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Pharmacovigilance science makes use of pharmacovigilance software mainly for detecting, assessing and preventing long term and short-term side effects of medicines. The demand for this kind of software is on the rise mainly because of the withdrawal of several medicines in the markets. This kind of software detects the reasons for this withdrawal and also prevents unwarranted risky happenings in the future. This helps the patients, the doctors and the manufacturers in the medical world. The EMEA or the European Medicines Agency in Europe develops and maintains the pharmacovigilance database of probable serious adverse effect medicines in the market. This system is called Eudra Vigilance. Similarly, the US medical society has its own pharmacovigilance branches namely; the FDA; the academic and non-profit organizations like RADAR and Public Citizen and the pharmaceutical manufacturers. Several companies like Aris Global, Relsys and Workflow have developed software to keep track of safety applications in the market. Kinds of pharmacovigilance software PV Works for example is a software system that records report safety data keeping track of adverse event reporting. It is a commercial workflow engine providing management control of pharmacovigilance processes. Flexible data entry, risk management, safety system assessment, evaluation and submission of regulatory reports are some of its important features. PV Works (Vet) is another software system made to support veterinary pharmacovigilance business and technical processes meeting the necessary safety standards. Data entry, reporting, audit trail are some of its main features. The outsourced pharmacovigilance software develops drug development expertise, safety rules and regulatory necessities, securing client access to data and regular tracking and status updates to clients or to the authority. It is an economical project development process making using of the electronic medium for handling management purposes. The Assured pharmacovigilance software provides Internet access to the server for the client's use and operation of the system for management and customer use. This software meets the standards of pharmaceutical companies, regulatory authorities and medical personnel. How effective is pharmacovigilance software?
It minimizes the risk of adverse events (ADR) by using genetic profiles. It makes accurate determinations as to whether a product is safe or not. It determines the benefit-risk ratio quickly.
drug interactions. The first dedicated department for Pharmacoinformatics was established at the National Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research.) into a single platform. use and dissemination . Some definitions of pharmacy informatics reflect this relationship to health informatics. Nagar. "the scientific field that focuses on medication-related data and knowledge within the continuum of healthcare systems . Pharmacovigilance software is designed just for this Article Source: http://EzineArticles. It overcomes the challenges that small firms face as far as limited financial and personnel resources are concerned. immunoinformatics.com/2242657 Pharmacoinformatics Pharmacoinformatics.in the delivery of optimal medication-related patient care and health outcomes" The main idea behind the field is to integrate different informatics branches (e. their work processes and engineered systems within health care with a focus on pharmaceutical care and improved patient safety. resulting in a seamless process of drug discovery. etc. analysis.including its acquisition. Pharmacy informaticists work with pharmacy information management systems that help the pharmacist make excellent decisions about patient drug therapies with respect to. also referred to as pharmacy informatics. as well as prescription and patient information. chemoinformatics. bioinformatics. Pharmacy informatics can be thought of as a sub-domain of the larger professional discipline of health informatics.S. is the application of computers to the storage. S. In the age of safety concerns. Pharmacoinformatics is the study of interactions between people. India in 2003 .g. retrieval and analysis of drug and prescription information. Global information can be easily shared by means of this software. For example.A. storage. the Health Information Management Systems Society (HIMSS) defines pharmacy informatics as. medical insurance records. It helps maintain regulatory compliance and improve operational efficiency. more need is being felt for software that can avert probable risks and also help in worldwide networking in the medical field.
Two general approaches to molecular evolution are to 1) use DNA to study the evolution of organisms (such as population structure. Our general goal in all this is to infer process from pattern and this applies to the processes of organismal evolution deduced from patterns of DNA variation. In eukaryotes. An important issue is that there are processes of DNA change within the genome that can alter the picture we infer about both organismal and DNA evolution: the genome is fluid and some of the very processes that make genomes "fluid" are of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Some important background: DNA has many different roles in terms of function. The reason is that the very nature of DNA allows it to be used as a "document" of evolutionary history: comparisons of the DNA sequences of various genes between different organisms can tell us a lot about the relationships of organisms that cannot be correctly inferred from morphology.. Thus even the genetic code can evolve. 25). The genetic code is the information system for translating the sequence of RNA into the sequence of amino acids.1 pg.Molecular evolution For evolutionists the revolution in DNA technology has been a major advance. some termination codons in the universal code specify amino acids in the mitochondrial code). organisms are just another source of DNA. The genes also have regulatory sequences that indicate when and where to transcribe the DNA into RNA for protein synthesis. .g. geographic variation and systematics) and to 2) to use different organisms to study the evolution of DNA. Within this triplet code some of the nucleotide positions are silent or synonymous because any nucleotide in that position will do (see table 2. To the hard-core molecular evolutionist of the latter type. genes are frequently broken up into exons (expressed) and introns (spliced out of the RNA before becoming a true messenger RNA). One definite problem is that the DNA itself is a scattered and fragmentary "document" of history and we have to beware of the effects of changes in the genome that can bias our picture of organismal evolution. Thus molecular evolution might be called the "natural history of DNA". and processes of molecular evolution inferred from the patterns of variation in the DNA itself. The points that follow are some interesting observations interspersed with some basic concepts. Most of our DNA does not code for proteins (more below) and thus is quite a different type of character/trait than DNA that does code for protein. This "universal" code is not completely universal because the mitochondrial genome uses some of the codons in different ways (e.
lets say a single nucleotide change a one position in the DNA. (see figure 7. loci fit this relationship. balancing selection at a locus will introduce more heterozygosity then expected.2 pg.2.1. 183). Kimura got very famous for this simple bit of algebra. This holds only for the antigen binding region. If: u = mutation rate / gene / generation. It tells us that the neutral rate of molecular evolution is equal to the neutral mutation rate. Now a question arises: what is the distribution of the types of mutations? Are most neutral? Are some deleterious?. pg.Some important theoretical background: we want to develop a picture of what happens to a new mutant in a population. the rate of substitution. This is also its probability of fixation because the probability of you reaching into a barrel of 2N marbles and getting the one new marble is 1/2N. se Kimura's proof above). pg. when a new mutation occurs in a population its initial frequency = 1/2N because it is the one new variant out of a total of 2N genes in the population. see figure 5. the rest of the molecule is consistent with neutral expectations. 153 and box 7. however. then the number of new mutations occurring per generation in a population = 2Nu (2 because we are considering diploid organisms). however. Loci with high heterozygosity should evolve at a faster rate under the assumption that these loci have a higher rate of neutral mutation (thus more variation within species and more substitution between species. K is just their product: 2Nu 1/2N = u (substitution means that the new mutant goes to fixation in the population and substitutes the original nucleotide or gene). Thus taking these two values (the number of new mutations/generation and the probability of fixation). What about purifying selection? . To describe molecular evolution Kimura formulated the Neutral theory of molecular evolution which is remarkably simple. Most sequences fit this neutral model. 96 for a two allele view). 156. In general. Another prediction of the neutral theory is that amount of sequence divergence will be correlated with the level of heterozygosity. Now.1.10. N = population size. or 1.7. 185). heterozygosity is measured as 2pq for a two allele situation or (2pq+2pr+2qr) for a three allele situation. pg. Similarly different genes with different functions. pg. The rate of evolution of a gene or mutation that is under selection will be very different. One prediction of the neutral theory is that silent (synonymous) sites in protein coding regions will evolve faster than replacement (nonsynonymous) sites (due to different functional constraints). its fate should be quite different than another nucleotide mutation that is governed by selection (see below). the histocompatibility loci appear to deviate from a neutral model in that there are more nonsynonymous substitutions than synonymous substitutions.xi2 for i alleles. pg. One consequence of the neutral theory is that genes with different mutation rates will have different rates of evolution. Thus. If the new mutant is governed by genetic drift. different regions of DNA with different functional constraints will evolve at different rates (see table 7. or different parts of a gene with different functions will have different rates of evolution. This is the starting point for molecular evolution. This provides a null hypothesis about DNA evolution. 176-177). beneficial? (see figure 7. table 7.
See box 7. .. For example: we know that there are KXY substitutions between species X and Y and we know that they diverged T years ago (from fossil data).g. Some of this is short localized repeats: in the kangaroo rat the sequence (AAG) is repeated 2. We are given the date of divergence between A and C (=T1) and we want to date the divergence of A and B (T2 = ?) but don't have any fossil data.2 billion times and the sequence (ACACAGCGGG) is repeated 1. The fact that such sequences seem to accumulate in genomes has lead to the notion that repetitive DNA is selfish DNA. (see table 7. the rate = 7.3 x10-9 substitutions/nucleotide site/year for the human .rat split (=rodents).1. or corroborate. Lets say we identify a reliable molecular clock (e.Different rates of substitution have also been observed in different lineages of organisms: For the human . we can use the amount of sequence divergence between species A. MYBP). garbage is stuff you don't want so you throw it away.. the divergence times for species that do not have good fossil data).e. the point is that rates differ. 172. the rate = 1.2 billion times. pg. Note that junk is stuff you don't throw away because it might be useful some day. since the sequence makes additional copies of itself within the genome decoupled from the reproduction rate of the host (i. It has been argued that a shorter generation time in rodents accounts for the faster rate of evolution. 179). pg. These sequences might have some function we don't know about so they have been called junk DNA. Most discussions of the rates of DNA evolution have been with respect to the molecular clock hypothesis which states that there is a positive linear relationship between time since two species diverged and amount of genetic divergence (e.chimp divergence. we can use this to date.5. the kangaroo rat). These observations stated above indicate that there is not one molecular clock but probably many molecular clocks that "tick" at different rates. evolutionary events of interest (e. From these data we count up the number of substitutions for all three pairwise comparisons (the K's)... the cause(s) of these rate differences have not been unambiguously identified. number of amino acid substitutions in the cytochrome C gene). Sequences like this have been called junk DNA. B and C as it was measured to be between species X and Y. Repetitive DNA Studies of many organisms has revealed that a large proportion of eukaryotic genomes consists of repetitive DNA. There are examples where short generation species have slower rates of evolution. If one assumes that the rate of evolution is the same in species A. Now lets say we obtain the sequence of cytochrome C from species A. Thus the rate of molecular evolution is r = KXY/2T. rodents appear to have a faster rate of molecular evolution. B and C to estimates their dates of divergence (measured in millions of years before present. B and C (see figure below).g. What it does is unclear. The denominator has a 2 in it because there are two paths of evolution on which the divergence can accumulate (ancestor to X and ancestor to Y).2x10-9 substitution/site/year for the mouse .g.Old World monkey split. Thus. the sequence (TTAGGG) is repeated 2. the rate = 2. DNA sequence difference) between those species.9x10-9 substitutions/site/year.4 billion times. the so called generation time effect.
melanogaster recently. i. but a more distantly related fly D. we would find that they are not identical and thus we could build a cladogram of these elements much like we can build a cladogram of birds.Another form of repetitive DNA are transposable elements. Thus if we had the complete DNA sequence of all the repeated P elements within a genome.1-10. When two genes share a common ancestor due to a duplication event we call them paralogous (-hemoglobin and ßhemoglobin in you are paralogous as are the -hemoglobin in you and the ßhemoglobin in chimps). Many genes in the genome are duplicated and when this happens one of the copies may be "freed" from constraints and evolve a new function. 262). pg. one has to be very aware of what DNA sequence one is using to determine phylogenies. Thus. This pattern of homogeneity of repeats is called concerted evolution (figure 10.5. There are strains of flies that have P elements (P strains) and strains that do not (M strains). We do not need to go into the molecular details of these processes. not only can DNA move around the fluid genome. ß-hemoglobin. 263) or gene conversion. A variety of observations indicate that P elements invaded D. etc. An example is the P element in Drosophila melanogaster. but if DNA from one species can enter the gene pool of another without the species fusing into one. The best evidence is that D.. together. This observation suggested that all the repeats of this family (ribosomal DNA family) were evolving in concert. The point is that they (like other repetitive DNA) are governed by intragenomic dynamics as well as organismal population dynamics. for example) it was found that the copies showed almost no variation. -hemoglobin. pg.3. These are sequences of DNA that generally code for certain proteins and have the ability to move around the genome in a process called transposition. 258. If multiple copies of a DNA sequence are present in a genome we can think of each sequence as a single "species" evolving on its own "line of descent" because each repeat will be mutated at random. 257-259).e. When two genes share a common ancestor due to a speciation . but that DNA can evolve in concert with other sequences in the genome again indicates that intragenomic dynamics can influence the pattern of DNA variation we see within and between species. The best understood case of this phenomenon is the evolution of the globin genes myoglobin. Gene duplication is a minimalist version of repetitive DNA (figures 10.6. The existence of duplicated genes forces us to recognize different kinds of homology because there are two ways to have a common ancestor: by gene duplication and by speciation. The process(es) that generate this pattern could be unequal crossing over (see figure 10. willistoni does have them and they differ by only a few nucleotides over 2900 base pairs of DNA. melanogaster are the result of a horizontal gene transfer (horizontal as opposed to "vertical" as one inherits DNA from ones parents or ancestor "above").2 & 10. These data suggest that P elements in D. pgs. Gene conversion is when the sequence of one region of DNA is used as a "template" to "correct" or modify the sequence of another region of DNA. When a P male is crossed to an M female the P elements enter the genome of the offspring and jump around causing mutations (this is what we mean by a fluid genome). melanogaster's close relative do not have P elements. A curious observation about P elements is that strains of flies collected from natural populations before 1950 do not have P elements whereas flies collected from the wild after that do have them. There are quite a number of different types of such elements (we will not review them all). When this sort of analysis was done on different kinds of repeated elements (many copies of ribosomal DNA.
National Library of Medicine's® (NLM) premier bibliographic database that contains over 19 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. that are special priorities for NLM or other NIH components. but maybe this "junk" helps in aligning chromosomes properly during mitosis an meiosis. and complementary medicine. 10. It is thought that these domains have been moved around the genome by transposition or illegitimate recombination events in evolution. MEDLINE MEDLINE is the U.g. Some genes have very distinct domains that have clear relationships to other domains in very different genes. health services research. One of the more interesting observations to ponder in molecular evolution is the Cvalue paradox. The great majority of journals are selected for MEDLINE based on the recommendation of the Literature Selection Technical Review Committee (LSTRC). pgs. This presents a paradox. If we look at the diversity of organisms from viruses to humans we see a clear trend in biological complexity. molecular biology.S. Presumable most of it is not "functional" in the sense of coding for proteins and RNAs. A distinctive feature of MEDLINE is that the records are indexed with NLM Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®). AIDS. Obviously when constructing a cladogram from molecular data one should use orthologous genes if one wants to build a tree of organisms. If we compare the C values across this range of organisms (assuming viruses are "organisms") some of the less complex organisms have much more DNA than the more complex organisms (see tables 10. history of medicine. toxicology and environmental health. The C value of a species is the Characteristic or Constant amount of DNA in a haploid genome of that species.. 259-260).2.3. Wally Gilbert proposed the idea of exon shuffling and argued that such a phenomenon might accelerate evolution by creating new material for adaptive evolution. an NIH-chartered advisory committee of external experts analogous to the committees that review NIH grant applications. If DNA codes for proteins that give us form and function. what is a lowly alga doing with all that DNA? We just don't know. accidentally forming new associations that happen to have novel functions. e. Some additional journals and newsletters are selected based on NLM-initiated reviews. These reviews generally also involve consultation with an array of NIH . A further example of the fluid genome is exon shuffling This is the pattern observed when exons or functional domains of genes are shuffled together to form new or modified genes. Much of it may be "junk DNA".event we call them orthologous (-hemoglobin in you and -hemoglobin in chimps).
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In addition. BrainGate™ BrainGate™ Co. such as a thought-controlled wheelchair. technology from BrainGate™ Co. BrainGate™ Company’s technology allows for an extensive amount of electrical activity data to be transmitted from neurons in the brain to computers for analysis. products are in development and concept stage to allow for robotic control. . to identify opportunities to provide limb movement to people with severe motor disabilities. Health consumers are encouraged to discuss search results with their health care provider. MedlinePlus®. How can patients communicate through thought? The human brain is a super computer with the ability to instantaneously process vast amounts of information. a bundle consisting of one hundred gold wires connects to a pedestal which extends through the scalp. Limb movement developments are currently at the research stage and are not available for use with the existing BrainGate™ System. Access to various MEDLINE services is often available from medical libraries. provides consumer-oriented health information. Signal processing software algorithms analyze the electrical activity of neurons and translate it into control signals for use in various computer-based applications. another service offered by the NLM. In the current BrainGate™ System. Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the ability to control devices that allow breathing. could be used by those individuals whose injuries are less severe. many public libraries. bladder and bowel movements. The goal of this development program would be to allow individuals to one day use their own arms and hands again.Services/products providing access to MEDLINE data are also developed and made available by organizations that lease the database from NLM. and commercial sources. The pedestal is connected by an external cable to a set of computers in which the data can be stored for off-line analysis or analyzed in real-time. In the future.