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## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

Home Experiment 1
Transistor Amplifier 1
Procedure
Steps 1. Construct the circuit shown. 1.1 560 LED +9v. Notes

R1 R2

1 M 68 k

RC X

BC549

## Section A: Biasing and Transistor Gain

2. Adjust R1 until the voltage across the transistor is about half of the supply voltage. 3. Measure the supply voltage VCC, the voltage across the transistor, VCE, the voltage at point X, Vx, and the voltage at the base, VBE. 4. Disconnect RC, measure its resistance and calculate the collector current, IC. 5. Disconnect R1 and R2, measure their combined resistance and calculate the base current, IB. 6. Finally, calculate the transistor gain, hFE (=). 2.1 If the 1M potentiometer is incapable of achieving this add a 100 k resistor in series and try again. The transistor should be biased by the current in R1 and R2 to a point midway on the load line. V CC V X I C = -----------------------RC V CC V BE I B = -------------------------R1 + R2 IC Remember, hFE = ---IB

3.1

4.1

5.1

6.1

Steps

Notes

## Section B: Operating Point

7. Determine the two extreme points on the load line i.e. IC max and VCE max. 7.1 Make two assumptions in these calculations: (i) the LED has no influence on circuit conditions;

(ii) the transistor is short circuited for IC max. 7.2 IC max = V CC --------- and RC

VCE max = VCC 8. Draw the theoretical load line on axes of IC vs VCE. On this load line indicate the operating point as determined in section A. 8.1 You should note that the actual operating point does not lie on the theoretical line. This is caused by the LED which causes a reduction in the maximum values of IC and VCE.

## Section C: use as an Amplifier

9. Vary R1, so that the transistor varies above and below the operating point, and observe the LED. Note the intensity of the LED for a reduced value of R1, (i.e. IB increased) and for an increased value of R1 (i.e. IB decreased). 9.1 9.2 The LED should vary in intensity. You should observe a fairly linear response, as long as you do not saturate or cut-off the transistor. If you had a signal source, it would be coupled into the above circuit as shown:

9.3

Signal Source Large Capacitor Since you may not have a source, we can make the transistor respond just as it responds to an A.C. signal, by varying the base current up and down by simply varying R1 by hand.

## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

Steps 10. Connect the voltmeter across VCE, vary R1 again, and note the variation in VCE. 10.1 Rc X 68 k

Notes

1 M

## 560 LED BC549 V +9v.

11. Vary R1 over the same range as in steps 9 and 10 and measure maximum and minimum values of VBE and VCE.

11.1 Remember VCE minimum occurs at VBE maximum and vice-versa. 11.2 Do not allow the transistor to saturate or cut-off. A VCE value of 0.3V is too close to saturation to be of use. 11.3 VBE varies only slightly, but you should be able to measure it.

12. Use the measurements in step 11 to calculate the gain of the amplifier circuit.

12.1 Gain

## Variation in V CE ------------------------------------------Variation in V BE V CE max V CE min ----------------------------------------------V BE max V BE min

12.2 The variations in VCE and VBE are just like the peak-peak variations of an a.c. signal.

## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

Home Experiment 1
Report
Section A: Biasing and Transistor Gain
1. Measured voltages VCC VCE VX VBE = = = = volts volts volts volts

2. Measured resistances

RC R1 + R2

= =

ohms kohms

3. Calculated currents

IC IB

= =

mA mA

hFE

## IC max VCE max

= =

mA volts

6. Operating point

IC VCE

mA volts

## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

7. Graph of IC vs VCE

## Section C: Use as an Amplifier

8. Variations in LED intensity and VCE (Enter: 1 = increase, 2 = decrease) R1 increased decreased LED VCE

9. Variations in VBE and VCE. (i) Extreme point 1 VBE max VCE min = = volts volts

= =

volts volts

Gain =

## Analysis and Questions

Question 1
For an amplifier, the operating point is approximately in the centre of the load line. Which is the best explanation of this? 1. So the current can increase or decrease in response to an input. 2. This is just a convenient location. 3. This allows for variations in values of VCC.

Question 2
If the hFE of the transistor in the circuit of this experiment is halved, the effect on the voltage gain would be: 1. to double. 2. to suffer no change. 3. to halve.

Question 3
With respect to the amplifier circuit used in section C, what would be the effect on the gain of VCC was 18 V and not 9 V (IB remaining the same)? 1. The voltage gain would increase. 2. The voltage gain would decrease. 3. The voltage gain would be unchanged.

Question 4
Refer to the circuit used in section A. What would be the approximate maximum size of input signal which could be used? 1. 0.7V p/p 2. 0.07V p/p 3. 0.01V p/p

Question 5
Refer to the circuit used in section A. The effect of decreasing R1 is to: 1. increase IB and increase VCE 2. increase IB and decrease VCE 3. decrease IB and increase VCE 4. decrease IB and decrease VCE

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## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

Question 6
Refer to the circuit used in section A. The effect of increasing R1 is to: 1. increase VBE and decrease IC 2. increase VBE and increase IC 3. decrease VBE and decrease IC 4. decrease VBE and increase IC

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ELE2503 / E2007

(V)

()

(mA)

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(V)

## ELE2503 Electronic Systems

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Home Experiment 4
Constant Current Source
Procedure
Steps 1. Construct the circuit shown. 1.1 Notes

+9 V

47 K

10 K Potentiometer

BC547 10 K 2.2 K

2. Vary the value of the variable resistor and at a number of points (say five) calculate the current in the transistor by measuring the voltage across the emitter resistor.

2.1

Note that the current remains substantially constant for a large part of this variation.

Home Experiment 4
Report
2. Spindle Position (approx.) Min resistance turn turn turn Max. resistance V(2.2 K) (measured) volts IE (calculated) mA

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## Analysis and Questions

Question 1
What percentage of variation was there in the value of current if large variations at either extreme are neglected? (I/I AVERAGE) %

Question 2
If the 2.2 kOhm resistor was changed to 2.7 kOhm, what would be the new value of current? mA

Question 3
If the power supply voltage connected to the 10 kOhm potentiometer were changed to +20 volts, as shown, what difference would it make to the value of current?

+9V V
47 K 47 K

+20 +20 V
10 K 10 K

10 K 10 K

2.2 K K 2.2

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ELE2503 / E2007

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