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- Concept of biodiversity Classification of living organisms - Need for classification. - Three domains of life. - Five kingdoms of life and basis of five kingdom classification. - Lichens. - Virus and Virioids. Systematics and binomial nomenclature - Taxonomy & Systematics. - Concept of species and taxonomic hierarchy. - Binomial nomenclature. - Salient features and Classification of Monera, Protoctista (Protista) and Fungi into major groups - Salient feature and classification of plants into major group – Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and features of each category and at least two examples of each. - Angiosperms – Classification upto class, characterition features and Examples. - Salient feature and classification of animals – Major non chordate phyla and chordate classes. Three to five salient features and at least two examples. - Tools for study of biodiversity – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, botanical Gardens.
Unit II : Structural Organisation in Animal and Plants Tissues in animal and plants. Morphology including modifications, microscopic anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering Plants: Root, Stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. (To be dealt with along with the relevant Practicals of the Practical Syllabus) Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
Unit III : Cell Structure and function Cell and its three major parts – Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus - Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. - Structure of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. - Plant cell and animal cell. (brief)
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endoplasmic reticulum.Absorption of water. significcnce of. cell wall Structure and function: Mitochondria. food.Energy relation – Number of ATP molecules generated. . . nucleic acids.Autotrophic nutrition. fermentation (anaerobic). transpiration pull. Unit IV : Plant Physiology Movement of water. flagella. . chromatin. . . biological nitrogen fixation. enzyme action. .Cellular respiration – glycolysis. . . .Apoplant. properties.C and C pathways. centrioles (Ultrastruture and function).Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis. Cytoskeleton.Factors affecting photosynthesis. root pressure. water potential. . Enzymes – types.Uptake of mineral and their translocation .Exchange of gases. cell membrane.Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. Cell division – Cell cycle.Plants and mineral nutrition. . carbodydrates. osmosis.Nitrogen metabolism – Nitrogen cycle.and micronutrients and their role .Respiratory quotient of nutrients.Chemismotic hypothesis. microbodies. golgi.Transport through xylem and phloem. . . macro.Long distance transport .Amphibiotic pathways.Law of limiting factors. . .Plant Respiration .Photosynthesis .Essential minerals. . . facilitated diffusion.Mineral toxicity. nucleolus.Role of K+ ions. . . Chemical constituents of living cells. . active transport. fats.opening and closing of stomata.Imbibition. lysosomes.Plant – water relations .Site of photosynthesis. . . Nucleus – nuclear membrane. plasmolysis. Biomolecules – Struture and function of protieins.- - Cell organelles – Cell envelope.Diffusion. symplast. . Page | 2 .Cell to cell transport . ribosomes. plastids.TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic). .Photosynthetic pigments (Elementary idea). gases and nutrients.Photorespiration.Transpiration and Guttation . and differences between mitosis and meiosis.Deficiency symptoms. nutrients and gases . . .Elementry idea of Hydroponics as a Method to study mineral nutrition. cilia. vacuoles. .
indigestion. Urine formation.Peristalsis.Disorders related to respiration – Asthma.Respiratory volumes. Angina pectoris. carbodydrates and fats. Growth regulators-auxin. Osmoregulaion. Cardiac cycle. Body fluids and Circulation Composition of blood.Calorific value of proteins. Double circulation. Unit V : Human physiology .Nutritional and digestive disorders – P E M. Seed dormancy. Human circulatory system. Coronary artery disease.Respiratory system in humans. transport of gases and regulation of respiration in humans. . .Respiratory organts in animals. ethylene. Disorders of circulatory system – Hypertension.Exchange of gases. Condition of growth.- Plant growth and development Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate. . . Composition of Lymph and function. Regulation of kidney function. Human excretory system-structure and function. Emphysema. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of phytochromes. . . Page | 3 . Differentiation. ECG. Photoperiodism. constipation. Antinatriuretic factor. . . . gibberellin. absorption and assimilation of proteins. ureotelism.Breathing and Respiration . cytokinin.Digestion. (Elementary Idea) Seed germination.Mechanism of Breathing and its regulation in humans. Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell. Blood groups. dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. Coagulation of blood. Excretory products and their elimination Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism. Structure of human heart and blood vessels. .Digestion and Absorption . vomiting. (Recall only) . jaundice. carbodydrates and fats. ADH and Diabeters insipidus. Cardiac output.Role of digesitive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones . Renin-angiotensin. Regulation of cardiac activity. Vernalisation.Egestion.Human alimentary canal and Digestive glands. heart failure. uricotelism. Occupational Respiratory disorders. ABA.
Renal calculi. Central Nervous system. Role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Locomotion and Movement Types of movement – ciliary. Skeletal muscle _ contractile proteins and muscle contraction. (to be dealt with the relvent practical of practical syllabus) Joints. Chemical coordination and regulation Endocrine glands and hormones. IMP: Diseases related to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief. preparation and study of T. Arthritis. Sensory Perception.and hyperactivity and related disorders. Pancreas. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary). Nervous system in humans. Acromegaly. Cretinism. Parathyroid. Addison’s disease). Leaf (arrangement.- Role of other organs in excretion.g. Elementary structure and function of eye and ear and general idea of other sense organs. Gonads. Human endocrine system – Hypothalamus. Renal failure. 2. Rhoeo leaves). Nephritis. Fabaceae and Liliaceae) including dissection and display of floral whorls and anther and ovary to show number of chambers. List of Experiments 1. diabetes. Peripheral Nervous system and Viseral Nervous system. Venation. Hypo. Tetany. Pineal. 1. flagellar. Disorders of muscular and skeletal systm – Myasthenia gravis. exopthalmic goiter. Dwarfism. Types of root (Tap and Adventitious). Disoders – Uraemia. Dialysis and artificial kidney. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae.S. Stem (Herbaceous and woody). Neural control and coordination Neural and nerves. Muscular dystrophy. Skeletal system and its functions. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves. Simple and Compound). Adrenal. Osteoporosis Gout. 3. Generation and conduction of nerve impulse. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves. goiter. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e. Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea). Thyroid. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer. Shape. 2. Page | 4 . muscular. (Common disorders eg. Pituitary. Practicals A. Reflex action. 4.
B. Study parts of a compound microscope. Spirogyra. liverwort. shark. collenchyma. muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins. To test the presence of urea in urine. pine. mushroom. Study of tissues.fern. Ascaris. sclerenchyma. To detect the presence of sugar in urine/blood sample. stem and leaves. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. parenchyma. Hydra. Study of specimens and identification with reasons-Amoeba. 10. 11. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cell animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. one monocotyledonous plant and one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen. Test for the presence of sugar. Oscillatoria. prawn. 7. frog. To detect the presence of bile salts in urine. Liverfluke. 11. To detect them in suitable plant and animal materials. Yeast. Rhizopus. Suction due to transpiration 10. cockroach and frog through models. starch. proteins and fats. 9. honeybee. 2. Study of external morphology of earthworm. Phototropism c. Study of different modification in root. pigeon and rabbit. 5. Apical bud removal d. Anaerobic respiration b. Xylem. 3. 7. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons-Bacteria. 8.g. palisade cells. guard cells. snail. phloem.5. leech. Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing: a. Study / observation of the following (spotting) 1. 8. and diversity in shapes and size of plant and animal cells (e. silkworm. starfish. Page | 5 . moss. Squamous epithelium. 6. 6. 9. To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. lizard. Study of human skeleton and different types of joints. To detect the presence of albumin in urine. Rohu. 4. earthworm.
. . regeneration.Post fertilization events .Development of male and female gametophytes. . .Fertilization. .Male and female reproductive systems. parthenocarpy. gemmule. Asexual reproduction .Asexual and sexual.Pollination-type-agencies and examples. . .Significance of seed and fruit formation. sporulation.Menstrual cycle . Sexual reproduction in flowering plants .Seed development .Outbreeding devices.Modes – Binary fission.Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary .Pollen-Pistil interaction.Vegetative Propagation in plants.Development of seed and formation of fuit. . budding.Flower structure. Page | 6 • • • . .Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).Special modes – apomixes. . fragmentation.Uniparental .Fruit formation. Polyembryony.Micropropagation. Modes of reproduction. .Development of endosperm & embryo . Human Reproduction .Double fertilization . . .BIOLOGY CLASS: Second Year PUC UNIT 1 REPRODUCTION Reproduction in Organisms Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species.Gametogenesis – spermatogenesis & oogenesis. embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
Chromosomal disorders in humans.Deviations from Medelism. • Medellin disorders in humans .DNA finger printing. ZIFT. .Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).Linkage and crossing over. Turner’s and klinefelter’s syndromes. .DNA packaging .• Parturition (Elementary idea). • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. pleiotropy.Structure of DNA and RNA . Unit II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Heredity and variation .Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance . .Down’s syndrome.Genome and human genome project. translation. Page | 7 .Gene expression and regulation.Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla. . Reproductive health .Amniocentesis.Central dogma .Transcription. .Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF. . .Chromosome theory of inheritance . . Lactation (Elementary idea. . Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group. . honey bee. .Birth Control – Need and Methods. genetic code.Chromosomes and genes. birds. Colour blindness.In humans.DNA replication . incomplete dominance Co-dominance. GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) .Mendelian Inheritance . • Sex determination .
single cell protein. Microbes in human welfare . Insects and human welfare .Human insulin and vaccine production. Lac Improvement in food production .In household food processing. Typhoid.Biofortification. Page | 8 . . tissue culture. Animal husbandary. Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection .Gene flow and genetic . HIV and AIDS.Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.Pathogens.Silk.Hardy – Weinberg’s principle. gene therapy.Cancer. sewage treatment. energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bioferilizers. ring worm).• • • • • Unit III • EVOLUTION Origin of life Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and molecular evidence) .Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines . • • • UNIT IV BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS • Principles and process of Biotechnology . Honey. Pneumonia. common cold.Plant breeding. amoebiasis. Filariasis.Adaptive Radiation Human evolution BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE Health and Disease . parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria.Darwin’s contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution . .Genetic engineering (Recombination DNA technology). industrial production. • Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture . . Ascariasis.
.Age distribution. . .Greenhouse effect and global warming .Population Interactions – mutualism. decomposition and producitivity . Population and ecological adaptations . endangered organisms.Hotspots. habitat and niche . Biosafety issues.Ecological Services: Carbon fixation.Agrochemicals and their effects . competition. biomass.Water pollution and its control . Oxygen release Biodiversity and its conservation .Radioactive waste management . Biopiracy and patents. deforestation. brith rate and death rate.Unit V • • Genetically modified organisms – B+ crops. .Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues. parasitism. predation.Air Pollution and its control . • • • ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Meaning of ecology. 2. national parks and sanctuaries. Correlate with thekinds of plants found in them. Page | 9 .biosphere reserves.Organisms and environment.Solid waste management . Ecosystems Patterns. energy. moisture content. Red Data Book. extinction. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Environmental Issues .Pyramids of number. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. Study pollen germination on a slide.Ecological succession . Pollination.Biodiversity conservation. . environment. . nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).Population attributes – growth.Ozone depletion. energy flow. • List of Experiments 1.Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation. components.
T. 8.e. 5. (from any mammal) 4. Plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. 5. 7. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation. 10. Study of plant population density by quadrat method. ovary through permanent slides. Entamoeba. tagging and bagging. 4. 11. Identification of stages of gamete development i.S. blood groups. T. widow’s peak. colour blindness. Collect water from two different Water bodies around you and study them for pH. 9. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. insect) 2. Comment upon their morphological adaptations. Plasmodium. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slides. 6. Two plants and two animals found in xerophytic conditions.S. Study of presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites. testis and T. clarity and presence of any living organisms. To study the effect of the different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.S of blastula through permanent slides. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method. Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris. Study/observation of the following (Spotting) 1. Prepare of temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. Page | 10 . 8. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. Prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. 7. ringworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. 3.3. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. 6.
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