5 V@ 5Amp. with ± 0. Each receiver coil will be powered with a 10 meter. The DC-DC Convertor in turn derives its power from a + 24 V dc source i. It is fixed on the rail clamp on the outer side of the rail. 5. to the Evaluator is fed by a DC–DC Convertor.2 PVC cable.e. (a) Track Device Transmitter: The transmitter coil is placed in a FRP housing and it is potted in place by m-seal compound. Each transmitter coil will be provided with a 10 meter.531) and the Reset Box (RB – 257B) are also powered from + 24 V dc battery bank. POWER SUPPLY: The Power Supply. which in turn is fitted to the rails. a battery bank. The induced voltage drops to a minimum whenever there is an axle between the transmitter and the receiver coils. 24 / 0. TRACK DEVICE ASSEMBLY: The Single Rail Track Device Assembly consists of two transmitter and two receiver coils assembly.4. (b) Track Device Receiver: The receiver coil is housed in a composite Aluminum fiber glass housing and is potted in place by the means of an m-seal compound. + 10 V isolated @500 mA.

Also each unit will be tested thoroughly as per the test schedules mentioned in the test report before the final shipment. This will eliminate the failure of critical components after the assembly of the PCB. . fitness.PRODUCTION TESTING & TEST PROCEDURE: The semi – conductor devices like diodes and transistors used are of high reliability type. INSPECTION: Each unit will be examined for proper workmanship. WAVE SOLDERING: All the PCB’s assembly will be wave soldered for good reliability and also coated with lacquer to withstand climatic conditions. finish and proper markings. The other vital components like ICs mostly are the commercial grade ICs which will undergo burn in at 60°C with dc power ‘ON’ for 72 hours.

CARD POLARISATION: Polarizing holes on the card modules and guiding pins from the Mother Board side are used to provide card polarization to ensure correct card slotting.3 wire. MOTHER BOARD: The use of mother board gives extra noise immunity as compared to back panel wiring. COUNTS DISPLAY: The Counts display is given on a PCB and mounted on the front panel inside and is viewed through display viewing plate at the front panel of the Evaluator. MODULE TIGHTENING SCREWS AND CARD HANDLES: Module tightening screws are provided to fix the cards along with the module in the unit smoothly.SPECIAL FEATURES The Universal Axle Counter has the following special features: PCB LAYOUT: Better PCB layouts to have supply feeding and decoupling for better noise immunity. All the metallic frames of the rack are interconnected to the main frame by means of 34 / 0. This gives good noise immunity against electromagnetic interference. the supply. CARD INSERTION: Each Card along with a module is guided separately. . RACK: The Evaluator is housed in a rack fabricated out of M. shield of which is connected to the back panel of the Evaluator. By loosening. channel markings and trolley protection A / B. EVALUATOR MARKINGS: In each unit input /output labels.S. sheet. Shielded cables will be used in system. The modules can be taken out with the help of these handles. the cards can be removed from the unit. SHIELDING: The Rack is well shielded for better noise immunity. Two card handles are provided on each module. CARD MODULES: Each Card is provided with a module along with the identification label. C / D are marked.


The generated electricity from the SPV array is fed to the pump through a switch. Normally low storage batteries are provided. a charge controller and lights. SPV OUTDOORS LIGHTING SYSTEMS: These systems use a weather proof 18-watt or 20-watt fluorescent tube light fittings. Such systems have been deployed all over the country. Two models SLS-03 and SLS-06 are available depending on hours of operation in day. The SPV panel converts the sunlight incident on it directly to DC electricity that can be stored in the battery and used to energize the lights when required. as the water can be stored in the storage tanks if required. The SPV Lighting System essentially consists of an SPV panel battery. Each lamp can give the output of 60-watt incandescent lamp. battery and the tube-light fittings are mounted on a 4M long pole.OTHER PRODUCTS OF CEL SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS: A Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System essentially consists of an SPV panel or array directly powering a water pump. CEL offers SPV Water Pumping Systems for both shallow as well as deep well conditions. Water pumped during the day can be stored in the storage tanks for use during the night. DLS-02 has two numbers of 9W luminous efficiency lamps with wall mounting fittings. . Switching ON at dusk and OFF after specified hours of operation is automatic. The system has also been exported to many developing countries. The charge controller prevents the overcharging and deep discharge of the battery. The SPV panel. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS: CEL’s Solar Photovoltaic Lighting Systems are ideal sources for providing indoor/outdoor illumination in remote and un-electrified settlements/ villages. SPV INDOOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS: Two types of indoor lighting systems are available (DLS-02 and DLS-04) depending on the lighting requirements. DLS-04 has four such lamps.

SPV MODULE :A number of high-grade crystalline silicon solar cells. a SPV module and a connecting cable. This stored energy in the battery is used to operate the lamp when required. interconnected in series combination and hermetically sealed with a toughened glass cover. It consists of a lantern.SOLAR LANTERNS: CEL Solar Lantern is a versatile and a reliable source of lighting. The SPV module when exposed to light charges the battery in the lantern. form a SPV module. SALIENT FEATURES :§ § § § ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PORTABLE RUGGED AND DEPENDABLE SILENT OPERATION APPLICATIONS :§ § § § § EMERGENCY LIGHTING SOURCE LIGHTING SOURCE IN REMOTE VILLAGES LIGHTING AT PICNIC SPOTS AND FARM HOUSES GARDEN LIGHTING LIGHTING AT MILITARY OUTPOSTS .

West Bengal – 1979 SPV Pumping System for drinking water near Jaipur – 1980 SPV Community Lighting Systems installed at SOS children’s village.1986 Supply of SPV Power System for weather monitoring.) in the Himalayas – 1986 SPV powered Lighting and Television System for army at Siachin (ALT : 3600 – 5500 mtrs / 12000 ft.) in the Himalayas – 1987 Supply of first 2 KW power SPV Village Power Pack – 1987 SPV systems for warning signals at Unmanned Railway Level Crossings – 1988 SPV Rural Deep well Water Pumping Systems for National Drinking Water Mission 1989 SPV Power System for Rural Telecommunication transmission and switching equipments – 1989 Supply and installation of SPV Systems in village Hitam-ulu.1978 SPV Irrigation Water Pumping System installed at Kalyani. Madras – 1993 Supply of Foldable Lightweight SPV modules for powering Man pack Communication – 1993 Equipments for the defense services to operate in the temperature range from –30°C to +55°C.P. – 1992 10 KW Power Generator for M. Ladakh. Indonesia – 1990 SPV Lighting Systems for Adult Education under National Literacy Mission – 1990 Supply and installation of 6 KW Power Plant at Kariawali village in U.MILESTONES OF SPV SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AT CEL Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø SPV operated Radio set in Jammu & Kashmir . – 1990 Supply and installation of Asia’s first 100 KW SPV Power Plant at Kalyanpur village near Aligarh. J&K – 1980 SPV Community Television Systems installed at Kalyani. Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø . Andhra Pradesh – 1983 SPV foldable modules for Everest-84 Expedition – 1984 SPV systems for Direct Reception community TV sets of Doordarshan – 1985 SPV Systems for Cathodic Protection of oil pipelines – 1985 SPV systems for Vaccine Refrigeration in village Health Centers –1985 Design and supply of first SPV Systems for very low powered unmanned TV transmitter (VLPT) & TV Receiver Only (from INSAT) (TVRO) terminals of Doordarshan .S. lighting and entertainment at an Avalanche Study Station at Rohtang Pass (ALT : 3600 mtrs/12000 ft. Swaminathan Foundation at Taramani.P. Leh. U. Sumatra. West Bengal – 1980 Special SPV Power Pack for the first Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica – 1981 First SPV Power System for unmanned off-shore oil well platform of ONGC – 1982 SPV operated Diesel Dispensing Pump – 1982 Export of SPV Water Pumping and other System – 1983 First SPV powered stand-alone Street Lighting System in Salojipali.

Designed life of anode bed is 35 years and that of the CP system is 20 years. The coating resistance in normal soil shall be 7000 /m.CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM INTRODUCTION: M/s Indian Oil Corporation Limited is presently laying 18” dia. 437 Km. of 22 Kg high silicone chrome anode : : : : : 125 microA/sq.. Owner intends to provide permanent cathodic protection system consisting of 13 nos. away at HBPCL near Barauni. Coating Details: The pipelines shall have yard coated coal for tar coating with fiberglass reinforcement. long pipe line in 2 segments for augmenting the capacity of existing OD 498 Km. SUMMARY OF PERMANENT CP SYSTEMS: Designed current density considered for design Total no.3. of impressed current cathodic protection station to cathodically protect the underground coated pipeline for a design life of 35 years. of CP stations Total designed current for entire span Max. 13 Nos. design current of CP station Total no. mts.8 A 10 A 250 PROJECT INFORMATION: The Haldia – Barauni Augmentation pipeline is starting from Haldia and it terminates approximately 473 Km. long Haldia-Barauni Crude Oil pipeline from Haldia to Barauni. . 103. BASIS IN BRIEF: Permanent CP System has been designed for CTE coating having coating resistance of 7000 ohm / m factor of safety as 1.

5 % : 0. § COMPOSITION: Si Mn C Cr Fe : 4 % to 15.8 % : 1. High silicon-chrome anode and anode beds: The anodes shall be High Silicon Chromium cast iron. The technical data of the Hi-Si-Cr-Fe anodes assembly shall be as under. or more depending on the soil. Anodes shall be provided with encapsulated heads and heat sink caps connected at top.5 % : remaining . & 1 mt. § ANODE TYPE : Hi-Si-Cr-Fe Anode § DIMENSIONS : 65 mm.Depth of pipeline: Generally the HBPCL has proposed the pipeline to be laid at minimum depth of 1 mt. Depth may increase to 9 mts. Dia. long § WEIGHT : 22 Kg. from the ground level. cylindrical type.4 % : 4.


Otherwise the section is shown as ‘OCCUPIED’. The health of SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units are continuously monitored and proved in vital relay drive circuits. After exchange of counts stored in both SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units. The system is designed with: • • High frequency track coils. When the train is entering the section the wheel counts are registered and stored in the 2nd SSDAC unit. When the train is entering the section the wheel counts are registered and stored in the 1st SSDAC unit. The system has two detection points for monitoring either end of the section. . the section is declared as ‘CLEAR’ in case the counts are equal. The vital relay drive is available independently at either end of the section from SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units.SINGLE SECTION DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER A state-of-the-art Digital Axle Counter has been developed by CEL for track monitoring of single section in railways. Track side electronic counting unit including vital relay drive.

FEATURES: • • • • • • • System capacity: 450 Input. The system is designed with “2 out of 2” Microprocessor with hot standby. . The system has software redundancy. On Line self-diagnostic facility. Modular design for easy maintenance and expansion. 72 Output. Opto Isolated Inputs and Outputs. Dual Microprocessor Based (2 out of 2) Fail-safe design.SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING Solid State Interlocking (SSI) is Signaling System to select and operate the routes in station for guiding the movement of the trains. Hot standby for High System Availability. Data Logging with Time Stamping of all SSI Inputs and Outputs for Off-line analysis. The system replaces the conventional Route Relay Interlocking. The operator panel is used to control and command and display the status of SSI.

to the people and road traffic crossing the Railway line. The system is ideal for remote railway level crossings. SYSTEM OPERATION: A track device actuated solar powered VHF transmitter located 3-4 Kms. . The ruggedized system is under extensive field trials.Visual Alarm for forewarning the traffic. Designs and Standards Organization (RDSO) for providing early warning of a train / locomotive approaching unmanned level crossing.SOLAR POWERED RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSING RADIO WARNING SYSTEM (SOLARGUARD ™) CEL has developed this system. in association with Research.e. from the level crossing (i. Far End) sends a coded radio signal towards the level crossing when an approaching train crosses the Far End. The radio signal is received by solar powered receiver located at the level crossing (Gate End) which after decoding the signal actuates an Audio.

It has also enhanced my knowledge about the functioning and management of an industry. CEL.SELF EVALUATION This 6 weeks Industrial Training has led me to understand the various designing. assembling and the manufacturing processes of equipments in the industry. New Delhi . which I am sure. will be beneficial to me in my career. Ritesh Jain ECE-T3 0311562808 Northern India Engineering College.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful