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# C h a p t e r

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## GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

KEY TERMS
All around symbol Angularity Basic dimension Between symbol Bilateral tolerance Circularity Cylindricity Datum Datum feature Datum feature simulator Datum feature symbol Datum plane Datum reference frame Datum surface Datum target symbol Feature control symbol Flatness Free-state variation Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing General tolerancing Least material condition (LMC) Limit dimensioning 468 Maximum material condition (MMC) Modiers Parallelism Perpendicularity Positional tolerancing Prole Prole of a line Prole of a surface Projected tolerance zone Regardless of feature size (RFS) Rule #1 Runout Size tolerance Statistical tolerancing symbol Straightness Tangent plane Tolerancing True position Unilateral tolerance Virtual condition

CHAPTER OUTLINE
Summary of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing terms Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing dened Modiers Feature control symbol True position Circularity (roundness) Cylindricity Angularity Parallelism Perpendicularity Prole Runout Concentricity Summary Review questions Problems

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this chapter students should be able to do the following: s s s s s s s s s s Describe what is meant by the term general tolerancing. Dene the concept geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. Explain the purpose of a modier. Distinguish between the concepts maximum material condition (MMC) and regardless of feature size (RFS). Explain the concept least material condition (LMC). Describe what is meant by projected tolerance zone. Make a sketch that illustrates the concept of datums. Demonstrate how to establish datums. Apply feature control symbols when dimensioning objects. Explain the concept of True position.

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## Summar of Geometric y Dimensioning and olerancing T Terms

Actual Local Size. The value of any individual distance at any cross section of a feature. Actual Mating Size. The dimensional value of the actual mating envelope. Actual Size. Actual measured size of a feature. Allowance. The difference between the larger shaft size limit and the smallest hole size limit. Angularity. Tolerancing of a feature at a specied angle other than 90 degrees from a referenced datum. Basic Dimension. A theoretically perfect dimension similar to a reference or nominal dimension. It is used to identify the exact location, size, shape, or orientation of a feature. Associated tolerances are applied by notes, feature control frame, or other methods, excluding tolerance within title blocks. Bilateral Tolerances. Tolerances that are applied to a nominal dimension in the positive and negative directions. Bonus Tolerance. The permitted allowable increase in tolerance as the feature departs from the material condition identied within the feature control frame. Circular Runout. A tolerance that identies an innite number of single circular elements measured at cross sections on a feature when the feature is rotated 360 degrees for each cross section. Circularity. A tolerance that controls the circular cross section of round features that is independent of other features. The tolerance zone boundary is formed by two concentric perfect circles. Clearance Fit. A condition between mating parts in which the internal part is always smaller than the external parts it ts into. Coaxiality. The condition of two or more features having coincident axes. Compound Datum Features. Two datum features used to establish a datum or axis plane. Concentricity. A tolerance in which the axis of a feature must be coaxial to a specied datum regardless of the datums and the features size. The lack of concentricity is eccentricity. Cylindricity. A tolerance that simultaneously controls a surface of revolution for straightness, parallelism, and circularity of a feature, and is independent of any other features on a part. The tolerance zone boundary is composed of two concentric perfect cylinders.

Datum. Reference points, lines, planes, cylinders, and axes which are assumed to be exact. They are established from datum features. Datum Axis. The axis of a referenced datum feature such as a hole or shaft. Datum Feature. A feature which is used to establish a datum. Datum Feature of Size. A feature that has size, such as a shaft, which is used to establish a datum. Datum Identication Symbol. A special rectangular box which contains the datum reference letter and a dash on either side of the letter. It is used to identify datum features. Datum: Feature Simulator. A surface of adequately precise form (such as a surface plate, a gage surface, or a mandrel) contacting the datum feature(s) and used to establish the simulated datum(s). Datum: Reference. Entering a datum reference letter in a compartment of the feature control frame following the tolerance value. Datum: Reference Frame. Three mutually perpendicular planes that establish a coordinate system. It is created by datum references in a feature control frame or by a note. Datum: Simulated. A point, axis, or plane established by processing or inspection equipment, such as the following: simulator, surface plate, a gage surface, or a mandrel. Datum Simulation. The use of a tool contacting a datum feature used to simulate a true geometric counterpart of the feature. Datum Simulator. A tool used to contact a datum feature. Datum Target. Specied points, lines, or areas on a feature used to establish datums. Datum Target Area. A specied area on a part that is contacted to establish a datum. Datum Target Line. A line on a surface that is contacted to establish a datum. Datum Target Point. A specied point on a surface used to establish a datum. Datum Target Symbol. A circle divided horizontally into halves containing a letter and number to identify datum targets. Envelope, Actual Mating. The term is dened according to the type of features as follows: (a) For an External Feature. A similar perfect feature counterpart of smallest size that can be circumscribed about the features so that it just contacts the surface at the highest points. For example, a smallest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes

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of perfect form at minimum separation that just contact(s) the highest points of the surface(s). For features controlled by orientation or positional tolerances, the actual mating envelope is orientated relative to the appropriate datum(s), for example, perpendicular to a primary datum plane. (b) For an Internal Feature. A similar perfect feature counterpart of largest size that can be inscribed within the feature so that it just contacts the surface at the highest points. For example, a largest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form at maximum separation that just contact(s) the highest points of the surface(s). For features controlled by orientation or positional tolerance, the actual mating envelope is oriented relative to the appropriate datum(s). Feature. A component of a part such as a hole, slot, surface, pin, tab, or boss. Feature of Size. One cylindrical or spherical surface, or a set of two opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces, associated with a size dimension. Feature, Axis of. A straight line that coincides with the axis of the true geometric counterpart of the specied feature. Feature, Center Plane of. A plane that coincides with the center plane of the true geometric counterpart of the specied feature. Feature, Derived Median Plane of. An imperfect plane (abstract) that passes through the center points of all line segments bounded by the feature. These line segments are normal to the actual mating envelope. Feature, Derived Median Line of. An imperfect line (abstract) that passes through the center points of all cross sections of the feature. These cross sections are normal to the axis of the actual mating envelope. The cross section center points are determined as per ANSI B89.3.1. Fit. A term used to describe the range of assembly that results from tolerances on two mating parts. Flatness. A tolerance that controls the amount of variation from the perfect plane on a feature independent of any other features on the part. Form Tolerance. A tolerance that species the allowable variation of a feature from its perfect form. Free-state Variation. The condition of a part that permits its dimensional limits to vary after removal from manufacturing or inspection equipment. Least Material Condition (LMC). A condition of a feature in which it contains the least amount of material

relative to the associated tolerances. Examples are maximum hole diameter and minimum shaft diameter. Limit Dimensions. A tolerancing method showing only the maximum and minimum dimensions which establish the limits of a part size or location. Limits. The maximum and minimum allowable sizes of a feature. Location Tolerance. A tolerance which species the allowable variation from the perfect location of a feature relative to datums or other features. Maximum Material Condition (MMC). A condition in which the feature contains the maximum amount of material relative to the associated tolerances. Examples are maximum shaft diameter and minimum hole diameter. Modier. The application of MMC or LMC to alter the normally implied interpretation of a tolerance specication. Parallelism. A tolerance that controls the orientation of interdependent surfaces and axes which must be of equal distance from a datum plane or axis. Perpendicularity. A tolerance that controls surfaces and axes which must be at right angles with a referenced datum. Position Tolerance. A tolerance that controls the position of a feature relative to the true position specied for the features, as related to a datum or datums. Primary Datum. The rst datum reference in a feature control frame. Normally is elected because it is most important to the design criteria and function of the part. Prole of a Line. A tolerance that controls the allowable variation of line element in only one direction on a surface along an elemental tolerance zone with regard to a basic prole. Prole of a Surface. A tolerance that controls the allowable variation of a surface from a basic prole or conguration. Prole Tolerance Zone. A tolerance zone that can control the form of an individual feature and provide for a composite control of form, orientation, and location. Projected Tolerance Zone. A tolerance zone that applies to the location of an axis beyond the surface of the feature being controlled. Reference Dimension. A non-tolerance zone or location dimension used for information purposes only and does not govern production or inspection operations. Regardless of Feature Size (RFS). A condition of a tolerance in which the tolerance must be met regardless of the produced size of the feature.

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Runout. The composite surface variation from the desired form of a part of revolution during full rotation of the part on a datum axis. Secondary Datum. The second datum reference in a feature control frame. Established after the primary datum, it has less design inuence and functionally. Size, Virtual Condition. The actual value of the virtual condition boundary. Straightness. A tolerance that controls the allowable variation of a surface or an axis from a theoretically perfect line. Symmetry. A condition for which a feature (or features) is equally disposed or shaped about the center plane of a datum feature. Tangent Plane. A theoretically exact plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of the specied feature surface by contacting the high points on the surface. Tertiary Datum. The third datum reference in a feature control frame. Established after the secondary datum, it has the least amount of design inuence or functionality. Tolerance. The acceptable dimensional variation or allowance of a part. Total Runout. A tolerance that provides for a composite control of all surface elements as the part is rotated 360 degrees about a datum axis. Transition Fit. A condition in which the prescribed limits of mating parts produce either a clearance or an interference when the parts are assembled. True Geometric Counterpart. The theoretically perfect boundary (virtual condition or actual mating envelope) or best-t (tangent) plane of a specied datum feature. True Position. The theoretically exact location of a feature. Unilateral Tolerance. A tolerance which allows variations in only one direction. Virtual Condition. A constant boundary produced by the combined effects of the maximum material condition size and geometric tolerance. It represents the worst case condition of assembly at MMC. Zero Tolerance at MMC or LMC. A tolerancing method where no tolerance is shown in the feature control frame. The tolerance allowed is totally dependent on the size of the feature departure from MMC or LMC.

product was composed of 100 parts, each individual part could be produced in quantity, checked for accuracy, stored, and used as necessary. Since it was humanly and technologically impossible to have every individual part produced exactly alike (it still is), the concept of geometric and positional tolerancing was introduced. Tolerancing means setting acceptable limits of deviation. For example, if a mass produced part is to be 4" in length under ideal conditions, but is acceptable as long as it is not less than 3.99" and not longer than 4.01", there is a tolerance of plus or minus .01", Figure 12-1. This type of tolerance is called a size tolerance. There are three different types of size tolerances: unilateral and bilateral, shown in Figure 12-2, and limit dimensioning. When a unilateral tolerance is applied to a dimension, the tolerance applies in one direction only (for example, the object may be larger but not smaller, or it may be smaller but not larger). When a bilateral tolerance is applied to a dimension, the tolerance applies in both directions, but not necessarily evenly distributed. In limit

FIGURE 12-1

Size tolerance

GENERAL TOLERANCING
The industrial revolution created a need for mass production; assembling interchangeable parts on an assembly line to turn out great quantities of a given nished product. Interchangability of parts was the key. If a particular

FIGURE 12-2

## Two types of tolerances

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FOR INDIVIDUAL FEATURES FOR INDIVIDUAL OR RELATED FEATURES FOR RELATED FEATURES

FORM

PROFILE

## ORIENTATION LOCATION RUNOUT

FIGURE 12-4

Types of tolerances

FIGURE 12-3

Tolerance of form

dimensioning, the high limit is placed above the low value. When placed in a single line, the low limit precedes the high limit and the two are separated by a dash. Tolerancing size dimensions offers a number of advantages. It allows for acceptable error without compromises in design, cuts down on unacceptable parts, decreases manufacturing time, and makes the product less expensive to produce. However, it soon became apparent that in spite of advantages gained from size tolerances, tolerancing only the size of an object was not enough. Other characteristics of objects also needed to be toleranced, such as location of features, orientation, form, runout, and prole. In order for parts to be acceptable, depending on their use, they need to be straight, round, cylindrical, at, angular, and so forth. This concept is illustrated in Figure 12-3. The object depicted is a shaft that is to be manufactured to within plus or minus .01 of 1.00 inch in diameter. The nished product meets the size specications but, since it is not straight, the part might be rejected. The need to tolerance more than just the size of objects led to the development of a more precise system of tolerancing called geometric dimensioning and positional tolerancing. This new practice improved on conventional tolerancing signicantly by allowing designers to tolerance size, form, orientation, prole, location, and runout, Figure 12-4. In turn, these are the characteristics that make it possible to achieve a high degree of interchangability.

## Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing De ed n

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a dimensioning practice which allows designers to set tolerance limits not just for the size of an object, but for all of the various critical characteristics of a part. In applying geometric

dimensioning and tolerancing to a part, the designer must examine it in terms of its function and its relationship to mating parts. Figure 12-5 is an example of a drawing of an object that has been geometrically dimensioned and toleranced. It is taken from the dimensioning standards as dened by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), written by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) or ASME Y14.5M1994. This manual is a necessary reference for drafters and designers involved in geometric dimensioning and positional tolerancing. The key to learning geometric dimensioning and positional tolerancing is to learn the various building blocks which make up the system, as well as how to properly apply them. Figure 12-6 contains a chart of the building blocks of the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing system. In addition to the standard building blocks shown in the gure, several modifying symbols are used when applying geometric tolerancing, as discussed in detail in upcoming paragraphs. Another concept that must be understood in order to effectively apply geometric tolerancing is the concept of datums. For skilled, experienced designers, the geometric building blocks, modiers, and datums blend together as a single concept. However, for the purpose of learning, they are dealt with separately, and undertaken step-by-step as individual concepts. They are presented now in the following order: modiers, datums, and geometric building blocks. ANSIs dimensioning standards manual (Y14.5 series) changes from time to time as standards are updated. For example, the Y14.5 manual became Y14.5M in 1982 to accommodate metric dimensioning. Revised again in 1988, it became Y14.5M-R1988. In the latest edition, the standard takes on the name of the developing agency, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). ASME Y14.5M1994 is the latest edition in the ongoing revision process of the standard. This chapter helps students learn the basics of geometric dimensioning and posi-

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FIGURE 12-5

## Geometrically dimensioned and toleranced drawing (From ASME Y14.5M1994)

SYMBOL

CHARACTERISTIC STRAIGHTNESS FLATNESS CIRCULARITY CYLINDRICITY PROFILE OF A LINE PROFILE OF A SURFACE ANGULARITY PERPENDICULARITY PARALLELISM TRUE POSITION CONCENTRICITY SYMMETRY

GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE

Modiers
Modiers are symbols that can be attached to the standard geometric building blocks to alter their application or interpretation. The proper use of modiers is fundamental to effective geometric tolerancing. Various modiers are often used: maximum material condition, least material condition, projected tolerance zone, free-state variation, tangent plane, all around, between symbol, and statistical tolerance, Figure 12-7A, Figure 12-7B, and Figure 12-7C.

FORM

PROFILE

ORIENTATION

LOCATION

## MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION

Maximum material condition (MMC), is the condition of a characteristic when the most material exists. For examMAXIMUM MATERIALCONDITION LEASTMATERIALCONDITION PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE FREE STATE VARIATION

* *

## CIRCULAR RUNOUT TOTALRUNOUT

RUNOUT

* MAY BEFILLEDIN

FIGURE 12-6

Building blocks

tional tolerancing so they will be able to apply latest standards set forth by ASME at any point in time and in accordance with any edition of the manual that is specied. Students should not use this chapter as a reference in place of the ASME standard. Always refer to the latest edition of the standard for specics that go beyond the basics covered herein.

TANGENTPLANE ALLAROUND BETWEEN SYMBOL STATISTICAL TOLERANCE THE RFS SYMBOL CAN STILLBE USED BUTTHE PREFERRED PRACTICE IS TO OMITIT.

FIGURE 12-7A

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FIGURE 12-7B

## Form and proportion of geometric tolerancing symbols

ple, MMC of the external feature in Figure 12-8 is .77 inch. This is the MMC because it represents the condition where the most material exists on the part being manufactured. The MMC of the internal feature in the gure is .73 inch. This is the MMC because the most material exists when the hole is produced at the smallest allowable size. In using this concept, the designer must remember that the MMC of an internal feature is the smallest allowable size. The MMC of an external feature is the largest allow-

able size within specied tolerance limits inclusive. A rule of thumb to remember is that MMC means most material.

## REGARDLESS OF FEATURE SIZE

Regardless of feature size (RFS), tells machinists that a tolerance of form or position or any characteristic must be maintained regardless of the actual produced size of the object. Geometric tolerances are understood to apply regardless of feature size where the modiers M or L are

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FIGURE 12-7C

FIGURE 12-8

## MMC of an external and an internal feature

not used. It is permissible to show the RFS modier; however, it is redundant and the preferred practice is to omit it. The RFS concept is illustrated in Figure 12-9. In the RFS example, the object is acceptable if produced in sizes from 1.002 inches to .998 inch inclusive. The form control is axis straightness to a tolerance of .002 inch regardless of feature size. This means that the .002-inch axis straightness tolerance must be adhered to, regardless of the produced size of the part. Contrast this with the MMC example. In this case, the produced sizes are still 1.002 inches to .998 inch. However, because of the MMC modier, the .002 inch axis straightness tolerance applies only at MMC or 1.002 inches. If the produced size is smaller, the straightness tolerance can be increased proportionally. Of course, this makes the MMC modier more popular with machinists for several reasons: 1) it allows them greater room for error

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1.02 inches inclusive. The least material exists at .98 inch. Consequently, .98 inch is the LMC. In the bottom example, the internal feature (hole) is acceptable if produced in sizes ranging from .98 inch to 1.02 inches inclusive. The least material exists at 1.02 inches. Consequently, 1.02 represents the LMC.

## PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE

Projected tolerance zone is a modier that allows a tolerance zone established by a locational tolerance to be extended a specied distance beyond a given surface. This concept is discussed further later in this chapter under the heading True Position.

FREE-STATE VARIATION
Free-state variation is the concept that some parts cannot be expected to be contained within a boundary of perfect form. Some parts may vary in form beyond the MMC size limits after forces applied during manufacture are removed. For example, a thin-walled part shape may vary in its free state due to stresses being released in the part. This variation may require that the part meet its tolerance requirements while in its free state. Parts that are subject to free-state variation do not have to meet the Rule #1 requirement of perfect form at MMC. These parts are standard stock such as bars, sheets, tubes, extrusions, structural shapes, or other items produced to established industry or government standards. The appropriate standard would govern the limits of form variation allowed after manufacture. The free-state symbol species the maximum allowable free-state variation. It is placed within a feature control frame, following the tolerance and any modiers, Figure 12-11.

FIGURE 12-9

## Regardless of feature size (RFS)

without actually increasing the tolerance, 2) it decreases the number of parts rejected, 3) it cuts down on unacceptable parts, 4) it decreases the number of inspections required, and 5) it allows the use of functional gaging. All of these advantages translate into substantial nancial savings while, at the same time, making it possible to produce interchangeable parts at minimum expense.

## LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION

Least material condition (LMC), is the opposite of MMC. It refers to the condition in which the least material exists. This concept is illustrated in Figure 12-10. In the top example, the external feature of the part is acceptable if produced in sizes ranging from .98 inch to

TANGENT PLANE
The tangent plane concept uses a modifying symbol with an orientation tolerance to modify the intended control of the surface. When an orientation tolerance is applied to a surface, the primary control is equivalent to the symbology used. An example is the primary control of a parallel callout is parallelism. However, when applied, the specied symbol controls not only parallelism but other form variations such as concavity, convexity, waviness, atness, and other imperfections as well. If two such controlled surfaces are assembled, the abrupt variation in the surfaces can cause different mating effects and assembly conditions. There are several ways to control the effects of surface conditions when applying orientation tolerances. The obvious method is to rene the surface control with a form tolerance such as atness. This is permissible because the orientation tol-

FIGURE 12-10

## Least material condition (LMC)

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FIGURE 12-11

FIGURE 12-12

## Specifying a tangent plane FIGURE 12-13 All around symbol

erance controls atness to the extent of the specied tolerance value. Another method is to modify the orientation tolerance to apply a tangent plane. When the modier is applied, the orientation tolerance zone for a tangent plane is identical to any other orientation tolerance zones with one exception. The orientation tolerance no longer controls the form of the surface. The surface of the controlled feature must be within the specied limits of size, but is not required to fall within the parallelism tolerance zone boundary. Only a plane tangent to the high points on the surface must be within the tolerance zone boundary. The symbol is placed within the feature control frame following the stated tolerance, Figure 12-12.

zone of a geometric callout extends the length of the feature in question. Application of this symbol can be used to limit the tolerance zone to a specied area. It can also be used to clarify the extent of the prole tolerance when it is not clearly visible due to surface variations. Figure 12-14 illustrates the use of this symbol.

## STATISTICAL TOLERANCING SYMBOL

The statistical tolerancing symbol is a symbolic means of indicating that the stated tolerance is based on statistical process control (SPC). The symbol can be applied in one of two ways. When the tolerance is a statistical size tolerance, the symbol is placed next to the size dimension as shown in Figure 12-15. When the tolerance is a statistical geometric tolerance, the symbol is placed in the feature control frame as shown in Figure 12-16.

## ALL AROUND SYMBOL

The all around symbol is the symbolic means of indicating that the specied tolerance applies all around the part. The normal tolerance zone of a geometric callout extends the length of the feature in question. If there is an abrupt change in surface condition, such as an offset, the tolerance zone would conclude at the beginning of the offset. Applying the all around symbol extends the tolerance zone all around the feature to include abrupt surface variations, Figure 12-13. This concept will be discussed further later in this chapter under the heading Prole.

FIGURE 12-14

Between symbol

BETWEEN SYMBOL
The between symbol is a symbolic means of indicating that the stated tolerance applies to a specied segment of a surface between designated points. The normal tolerance
FIGURE 12-15 Statistical tolerance symbol

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FIGURE 12-16

## Symbol indicating the specied tolerance is a statistical geometric tolerance

DATUMS
Datums are theoretically perfect points, lines, axes, surfaces, or planes used for referencing features of an object. They are established by the physical datum features that are identied on the drawing. Identication of datum features is done by using a datum feature symbol. This symbol consists of a capital letter enclosed in a square frame. A leader line extends from the frame to the selected feature. A triangle is attached to the end of the leader and is applied in the appropriate way to indicate a datum feature. The symbols should only be applied to physical features. They should not be attached to centerlines, axes, center planes, or other theoretical entities. Figure 12-17 shows two ways in which datum feature symbols are placed on drawings. The datum symbol is attached to an extension line of the feature outline, clearly separated from the dimension line when the datum feature is a surface or placed on the visible outline of a feature surface. In Figures 12-18A, 12-18B, and 12-18C, the datum feature symbol is placed on an extension of the dimension line of a feature of size when the datum is an axis or center plane. In Figures 12-18D, 12-18E, and 12-18F, the datum

FIGURE 12-17

## Datum feature symbols on a feature surface and an extension line

is an axis. The symbol can be placed on the outline of a cylindrical surface or an extension line of the feature outline, separated from the size dimension. Figure 12-18F shows one arrow of the dimension line being replaced by the datum feature triangle when space is limited. If no feature control frame is used, the symbol is placed on a dimension leader line to the feature size dimension as seen by the example of Datum B in Figure 12-19. In Figure 12-20 the symbol is attached to the feature control frame below (or above) when the feature(s) controlled is a datum center plane.

ESTABLISHING DATUMS
In establishing datums, designers must consider the function of the part, the manufacturing processes that will

FIGURE 12-18

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FIGURE 12-19

FIGURE 12-20

## Placement of datum feature symbol in conjunction with a feature control frame

be used in producing the part, how the part will be inspected, and the parts relationship to other parts after assembly. Designers and drafters must also understand the difference between a datum, datum feature, datum feature simulator, datum surface, datum plane, and a datum feature of size. A datum is theoretical in nature and is located by the physical datum features identied on the drawing. A datum is considered to be the true geometric counterpart of the feature. It is the origin from which measurements are made, or which provides geometrical references to which

other features are established. A datum feature is the actual physical feature on a part used to establish a datum, Figure 12-21. It is identied on a drawing by use of a datum feature symbol, Figure 12-22. A datum feature simulator is a surface, the form of which is of such precise accuracy (such as a surface plate, a gage surface, or a mandrel), that it is used to simulate the datum. The datum feature simulator contacts the datum feature(s) and simulates the theoretical datum. Simulation is necessary since measurements cannot be made from the theoretical true geometric counterpart. It is therefore necessary to use high-quality geometric features to simulate datums. Although the features are not perfect, they are of such a quality that they can be used for that purpose. Figures 12-23 and 12-24 illustrate this concept with respect to a surface and a feature of size. A datum surface (feature) is the inexact surface of the object used to establish a datum plane. A datum plane is a theoretically perfect plane from which measurements are made. Since inaccuracies and variations in the surface condition of the datum surface make it impractical to take measurements from, then a theoretically perfect plane must be established from which measurements are made. To establish this datum plane, the high points of the datum surface are brought in contact with, in this case, a surface plate, which simulates the datum plane. This concept is illustrated in Figure 12-21.

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FIGURE 12-21

FIGURE 12-22

## Datum feature symbol

Notice the irregularities on the datum surface. The high points on the datum surface actually establish the datum plane, which, in this case, is the top of the manufacturing equipment. All measurements referenced to DATUM A are measured from the theoretically perfect datum plane. High point contact is used for establishing

datums when the entire surface in question will be a machined surface. A datum feature of size is established by associating the datum feature symbol with the size dimension of the selected feature size. When identied, the theoretical datum is the axis, centerline, or center plane of the true geometric counterpart. it is simulated by the processing equipment (such as a chuck, vise, or centering device). The datum feature simulator establishes the datum axis, centerline, or center plane from which measurements can be referenced. This concept is illustrated in Figures 12-23 and 12-24.

DATUM TARGETS
On rougher, more irregular surfaces, such as those associated with castings, specied points, lines, or area contacts are used for establishing datums. Datum targets

## Geometr ic Dimensioning and Tolerancing

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lowed by a datum target number. The numbers are sequential, starting with one for each datum. The letter and number establish a target label to identify planes or axes as datums. The upper half of the symbol is normally empty except when using a diameter symbol followed by a value to identify the shape and size of the target area, Figure 12-25. Figure 12-26 shows a part using datums target areas to establish a datum plane. Dimensions used to locate targets may be basic dimensions or toleranced dimensions. A basic dimension is a theoretically perfect dimension, much like a nominal or design

FIGURE 12-23

FIGURE 12-25

FIGURE 12-24

## Primary internal datum diameter with datum feature simulator

designate specic points, lines, or areas of contact on a part that are used in establishing a datum. They are used when it is not always practical to identify an entire surface as a datum feature. A datum target symbol is used to identify datum targets. It consists of a circle divided in half with a horizontal line. The lower portion contains the datum identifying letter fol-

FIGURE 12-26

## Primary datum plane established by three datum target areas

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dimension. The dimension is identied by enclosing the value in a rectangular box as shown in Figure 12-27. Tolerances placed in general notes or within the title block do not apply to basic dimensions. In Figure 12-28, the datum targets are located using basic dimensions. Points are located relative to one another and dimensioned to show the relationship between targets. When specic datum target points are used for establishing datums, a minimum of three points, not in a straight line, are required for the primary datum, a minimum of two for the secondary, and a minimum of one for the tertiary, Figure 12-28. In Figure 12-28, primary datum plane A is the top of the object and it is established by points A1, A2, and A3. Secondary datum plane B is the front of the

FIGURE 12-27

## Basic dimension symbol

object and tertiary datum plane C is the right side. The datum feature symbol is placed on a drawing in the view where the surface in question appears as an edge. Notice also that the secondary datum must be perpendicular to the rst, and the tertiary datum must be perpendicular to both the primary and secondary datums. These three mutually perpendicular datum planes establish what is called the datum reference frame. The datum reference frame ia a hypothetical, three-dimensional frame that establishes the three axes of an X, Y, and Z coordinate system into which the object being produced ts and from which measurements can be made. Figure 12-29 shows an object located within a datum reference frame. For features that have sides (for example, rectangular and square objects), it takes three datums to establish a datum reference frame. For cylindrical features, a complete reference frame is established with two datum references. Figure 12-30 shows an object within a reference frame. Datum D is the

FIGURE 12-28

FIGURE 12-29

## Geometr ic Dimensioning and Tolerancing

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.001

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL ZONE DESCRIPTOR FEATURE TOLERANCE MODIFIER PRIMARY DATUM REFERENCE SECONDARY DATUM REFERENCE TERTIARY DATUM REFERENCE

FIGURE 12-32

## Featur Control Symbol e

The feature control symbol is a rectangular box in which all data referring to the subject feature control are placed, including: the symbol, datum references, the feature control tolerance, and modiers. These various feature control elements are separated by vertical lines. (Figure 12-5 contains a drawing showing how feature control symbols are actually composed.) The order of the data contained in a feature control frame is important. The rst element is the feature control symbol. Next is the zone descriptor, such as a diameter symbol where applicable. Then, there is the feature control tolerance, modiers when used, and datum references listed in order from left to right, Figure 12-32. Figures 12-33through 12-37 illustrate how feature control symbols are developed for a variety of design situations. Figure 12-33 is a feature control symbol which species a .005 tolerance for symmetry and no datum reference. Figure 12-34 species a tolerance of .005 for the true position of a feature relative to Datum A. Figures 12-35 and 12-36 show the proper methods for constructing feature control symbols with two and three datum references, respectively. Figure 12-37 illustrates a featur control symbol with a modier and a controlled datum added.

FIGURE 12-30

## Part with cylindrical datum feature

primary datum feature and is used to establish datum plane K. Notice that datum feature E is established by two theoretical planes intersecting at right angles on the datum axis. The datum axis becomes the origin of measurements to locate other features on the object. Datum feature E uses the second and third plane to locate the datum axis. The reference frame is thus established using two datums. Figure 12-31 is an example of a basic dimension. A basic dimension is a theoretically perfect dimension, much like a nominal or design dimension, that is used to locate or specify the size of a feature. Basic dimensions are enclosed in rectangular boxes, as shown in Figure 12-31.

True Position
True position is the theoretically exact location of the centerline of a product feature such as a hole. The tolerance zone created by a position tolerance is an imaginary cylinder, the diameter of which is equal to the stated position tolerance. The dimensions used to locate a feature, that is to have a position tolerance, must be basic dimensions.

3.625

## BASIC DIMENSION EXACT DIMENSION

FIGURE 12-31

Basic dimensions

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GEOMETRIC SYMBOL

.005
FEATURE TOLERANCE

FIGURE 12-33

## Feature control symbol with no datum reference

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL PRIMARY DATUM REFERENCE

.005 A
FEATURE TOLERANCE

FIGURE 12-34

## Feature control symbol with one datum reference FIGURE 12-38

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL PRIMARY DATUM REFERENCE

True position

.002 A B
SECONDARY DATUM REFERENCE

FEATURE TOLERANCE

FIGURE 12-35

## Feature control symbol with two datum references

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL PRIMARY DATUM REFERENCE TERTIARY DATUM

.003 A B C
SECONDARY DATUM FEATURE TOLERANCE

states that the positions of the centerlines of the holes must fall within cylindrical tolerance zones having diameters of .030 inch at MMC relative to DATUMS A, B, and C. The modier indicates that the .030 inch tolerance applies only at MMC. As the holes are produced larger than MMC, the diameter of the tolerance zones can be increased correspondingly. Figure 12-39 illustrates the concept of the cylindrical tolerance zone from Figure 12-38. The feature control frame is repeated showing a .030 inch diameter tolerance zone. The broken-out section of the object from Figure 12-38 provides the interpretation. The cylindrical tolerance zone is shown in phantom lines. The centerline of the hole is acceptable as long as it falls anywhere within the hypothetical cylinder.

FIGURE 12-36

## Feature control symbol with three datum references

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL MODIFIER

## USING THE PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE MODIFIER

ASME recommends the use of the projected tolerance zone concept when the variation in perpendiculars of threaded

.002 B

A
PRIMARY DATUM REFERENCE

FIGURE 12-37

## Feature control symbol with a modier

Figure 12-38 contains an example of a part with two holes drilled through it. The holes have a position tolerance relative to three datums: A, B, and C. The holes are located by basic dimensions. The feature control frame

FIGURE 12-39

## Geometr ic Dimensioning and Tolerancing

485

or press-t holes could cause fasteners, such as screws, studs, or pins, to interfere with mating parts. The attitude of a threaded fastener is controlled by the inclination of the threaded hole into which it will assemble. There are instances where the inclination can be such that the fastener interferes with the mating feature. One method of overcoming this problem is to use a projected tolerance zone. When projected, the tolerance zones intended outcome is to decrease the inclination of the fastener passing through the mating part. It is often thought that the tolerance zone extends through the feature being controlled to a point beyond the part equal to the projection, but this is not the case. Instead, the controlled feature has no internal tolerance; the zone is totally outside of the feature being controlled. The height of the zone is equal to the value specied within the feature control frame. Figure 12-40 illustrates this concept. The projected tolerance zone symbol is a capital P enclosed with a circle. It is placed within the feature control frame following the tolerance value or modier where applicable. The projection height is placed after the projected tolerance zone symbol, as illustrated in Figure 12-40. When a projected tolerance zone modier is used, the surface from which the tolerance is projected is identied as a datum and the length of the projected tolerance zone is specied. In cases where it is not clear from which surface the projection extends, such as a through hole, a heavy chain line is used with a dimension applied to it, as illustrated in Figure 12-41. The resultant tolerance zone lies totally outside the feature being controlled.

FIGURE 12-41

## Projected tolerance zone using chain line

FLATNESS
Flatness is a feature control of a surface which requires all elements of the surface to lie within two hypothetical parallel planes. When atness is the feature control, a datum reference is neither required nor proper. Flatness is applied by means of a leader pointing to the surface or by an extension line of the surface. It cannot be attached to the size dimension. The modiers M or L cannot be used with atness because it is a surface control only. The atness tolerance is not additive and must be less than the tolerance of size of the part unless the appropriate note is added exempting it from Rule #1 requirements. Figure 12-42 shows how atness is called out in a drawing and the effect such a callout has on the produced part. The surface indicated must be at within a tolerance zone of .010, as shown in Figure 12-42. Flatness is specied when size tolerances alone are not sufcient to control the form and quality of the surface and when a surface must be at enough to provide a stable base or a smooth interface with a mating part. Flatness is inspected for a full indicator movement (FIM) using a dial indicator. FIM is the newer term which has replaced the older total indicator movement or TIR. FIM means that the swing of the indicator needle from one extreme to the other cannot exceed the amount of the specied tolerance. The dial indicator is set to run parallel to a surface table which is a theoretically perfect surface. The dial indicator is mounted on a stand or height gauge. The machined surface is run under it,

FIGURE 12-40

## Specied projected tolerance zone

486

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FIGURE 12-42

Flatness

allowing the dial indicator to detect irregularities that fall outside of the tolerance zone.

STRAIGHTNESS
A straightness tolerance can be used to control surface elements, an axis or a center plane. When used to control single elements for a at surface, it is applied in the view where the element to be controlled is a straight line. When applied, it controls line elements in only one direction. It differs from atness in that atness covers an entire surface rather than just single elements on a surface. A straightness tolerance yields a tolerance zone of a specied width, within which all points on the line in question must lie. Straightness is generally applied to longitudinal elements. Another difference between straightness and atness concerns the application of the feature control frame. The method in which the feature control frame is applied determines the intended control. If the feature control frame is attached to an extension line of the surface or

attached to a leader pointing to the surface, the intended control is to the surface, Figure 12-43A. However, if the feature control frame is attached to a dimension line or adjacent to a dimension, the intended control is an axis or center plane, Figur 12-43B. Drastically different results are e realized based on the application method.
STRAIGHTNESS OF A FLAT SURFACE

Figure 12-44 shows how a straightness tolerance is applied on a drawing to the elements of a at surface. The straightness tolerance applies only to the top surface. The bottom surface straightness error is controlled by the limits of size. In this case, the straightness tolerance is used as a renement for the top surface only. The feature control frame states that any longitudinal element for the referenced surface, in the direction indicated, must lie between two parallel straight lines that are .002 inch apart.
STRAIGHTNESS OF A CYLINDRICAL SURFACE

Straightness applied to the surface of a cylindrical feature is shown in Figure 12-45. It is similar to that of a at sur-

FIGURE 12-43

## Geometr ic Dimensioning and Tolerancing

487

FIGURE 12-44

Straightness of a at surface

face, with one exception. Since the surface is round, opposing surface line elements must also be considered when verifying straightness. The full straightness tolerance may not be available for these elements due to conditions such as wasting or barreling of the surface. Additionally, the straightness tolerance is not additive to the size tolerance and must be contained within the limits of size. This means that if the part is made at MMC, no straightness tolerance is available because any variation in surface straightness would cause the part to exceed the MMC boundary of size. Figure 12-46 illustrates the relationship between a straightness tolerance and a size tolerance of a part. Remember, each element of the surface must stay within the specied straightness tolerance zone and within the size tolerance envelope. Straightness is affected by running the single-line elements of a surface under a dial indicator for a full indicator movement (FIM). Figures 12-47 through 12-52 further illustrate the concept of straightness. Figure 12-47 shows a part with a size tolerance, but no feature control tolerance. In this example, the form of the feature is controlled by the size tolerance. The difference between maximum and minimum limits denes the maximum form variation that is allowed. ASME Y14.5M outlines the requirements of form control for individual features controlled only with a size dimension. This requirement is known as Rule #1. According to the standard, Rule #1 states: Where only a tolerance size is specied, the limits of size of an individual feature dene the extent to which variations in its geometric form, as well as size, are allowed. This means that the size limits of a part determine the maximum and minimum limits (boundaries) for that part. The MMC limit establishes a boundary limit of perfect form. If a part is at MMC, it must have perfect form. No variation in form is allowed. As the part varies in size toward LMC, the form of the part is allowed to vary equal to the variation in size

FIGURE 12-45

## Straightness of surface elements

FIGURE 12-46

Straightness interpreted

488

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-47

Object with no feature control symbol (Rule #1 applies) FIGURE 12-48 Straightness at RFS

from MMC. When the part is made at LMC, the form variation is equal to the difference between the MMC and LMC sizes as illustrated in Figure 12-47. Figure 12-48 is the same part with a straightness tolerance of .002 regardless of feature size tolerance. The implied regardless of feature size tolerance limits the amount the surface can be out of straightness to a maximum of .002 regardless of the produced size of the part. However, because the straightness control is on a cylindrical surface, the .002 tolerance might not be available as the part approaches MMC. The drawing at the top of the gure illustrates how the part would be drawn. The ve illustrations below the part as drawn illustrate the actual shape of the object with each corresponding produced size and the available tolerance.
STRAIGHTNESS OF AN AXIS OR CENTER PLANE

To locate the axis of a part, the size of the part must be known. To locate the center plane of two parallel features, the distance between the features must be known. These are two examples of what is known as features of size. Logically then, to control the axis of a part the feature con, trol frame must be applied to the size dimension of that part, or to control the center plane of a rectangular part it must be applied to the size dimension, Figure 12-43B. When straightness is applied to control the axis of the feature, the tolerance zone is cylindrical and extends the full length of the controlled feature. Straightness applied to control the center plane of a noncylindrical feature is shown

in Figure 12-49. It is similar to that of straightness of a cylindrical feature, except that the tolerance zone is a width and no diameter symbol is used within the feature control frame. Straightness applied to the axis or center plane of a feature creates a boundary condition known as virtual condition. Virtual condition in ASME Y14.5 is dened as follows: A constant boundary generated by the collective effects of a size features specied MMC or LMC and the geometric tolerance for that material condition. This means that you are allowed to add the straightness tolerance to the MMC size for a shaft and subtract the straightness tolerance from the MMC size for a hole. The resultant boundary represents the extreme form variation allowed for the part. Although this boundary is theoretical, it represents the size boundary of mating features. Unlike straightness of a feature control, a straightness control of an axis or cen-

FIGURE 12-49

Straightness

G e om e tr ic D im e ns i o ni ng a n d To l e r a n c i n g

489

ter plane allows for the availability of straightness tolerance even when the part is made at MMC. Axis or center plane control of a feature becomes more desirable because of the increased availability of tolerance and better control of mating features. Figure 12-50 is the same part in the previous examples with a straightness tolerance of .002 at maximum material condition applied. The use of the MMC modier is limited to tolerances controlling the axis or center plane of features. It species the tolerance allowed when part is produced at MMC. The drawing at the top of the gure illustrates how the part would be drawn. The ve illustrations below the part as drawn illustrate the actual shape of the object with each corresponding produced size. A virtual condition boundary of .506 is created. When the part is at .504, the .506 virtual condition boundary allows for straightness of .002 at MMC. Since the .002 straightness tolerance applies at maximum material condition, the amount that the part can be out of straightness increases correspondingly as the produced size decreases. The table at the bottom of Figure 12-50 summarizes the manufactured sizes and the corresponding amounts that the part can be out of straightness for each size. Figure 12-51 is an example of the same part with a .002 straightness tolerance at least material condition (LMC). It species the tolerance allowed when the part is produced at LMC. This results in the opposite effect of what occurred

FIGURE 12-51

## Straightness of an axis at LMC

in Figure 12-49. Notice that the .002 straightness tolerance applies at the least material condition. As the actual produced size increases, the amount of out of straightness allowed increases correspondingly. Figure 12-52 illustrates the same part from a .002 straightness tolerance and a regardless of feature size tolerance. Notice in this example that the .002 straightness tolerance applies regardless of the actual produced size of the part.

Circularity (Roundness)
Circularity, sometimes referred to as roundness, is a feature control for a surface of revolution (cylinder, sphere, cone, and so forth). It species that all points of a surface must be equidistant from the centerline or axis of the object in question. The tolerance zone for circularity is formed by two concentric and coplanar circles between which all points on the surface of revolution must lie. Figures 12-53 and 12-54 illustrate how circularity is called-out on a drawing and provides an interpretation of what the circularity tolerance actually means. At any selected cross section of the part, all points on the surface must fall within the zone created by the two concentric circles. At any point where circularity is measured, it must fall within the size tolerance. Notice that a circularity tolerance cannot specify a datum reference.

FIGURE 12-50

490

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-54

FIGURE 12-52

## Straightness of an axis at RFS

object. A circularity tolerance is inspected using a dial indicator and making readings relative to the axis of the feature. In measuring a circularity tolerance, the full indicator movement (FIM) of the dial indicator should not be any larger than the size tolerance, and there should be several measurements made at different points along the surface of the diameter. All measurements taken must fall within the circularity tolerance.

Cylindricity
Cylindricity is a feature control in which all elements of a surface of revolution form a cylinder. It gives the effect of circularity extended the entire length of the object, rather than just a specied cross section. The tolerance zone is formed by two hypothetical concentric cylinders. Figure 12-55 illustrates how cylindricity is called-out on a drawing. Notice that a cylindricity tolerance does not require a datum reference. Figure 12-55 also provides an illustration of what the cylindricity tolerance actually means. Two hypothetical concentric cylinders form the tolerance zone. The outside cylinder is established by the outer limits of the object at its produced size within specied size limits. The inner cylinder is smaller (on radius) by a distance equal to the cylindricity tolerance. Cylindricity requires that all elements on the surface fall within the size tolerance and the tolerance established by the feature control. A cylindricity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance and is not additive to the maximum material condition of the feature. Cylindricity is inspected by passing the tolerance object through a gauge. The object should

FIGURE 12-53

## Circularity for a cylinder or cone

Circularity establishes elemental single-line tolerance zones that may be located anywhere along a surface. The tolerance zones are taken at any cross section of the feature. Therefore, the object may be spherical, cylindrical, tapered, or even hourglass shaped so long as the cross-section for inspection is taken at 90 to the nominal axis of the

## Geometr ic Dimensioning and Tolerancing

491

FIGURE 12-55

Specifying cylindricity

pass through a gauge that is equal to or greater than the diameter of the external envelope establishing the cylindrical tolerance zone. It should not pass through a gauge that is slightly smaller than the internal envelope, which establishes the cylindrical tolerance zone.

Angularity
Angularity is a feature control in which a given surface, axis, or center plane must form a specied angle other than 90 with a datum. Consequently, an angularity tolerance requires one or more datum references. The tolerance zone formed by an angularity callout consists of two hypothetical parallel planes which form the specied angle with the datum. All points on the angular surface or along the angular axis must lie between these parallel planes.

FIGURE 12-56

## Specifying angularity for a surface

ANGULARITY OF A SURFACE
Figure 12-56 illustrates how an angularity tolerance on a surface is called out on a drawing. Notice that the specied angle is basic. This is required when applying an angularity tolerance. Figure 12-56 also provides an interpretation of what the angularity tolerance actually means. The surface must lie between two parallel planes of 0.4 apart which are inclined at 30 basic angle to datum plane A. Angularity also controls the atness of the surface to the same extent it controls the angular orientation. When it is required that the atness of the feature be less than the orientation, a atness callout can be used as a renement of the orientation callout. When using atness as a renement, the tolerance is less than the orientation tolerance. The feature control frame is normally placed

FIGURE 12-57

## ANGULARITY OF AN AXIS OR CENTER PLANE

An angularity callout can also be used to control the axis or center plane of a feature. This is done by placing the feature control frame with the size dimension in an appropriate manner as seen in Figure 12-58. The tolerance zone for an axis control can be cylindrical in shape or two parallel planes. When the diameter symbol is used within the feature control frame, the tolerance zone is cylindrical. When no diameter is used, the tolerance zone shape is two parallel planes, Figure 12-59.

492

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-58

## Angularity for an axis (cylindrical tolerance zone)

Parallelism
Parallelism is a feature control that species that all points on a given surface, axis, line, or center plane must be equidistant from a datum. Consequently, a parallelism tolerance requires one or more datum references. A parallelism tolerance zone is formed by two hypothetical parallel planes that are parallel to a specied datum. They are spaced apart at a distance equal to the parallelism tolerance.

FIGURE 12-59

## Angularity for an axis (two parallel planes) (From

ASME Y14.5M 1994)

PARALLELISM OF A SURFACE
Figure 12-60 illustrates how a parallelism is called out on a drawing and provides an interpretation of what the parallelism tolerance actually means. Notice that all elements of the toleranced surface must fall within the size limits. Notice in Figure 12-60 that the 0.12 parallelism tolerance is called out relative to Datum A. You must specify a datum when calling out a parallelism tolerance. Parallelism should be specied when features such as surfaces, axes, and planes are required to lie in a common orientation.

Parallelism is inspected by placing the part on an inspection table and running a dial indicator a full indicator movement across the surface of the part. Parallelism also controls the atness of the surface to the same extent it controls parallel orientation. When it is required that the atness of the feature be less than the orientation, a atness callout can be used as a renement of the orientation callout. When using atness as a renement, the tolerance is less than the orientation tolerance. The feature control frame is normally placed on an extension line below the orientation control, Figure 12-61.

## PARALLELISM OF AN AXIS OR CENTER PLANE

Parallelism can be used to control the orientation of an axis to a datum plane, an axis to an axis, or the center plane of noncylindrical parts. When applied to control the axis or

493

FIGURE 12-60

FIGURE 12-62

FIGURE 12-61

## Parallelism with atness renement

center plane, the feature control frame must be placed with the size dimension in the appropriate fashion. When used to control an axis to a datum plane, the tolerance zone shape is two parallel planes separated by the amount of the stated tolerance. The tolerance control is only applicable relative to the specied datum surface, Figure 12-62. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for availability of additional tolerance. The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size.

When used to control an axis to a datum axis, the tolerance zone shape is cylindrical and the diameter is equal to the amount of the stated tolerance. The tolerance control is three-dimensional, allowing the axis to oat relative to orientation of the datum, Figure 12-63. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for the availability of additional tolerance. The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size. When used to control a center plane to a datum plane or a center plane to a center plane, the similarity is that of an axis to a surface or an axis to a datum axis. However, the tolerance zone shape is never cylindrical. The shape is two parallel planes separated by the amount of the stated tolerance. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for availability of additional tolerance. The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size.

Perpendicularity
Perpendicularity is a feature control that species that all elements of a surface, axis, center plane, or line form a 90 angle with a datum. Consequently, a perpendicularity

494

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-64

FIGURE 12-63

## Parallelism for an axis to datum axis

tolerance requires a datum reference. A perpendicularity tolerance is formed by two hypothetical parallel planes that are at 90 to a specied datum. They are spaced apart at a distance equal to the perpendicularity tolerance.

Perpendicularity also controls the atness of the surface to the same extent it controls orientation. When it is required that the atness of the feature be less than the orientation, a atness callout can be used as a renement of the orientation callout. When using atness as a renement, the tolerance is less than the orientation tolerance. The feature control frame is normally placed on an extension line below the orientation control, Figure 12-65.

PERPENDICULARITY OF A SURFACE
Figure 12-64 illustrates how a perpendicularity tolerance is called out on a drawing and provides an interpretation of what the perpendicularity tolerance actually means. The elements of the toleranced surface must fall within the size limits and between two hypothetical parallel planes that are a distance apart equal to the perpendicularity tolerance. The perpendicularity of a part such as the one shown in Figure 12-64 could be inspected by clamping the part to an inspection angle. The datum surface should rest against the inspection angle. Then a dial indicator should be passed over the entire surface for a full indicator movement to determine if the perpendicularity tolerance has been complied with.

## PERPENDICULARITY OF AN AXIS OR CENTER PLANE

Perpendicularity can be used to control the orientation of an axis to a datum plane, an axis to an axis, or the center plane

FIGURE 12-65

495

FIGURE 12-66

FIGURE 12-67

## Perpendicularity for an axis to a datum axis

of noncylindrical parts. When applied to control the axis or center plane, the feature control frame must be placed with the size dimension in the appropriate fashion. When used to control an axis to a datum plane, the tolerance zone shape is cylindrical, and its diameter equals the amount of the stated tolerance. The tolerance control is threedimensional, allowing the axis to be at any orientation relative to the specied datum surface, Figure 12-66. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for availability of additional tolerance. The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size. When used to control an axis to a datum axis, the tolerance zone shape is two parallel planes which are separated by a distance equal to the amount of the stated tolerance. The tolerance control is only applicable relative to orientation of the datum, Figure 12-67. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for availability of additional tolerance. The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size. When used to control a center plane to a datum plane or a center plane to a center plane, the similarity is that of an axis to a surface or an axis to a datum axis. However, the tolerance zone shape is never cylindrical. The shape is two parallel planes separated by the amount of the stated tolerance. Virtual condition exists for the controlled feature, which allows for availability of additional tolerance.

## The M and L modiers can be used as a result of controlling a feature of size.

Prole
Prole is a feature control that species the amount of allowable variance of a surface or line elements on a surface. There are three different variations of the prole tolerance: unilateral (inside), unilateral (outside), and bilateral (unequal distribution), Figure 12-68. A prole tolerance is normally used for controlling arcs, curves, and other unusual proles not covered by the other feature controls. It is a valuable feature control for use on objects that are so irregular that other feature controls do not easily apply. When applying a prole tolerance, the symbol used indicates whether the designer intends prole of a line or prole of a surface, Figures 12-69 and 12-70 (page 498). Prole of a line establishes a tolerance for a given single element of a surface. Prole of a surface applies to the entire surface. The difference between prole of a line and prole of a surface is similar to the difference between circularity and cylindricity. When using a prole tolerance, drafters and designers should remember to use phantom lines to indicate whether the tolerance is applied unilaterally up or unilaterally down. A bilateral prole tolerance requires no phantom lines. An ALL AROUND symbol should also be placed on

496

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-68

## Application of prole of a surface

the leader line of the feature control frame to specify whether the tolerance applies ALL AROUND or between specic points on the object, Figure 12-71. Figure 12-72 provides an interpretation of what the BETWEEN A & B prole tolerance in Figure 12-71 actually means. The rounded top surface, and only the top surface, of the object must fall within the specied tolerance

zone. Figure 12-73 provides an interpretation of what the ALL AROUND prole tolerance in Figure 12-71 actually means. The entire surface of the object, all around the object, must fall within the specied tolerance zone. Prole tolerances may be inspected using a dial indicator. However, because the tolerance zone must be measured at right angles to the basic true prole and per-

497

FIGURE 12-69

## Prole of a line with size control

pendicular to the datum, the dial indicator must be set up to move and read in both directions. Other methods of inspecting prole tolerances are becoming more popular, however. Optical comparators are becoming widely used for inspecting prole tolerances. An optical comparator magnies the silhouette of the part and projects it onto a screen where it is compared to a calibrated grid or template so that the prole and size tolerances may be inspected visually.

Runout
Runout is a feature control that limits the amount of deviation from perfect form allowed on surfaces or rotation through one full rotation of the object about its axis. Revolution of the object is around a datum axis. Consequently, a runout tolerance does require a datum reference. Runout is most frequently used on objects consisting of a series of concentric cylinders and other shapes of revolution that have circular cross sections; usually, the

types of objects manufactured on lathes, Figures 12-74 and 12-75. Notice in Figures 12-74 and 12-75 that there are two types of runout: circular runout and total runout. The circular runout tolerance applies at any single-line element through which a section passes. The total runout tolerance applies along an entire surface, as illustrated in Figure 12-75. Runout is most frequently used when the actual produced size of the feature is not as important as the form, and the quality of the feature must be related to some other feature. Circular runout is inspected using a dial indicator along a single xed position so that errors are read only along a single line. Total runout requires that the dial indicator move in both directions along the entire surface being toleranced.

Concentricity
It is not uncommon in manufacturing to have a part made up of several subparts all sharing the same cen-

498

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-70

Prole of a surface

FIGURE 12-73

FIGURE 12-71

FIGURE 12-72

## Interpretation of BETWEEN A & B

terline or axis. Such a part is illustrated in Figure 12-76. In such a part it is critical that the centerline for each subsequent subpart be concentric with the centerlines of the other subparts. When this is the case, a concentricity tolerance is applied. A concentricity tolerance locates the axis of a feature relative to the axis of a datum. A concentricity tolerance deals only with the centerline relationship. It does not affect the size, form, or surface quality of the part. Concentricity deals only with axial relationships. It is applied only on a regardless-of-featuresize basis. Regardless of how large or small the various subparts of an overall part are, only their axes are required to be concentric. A concentricity tolerance creates a cylindrical tolerance zone in which all centerlines for each successive subpart of an overall part must

499

FIGURE 12-75

FIGURE 12-74

## Specifying circular runout relative to a datum diameter

fall. This concept is illustrated in Figure 12-77. A concentricity tolerance is inspected by a full indicator movement of a dial indicator.

SYMMETRY
Parts that are symmetrically disposed about the center plane of a datum feature are common in manufacturing settings. If it is necessary that a feature be located symmetrically with regard to the center plane of a datum feature, a symmetry tolerance may be applied, Figure 12-78. The part in Figure 12-78 is symmetrical about a center plane. To ensure that the part is located symmetrically with respect to the center plane, a .030 symmetry tolerance is applied. This creates a .030 tolerance zone within which the center plane in question must fall, as illustrated in the bottom portion of Figure 12-78.
FIGURE 12-76 Part with concentric subparts

TRUE POSITIONING
True position tolerancing is used to locate features of parts that are to be assembled and mated. True position is symbolized by a circle overlaid by a large plus sign or cross. This symbol is followed by the tolerance, a modier when appropriate, and a reference datum, Figure 12-79. Figures 12-80 and 12-81 illustrate the difference between conventional and true position dimensioning. The toler-

500

Chapter 12

FIGURE 12-77

Concentricity tolerancing

ance dimensions shown in Figure 12-80 create a square tolerance zone. This means that the zone within which the centerline being located by the dimensions must fall takes the shape of a square. As you can see in Figure 12-81, the tolerancing zone is round when true position dimensioning is used. The effect of this on manufacturing is that the round tolerancing zone with true position dimensioning increases the size of the tolerance zone by 57%, Figure 12-82. This means that for the same tolerance the machinist has 57% more room for error without producing an out-of-tolerance part. When using true position dimensioning, the tolerance is assumed to apply regardless of the feature size unless modied otherwise. Figure 12-83 illustrates the effect of modifying a true position tolerance with a maximum material condition modier. In this example, a hole is to be drilled through a plate. The maximum diameter is .254 and the minimum diameter is .250. Therefore, the maximum material condition of the part occurs when the hole is drilled to a diameter of .250. Notice from this example that as the hole increases, the positional tolerance increases. At maximum material condition (.250 diameter), the tolerance zone has a diameter of .042. At least material condition (.254 diameter), the tolerance zone increases to .046 diameter. The tolerance zone diameter increases correspondingly as the hole size increases.

REVIEW OF DATUMS
Fundamental to an understanding of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is an understanding of datums. Since many engineering and drafting students nd the concept of datums difcult to understand, this section will review the concept in depth. It is important to understand datums because they represent the starting point for referencing dimensions to various features on parts and for making calculations relative to those dimensions. Datums are usually physical components. However, they can also be invisible lines, planes, axes, or points that are located by calculations or as they relate to other features. Features such as diameters, widths, holes, and slots are frequently specied as datum features. Datums are classied as being a primary, secondary, or tertiary datum, Figure 12-84. Three points are required to establish a primary datum. Two points are required to establish a secondary datum. One point is required to establish a tertiary datum, Figure 12-85. Each point used to establish a datum is called off by a datum target symbol, Figure 12-86. The letter designation in the datum target symbol is the datum identier. For example, the letter A in Figure 12-87 is the datum designator for Datum A. The number 2 in Figure 12-88 is the point designator for Point 2. Therefore, the complete designation of A2 means Datum A-Point 2.

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FIGURE 12-81

FIGURE 12-82

## Comparison of tolerance zones

FIGURE 12-78

Symmetry tolerancing

.042

A B C

FIGURE 12-79

## True position symbology

FIGURE 12-80

Conventional dimensioning

FIGURE 12-83

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FIGURE 12-84

Datums

FIGURE 12-89

## Dimensioning datum points

FIGURE 12-85

Establishing datums

A2
EACH POINT IS CALLED OFFBY A DATUM TARGET SYMBOL

are dimensioned in the front view. The one point that establishes Datum C is dimensioned in the right-side view. Figure 12-90 illustrates the concept of datum plane and datum surface. The theoretically perfect plane is represented by the top of the machine table. The less perfect actual datum surface is the bottom surface of the part. Figure 12-91 shows how the differences between the perfect datum plane and the actual datum surface are reconciled. The three points protruding from the machine table correspond with the three points which establish Datum A. Once this difference has been reconciled, inspections of the part can be carried out.

FIGURE 12-86

## Datum target symbol

A
THE A INDICATES THE DATUM

FIGURE 12-87

Datum designation

FIGURE 12-90

## Datum plane versus datum surface

2
THE 2INDICATES THE POINT

FIGURE 12-88

Point designator

Figure 12-89 illustrates how the points which establish datums should be dimensioned on a drawing. In this illustration, the three points which establish Datum A are dimensioned in the top view and labeled using the datum target symbol. The two points that establish Datum B

FIGURE 12-91

## Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

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Summar y
General tolerancing involves setting acceptable limits of deviation for manufactured parts. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing involves setting tolerance limits for all characteristics of a part. Modiers are symbols that can be attached to the standard geometric building blocks to alter their application or interpretation. MMC is when the most material exists in the part. RFS means that a tolerance of form or position or any characteristic must be maintained regardless of the actual produced size of the object. Projected tolerance zone is a modier that allows a tolerance zone established by a locational tolerance to be extended a specied distance beyond a given surface. Datums are theoretically perfect points, lines, axes, surfaces, or planes used for referencing features of an object. True position is the theoretically exact location of the centerline of a product feature such as hole.

2. Which of the following has the incorrect symbol? a. Flatness b. Circularity c. Straightness d. True position o 3. Which of the following has the incorrect symbol? a. Perpendicularity = = b. Straightness c. Parallelism // d. Angularity 4. Which of the following is not true regarding atness? a. It differs from straightness. b. The term atness is interchangeable with the term straightness. c. When atness is the feature control, a datum reference is neither required nor proper. d. Flatness is specied when size tolerances alone are not sufcient to control the form and quality of the surface. 5. The term least material condition means: a. The opposite of MMC. b. A condition of a feature in which it contains the least amount of material. c. The theoretically exact location of a feature. d. Both a and b 6. Which of the following is not true regarding feature control symbols? a. The order of data in a feature control frame is important. b. The rst element is the feature control symbol. c. Various feature control elements are separated by //. d. Datum references are listed in order from left to right. 7. Which of the following feature controls must have a datum reference? a. Flatness b. Straightness c. Cylindricity d. Parallelism

Review Questions
Answer the following questions either true or false. 1. Tolerancing means setting acceptable limits of deviation. 2. The three types of size tolerances are unilateral, location, and runout. 3. The need to tolerance more than just the size of an object led to the development of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. 4. Geometric dimensioning species the allowable variation of a feature from perfect form. 5. The term regardless of feature size is a modier which tells machinists that a tolerance of form or position or any characteristic must be maintained, regardless of the actual produced size of the object. 6. Datums are components of a part such as a hole, slot, surface, or boss. 7. A datum is established on a cast surface by a ag or a symbol. Answer the following questions by selecting the best answer. 1. Which of the following is the identication for the ASME standard on dimensioning? a. ASME Y14.5 M 1994 b. ASME Y24.5 M 1992 c. ASME Y34.5 M 1990 d. ASME Y44.5 M 1988

## Chapter Twelve Prblems o

The following problems are intended to give beginning drafters practice in applying the principles of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. The steps to follow in completing the problems are:
STEP 1 Study the problem carefully. STEP 2 Make a checklist of tasks you will need to

complete.

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## STEP 3 Center the required view or views in the work

area.
STEP 4 Include all dimensions according to ASME

Problem12-3
Apply tolerances so that the smaller diameter has a cylindricity tolerance of .005 and the smaller diameter is concentric to the larger diameter to within .002. The shoulder must be perpendicular to the axis of the part to within .002.

Y14.5M 1994.
STEP 5 Re-check all work. If its correct, neatly ll out

## the title block using light guidelines and freehand lettering.

NOTE: These problems do not follow current drafting standards. You are to use the information shown here to develop properly drawn, dimensioned, and toleranced drawings.

Problem12-1
Apply tolerances so that this part is straight to within .004 at MMC.

Problem12-4
Apply tolerances to locate the holes using true position and basic dimensions relative to datums A-B-C.

Problem12-2
Apply tolerances so that the top surface of this part is at to within .001 and the two sides of the slot are parallel to each other within .002 RFS.

## Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

505

Problem12-5
Apply angularity, true position, and parallelism tolerances of .001 to this part. Select the appropriate datums. The parallelism tolerances should be applied to the sides of the slot.

Problem12-7
Apply a line prole tolerance to the top of the part between points X and Y of .004. Apply true position tolerances to the holes of .021, and parallelism tolerances of .001 to the two nished sides.

Problem12-6
Apply tolerances so that the outside diameter of the part is round to within .004 and the ends are parallel to within .001 at maximum material condition.

Problem12-8
Use the bottom of the part as Datum A and the right side of the part as Datum B. Apply surface prole tolerances of .001 to the top of the part between points X and Y.

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Problem12-9
Select datums and apply tolerances in such a way as to ensure that the slot is symmetrical to within .002 with the .50 diameter hole, and the bottom surface is parallel to the top surface to within .004.

Problem12-11
Apply tolerances to this part so that diameters X and Z have a total runout of .02 relative to Datum A (the large diameter of the part) and line runout of .004 to the two tapered surfaces.

Problem12-10
Apply tolerances to this part so that the tapered end has a total runout of .002.

Problem12-12
Select datums and apply a positional tolerance of .001 at MMC to the holes, and a perpendicularity tolerance of .003 to the vertical leg of the angle.

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## PROBLEMS 12-13 THROUGH 12-30

For each of the remaining geometric dimensioning and tolerancing problems, examine the problem closely with an eye to the purpose that will be served by the part. Then select datums, tolerances, and feature controls as appropriate, and apply them properly to the parts. In this way you will begin to develop the skills required of a mechanical designer. Do not overdesign. Remember, the closer the tolerances, and the more feature control applied, the more expensive the part. Try to use the rule of thumb that says: Apply only as many feature controls and tolerances as absolutely necessary to ensure that the part will properly serve its purpose after assembly.

Problem12-13

Problem12-15

Problem12-14

Problem12-16

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Problem12-17

Problem12-19

Problem12-18

Problem12-20

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Problem12-21

Problem12-22

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Problem12-23

Problem12-24

Problem12-25

## Geometric Dimens ioning and Tolerancing

511

Problem12-26

Problem12-27

Problem12-28

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Problem12-29

PROBLEM 12-31
This problem deals with feature control symbols. In items 119 explain what each symbol means. In items 2030, draw the required symbols.
MEANS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) SYMBOL 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) MEANS 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) SYMBOL 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) ANGULARITY TRUE POSITION FLATNESS PROFILE OF A SURFACE PERPENDICULARITY CIRCULAR RUNOUT STRAIGHTNESS TOTALRUNOUT PROFILE OF A LINE CYLINDRICITY CIRCULARITY

.005

SYMBOL

MEANS

Problem12-30