Confirmatory Replication Study 2012

Interindividual Differences in Behavior and Cognition Predicted by Local Brain Structure: A Strictly Confirmatory Replication Study.
Authors: Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Birte Forstmann, Luam Belay, Wouter Boekel.

Abstract
We seek to conduct a purely confirmatory replication study of eleven studies that have previously reported an association between behavior and structural properties of the brain. In order to ensure that our replication is strictly confirmatory, this document outlines the details of our experimental design and plan for data analysis.

Background
Recently, much interest has concerned the relation between brain structure on the one hand and behavior and/or cognition on the other hand. For instance, Kanai and colleagues (2012) found that individuals with greater gray matter volume in specific brain regions have larger online social networks (i.e., more Facebook friends) than individuals with less gray matter volume in these areas. Here, we propose to conduct a strictly confirmatory replication study for eleven recently published studies, each of which associated certain structural properties of the human brain with certain behavioral measures. Specifically, the behavioral measures relate to behavioral activation (Xu et al., 2012), control over speed and accuracy in perceptual decision making (Forstmann et al., 2010), percept duration in perceptual rivalry (Kanai et al., 2010, 2011a), components of attention (i.e., executive control and alerting; Westlye et al., 2011), aspects of social cognition (i.e., (online) social network size; Bickart et al., 2011; Kanai et al., 2012), distractibility (Kanai et al., 2011d), political orientation (Kanai et al., 2011c), moral values (Lewis et al., 2012), and empathy (Banissy et al., 2012). In order to ensure that the data analyses and hypothesis tests are strictly confirmatory, this document describes the eleven experiments and associated analyses that we aim to replicate. At the time of publishing, 36 participants have been tested but none of the data are analyzed or inspected. The study-specific information is preceded by the ‘General Methods and Analyses’ section describing the participants, the general procedure,
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 the MRI data acquisition, the MRI preprocessing and analysis, and finally the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations. Note that we leave open the possibility of conducting additional exploratory analyses. However, any exploratory analyses will be clearly labeled as such.

General Methods and Analyses
Local gray matter volume and cortical thickness will be quantified by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and white matter integrity will be quantified by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography. Participants. Participants are recruited from a 43-participant MRI study that was recently conducted by our own research group. These participants are young, healthy undergraduate students (mean age = 20.12, SD = 1.73) from the University of Amsterdam with normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Participants received a monetary compensation for their time and effort. A subset of 36 students has been tested for the present study, but data have not been analyzed or inspected, yet. The earlier MRI experiment featured extensive measurements of brain structure, and hence the additional effort involved in replicating the eleven studies consisted primarily in having these participants complete a battery of behavioral tests. Therefore, each of our eleven replication attempts features the same set of participants. However, participants whose behavioral or structural measures deviate more than 2.5 standard deviations from the respective mean will be excluded from further analysis. Even though our initial focus is on the 36 participants who have completed the behavioral test battery, we leave open the possibility of testing additional participants in order to obtain clearer results. We are permitted this flexibility in data collection, because we use a Bayesian hypothesis test to quantify the evidence for and against the null hypotheses. When using the socalled “Bayes factor”, researchers are allowed to monitor the evidence as the data come in, and continue testing until a point has been proven or disproven, or until the experimenter runs out of time, money, or patience (Edwards et al., 1963). General procedure. Prior to the test session participants receive an information brochure with a brief description of all tasks and questionnaires. At the beginning of the test session participants sign an informed consent form. Participants are tested in individual computer
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 booths. All instructions are shown on the computer screen or printed on top of the questionnaires. Participants begin with filling out the following questionnaires: Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales, Social Network Index, Social Network Size Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and Political Orientation Questionnaire. The order in which participants fill out the questionnaires is randomized. Note that all questionnaires have been translated into Dutch and can be found in Appendix A. After completing the questionnaires, participants continue with the computerized tasks: Random dot motion task, bistable structure-from-motion task, and attention network test (please find a detailed description of each task below). Again, the order of these tasks is randomized per participant. The total duration of the test session is at most 1 hour and 30 minutes. MRI data acquisition. In the earlier MRI experiment, DTI and T1 images have been obtained on a 3T Philips scanner using a 32-channel head coil. For each subject, a T1 anatomical scan was acquired (T1 turbo field echo, 220 transverse slices of 1 mm, with a resolution of 1mm3, TR = 8.2 ms, TE = 3.7 ms). In addition, four repetitions of a multi-slice spin echo (MS-SE), single shot diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans were obtained using the following parameters: TR = 7545 ms, TE = 86 ms, 60 transverse slices, 2 mm slice thickness, FOV: 224 x 224 mm2, voxel size 2 mm isotropic resolution. For each slice, one image without diffusion weighting (b = 0) and 32 diffusion-weighted images (b=1000s/mm 2) along 32 directions were acquired. MRI data preprocessing and analysis. We will carry out all MRI data analyses in FMRIB’s Software Library (FSL 4.0; www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl) and FreeSurfer (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu) software. VBM preprocessing. Voxel-Based Morphometry will be performed using FSL's default VBM pipeline (http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslvbm/index.html). First, non-brain tissue will be removed from T1 images using FMRIB's Brain Extraction Tool (BET). Second, brain-extracted images will be segmented into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). GM images will be non-linearly registered to GM ICBM-152, and averaged to create a study-specific template at 2mm resolution in standard space. All GM images will then be non-linearly registered to the study-specific template. During this stage, each voxel of each registered grey matter image is divided by the Jacobian of the warp field

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 (Good et al., 2001). Finally, images will be smoothed using a Gaussian kernel with a sigma of 3 mm. DTI preprocessing. All four runs of DTI will be merged and corrected for eddy currents. Affine registration will be used to register each volume to a reference volume. A single image without diffusion weighting (b=0) will be extracted from the merged data and non-brain tissue will be removed using BET to create a brain-mask which will be used in subsequent analyses. DTIFIT will be then be applied to fit a tensor model at each voxel of the data. Finally, tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) will be run. To compute probabilistic tractography, Bayesian estimation of diffusion parameters using sampling techniques (BedpostX) will be applied. BedpostX uses a dual fiber model which can account for crossing fibers. TBSS. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics will be performed using FSL's default TBSS pipeline (http://www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/tbss/index.html). First, FA images are slightly eroded and end slices are zeroed, in order to remove likely outliers from the diffusion tensor fitting. Second, all FA images will be aligned to 1 mm standard space using non-linear registration to the FMRIB58_FA standard-space image. Affine registration is then used to align images into 1 x 1 x 1 mm MNI152 space, and a skeletonization procedure is subsequently applied to a mean FA image resulting from averaging all individual MNIaligned images. Subsequently, the mean skeletonized FA image is thresholded at > 0.2 in order to accurately represent white-matter tracts. Subject's FA data are then projected onto the mean skeletonized FA image and concatenated. Finally, the non-linear warps and skeletonization procedures resulting from aforementioned FA-TBSS will be used in order to construct skeletonized images of other measures (i.e., parallel eigenvalue (λ1) and mean diffusivity (MD)). Probabilistic tractography. First, affine registration will be used to align relevant MNI masks to subjects’ individual high-resolution T1 images, and subsequently to subjects’ DTI images. Probabilistic tractography will then be performed using 5.000 tract-following samples at each voxel with a curvature threshold of 0.2. Single masks will be used as seed space, and we will use classification masks in order to estimate the number of samples reaching the relevant target mask. In addition, contralateral exclusion masks will be used to discard pathways crossing over to the contralateral seed mask before travelling to the classification mask. For the estimation of tract strength, resulting images will be thresholded
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 at 10 samples and binarized, such that the size of a resulting image will be the amount of voxels reliably (that is, in at least 10 samples) reaching the classification mask. This size is then divided by the total size of the seed mask, such that the result is a proportion of the seed mask, reliably connected to the classification mask. The same is then done for the opposite analysis (i.e. when the seed mask and classification mask are switched), and the average of the proportions is computed. These steps are necessary to correct for the sizes of the masks. Bayesian hypothesis test for (partial) correlations. The Bayes factor compares the probability of the observed data under H1 versus H0, and hence quantifies the evidence that the data provide for and against the models under consideration. In what follows, H0 is the null model in which correlation is absent, and H1 is the alternative model in which correlation is present. We distinguish between an H1 that does not commit to a direction for the correlation (i.e., a two-sided test), and an H1 that does commit to such a direction (i.e., a one-sided test). The latter test is recommended for replication projects, or anytime researchers have strong prior expectations about the direction of the association. The two-sided test. Under H1, Jeffreys assigned the correlation coefficient ρ a uniform prior distribution from -1 to 1 (Jeffreys, 1961). Further, he assumed that the means of the observed variables x and y are 0. Then,

BF10 =

(1)

where n is the number of (x, y) pairs and r is the classic Pearson correlation coefficient. Note that when the means for x and y need to be estimated from the data, as is usually the case, n in the above equation needs to be replaced by n - 1. The above Bayes factor contains a uni-dimensional integral that can be computed numerically in R:
# Jeffreys' earthquake data: S <- c(-8,-5,-3,3,-3,3,2,0,0,2,6,4,-1,4,0,-1,-7,-8,-3) SKS <- c(-10,-10,1,-6,1,0,-3,1,-4,0,8,1,0,0,0,-1,-2,-10,-4) BF10.twosided <- function(n, r){ #Jeffreys' two-sided test for the presence of a correlation; #Jeffreys (1961), pp. 289-292 #Note that if the means are subtracted, n needs to be replaced by n-1!

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012
integrand <- function(rho) {((1-rho^2)^(n/2)) / ((1-rho*r)^(n-.5))} BF10 <- integrate(integrand, lower=-1, upper=1)$value/2 return(BF10) } # Example: BF10.twosided(n=length(S)-1, r=cor(S,SKS)) #27.0; note the n-1

Thus, in the above example, BF10 ≈ 27.0, which means that the data are about 27 times more likely to have occurred under H1 than under H0. The one-sided test. The two-sided test from the previous section contains an integral from -1 to 1; hence the height of the uniform prior distribution on is 1/2. The extension to

the one-sided test (where we seek to establish whether or not there is a positive correlation) simply requires that we integrate from 0 to 1 and take into account that the height of the uniform prior distribution is now 1. Therefore:

BF =

(2)

A test for the presence of a negative correlation is trivially obtained by multiplying one of the observed variables with -1. Again, we can easily compute this Bayes factor numerically in R:
BF10.onesided <- function(n, r){ #One-sided test for the presence of a **positive** correlation; #see Jeffreys (1961), pp. 289-292 #Note that if the means are subtracted, n needs to be replaced by n-1! integrand <- function(rho) {((1-rho^2)^(n/2)) / ((1-rho*r)^(n-.5))} BF10 <- integrate(integrand, lower=0, upper=1)$value return(BF10) } # Example: BF10.onesided(n=length(S)-1, r=cor(S,SKS)) #53.9; note the n-1

Thus, in the above example, BF10 ≈ 53.9, which means that the data are about 54 times more likely to have occurred under H1 than under H0. The evidence is more compelling for the one-sided test than for the two-sided test—this makes sense, because the predictions of the one-sided H1 are more daring than those of the two-sided H1; when daring predictions are borne out by the data, this increases one’s confidence in the model. A detailed discussion of the properties of one-sided versus two-sided Bayes factors can be found in
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Wagenmakers, Lodewyckx, Kuriyal, and Grasman (2010) and Hoijtink, Klugkist, and Boelen (2008). We will only use the one-sided test, because we aim to replicate the specific correlations reported in the studies-to-replicate.

Study-specific Methods and Analyses
Replication 1. Individuals with high BAS-Total scores (i.e., sensitivity to signals of reward and non-punishment) show increased parallel eigenvalues within left corona radiata (CR) and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Individuals with high BAS-Fun scores (i.e., tendency to seek out new potentially-rewarding experiences) show increased parallel eigenvalues and fractional anisotropy within left CR and left SLF. These individuals also show increased mean diffusivity within left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Xu, J. Kober, H., Caroll, K. M., Rounsaville, B. J., Pearlson, G. D., & Potenza, M. N. (2012). White matter integrity and behavioral activation in healthy subjects. Human Brain Mapping, 33, 994-1002. BIS/BAS questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS; Carver et al., 1994; see Appendix A) scale. The BIS/BAS is a 20-item questionnaire. Our interest will be focused on the BAS scale which comprises 13 items (BAS-Total) and has three subscales, Drive (BAS-Drive), FunSeeking (BAS-Fun), and Reward-Responsiveness (BAS-Reward). Administration time is approximately 5 minutes. Behavioral analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are BAS-Total scores and BAS-Fun scores. BAS-Total scores assess the sensitivity to signals of reward and non-punishment. BAS-Fun scores assess the tendency to seek out new potentially-rewarding experiences. For each participant these scores will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) for the Bayesian correlation test. TOI generation. Xu and colleagues (2012) reported significant positive correlations between the BAS-Total scores and parallel eigenvalue (λ1) within left corona radiata (CR) and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Furthermore, they reported significant positive

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 correlations between the BAS-Fun scores and λ1 as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) within left CR and left SLF. The authors also reported significant positive correlations between the BAS-Fun scores and mean diffusivity (MD) within left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). We defined all these white matter (WM) tracts as our tracts of interest (TOIs). Dr. Xu kindly provided us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory TOIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract FA, MD, and λ1 values from all voxels contained in the respective TOIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These WM tract measures are then corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. Unlike Xu and colleagues we will not correct for education. Our participants are all Psychology freshmen, therefore we can rule out substantial differences in education. The corrected mean WM tract measures per TOI will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for positive correlations between BAS-Total scores and mean λ1 within left CR and left SLF. Furthermore, we will test for positive correlations between BAS-Fun scores and mean λ1 as well as mean FA within left CR and left SLF. Finally, we will test for positive correlations between BAS-Fun scores and mean MD within left ILF and left IFOF.

Replication 2. Individuals with high LBA flexibility (i.e., good control over speed and accuracy in perceptual decision making) show increased tract strength of white matter fibers connecting right pre-SMA and right striatum. Forstmann, B. U., Anwander, A., Schäfer, A., Neumann, J., Brown, S., Wagenmakers, E.-J., Bogacz, R., et al. (2010). Cortico-striatal connections predict control over speed and accuracy in perceptual decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(36), 15916-15920. Random dot motion task and procedure. We use the same random dot motion (RDM) task (Gold & Shadlen, 2001) as Forstmann and colleagues (2010; see Figure 1).

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012

Figure 1. Random Dot Motion paradigm with cues emphasizing speed (SN Dutch abbreviation for fast) and accuracy (AC Dutch abbreviation for accurate).
Note. Figure taken from Forstmann et al. 2010 and edited.

The experiment features 360 trials in total, with 180 speed and 180 accuracy trials. A cloud consisting of 120 white dots with 50% coherently moving dots and 50% randomly moving dots is presented against a black background. A single dot consists of 3 pixels and the whole cloud has a diameter of 250 (uniformly distributed) pixels. At the beginning of each trial either a speed- or an accuracy-cue is presented for 1000 ms. The speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) in this task is manipulated by pseudo-randomized presentation of the two different cue-types. The speed cue instructs participants to adopt a liberal level of cautiousness, responding as quickly as possible. The accuracy cue, however, instructs participants to adopt a more conservative level of cautiousness, responding as accurate as possible. After the cue, a fixation cross is presented at the center of the screen for 500 ms. Subsequently, the RDM stimulus is shown until a response is made, but at most for 1500 ms. Responses have to be made within this time window. Participants respond by pressing ‘a’ with their left index finger when they perceive a leftward motion and ‘l’ with their right index finger when they perceive a rightward motion. Immediately after the response participants receive feedback (400 ms) that is dependent on the trial-type. They see either “te traag” (Dutch for ‘too slow’)/”fout” (Dutch for incorrect) or “op tijd” (Dutch for ‘in time’)/“goed” (Dutch for correct). After 120 and 240 trials participants can choose to take a break of up to 45 seconds. The entire experiment takes approximately 20 minutes.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 LBA model. The linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown et al., 2008) model serves to decompose the response time and accuracy measures into latent psychological processes. The decision process of interest, here, is response caution, which can be quantified by means of the LBA. We will apply the same parameter constraints as Forstmann and colleagues (2010). In this design only one parameter - response threshold (b) - will be free to vary with the speed vs. accuracy cue, while all other parameters (start point distribution (A), drift rate for the response (v), variability of the drift rate (s) and nondecision time (t0)) will be fixed. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measure of interest is the LBA flexibility parameter, assessing efficacy of changing response caution. It is assumed that “changes in response caution originate from adjustments of response thresholds” (Forstmann et al., 2010; pp. 1516). Therefore, LBA flexibility is computed as the difference between the LBA threshold estimates for the accuracy (baccuracy) and the speed (bspeed) conditions. We will fit the LBA model to each participant's RT and accuracy measures on speed and accuracy trials separately. The only parameter allowed to vary will be the response threshold b. The resulting individual LBA flexibility estimates will be imported into R for the Bayesian correlation test. TOI analysis. Forstmann and colleagues (2010) reported a significant positive correlation between LBA flexibility and tract strength of white matter (WM) fibers connecting right preSMA and right striatum. We defined this WM fiber tract as our tract-of-interest (TOI). We will use the mask/template that was used in the original study for the segmentation of our confirmatory TOI. Probabilistic tractography. We will limit our tractography to delineate tracts that the authors found to significantly correlate with LBA flexibility. Hence, probabilistic tractography will be performed only on fibers connecting right pre-SMA and right striatum. We will perform the probabilistic tractography conform the protocol stated in the general methods and analyses section (see above). Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract tract strength values from all voxels contained in the relevant TOI and average them. This will be done for every subject. These tract strength measures are then corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. The corrected mean tract strength measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for a positive correlation between LBA flexibility and WM tract strength of fibers connecting right pre-SMA and right striatum.

Replication 3. Individuals with short percept durations in perceptual rivalry show increased cortical thickness within superior parietal lobe (SPL) and postcentral gyrus, increased gray matter volume within SPL, and increased fractional anisotropy of white matter fibers underneath SPL. Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., & Rees, G. (2010). Human parietal cortex structure predicts individual differences in perceptual rivalry. Current Biology, 20(18), 1626-1630. Bistable SFM task. We use the same ambiguous rotating structure-from-motion (SFM) stimulus task as Kanai and colleagues (2010; see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Bistable Structure-From-Motion Stimulus.
Note. Figure taken from Kanai et al. 2010.

The task includes 8 trials and 1 practice trial. Participants are presented with an ambiguous rotating sphere, consisting of 200 full white dots. The dots move sinusoidally at a constant speed (151 deg/s). However, the rotation of the sphere can be perceived as either rightward or leftward. A red fixation dot is presented at the center of the screen and participants are instructed to steadily fixate. The trial duration is 48 seconds. Participants report the duration of their percept of the rotation direction (right or left) of the SFM stimulus by holding the spatially compatible key (‘left arrow’ or ‘right arrow’ on a regular keyboard) with their left or right index finger until the percept switches to the other direction. The entire experiment takes approximately 10 minutes. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measure of interest is percept duration, assessing bistable perception. Besides computing the mean percept duration, we will also compute its reciprocal, the switch rate, for each participant and import these values into R (R
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Kanai and colleagues (2010) reported significant negative correlations between percept duration and cortical thickness (CT) within bilateral superior parietal lobe (SPL) and bilateral postcentral gyrus. For gray matter (GM) volume they reported significant negative correlations with percept duration within right and left SPL. White matter fractional anisotropy (FA) showed a significant negative correlation with percept duration underneath right and left SPL. We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly provided us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract CT, GM, and FA values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These structural brain measures are then corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. The corrected mean CT, GM, and FA measures per ROI will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for negative correlations between percept duration and mean CT within bilateral SPL and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We will also test for negative correlations between percept duration and mean GM volume within right and left SPL. Finally, we will test for negative correlations between percept duration and mean FA underneath right and left SPL.

Replication 4. Individuals with long percept durations in perceptual rivalry show increased gray matter volume within right anterior superior parietal lobe. Kanai, R., Carmel, D., Bahrami, B., & Rees, G. (2011a). Structural and functional fractionation of right superior parietal cortex in bistable perception. Current Biology, 21(3), R106-R107. Bistable SFM task. We use the same ambiguous rotating structure-from-motion (SFM) stimulus task as Kanai and colleagues (2011a; see Figure 2). For a detailed description of the task please refer back to Replication 3. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measure of interest is percept duration (and switch rate), assessing bistable perception. We will compute the mean percept duration for
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 each participant and import these values into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Kanai and colleagues (2011a) reported a significant positive correlation between percept duration and gray matter (GM) volume within right anterior superior parietal lobe (aSPL). We defined this region as our region of interest (ROI). Dr. Kanai kindly provided us with the mask/template that was used in the original study. We will use this mask/template for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROI. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract GM values from all voxels contained in the ROI and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures are then corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for a positive correlation between percept duration and mean GM volume within right aSPL.

Replication 5. Individuals with a small difference in reaction times between trials with incongruent and congruent stimuli (i.e., good executive control) show increased cortical thickness within left caudal anterior cingulate cortex, left superior temporal lobe, and right middle temporal lobe. Individuals with a small difference in reaction times between trials with no cue and a central cue (i.e., good alerting ability) show increased cortical thickness within medial and lateral aspects of the left superior temporal lobe. Westlye, L. T., Grydeland, H., Walhovd, K. B., & Fjell, A. M. (2011). Associations between regional cortical thickness and attentional networks as measured by the attention network test. Cerebral Cortex, 21(2), 345-356. Attention Network Test. We use the same Attention Network Test (ANT) as Westlye and colleagues (2011; downloaded from Dr. Jin Fan’s website www.sacklerinstitute.org/users/jin.fan; see Figure 3). The task includes 2 runs of 96 trials and 20 practice trials. Each trial begins with the presentation of a fixation cross in the center of the screen for variable durations (400, 800, 1200, or 1600 ms). Subsequently, one of three cues is presented for 100 ms: (1) no cue, (2) center cue (*, replacing fixation cross), or (3) spatial cue (*, above or below fixation cross). Then the target is presented for a
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 maximum duration of 1700 ms (until a response is made). The target is an arrow in the center of a row of 5 arrows, presented below or above the fixation cross. The flanking arrows can be (1) two congruent arrows (pointing in the same direction as the target), (2) two incongruent arrows (pointing in the opposite direction of the target), or (3) two lines on each side of the target (neutral). Participants are instructed to report the direction (left or right) of the target arrow by pressing the spatially compatible key (‘left mouse button’ and ‘right mouse button’) with their left or right thumb. The entire experiment takes approximately 15 minutes.

Figure 3. Attentional Network Test Paradigm. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are executive control (EC) and alerting network scores, assessing the executive control and the alerting components of attention, respectively. We will apply the same processing steps as described by Westlye and colleagues (2011) before we compute the two network scores:
“To remove outliers, all RTs > 1500 ms and < 200 ms were removed (…). Next, since error responses are assumed to originate from a different RT distribution than correct responses, we only analyzed correct responses. Also, because responses following erroneous responses typically are slower than responses following correct responses (posterror slowing), we also removed responses following erroneous responses. Since RTs are not normally distributed, we used median RT per condition as raw scores for each subject” (pp. 348).

However, we will not adjust the component scores with the baseline RT in order to control for an effect of age on RT, because our participants form a homogenous age group (Psychology freshmen). Based on median RT the EC score will be computed as follows: EC = [RTincongruent - RTcongruent] / RTcongruent Based on median RT the alerting score will be computed as follows:

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Alerting = [RTno cue – RTcenter cue] / RTcenter cue For each participant the resulting scores will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. For their subsample of young participants, Westlye and colleagues (2011) reported significant negative correlations between EC scores and cortical thickness (CT) within left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left superior temporal lobe (STL), and right middle temporal lobe (MTL). The A scores showed a significant negative correlation with CT within left superior parietal lobe (SPL). We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Westlye kindly provided us with the masks/templates (i.e., labels used in FreeSurfer (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu) software) that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract CT values from all voxels contained in the ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These CT measures are then corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. The corrected mean CT measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for negative correlations between EC scores and mean CT within left caudal ACC, left STL and right MTL. Furthermore, we will test for a negative correlation between alerting scores and mean CT within left SPL.

Replication 6. Young individuals with high scores on the Social Network Index (i.e., large social networks) show increased gray matter volume within bilateral amygdala and increased cortical thickness within right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, left caudal superior frontal gyrus and left caudal inferior temporal sulcus. Bickart, K. C., Wright, C. I., Dautoff, R. J., Dickerson, B. C., & Barrett, L. F. (2011). Amygdala volume and social network size in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 14(2), 163-164. Social Network Index questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Social Network Index (SNI) questionnaire. The questionnaire has 12 items, measuring aspects of social cognition: Social network diversity (SND), social network size (SNS) and social network complexity (SNC). Administration time is approximately 10 minutes.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are SNS (i.e., the total number of people with whom the respondent has regular contact) and SNC (i.e., the number of different groups that these contacts belong to). Thus, for each participant the resulting SNS and SNC scores will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. For their subsample of young participants, Bickart and colleagues (2011) reported significant positive correlations between SNS/SNC (similar results) and gray matter (GM) volume within left and right amygdala. Furthermore, they reported significant positive correlations between SNS/SNC (similar results) and cortical thickness (CT) within right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), left caudal superior frontal gyrus (cSFG), and left caudal inferior temporal sulcus (cITS). We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Feldman Barrett, Dr. Dickerson, and Kevin Bickart kindly agreed to provide us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) and cortical thickness (CT) values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM and CT measures will then be corrected for age and gender using partial correlations. The GM measures will additionally be corrected for total intracranial volume. The corrected mean GM and CT measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for positive correlations between SNS/SNC and mean GM volume within left and right amygdala as well as mean CT within right sgACC, left cSFG, and left cITS.

Replication 7. Individuals with a large number of friends on Facebook (i.e., large online social network) show increased gray matter volume within the following regions: left middle temporal gyrus, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, right entorhinal cortex, and bilateral amygdala. Individuals with high scores on the Social Network Size Questionnaire (i.e., large real-world social network) show increased gray matter volume within right amygdala. Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Roylance, R., & Rees, G. (2012). Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological sciences, 279(1732),
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 1327-1334. Social Network Size Questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Social Network Size questionnaire (Stileman & Bates, 2007; see Appendix A). This questionnaire consists of 9 items. One of its items is: “How many friends do you have on ‘Facebook’?”. We ask participants to make a note of the number of friends they have on ‘Facebook’ or an alternative comparable social network site such as ‘myspace’ or the Dutch ‘Hyves’ and bring it to the test session. Administration time is approximately 10 minutes. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are online social network size (i.e., the number of Facebook friends (FBN)) and real-world social network size. Subjects’ answers to the 9 subquestions contained in this questionnaire will be square-root transformed to correct for skewness. We will compute the FBN as the square root of subject’s answer to the question: “How many friends do you have on ‘Facebook’?”. A normalized real-world social network size score will be computed per participant by averaging the z-scores for the questionnaire items 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 after skewness correction. Thus, for each participant an online social network size score and a real-world social network size score will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Kanai and colleagues (2012) reported significant positive correlations between online social network size and gray matter (GM) volume within left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right superior temporal sulcus (STS), right entorhinal cortex (EC), and bilateral amygdala. Real-world social network size was significantly and positively correlated with GM only within right amygdala. We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly provided us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) values from all voxels contained in the ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures will then be corrected for age, gender and total gray matter volume. The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for positive correlations between FBN and mean GM volume within left MTG, right STS, right EC, and bilateral
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 amygdala. Furthermore, we will test for a positive correlation between real-world network size scores and mean GM volume within right amygdala. Since our Bayesian correlation test allows us to quantify evidence in favor of a null-effect, we will also test for the absence of positive correlations between real-world social network size and mean GM volume within left MTG, right STS, right EC, and left amygdala.

Replication 8. Individuals with high scores on the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (i.e., high distractibility) show increased gray matter volume within left superior parietal lobule and decreased gray matter volume within left mid prefrontal cortex. Kanai, R., Dong, M. Y., Bahrami, B., & Rees, G. (2011d). Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(18), 6620-6626. Cognitive Failures Questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, Broadbent et al., 1982; see Appendix A). Administration time is approximately 5 minutes. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measure of interest is distractibility as assessed by the CFQ. As in Kanai et al. (2011d), we will quantify distractibility by computing the standard loadings derived from a previous factor analysis (Wallace et al., 2002). Specifically, we will use the following 9 items: 1, 2, 3, 4, 15, 19, 21, 22, and 25. Scores on these items will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Kanai and colleagues (2011d) reported a significant positive correlation between CFQ scores and gray matter (GM) volume within left superior parietal lobe (SPL). Furthermore, the authors reported a weak negative correlation between CFQ scores and GM volume within left mid prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We defined these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly provided us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures are then corrected for age, gender and total gray matter volume using partial correlations.
18

Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for a positive correlation between CFQ scores and mean GM volumes within left SPL and for a negative correlation within left mPFC.

Replication 9. Individuals with high scores on the Political Orientation Questionnaire (i.e., conservative) show increased gray matter volume within right amygdala and left insula, and decreased gray matter volume within right entorhinal cortex. Individuals with low scores on the Political Orientation Questionnaire (i.e., liberal) show increased gray matter volume within anterior cingulate cortex. Kanai, R., Feilden, T., Firth, C., & Rees, G. (2011c). Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Current Biology, 21, 677-680. Political Orientation Questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Political Orientation Questionnaire (POQ) used by Kanai and colleagues (2011c; see Appendix A). The POQ consist of a five-point scale: (1) very liberal, (2) liberal, (3) middel-ofthe-road, (4) conservative, (5) very conservative. Administration time is approximately 1 minute. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measure of interest is political orientation. For each participant a political orientation score will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Kanai and colleagues (2011c) reported significant positive correlations between high POQ scores (i.e., conservatism) and gray matter (GM) volume within right amygdala and left insula. GM volume was significantly and negatively correlated with conservatism within right entorhinal cortex (EC). Furthermore, the authors reported a significant negative correlation between low POQ scores (i.e., liberalism) and GM volume within anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly provided us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 are then corrected for age, gender, and total gray matter volume using partial correlations. The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for positive correlations between conservatism and mean GM volume within right amygdala and left insula. We will also test for a negative correlation between conservatism and mean GM volume within right entorhinal cortex. Furthermore, we will test for a negative correlation between liberalism and mean GM volume within ACC. Finally, we will attempt to replicate the absence of a significant positive correlation between conservatism and mean GM volume within left amygdala.

Replication 10. Individuals with high individualizing scores (i.e., values of harm/care and fairness; aggregate score on corresponding subscales) show increased gray matter volume within left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and a marginally significant decrease in gray matter volume within bilateral precuneus. Specifically, individuals scoring high on the harm subscale show decreased gray matter volume within bilateral precuneus and left postcentral gyrus. Individuals scoring high on the fairness subscale show a trend to significantly increased gray matter volume within left DMPFC. Individuals with high binding scores (i.e. deference to authority, purity/sanctity and ingroup loyalty; aggregate score on corresponding subscales) show increased gray matter volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a marginally significant increase in gray matter volume within left anterior insula. Specifically, individuals scoring high on the authority subscale show increased gray matter volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus. Likewise, individuals scoring high on the purity subscale show increased gray matter volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus. Furthermore, they show increased gray matter volume within left anterior insula and a trend to increased gray matter volume within right anterior insula. This trend is significant for individuals scoring high on disgust (based on a subset of the purity items dealing with disgust). Lewis, G., Kanai, R., Bates, T. & Rees, G. (2012). Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(8), 1657-1663.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 Moral Foundations Questionnaire and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ; Graham et al., 2009; see Appendix A). The MFQ measures five foundations of moral behavior:
“(1) harm (minimizing harm to others), (2) fairness (maximizing fairness to all), (3) in-group loyalty (the importance of the in-group), (4) authority (respect for status and hierarchy), and (5) purity (avoiding impure or disgusting acts/entities)” (Lewis et al., 2012; pp. 1657).

Administration time is approximately 10 minutes. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are individualizing and binding, assessing moral values. For each participant an individualizing (aggregate score on harm and fairness components) and a binding score (aggregate score on authority, in-group loyalty and purity) will be imported into R for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Lewis and colleagues (2012) reported a significant positive correlation between individualizing scores and gray matter (GM) volume within left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and a marginally significant negative correlation between these measures within bilateral precuneus. The authors also reported significant negative correlations between harm subscores and GM volume within bilateral precuneus and left postcentral gyrus. A marginally significant positive correlation was reported between fairness subscores and GM volume within left DMPFC. Furthermore, the authors reported a significant positive correlation between binding scores and GM volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus, and a marginally significant positive correlation between these measures within left anterior insula. For authority as well as purity subscores the authors reported a significant positive correlation with GM volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus. In addition, a significant positive correlation and a trend to a significant positive correlation were found between purity subscores and GM volume within left anterior insula and right anterior insula, respectively. Finally, the authors reported a significant positive correlation between disgust subscores (based on a subset of purity items dealing with disgust) and GM volume within right anterior insula. We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly agreed to provide us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures
21

Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 are then corrected for age, gender, and total gray matter volume using partial correlations. The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for a positive correlation between individualizing scores and mean GM volume within left DMPFC, and a negative correlation between these measures within bilateral precuneus. Furthermore, we will test for negative correlations between harm subscores and mean GM volume within bilateral precuneus and left postcentral gyrus. We will also test for a positive correlation between fairness subscores and mean GM volume within left DMPFC. Subsequently, we will test for positive correlations between binding scores and mean GM within bilateral subcallosal gyrus and left anterior insula. Authority and purity subscores will be tested for a positive correlation with mean GM volume within bilateral subcallosal gyrus. In addition, purity subscores will be tested for positive correlations with mean GM volume within left and right anterior insula. Finally, we will test for a positive correlation between disgust scores (based on a subset of purity items dealing with disgust) and mean GM volume within right anterior insula.

Replication 11. Individuals with high empathic concern scores show decreased gray matter volume within the following regions: left precuneus, left anterior cingulate, and anterior insula. Individuals with high personal distress scores show increased gray matter volume within left anterior insula and decreased gray matter volume within left somatosensory cortex. Individuals with high perspective taking scores show increased gray matter volume within left anterior cingulate. Individuals with high fantasy scores show increased gray matter volume within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Banissy, M. J., Kanai, R., Walsh, V., & Rees, G. (2012). Inter-individual differences in empathy are reflected in human brain structure. NeuroImage, 62(3), 2034-2039. Interpersonal Reactivity Index and procedure. Participants fill out a Dutch version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980; translated and validated by De Corte et al., 2007; see Appendix A). The IRI has 28 items and comprises four subscales:
“(…) perspective taking; personal distress; empathic concern; and fantasy (Davis, 1980; Davis, Luce, and Kraus, 1994). Empathic concern and personal distress measure affective reactions but differ in their targets. Personal distress is self-oriented and associated to aversive emotional responses in the 22

Confirmatory Replication Study 2012
observer (e.g. feelings of fear or discomfort at witnessing negative experiences of others). Empathic concern is other-oriented and related to feelings of compassion and sympathy for the observed individual. Perspective taking examines the tendency to think from another perspective (i.e. cognitive responses). Fantasy examines participants’ abilities to transpose themselves into fictional situations (e.g. books, movies, daydreams). Each subscale contained seven items. They were measured on a five point Likert scale ranging from 0 (“Does not describe me well”) to 4 (“Describes me very well”). For each subscale, a minimum score of 0 or maximum score of 28 was possible” (Banissy et al., 2012; pp. 2035).

Administration time is approximately 10 minutes. Behavioral data analysis. The behavioral measures of interest are empathic concern (EC), personal distress (PD), perspective taking (PT), and fantasy (FS), assessing different aspects of empathy. For each participant we will import one score for each measure into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) for the Bayesian correlation test. ROI generation. Banissy and colleagues (2012) reported significant negative correlations between EC and gray matter (GM) volume within left precuneus, left anterior cingulate, and left anterior insula. Furthermore, the authors reported a significant negative correlation between PD and GM volume within left somatosensory cortex and a positive correlation between these measures within left anterior insula. PT was positively correlated with GM volume within left anterior cingulate and FS was positively correlated with GM volume within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We defined all these regions as our regions of interest (ROIs). Dr. Kanai kindly agreed to provide us with the masks/templates that were used in the original study. We will use these for the segmentation of our confirmatory ROIs. Correlational analysis. Before performing the Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations (as described above), we will extract gray matter (GM) values from all voxels contained in the respective ROIs and average them. This will be done for every subject. These GM measures are then corrected for age, gender, and total gray matter volume using partial correlations. The corrected mean GM measures will be imported into R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org) software for the Bayesian correlation test. Specifically, we will test for negative correlations between empathic concern scores and mean GM volume within left precuneus, left anterior cingulate and left anterior insula. Furthermore, we will test for a negative correlation between personal distress scores and
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 mean GM volume within somatosensory cortex, and a positive correlation between these measures within left anterior insula. We will also test for a positive correlation between perspective taking scores and mean GM volume within left anterior cingulate. Finally, we will test for a positive correlation between fantasy scores and mean GM volume within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012

Appendix A:
Translated questionnaires used in the present replication study.
1. Dutch Translation of Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System
(adapted from Carver et al., 1994)

Op de volgende bladzijden vindt je een aantal beweringen. De bedoeling is dat je deze beweringen doorleest en dat je nagaat of zij van toepassing zijn. Naast elke bewering staan vier antwoordmogelijkheden die variëren van "helemaal mee eens" tot "helemaal mee oneens". Het is de bedoeling dat je telkens met een kruisje in één van de hokjes aangeeft in hoeverre een bewering op jou van toepassing is. Laat geen vraag onbeantwoord en beperk je tot de gegeven antwoordmogelijkheden. Neem je tijd, maar denk niet al te lang na over een vraag. 1. Als ik denk dat er iets onprettigs gaat gebeuren, raak ik meestal behoorlijk "opgefokt". 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 2. Ik ben bezorgd om het maken van fouten. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 3. Als ik iets wil, ga ik er meestal helemaal voor. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 4. Vaak doe ik dingen om geen andere reden dan dat het wel eens leuk zou kunnen zijn. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 5. Kritiek of een standje raken mij behoorlijk. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 6. Als ik iets krijg wat ik wil, voel ik me opgewonden en opgeladen. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 7. Ik doe een hoop moeite om dingen die ik wil te krijgen. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 8. Ik verlang sterk naar spanning en nieuwe sensaties. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 9. Ik voel me behoorlijk overstuur als ik denk of weet dat iemand boos op me is. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 10. Ik ben altijd bereid iets nieuws te proberen als ik denk dat het leuk zal zijn. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 11. Als ik iets goed doe, wil ik er graag mee doorgaan. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 12. Zelfs als mij iets ergs staat te gebeuren, ervaar ik zelden angst of nervositeit. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 13. Ik handel vaak zoals het moment me ingeeft. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 14. Als ik een kans zie iets te krijgen wat ik wil, ga ik er meteen op af. 0 helemaal mee eens
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 15. Als mij goede dingen overkomen, raakt dat me sterk. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 16. Ik voel me bezorgd als ik denk dat ik slecht heb gepresteerd op iets. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 17. Ik zou het spannend vinden een wedstrijd te winnen. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 18. Vergeleken met mijn vrienden heb ik erg weinig angsten. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 19. Als ik een mogelijkheid zie iets te krijgen wat ik leuk vind, word ik direct opgewonden. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens 20. Als ik ergens werk van maak, gooi ik ook mijn volle gewicht er tegenaan. 0 helemaal mee eens 0 beetje mee eens 0 beetje mee oneens 0 helemaal mee oneens

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 2. Dutch Translation of Social Network Index
(adapted from Cohen et al., 1997)

Instructies: Deze vragenlijst gaat over met hoeveel mensen u regelmatig afspreekt of praat, inclusief familie, vrienden, collega's, buren, etc. Lees en beantwoord elke vraag nauwkeurig. Beantwoord subvragen waar nodig. 1. Welk van onderstaande alternatieven beschrijft je huwelijkse staat het best? .... (1) Op dit moment getrouwd en samenwonend, of samenwonend met een vaste relatie. .... (2) Nooit getrouwd geweest, en nooit samengewoond met een vaste relatie. .... (3) Uit elkaar. .... (4) Gescheiden, of voorheen samengewoond met iemand in een vaste relatie. .... (5) Weduwe/weduwnaar. 2. Hoeveel kinderen heb je? (Als je geen kinderen hebt, schrijf dan '0' op en ga verder met vraag 3.) .... 2a. Met hoeveel van je kinderen heb je minstens eens per twee weken contact? .... 3. Zijn je vader en moeder nog in leven? (Als je beide ouders overleden zijn, zet dan een kruisje bij '0' en ga verder met vraag 4.) .... (0) Geen van beide .... (1) Alleen moeder nog in leven .... (2) Alleen vader nog in leven .... (3) Beide nog in leven 3a. Zie je of spreek je je vader en moeder minstens eens per twee weken? .... (0) Geen van beide .... (1) Alleen moeder .... (2) Alleen vader .... (3) Beide 4. Leven je schoonvader en je schoonmoeder nog (of de ouders van je partner)? (Als je geen schoonouders hebt, zet dan een kruisje bij 'Niet van toepassing' en ga verder met vraag 5.)
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 .... (0) Geen van beide .... (1) Alleen schoonmoeder leeft nog .... (2) Alleen schoonvader leeft nog .... (3) Beide leven nog .... (4) Niet van toepassing 4a. Zie je of spreek je je schoonouders minstens eens per twee weken? .... (0) Geen van beide .... (1) Alleen schoonmoeder .... (2) Alleen schoonvader .... (3) Beide 5. Aan hoeveel familieleden (anders dan uw echtgeno(o)t(e), ouders, en kinderen) voel je je gehecht? (Als dit er geen zijn, schrijf dan op '0', en ga verder met vraag 6.) .... 5a. Hoeveel van deze familieleden zie je of spreek je minstens eens per twee weken? .... 6. Hoeveel goede vrienden heb je? (met goede vrienden bedoelen we hier mensen bij wie u zich gemakkelijk voelt, met wie u over persoonlijke zaken kunt praten, en die u om hulp kunt vragen) .... 6a. Hoeveel van deze vrienden zie je of spreek je minstens eens per twee weken? .... 7. Ben je lid van een religieuze groep? (bv. een kerkgenootschap) Als dit niet het geval is, zet dan een kruisje bij 'nee' en ga verder met vraag 8. ... (1) Ja ... (2) Nee 7a. Hoeveel leden van je religieuze groep spreek je minstens eens per twee weken? (Inclusief gesprekken rondom bijeenkomsten en diensten). ....

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 8. Volgt u regelmatig onderwijs (via een school, universiteit, technische training, of volwassenen onderwijs)? Zo niet, zet dan een kruisje bij 'nee' en ga door met vraag 9. ... (1) Ja ... (2) Nee 8a. Hoeveel medestudenten of docenten spreek je minstens eens per twee weken? (Inclusief gesprekken rondom de lessen) .... 9. Werkt u op dit moment voltijds of in deeltijd? (Als dit niet het geval is, zet dan een kruisje bij 'nee' en ga door met vraag 10.) .... (0) nee .... (1) ja, in mijn eigen bedrijf/als zelfstandig ondernemer .... (2) ja, in loondienst 9a. Over hoeveel mensen heeft u de supervisie? .... 9b. Hoeveel collega's (uitgezonderd hen die u superviseert) spreekt u minstens eens per twee weken? .... 10. Hoeveel van je buren bezoek je of spreek je minstens eens per twee weken? .... 11. Verricht je op dit moment regelmatig vrijwilligerswerk? (Zo nee, zet dan een kruisje bij 'nee' en ga verder met vraag 12.) ... (1) Ja ... (2) Nee 11a. Hoeveel mensen die betrokken zijn bij dit vrijwilligerswerk spreek je minstens eens per twee weken over zaken die te maken hebben met het vrijwilligerswerk? .... 12. Hoor je bij groepen waarin je met een of meerdere leden minstens eens per twee weken over groepsgerelateerde zaken praat? Voorbeelden van zulke groepen zijn onder andere gezelligheidsverenigingen; hobbyverenigingen; vakbonden; commerciële groepen; beroepsorganisaties; groepen die te maken hebben met kinderen, zoals ouderverenigingen op scholen of scouting; groepen die te maken hebben met de gemeenschap waarin je
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 woont; etc. (Als je niet bij zulke groepen hoort, zet dan een kruisje bij 'nee' en sla het volgende deel van de vragenlijst over.) ... (1) Ja ... (2) Nee Bedenk in welke van deze groepen je minstens eens per twee weken met een groepslid praat, en geef de volgende informatie voor elke groep: De naam of het soort groep, en het totale aantal groepsleden in die groep met wie je minstens eens per twee weken praat.

Naam/soort groep

Aantal groepsleden

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 3. Dutch Translation of Social Network Size Questionnaire
(adapted from Stileman & Bates, 2007)

Hoeveel mensen waren er in totaal aanwezig op het feest voor je 18de of 21ste verjaardag? .... Als je nu een feestje zou geven, hoeveel mensen zou je dan uitnodigen? .... Wat is het totaal aantal vrienden in de contactlijst van je telefoon? .... Schrijf de namen op van alle mensen die je een sms-bericht zou sturen bij een feestelijke gebeurtenis (bijv. een verjaardag, Kerstmis, nieuwe baan, goed examenresultaat, etc.). Hoeveel mensen zijn dit in totaal? .... Schrijf de namen op van alle mensen in de contactlijst van je telefoon die je zou kunnen ontmoeten voor een praatje in een besloten groep van twee tot vier personen. Hoeveel mensen zijn dit in totaal? .... Met hoeveel vrienden uit je schooltijd zou je nu nog vriendschappelijk gesprek kunnen voeren? .... Hoeveel vrienden heb je op Facebook? .... Hoeveel vrienden heb je buiten de universiteit? .... Schrijf de namen op van alle mensen waarvan je vindt dat je ze om een gunst kan vragen in de verwachting dat die ook wordt verleend. Hoeveel mensen zijn dit in totaal? ....

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 4. Dutch Translation of Cognitive Failures Questionnaire
(adapted from Broadbent et al., 1982)

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 5. Dutch Translation of Political Orientation Questionnaire
(adapted from Kanai et al., 2011c)

Geef alstublieft je politieke voorkeur aan door een van de onderstaande alternatieven te omcirkelen:

(1) erg progressief (2) progressief (3) niet progressief maar ook niet conservatief (4) conservatief (5) erg conservatief

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 6. Dutch Translation of Moral Foundations Questionnaire
(adapted from Graham et al., 2009) Deel 1. Wanneer je besluit of iets goed of slecht is, in welke mate zijn de volgende overwegingen dan van belang voor jouw oordeel. [0] = Helemaal niet relevant (Deze overweging heeft niets te maken met mijn besluit over goed en slecht) [1] = Niet erg relevant [2] = Enigszins relevant [3] = Redelijk relevant [4] = Erg relevant [5] = Heel erg relevant (Dit is een van de belangrijkste factoren wanneer ik oordeel over goed en slecht) ______ Of iemand emotioneel heeft geleden ______ Of sommige mensen anders behandeld werden dan anderen ______ Of iemands daden liefde toonden voor zijn of haar land ______ Of iemand een gebrek aan respect voor autoriteit heeft getoond ______ Of iemand standaarden van puurheid en fatsoenlijkheid geschonden heeft ______ Of iemand goed was in wiskunde ______ Of iemand zorgde voor een zwak of kwetsbaar iemand ______ Of iemand oneerlijk heeft gehandeld ______ Of iemand zijn of haar groep verraden heeft ______ Of iemand zich conformeerde aan de tradities van de maatschappij ______ Of iemand iets walgelijks heeft gedaan ______ Of iemand wreed was ______ Of iemands rechten zijn ontzegt ______ Of iemand een gebrek aan loyaliteit heeft getoond ______ Of iemands actie chaos of wanorde veroorzaakte ______ Of iemand zich gedroeg op een wijze die God zou goedkeuren

35

Confirmatory Replication Study 2012
Deel 2: Zou je voor de volgende stellingen aan willen geven in welke mate je het ermee eens of oneens bent. [0] zeer mee oneens [1] redelijk mee oneens [2] enigszins mee oneens [3] enigszins mee eens [4] redelijk mee eens [5] zeer mee eens

______ Medeleven met degenen die lijden, is de belangrijkste deugd. ______ Wanneer de overheid wetten maakt, dan moet de garantie dat iedereen eerlijk behandeld wordt het belangrijkste principe zijn. ______ Ik ben trots op de geschiedenis van mijn land. ______ Respect voor autoriteit is iets dat alle kinderen moeten leren. ______ Mensen behoren geen walgelijke dingen te doen, zelfs wanneer er niemand schade berokkend wordt. ______ Het is beter iets goeds te doen dan iets slechts. ______ Een van de ergste dingen die een mens kan doen is een weerloos dier pijn doen. ______ Rechtvaardigheid is de belangrijkste behoefte voor een maatschappij. ______ Mensen behoren loyaal te zijn aan hun familieleden, zelfs wanneer zij iets slechts hebben gedaan. ______ Mannen en vrouwen hebben elk verschillende rollen in de maatschappij. ______ Ik vind sommige daden slecht, omdat zij onnatuurlijk zijn. ______ Het kan nooit goed zijn om een mens te doden. ______ Ik vind dat het moreel onjuist is dat rijke kinderen een heleboel geld erven, terwijl arme kinderen niets erven. ______ Het is belangrijker om een teamspeler te zijn dan om jezelf te uiten. ______ Als ik een soldaat was en ik was het oneens met de orders van mijn leidinggevende, dan zou ik toch gehoorzamen omdat dit mijn plicht is. ______ Kuisheid is een belangrijke en waardevolle deugd.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012 7. Dutch Translation of Interpersonal Reactivity Index
(adapted from Davis, 1980)

Instructies: Onderstaand vindt je een aantal beweringen. De bedoeling is dat je deze beweringen doorleest en dat je nagaat of zij jou goed beschrijven. Hieronder staan vier antwoordmogelijkheden die variëren van "beschrijft mij heel goed" tot "beschrijft mij helemaal niet goed". Het is de bedoeling dat je telkens met een letter voor de zin aangeeft in hoeverre een bewering jou goed beschrijft. Laat geen vraag onbeantwoord en beperk je tot de gegeven antwoordmogelijkheden. Neem je tijd, maar denk niet al te lang na over een vraag. Antwoordmogelijkheden: A B Beschrijft mij helemaal niet goed Beweringen:
______ Ik dagdroom en fantaseer, met enige regelmaat, over dingen die zouden kunnen

C

D

E Beschrijft mij heel goed

gebeuren met mij.
______ Ik heb vaak tedere, bezorgde gevoelens voor mensen die minder gelukkig zijn dan ik. ______ Ik vind het soms moeilijk om dingen te zien vanuit andermans gezichtspunt. ______ Soms heb ik niet veel medelijden met andere mensen wanneer ze problemen

hebben.
______ Ik raak echt betrokken bij de gevoelens van de personages uit een roman. ______ In noodsituaties voel ik me ongerust en niet op mijn gemak. ______ Ik ben meestal objectief wanneer ik naar een film of toneelstuk kijk, en ik ga er niet

vaak volledig in op.
______ Ik probeer naar ieders kant van een meningsverschil te kijken alvorens ik een

beslissing neem.
______ Wanneer ik iemand zie waarvan wordt geprofiteerd, voel ik me nogal beschermend

tegenover hen.
______ Ik voel me soms hulpeloos wanneer ik in het midden van een zeer emotionele

situatie ben.
______ Ik probeer mijn vrienden soms beter te begrijpen door me in te beelden hoe de

dingen eruit zien vanuit hun perspectief.
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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012
______ Uitermate betrokken geraken in een goed boek of film is eerder zeldzaam voor mij. ______ Wanneer ik zie dat iemand zich bezeert, ben ik geneigd kalm te blijven. ______ Andermans ongelukken verstoren me meestal niet veel. ______ Als ik zeker ben dat ik over iets gelijk heb, verspil ik niet veel tijd aan het luisteren

naar andermans argumenten.
______ Na het zien van een toneelstuk of film, heb ik mij gevoeld alsof ik een van de

karakters was.
______ In een gespannen emotionele situatie zijn, schrikt me af. ______ Wanneer ik zie dat iemand unfair wordt behandeld, voel ik soms weinig medelijden

met hen.
______ Ik ben meestal behoorlijk effectief in het omgaan met noodsituaties. ______ Ik ben vaak nogal geraakt door dingen die ik zie gebeuren.

______ Ik geloof dat er twee zijden zijn aan elke vraag en probeer te kijken naar hun beide.
______ Ik zou mijzelf beschrijven als een vrij teerhartig persoon. ______ Wanneer ik naar een goede film kijk, kan ik mezelf zeer gemakkelijk in de plaats

stellen van het hoofdpersonage.
______ Ik neig ertoe controle te verliezen tijdens noodsituaties. ______ Wanneer ik overstuur ben door iemand, probeer ik mijzelf meestal voor een tijdje “in

zijn schoenen” te verplaatsen.
______ Wanneer ik een interessant verhaal of roman aan het lezen ben, beeld ik me in hoe

ik me zou voelen indien de gebeurtenissen in het verhaal mij zouden overkomen.
______ Wanneer ik iemand zie die zeer hard hulp nodig heeft in een noodsituatie, ga ik

kapot.
______ Alvorens iemand te bekritiseren, probeer ik mij voor te stellen hoe ik mij zou voelen

mocht ik in hun plaats zijn.

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Confirmatory Replication Study 2012

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