Progressive Era – US History Progressive Era Roosevelt as President Progressive Groups • • • • • The Progressive Era is a time period of the

United States. It represented moving forward, change, reform, etc. Urban Middle Class College educated White collar workers, professional and good at stuff. o Got paid a salary, as opposed to Blue collar hourly pay. They were anti-trust. Intellectuals Teachers, students, journalists, etc. Pragmatism, “what works is right” belief. Oliver W. Holmes JR – law based on human exp. o Served for 30 years on the Supreme Court, influenced it o Wanted Common Sense in law, pragmatism on free speech. Religious Leaders Protestants, believed in the “Social Gospel”, must act, not simply do nothing. Women Wanted the right to vote, supported the suffrage movement Already women could vote at some State levels, but not Federal

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Muckrakers Name originated from “Pilgrims Progress” poem (see p. 385) • They swept up corruption to bring it to light. • Somewhat like investigative journalists Recap: • An example would be Ida Tarbell writing in Progressive Era marks a change McClure’s magazine on the sneakystart of of for moving forward, reforming, at the actions 1906 – New Agency
Roosevelt’s presidency. The Progressive Groups were Urban Middle Class, Intellectuals, Religious Leaders, Women, and Muckrakers. The Food and Drug Administration was formed in 1906 after The Jungle caused

Progressive Goals

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1908 City Manager Formed • • Direct Primary 1900 • • • • • Follette • • • • Roosevelt • • • • • • Recap:

Political Reform Commission Government formed 1st in Galveston TX in 1901 o 1900 The largest hurricane hit there, 1 of the top 5. o The levees were weak, and the city was destroyed. o The people wanted to rebuild this city. Hired a Commission, or group of trained professionals running the Government. The City Manager Government system was formed in Stanton Virginia in 1908. This has no major, but only a hired city manager. He is a professional who is hired to run the city. The Direct Primary was formed in Wisconsin Up until this, the bosses choose candidates, which was not fair to the voters. Anyone should be able to run. People would choose a representative for their party. Wisconsin was the most progressive of all the states The most Progressive Governor was Robert La Follette He was governor from 1900 to 1906, the most famous one. There are still Follettes in Government today. Originally from Cumberland, Wisconsin Went to the University of Wisconsin and met his wife. Spent time in Congress before failing to become Governor in 1900. In the Direct Primary, he was able to be elected. He built the current capital after the 1903 fire. It was made of marble from Italy and Greece. Old Abe the eagle resides there. o Bought from Indian in 1859, fought Confederates, etc.


• He saved money by having live animals the Direct The Progressives wanted Political Reform, the City Manager government and ‘mow’ the Primary were formed. Wisconsin was the most Progressive State in the country. Robert La Follette was the most famous Wisconsin Governor, who built the new capital in Madison.

1904 Election

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Roosevelt’s Second Term • • • • • • 2 New States Roosevelt Taft • • • • • •

Roosevelt ran for election again. Democrat nominee was New York Court judge Alton Parker He did good in the South, but Roosevelt took everything else and won the election 336 – 140 He was open to being Progressive, created National Parks, Broke up trusts, and stopped corruption. Cleaned up college football with the NCAA in 1906 1907 a panic swept the country, usually due to paper money. A depression started, and many blamed Roosevelt for spending In 1908, Roosevelt felt he would loose, so he was going to retire Taft, the Secretary of War in 1906, was anointed to be the successor, but really wanted to be a Supreme Court Judge. Taft’s family pressured him to campaign, so he did. The 1908 Democratic nominee was William Jennings Bryan He did better than Parker, but Taft won easily 321 – 162 Utah was added in 1896 Oklahoma added in 1907 Went and shot 1,200 animals in Africa for a year long trip.

Attempted to take a bath, but got stuck in the White House tub th • Bought the 1st car and pool sized bath tub for the The 16 Amendment th White House The 17 Amendment • Payed for oversized furniture so he wouldn’t break antiques. • Taft threw the 1st pitch for the Senators game. o Hated the seats there, so he stood up in the 7th inning. o The “7th Inning Stretch” was created. Recap: • Taft viewed himself as a Progressive Roosevelt won in 1904, acted as He was the real trustbuster, suffered a Standard Oil • a Progressive and the country breaking panic. He
retired after his term. Taft won in 1908, and was the real trustbuster. Utah and Oklahoma were added as states. The 16th and 17th Amendments were passed, allowing Income tax and electing Senators

Joseph Cannon

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• Insurgents January 1911 • • • • • Democrats • • • •

Ran the House like a zone dictatorship Controlled the “hopper” basket where proposed bills went. o Usually 500 considered, 50 made laws o This gave him great power in the country The Progressives in 1910 tried to take powers from Cannon, they were led by George Norris, they succeeded. Young progressive republican house guy Progressives broke from the Republicans Led by Robert La Follette to oppose the Taft. 1912 – He had a nervous breakdown, so they needed a leader Hiram Johnson was predicted, but instead Roosevelt came back The media remembered he said you shouldn’t be President 3 times, but he replied saying it was 3 times in a row. They were called the Bull Moose Party, Roosevelt was ready.

This division offered a big opportunity in 1912 Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey was nominated o Born 1856 in Staunton, Virginia o His father was a minister, Woodrow was sickly and needed glasses, like Roosevelt. o Graduated from Princeton before teaching there. o Named President of Princeton in 1892 o Added the 1st elective system, Schools within, and 1st Quadrant System centered Taft around a square. o But he was not into sports or Alumni relations. o 1910 – the Alumni booted him o He ran for Governor of New Jersey in 1910 Roosevelt • Democrats said he was good, nominated in 1912 Recap: • Only got 42% of the vote, but he won with 435 votes Joe Cannon was a powerful Speaker of the House who was removed of his power by the • Taft was happy to leave, and entered the Supreme
Insurgents. Roosevelt joined the Progressive Party and declared himself a Bull Moose. The Democrats seized this split in the Republican Party and nominated Woodrow Wilson for the win in 1912.

----------END OF SECTION. SEE THE African Americans After Reconstruction NOTES!!! ------------

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