SURVEYING GUIDELINES

Prepared by:

Engineers Without Borders – USA
April, 2006

DRAFT

Foreword:
The intention of the EWB-USA guideline series is to provide the basic elements for making informed decisions when investigating and designing sustainable systems in developing countries. This guide does not replace the need for supervision of the project by an experienced engineer or surveyor. Authors: Louise Dion P.E., TAC Member Mark Reiner P.E., EWB-USA Projects Director TAC Reviewers: Mike Paddock P.E. Dave Robinson P.E. Andy Rodriguez P.E.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 5 1.1 TYPES OF SURVEYS ................................................................................................................. 6 Control Surveys............................................................................................................................... 6 Boundary or Property Surveys......................................................................................................... 6 Topographic Surveys ....................................................................................................................... 6 Hydrographic Surveys ..................................................................................................................... 6 Construction Surveys....................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 BASIC TRIGONOMETRY ........................................................................................................... 7 1.3 CONVERSION OF UNITS OF MEASURE ....................................................................................... 8 1.4 MEASUREMENT OF DIMENSIONS .............................................................................................. 9 1.5 ROUNDING OFF AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ............................................................................. 10 Significant Figures ........................................................................................................................ 10 Rounding off numbers.................................................................................................................... 10 Checking Computations................................................................................................................. 10 CHAPTER 2 SAFETY RESPONSIBILITIES..................................................................................... 11 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 PLANNING FOR SAFETY OPERATIONAL PRECAUTIONS............................................................. 11 PERSONAL HEALTH ............................................................................................................... 11 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................... 11 FIRST-AID REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................... 12 SUN ...................................................................................................................................... 12 HEAT/COLD .......................................................................................................................... 12 RAIN .................................................................................................................................... 13 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................ 13 TRAFFIC HAZARDS ................................................................................................................ 14 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS .................................................................................................. 14 PRIVATE VS. PUBLIC LAND AND PERMISSION ......................................................................... 14 LETTERS AND PERMITS.......................................................................................................... 14 CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING ................................................................................................ 15

CHAPTER 3 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................... 15 3.1 MEASURING DISTANCE (RANGE) ............................................................................................ 15 Tapes ............................................................................................................................................ 15 Steel Tapes.................................................................................................................................... 15 Fiberglass Tapes ........................................................................................................................... 16 Professional Measuring Wheels..................................................................................................... 17 3.2 MEASURING DIRECTION (BEARING, ANGLE, AZIMUTH)............................................................ 17 Compass ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Engineer's Transit ......................................................................................................................... 18 Hand Levels .................................................................................................................................. 19 Clinometers................................................................................................................................... 19 Engineer's Levels........................................................................................................................... 20 3.3 INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS ....................................................................................................... 20 3.4 LEVEL RODS AND ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................ 21 3.5 ELECTRONIC SURVEYING SYSTEMS ....................................................................................... 22 Laser Levels .................................................................................................................................. 22 Electronic Distance-Measuring Equipment .................................................................................... 23 Global Positioning System (GPS)................................................................................................... 23 3.6 SURVEYING ACCESSORIES ..................................................................................................... 25 Tripod ........................................................................................................................................... 25 Plumb Bob, Cord, and Target ........................................................................................................ 26 3.7 ACCURACY AND SAMPLING ................................................................................................... 26 CHAPTER 4 FIELDWORK ................................................................................................................ 29

4.1 PREPARATION AND PRE-SURVEY ........................................................................................... 29 Existing Maps................................................................................................................................ 29 Basemaps...................................................................................................................................... 29 Fieldnotes ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Photos and Sketches ...................................................................................................................... 30 Benchmarks................................................................................................................................... 30 Datum ........................................................................................................................................... 30 Checking Level Accuracy Prior to Survey ...................................................................................... 30 Survey Boundaries......................................................................................................................... 31 Vegetation and Runnability............................................................................................................ 31 4.2 ERRORS ................................................................................................................................ 31 Accuracy and Traverses................................................................................................................. 31 CHAPTER 5 SURVEYING TECHNIQUES ....................................................................................... 32 5.1 LEVELING AND HOI .............................................................................................................. 32 5.2 HORIZONTAL ANGLE MEASURING ......................................................................................... 34 Bearing and Azimuth ..................................................................................................................... 34 5.2 DISTANCE MEASURING ......................................................................................................... 35 Pacing........................................................................................................................................... 35 Horizontal by Stadia...................................................................................................................... 35 Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) .......................................................................................... 36 Vertical by Transit......................................................................................................................... 36 5.3 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY ......................................................................................................... 37 Contours ....................................................................................................................................... 37 Traverses ...................................................................................................................................... 37 Cross Sections............................................................................................................................... 38 Interpolating ................................................................................................................................. 38 Coordinate Square Method............................................................................................................ 39 CHAPTER 6 CONSTRUCTION SURVEYING.................................................................................. 39 6.1 SITE SURVEYING ................................................................................................................... 39 Squaring Site................................................................................................................................. 39 Baseline and Offset Control ........................................................................................................... 39 6.2 EARTHWORK ........................................................................................................................ 40 Areas............................................................................................................................................. 40 CHAPTER 7 CARE OF INSTRUMENTS .......................................................................................... 40 7.1 SERVICE AND REPAIR ............................................................................................................ 40 7.2 HANDLING, CARRYING AND STORING .................................................................................... 41 7.3 CLEANING AND LUBRICATION ............................................................................................... 41 7.4 INSTRUMENT ADJUSTMENT AND REPAIR ................................................................................ 42 Instrument Adjustment ................................................................................................................... 42 General Adjustment Procedures..................................................................................................... 43 7.5 ENGINEER’S LEVEL ADJUSTMENTS ........................................................................................ 44 7.6 MAINTAINING T APES ............................................................................................................ 44 7.7 TRANSPORTING SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS AND ACCESSORIES ............................................... 45 7.8 CUSTOMS ............................................................................................................................. 45 CHAPTER 8 SOURCE OF SUPPLY .................................................................................................. 46 CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 46

culturally and environmentally aware. to improve the quality of their lives. while a top-down approach will probably lead to a waste of resources in the initial start-up of projects.USA (EWB) projects. Furthermore. Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping We aid the community by providing engineering support for the design and implementation of projects while being ideologically. While electronic surveying techniques have clearly become the standard in the more developed world and are utilized on Level 1 Engineers Without Borders . we have a basic duty to inform and communicate what we are doing and leave the technical capabilities to duplicate the work whenever possible. On the other hand the disadvantages of electronic methods include the likelihood that the community will not be able to duplicate the project without such equipment and the higher capital investment. As engineers assisting a developing community. if the equipment breaks down it likely will not be repaired until returning and the progress of the project can be seriously delayed. economically. We all learn from others when we do it ourselves. Community participation will ensure continuity. such as bridges and buildings. The project should generate independence and strengthen self reliance such that the community can sustain these improved living conditions. many EWB projects do not require high tech equipment. We . Always keep in mind that the chapter’s role is to partner with the people of a community through common action. The advantages in using electronic equipment include the speed with which surveys can be carried out and greater levels of accuracy over an area.Chapter 1 Introduction These Guidelines cover basic land surveying practices and surveying instrument technology. Participation itself should incorporate the local political and cultural context. endangering future sustainability.

these are legal boundaries and a datum may already be established. Construction Surveys are the translation of construction plans into physical points on the ground that can be used as a basis for the actual construction. or grid. Although a variety of surveys exist for the purposes of gathering land and engineering information the following will apply most frequently to EWB projects: Control Surveys provide basic horizontal and vertical position data to establish datum for the site.strive to develop projects in a way that stimulates the community to participate. Topographic Surveys determine the horizontal and vertical location of the physical features at the site to provide information on the existing conditions. The sounding of depths by radar is typically replaced by dropping weighted lines or dipping long poles into streams on EWB projects. and assess other factors affecting navigation and water resources. The ultimate outcome would be to develop the knowledge base such that the people of the community can rely on themselves to solve problems rather than on outsiders. measure the flow of rivers. creates incentives and instills confidence. EWB projects will not verify such legal boundaries unless performed by a licensed surveyor and approved of by the EWB Technical Advisory Committee. We hope that the methods outlined in these guidelines provide an avenue for knowledge sharing with the community. For most surveying work the vertical position of points in terms of height above a curved reference surface is mean sea level. Elevations of such points are determined by leveling. chart the bottom of streams. Generally. However. property corners. These provide an accurate framework on which less accurate survey data. Relatively few points or stations are established by the control survey. 1. traverse. lakes. They are so arranged that they can be easily observed and measured by triangulation.1 Types of Surveys The intent of these guidelines is to provide useful information for the type of surveys most commonly required for successful EWB projects. Hydrographic Surveys map the shorelines of bodies of water. such as ground elevations. rights-of-way which provide the length and direction of land lines. Boundary or Property Surveys determine boundary lines. can be based without accumulating accidental errors or incurring high cost of making all measurements precise. harbours and coastal waters. but also the vertical information required to ensure that foundations are level and surfaces drain as required . Construction surveying provides not only the horizontal location of new improvements.

the hypotenuse can be calculated. Tangent (TAN) = The opposite side divided by the adjacent side. rectangle. the sum of the interior angles must be 180 degrees. . TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Sine (SIN) = The side opposite the angle divided by the hypotenuse. SUM OF INTERIOR ANGLES If "n" is the number of vertices (corners) of a closed shape. . For shapes with four vertices (square.) the interior angles would equal 360° ([4-2] x 180° = 360°).1. Cosine (COS) = The side adjacent to the angle divided by the hypotenuse.2 Basic Trigonometry THE RIGHT TRIANGLE For a triangle to be called a right triangle. one of the interior angles must be 90 degrees. PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM Given the length of the side opposite and the side adjacent of a right triangle. Any third side of a triangle can be determined if the other two sides are known. etc. the sum of the interior angles can be found by applying the formula: (n-2) x 180°. As with all triangles.

and in such endeavors as road building.10 (10 ÷ 100) The percent of grade would equal 10% ([10 ÷ 100] x 100 TRIANGULATION A technique for precise determination of distances and angles for location of a ship's or aircraft's position. this is the baseline. the distance to the object in question (X) is determined by the following formula: • • • • Tangent (Tan) = opposite/adjacent (baseline) Tan 35 = .700 (x 18) = X/18 (x 18) X = 12. values can be obtained for distances and angles not otherwise measurable. For the example on the left: • • The grade equals .700 (from calculator or trigonometry table) . the apparent shift in position of an object with respect to its background due to a shift in the position of the observer. each adjacent to at least one other.281 feet= 39. It is based on the laws of plane trigonometry. In this diagram. the other two sides and angle can be readily calculated. Direct conversions of single measurements are made using the following relationships: 1 meter = 3.37 inches .GRADE AND PERCENT GRADE To determine the slope or grade of an angle requires the length of the "rise" (opposite side) divided by the "run" (adjacent side). By constructing a series of such triangles.700 = X/18 feet .3 Conversion of Units of Measure Both metric (SI) and English (footpound) units are used for any system of measurement. The two adjacent angles are measured by means of a surveying device known as a theodolite. tunnel alignment. and the entire triangle is established. that if one side and two angles of a triangle are known.6 feet PARALLAX The angle subtended by the far object on the line of position. One side of the selected triangle is measured. 1. and other construction.

31 cubic feet 1 hectare = 2. It is measured in the horizontal plane in degrees of arc. In most cases a distance measured on a slope is changed to its horizontal equivalent.6214 miles 1 foot= 0. Horizontal angles usually are measured clockwise but may be measured counterclockwise.281 feet= 0.3937 inches 1 kilometer = 3. Relative measurements can be made by an altimeter. and an exterior angle is on the outside of an enclosing figure. one needs to be careful in choosing the US Survey Foot or the International Foot. or 3. 1. In most cases remoteness of points and accuracy require indirect measurements with instruments such as the level and graduated rod. horizontal angles.3048 meters 1 mile = 1. access to the line. vertical lengths.47 acres Note: When converting coordinates. or more accurate measurements by a transit. A vertical length is a measurement of a difference in height or elevation. A horizontal length is the straight line distance measured in a horizontal plane. human pacing. and the time and cost involved. The type of measurement and equipment used depends on required accuracy. An interior angle is on the inside of an enclosing figure. Measurements are made by direct and indirect methods. two intersecting lines of sight to points in different vertical planes. Angles are usually measured by transit. which indicates barometric pressure. or measuring tapes. Indirect measurements are made by use of stadia-equipped instruments and graduated rods or by electronic distance-measuring equipment. 2. A horizontal angle is the difference in direction between: 1. . Direct measurements are made by wheels. or by plumb line and tape for short vertical distances.4 Measurement of Dimensions Four geometries are measured in a survey: horizontal lengths." An angle-to-the-right is the clockwise angle at the vertex between the back line and forward line. and vertical angles. two intersecting lines in a horizontal plane. A deflection angle is that angle which any line extended makes with the succeeding or forward line. The direction of the deflection is identified as "right" or "left. two intersecting vertical planes.1 centimeter = 0.609 kilometers Some other units in common use for surveying are: 1 cubic meter = 35.

suppose a measurement of 941. the nearest EVEN number is substituted for the preceding digit.07. Dropped digits to the right of the decimal points are never replaced." 1. The planimeter and the protractor are also used for approximate checking. 2. plane.26 is five significant figures. if possible.) 4. but the fourth digit will still remain 2. the number of significant figures is determined by the accuracy of the measurement. if the probable error were ±0. The ± 0. you should use a method that differs from the original method. The number could vary from 941. Each step that cannot be checked by any other method must be recomputed.26 units is made with a probable error of ± 0.33. 0. Rounding off numbers Rounding off is the process of dropping one or more digits and replacing them with zeros. is one possibility. When the digit to be dropped is less than 5.19 to 941.) 2.047 becomes 0. the preceding digit is increased by one. and the fourth digit could be read 1.055 becomes 0.5 Rounding off and significant figures Significant Figures In a measured quantity. We can say that 941.03 casts some doubt on the fifth digit which can vary from 3 to 9.03 unit. When the digit is equal to 5. especially if it takes less time than a mathematical or logarithmic solution. It is measured in the vertical plane in degrees of arc.045 becomes 0. the fourth digit could be affected.A vertical angle is the difference in direction between a horizontal plane and an intersecting line.05.054 becomes 0. if possible. and. the significant figures should reflect the allowable error or tolerance in the measurements. The fifth digit in this measurement is meaningless.04. To check a set of computations.06. A graphical solution can be used. For example. 5. when feasible. we know the fifth digit is doubtful. (Example: 0. Numbers used in surveying are rounded off according to the following rules: 1. or a line of sight to a point. When the digit to be dropped is greater than 5. or 3. (Examples: 0. another survey team member should . if necessary. (Example: 0. and from the allowable error. In surveying. However. Dropped digits to the left of the decimal point are replaced by zeros. the number is written without the digit or any others that follow it. The number has only four significant figures and should be written as such. to indicate the number of significant figures. An inverse solution.05. Measurements are referenced "up" or "down" from the horizontal as "plus angles" or "minus angles. Checking Computations Most mathematical problems can be solved by more than one method. starting with the computed value and solving for the field data.) 3.

2 Personal Health Each surveyor must have proper food. Each field survey team member shall observe operational precautions by: • Not entering ditches. the water you drink. lunch. • Using particular caution when working at night. specialized tools and equipment necessary to conduct the assignment safely. 2. If you are prone to getting sick when you are at home. and sufficiency of. Be careful. If your work will take you away from home for an extended period be sure to inform your physician. It is important that everyone be in fit physical condition before performing work. Also find out what kind of medical care is available where you are going. and resuming work only when safe conditions have been restored. etc. When an error or mistake is found. and the air that you breathe will all be different. See and avoid all danger.1 Planning for Safety Operational Precautions Safety shall be given top priority in planning all surveys and field engineering assignments. you'll surely be sick in the field. which must be considered to ensure health and safety of surveyors. • Using methods that minimize exposure of survey team to hazardous conditions. They should be able to make some recommendations. • Ensuring access to. 2. these maladies can become severe and require medical attention. namely site conditions and logistics. Remember: The best safety rule is to keep alert and think about what you are doing. Minor stomach and intestinal disorders are the most common. including as required or directed: . the computation should be rechecked before the correction is accepted. • Suspending operations when unsafe conditions or uncontrollable hazards develop. Factors considered when planning an assignment shall include: • Scheduling work for the safest time of day • Assigning the optimum number of survey crew to accomplish the assignment safely. and foreign. Chapter 2 Safety Responsibilities Surveyors and field engineers face unique hazards. The following summarizes health and safety pertinent to surveying and field engineering work: 2.3 Personal Protective Equipment Each survey team member must wear clothing and footwear that will provide adequate protection for the assigned task. especially strenuous activity. if for some reason night work is required. The food you eat.recompute the problem. • Assigning specially trained and qualified team members to more hazardous conditions. and often can be treated with over-the-counter medicines. nutrition. trenches or other spaces until you are certain it is safe to do so.

The ideal comfort range for humans is between 16 to 32ºC (60 to 90ºF). heat..• Necessary clothing. cold. • Earplugs or muffs must be worn when working around noise levels that may cause injury or hearing loss. but they should block 99 to 100 percent of UVA and UVB radiation. The best way to avoid hypothermia is to dress warm and stay dry. fumbling hands.g. hunger. and inability to get up after resting.6 Heat/Cold Extremes of air temperature occur in all parts of the country. rain. and 4 p. Hypothermia is a condition of reduced body temperature caused by exposure to cold. Wear loose-fitting. irregular. and exhaustion. fair skin. not a baseball cap. Hypothermia can occur with air temperature above 16ºC (60ºF) under wet and (or) windy conditions. Light or neutral colors will attract less flies. forehead. 2. The warning signals of hypothermia are uncontrollable fits of shivering. red.4 First-Aid Requirements At least one member of each field survey team should have received first-aid training and possess a current certification. or light brown hair. freckles. replacing wet clothes with dry ones. 2. • Cover up. and aggravated by wet clothes. . nose. Seek emergency facilities as soon as possible. hat. ears.5 Sun There are no safe UV rays or safe suntans. Before you buy sunglasses. snow. rugged terrain. Be sure to follow application directions on the bottle or tube. or blond. construction hazards). • Wear UV-absorbent sunglasses (eye protection).m. 2. spend a lot of time outdoors. listlessness. non-alcoholic drinks. read the product tag or label. Each survey team vehicle should be equipped with a standard first-aid kit. Hypothermia in extremities can lead to frostbite. UV rays are most intense between 10 a. Sunglasses don’t have to be expensive. • Wear a hat. or have any of the following physical features: numerous. Hypothermia and hyperthermia normally occur in temperatures outside this range. long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Be especially careful in the sun if you burn easily. frequent stumbling. A wide brim hat. and scalp. incoherence. Victims of hypothermia must be treated immediately by removing them from exposure to the elements. eyes. wind. or large moles.m. • Limit exposure. drowsiness. works best because it protects the neck. gloves and boots to adequately protect against the outdoor elements (e. and giving them warm. • Use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30.

Avoid alcohol. 3. 2.To prevent hypothermia: 1. Put on rain gear before it starts to rain or snow. in the proper condition. clothing. Take frequent short breaks in cool shade. The combination of heat and humidity can be a serious health threat so take precautions. nausea. Seek shelter immediately if conditions become severe. dry skin (either hot and red or cool and pale). Schedule activities that require the most exertion in early morning or late afternoon. First aid involves cooling down and rehydrating. Always be aware of rapidly rising stages in rivers and creeks. 3.8 Tools and Equipment Only the proper tool. a throbbing pressure in the head. either in the area where you are working or several miles away. dizziness. Contributing factors are physical exertion. 4. Eat smaller meals before work activity. should be used for each job. 7. if possible. but the most important factor is body hydration. caffeine. find out from your health care provider if your medications and heat don’t mix. 2. If you are taking medications. Drink water in moderate amounts on a scheduled basis---do not wait until you are thirsty. and not when air temperature is at its highest.7 Rain Rain can fall at a rate of several inches per hour and rapidly create dangerous flash flood conditions. 2. Equipment should not be operated unless the survey crew is familiar with its use and convinced it is functioning properly. and muscle pains and spasms. 6. loose-fitting. Early warning symptoms of hyperthermia are chilling. Persons suffering from hyperthermia should seek medical attention immediately. Put on additional clothes before starting to shiver. Work in the shade when possible. lack of air movement. The normal body requirement for fluids in temperate regions is 2 1/2 quarts per day. breathable clothing—cotton is good and a wide-brimmed hat. desert conditions require more fluid. Hyperthermia is a condition of increased body temperature caused by exposure to excessive heat. 5. and soda---these liquids are not water substitutes. humidity. Weather forecasts will be helpful in planning your activities accordingly to ensure your safety. Wear light-colored. To avoid hyperthermia: 1. unsteadiness. 2. Avoid taking large amounts of sugar as well. Beware of dry creek beds that can become raging rivers in a short period of time. rapid pulse. and temperature. .

Once you identify someone of authority. Be sure to inquire if there are other parties you should contact.9 Traffic Hazards Although unlikely for most of the EWB projects there may be an occasional project which will be near traffic areas. must not be performed on or adjacent to traveled roadways without instituting proper protective measures to protect other drivers and pedestrians. Never work on a cliff edge. Be courteous. usually the person living or working on the land. polite. If you are working in a foreign country. Think about how you would feel if someone wanted to conduct research on your land. 2. Barbed wire fences. of land tenure. the sun.12 Letters and Permits When conducting field work. thorny brush. it is a very good idea to carry an official letter of introduction. a letter of introduction from a person in authority will help immeasurably. Surveyors must be conscious of the various systems. These measures include using appropriate signs. Be careful of falling rock and soil at cliff bottoms. Expect to be injured and be prepared for just such occasions. explain your intensions and desires and ask his or her permission.) all pose a threat. as required to work safely. and nuances. Many countries require official permits for various types of field work to be done within their borders. At the very least you should carry some type of document from the agency for which you work. Additional personal protective clothing that may be necessary when working near traffic are: • Orange or strong yellow-green vests. and professional. cliffs). your route and when you will be back. . wild dogs etc. Always let someone know where you are going.11 Private vs. rugged terrain (streams.10 Environmental Hazards Field work can be physically demanding and is often carried out in what appears to be the worst conditions. or have one close at hand.ewb-usa. animals (snakes. Public Land and Permission Surveyors are almost always dealing with land either owned or controlled by people other than themselves. you will have to be out in the rain and getting wet. Work. and bites are all part of the job. 2. shirts or other highly visible garments when exposed to vehicular or equipment traffic. insects. Carry a first aid kit (Section 6 of the EWB Sourcebook www. Never work alone in the bush. lookouts and/or lane closures. broken bones. • Hard hats. For example. flaggers. You will also have to face the threat of injury. Get permission from as many people as possible.org). no matter how short the duration. heat exhaustion. In a very general sense lands can be classified as either privately or publicly owned. 2. bruises. if you are measuring stream response to storms.2. but this distinction can sometimes be blurred. Cuts.

or a foreign country (e. The most commonly used length is 100 m. land owners and users are no different than you. Iraq) knocked on your door and asked if he could carry-out some studies of your land.13 Cultural Understanding By and large. a steel tape is required. While citizens of such countries can be friendly. for example. but that researcher must have a permit to import those samples into the United States. wouldn't you? Working in a foreign country can be doubly difficult. if she or he has been approved to do so by the proper authorities in Ghana.In many cases. especially in less-developed economies. You would have lots of questions. survey teams must always remember that what they are doing is viewed with either suspicion or wonderment..1 Measuring distance (range) Tapes Most surveyors' tapes are made of steel ribbon with a favored length being 100m. another state (say New Hampshire). Imagine how you would feel if someone from a government agency. Non-metallic tapes are woven from synthetic yarns with or without metallic threads. That person may not have difficulty collecting the samples. Take. someone conducting agricultural research in Ghana who plans to analyze in the United States. Bottom line is get permission ahead of time. Many modern tapes are made of durable 'plastic' or fiberglass. soil samples collected in the field. Metal tapes suffer from kinks and are easily broken. and helpful. it is impossible to carry-out a successful project without official documents. What might seem important to one person can be seen as an extravagance by another.g. Steel Tapes For direct linear measurements of ordinary or more accurate precision. and get it in writing! 2. All tapes need to be handled with care. courteous. Chapter 3 Surveying Equipment 3. These tapes are strong and wear well but can be subject to errors due to temperature and moisture changes. .

Measurements not requiring a high degree of accuracy. although the most commonly used are 30 m (~100 ft) long. Fiberglass Tapes Metallic or woven tapes are made of cloth with fine brass wire woven into them to minimize stretching. short distances in taking cross sections or topography.Steel professional tape Steel tapes are made of flat steel bands or cables known as cam-lines. except the last meter or foot. which is graduated in centimeters or tenths and hundredths of a foot. and distances for strip cropping and orchardterracing layouts. Tapes made from glass fibers are gradually replacing woven tapes and are safer when used near power lines. usually are made with metallic or fiberglass tapes. stamped on clamps or soldered sleeves. Steel tapes may be obtained in lengths up to 150 m (~500 ft). Waterproof professional tape . Steel tapes are usually marked at 1-m and 0. or stamped on bosses. such as dimensions of existing bridge openings.5-m or at 1-ft intervals. The markings on tapes may be etched. They usually come in lengths of 15 m (~50 ft) but may be obtained in lengths up to 100 m (~300 ft). A steel tape is sometimes equipped with a reel on which the tape can be wound.

so if you want to transfer your data to published maps you will need to correct it by a given amount or magnetic declination. It is important that you be aware that magnetic north differs from true north (called magnetic declination – see Section 4. Both methods are commonly used in conjunction with offsets. narrow features.1 for more details). or as a 'closed-loop' to delimit areas of interest. but is published in the key given on larger scale maps covering your area. compass bearings. This amount varies. But real world conditions are far from ideal! Variables in surface regularity will have an effect on accuracy. perfectly smooth.2 Measuring direction (bearing. and perfectly straight. Mechanical Measuring Wheel 3. This is an excellent system for initial site survey work in remote locations to produce a quick and reasonably accurate map.. The key word is estimate. which are measured clockwise from magnetic north. Deviations from a straight line will also affect accuracy. the larger the measuring wheel diameter for the most accurate estimate.2 %. The technique is based on the measurement of magnetic bearings i. as a measuring wheel is an estimating device. Ideal conditions are described as perfectly flat. . azimuth) Compass A compass is used to determine the direction traveled and to locate your position or features through triangulation.e. angle. measuring wheels can be accurate to within 3 inches per 100 feet.Professional Measuring Wheels A general rule for wheels is the rougher the surface. Though. It makes no pretense at being a precision measuring instrument. It can be used as a linear technique for plotting long. that's +/. under ideal conditions. The largest 25-inch diameter is intended for use in uneven field conditions.

. the pocket transit can be mounted on a tripod and is equipped with a small hook to which a plumb bob can be attached. The instruments that can perform these functions have additional refinements that can be used for other survey operations. affordable and simple technology. such as leveling. We will focus on using the pocket transit as it is small. The plumb bob provides a way to center the instrument over a point. Pocket Transit This instrument is used primarily for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. and for leveling. In use. Spirit levels are provided for leveling the horizontal plates. trends and strikes of geological features. setting points in line. Horizontal and vertical plates graduated in degrees and fractions measure the angles are mounted at right angles to the axes. measuring approximate distances by the stadia principle.Professional Mirror Compass Engineer's Transit A primary survey fieldwork consists of measuring horizontal and vertical angles or directions and extending straight lines. Two types of instruments that fall into this category are the engineer’s transit and the theodolite.

while sighting through the tube.Hand Levels The hand level. the position of the bubble in the vial. determines slope angles and levels for rough surveying. and the index line at the same time. computes height. is provided in the sight tube as a reference line. called an index line. The level vial is mounted atop a slot in the sight tube in which a reflector is set at a 45° angle. some hand levels provide 5x magnification for range up to 25 m. Hand Level The Abney hand level is constructed and used in the same manner as the hand level. like all surveying levels. The indicator is then adjusted with the free hand until the image of the spirit level bubble is centered on the cross wire. The Abney level may be used in the same manner as the hand level for running a level line if the indicator is clamped at the zero reading. hand levels may be rested against a tree. A horizontal line. A hand level is useful for extending approximate elevations off the control survey line beyond the limits of the instruments. rod. The spirit level is attached to the arc on the Abney level. and the round side-window faces to the left. or on top of a staff. The distances over which a hand level is sighted are comparatively short. to see the landscape or object. some with stadia lines. The supporting hand must not obstruct the vision of the nonreading eye. but both eyes must be kept open. It is generally used for rough leveling work. Readings can be taken with either eye. is an instrument that combines a level vial and a sighting device. Abney Level Clinometers measures vertical angles. For greater stability. The indicator is then clamped and the percent of slope read. except that it has a graduated arc for reading percent of slope. This permits the observer. However. The user aims the instrument by raising or lowering it until the hair line is . The instrument is held before the reading eye so that the scale can be read through the optics. The user sights through the tube and fixes the line of sight so that it will be parallel to the slope to be measured.

lack of electronics and stability of adjustment. The further the rod is from the level. . Horizontal angles can also be measured and distances determined with the aid of a stadia rod. Engineer’s Level 3. the hair line (crosshair) seems to continue outside the frame. the line of sight of the telescope is horizontal when the bubble is in the center of the tube. When it is not in adjustment. the greater the space covered on the rod by the stadia cross hair and the more difficult it will be to determine the reading accurately. For accurate results. Engineer's Levels The Dumpy level is an instrument used primarily for measuring differences in elevation for levelling. provided the instrument is in perfect adjustment. At the same time.sighted against the point to be measured. Extremely long sights should also be avoided.3 Instrumental Errors The most common instrumental error is caused by the level being out of adjustment. As has been previously stated. The dumpy level because of its sturdiness. Such errors can also be reduced by keeping the lengths of the sights for the backsight and foresight readings nearly equal at each setting of the level. convenience. sights with the engineer’s level should be limited to 100 m or less. Because of an optical illusion. Instrumental errors can be reduced by testing the level frequently and adjusting it when necessary. the position of the hair line against the scale gives the reading. the line of sight will either slope upward or downward when the bubble is brought to the center of the tube. this latter method is the more certain and should always be used for careful leveling. is the principal level used in EWB projects. so it can be easily observed against the terrain of the object. The term “dumpy level” originated from the dumpy appearance of some older models which had inverting eyepieces and relatively short telescopes. Since it is never known just when an instrument goes out of adjustment.

7 m (13 ft). transit.0 m (7 ft). oval. Its length is approximately 2. extending to 3. machined for accuracy. For less precise work. and centimeters or in feet and tenths and hundredths of a foot. or vernier scale target. They are graduated in feet or meters and can be read directly to the nearest tenth of a foot or centimeter. To obtain a more precise reading. differential-leveling measurements. or fiberglass. wood. Precise rods have a built-in circular bubble level to maintain the plumb of the rod.3. an extendable or folding rod may be used. consistent surface and maintaining plumb are keys to completing accurate.4 Level Rods and Accessories Rods are sighted through the optical equipment (compass. The sole of the rods are made of a metal base. All the rods but the range pole are graduated in meters. Precision leveling requires one-piece rods that are calibrated for accuracy and thermal expansion. Placing the rod on a stable. The kinds of level rods and accessories generally used in land surveying are listed below The Philadelphia level rod is a two-section rod equipped with clamp screws. the reading is either estimated (single or three-wire method) or read with an optical micrometer or a digital image. decimeters. . Leveling rods are manufactured of metal. plain. level) and the distance read on the rod is in proportion to the distance from the equipment to the rod. It may be equipped with a round. theodolite.

It is generally equipped for use with a target.75 cm (3% in) wide. The user moves the receiver up or down the rod until a light or audible tone indicates the receiver is centered in the plane of laser light. This control system may also be mounted on earthmoving equipment so that the receiver can automatically activate a solenoid-operated hydraulic valve to raise and lower . Designed primarily for use in making topographic surveys.0 to 5.65 m (12 ft).5 m long and graduated in 0. Each section is about 1. The range pole is a one-. The face is about 8.5-m (25-ft) length will telescope into a 1.0 m (12 to 16 ft) long. and automatically record these data on a tape or electronic data collector. The English range pole is from 6 to 10 ft long and is graduated in 1-ft segments. three-. or three-piece pole generally used to establish a "line of sight. extending to 3. The plane of light may be adjusted from level to a grade usually up to 10 percent.5-m segments painted red and white.000 ft) in any direction.3 m (4% ft) long. two-. Laser Levels A laser level consists of a transmitter and receiver.5-m (5-ft) barrel for transporting. extending from 3. or four-piece rod. the program can be run. eliminating the need for someone to read the instrument. or earthmoving equipment that has a photoelectric device and telescoping mast that automatically adjusts to the laser plane of light. The stadia rod is a two-. joined together with hinges and with a suitable locking device to ensure stability." A standard metric range pole is 2. 4.38 m (4 ft 6% in) long. It is not equipped for use with a target. The 7. It has metal shoes on both ends. tractor. Fiberglass telescoping level rods. usually round or oval. The rod reading is then taken directly from the rod. Other uses for laser levels and receivers include mounting a receiver on a vehicle. calculate and display the horizontal distance.8 kg (4 lb). The range pole is primarily used as a sighting rod for either linear or angular measurements but may also be used for approximate stadia measurement. Most transmitters are self-leveling units that emit a plane of light usable up to 300 m (~1. It is about 1. The Chicago or Detroit level rod is a three or four-section rod with metal friction joints.02 m (12% to 16% ft). The receiver also has a mounted control box that senses the distance from the ground to the light beam overhead and reflects this information on a dial as a rod reading. This rod is not equipped for use with a target. 3. The data can then be fed into a computer via the tape or electronic data collector.5 Electronic Surveying Systems Some electronic surveying systems can measure and digitally display the slope distance. weigh about 1.82 to 5.The Frisco or California level rod is a three section rod equipped with clamp screws. For measuring field elevations a small laser receiver is mounted on a direct-reading survey rod. and a printout of coordinates and elevation of each point can be made in a short time. electronically sense and display both horizontal and vertical angles. it is not equipped for use with a target.

it may have very slight timing errors. Global Positioning System (GPS) GPS provides Point Position (Latitude/Longitude) and Relative Position (Vector).a blade or other earthmoving device.the satellite signal slows as it passes through the atmosphere. An EDM instrument is calibrated on a baseline to determine instrument constants and errors. The design of most units enables most members of a surveying team to use the equipment after a short period of training. software accuracy. GPS can differentiate between every square meter on the earth’s surface thus allowing a new international standard for defining locations and directions.this refers to the relative position of the satellites at any given time. Similar types of receivers and equipment are being used on land drainage equipment. This increases the travel time of the signal.a receiver's built-in clock is not as accurate as the atomic clocks onboard the GPS satellites. terrain.this occurs when the GPS signal is reflected off objects such as tall buildings or large rock surfaces before it reaches the receiver. It is difficult to quantify this specification as receiver manufacturers are constantly finding . 5) Receiver--errors in the receiver's measurement of range caused by thermal noise. infra-red. or sometimes even dense foliage can block signal reception. GPS units typically will not work indoors. Electronic Distance-Measuring Equipment Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) equipment is of various types relying on the reflection of electromagnetic radiation such as microwaves.these are inaccuracies of the satellite's reported location.the more satellites a GPS receiver can "see. Therefore. 4) Signal Multipath -. EDM are now the prime measuring device for land surveyors and others. The ultimate accuracy of GPS positions are determined by the sum of all these errors. GPS positions are affected by various ranging errors: 1) Ephemeris data-." the better the accuracy. Buildings. electronic interference. Poor geometry results when the satellites are located in a line or in a tight grouping. thereby causing errors. EDM is also used routinely for measuring field event performances and checking the heights of the bar in the high jump and pole vault events at major track and field competitions. 2) Satellite clock-. 7) Satellite geometry/shading -. A series of measurements on a base can also be used to check the performance and reliability of the instrument and to assess its precision against the manufacturer’s claims and specified minimum standards. Ideal satellite geometry exists when the satellites are located at wide angles relative to each other. underwater or underground. causing position errors or possibly no position reading at all. and laser radiation waves from a reflector at the distant station. 3) Ionosphere and Troposphere delays -. and inter-channel biases 6) Number of satellites visible -.

In the woods. You can expect typical GPS accuracies in the range of 6-12 meters (2-40 feet). 4. even units with altimeters. If your receiver cannot lock on to three or more satellites. forested terrain. Magellan.trust your own plot. Make a graphic plot of Eastings and Northings (pencil and paper works really well for this). Not to do so could prematurely run down the internal lithium battery which maintains your data. Repeat steps 2. 1. not all GPS units are created equal in their ability to get strong enough signals to determine a location fix. due to barometric pressure fluctuations. waypoint coordinates. A GPS is not to be depended on for accurate elevation readings. try moving closer to the middle of it or to one of the sides. Record the coordinates for that place. canyon walls. GPS Maps are map images. route. the more the better) Always carry extra batteries. a human body. and navigation grades. The important thing to remember is that a GPS receiver needs to see at least 3 satellites (preferably more) in order to calculate the position. The main factor that makes some GPS units work better under these conditions than others is the design of their antenna. 2. In most situations there are enough satellites visible to a receiver to calculate the position. the receiver can see only satellites that are above the horizon. and track data for handheld and GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers from Garmin. You can put locational data (for example where in-country building materials can be found) into a GPS unit while you are conducting your research druing project assessment trips. If you are in a canyon or such. Be sure and align your expectations with what a GPS receiver can really deliver. Estimate the accuracy of your GPS receiver by following these four steps. Leave fresh batteries in your unit at all times and check on a regular basis to be sure they are OK. change your position. the elevation errors will be great enough to make the readings useless. There are a variety of receivers on the market yielding various levels of accuracy.. However handheld GPS unit allow for quick and reasonably accurate identification of one's position anywhere in the world.new ways to improve accuracy. Don't throw out ANY data points. Receivers typically fall into 3 categories: survey. you might need to look for a clearing. A variety of formats are available. It cannot reliably deposit you at your front door but can locate your yard. mapping. under very heavy foliage. 3. Simple turning around to face the opposite direction may do the trick. Lowrance and others. Under less than optimal conditions. heavy leaf cover and moisture on leaves can block or attenuate satellite signals. Find any convenient unobstructed place. Handheld GPS unit most likely to be used on EWB project will either be mapping or navigational grade depending on budget and accuracy needs. and that due to the nature of the signal.. nearby buildings. primarily the GPX (GPS eXchange) file format which can also . Nor will it replace a compass in all applications. A set of measurements is worth a thousand expert opinions . Generally. Mountains. There is a wide range of software that can be used to map GPS data.3 (at different times of day and night.

Hold the transit by the right standard (opposite the vertical circle) while you are attaching it. Foreign matter can get into hinged joints or on the machined surfaces and cause wear. for example. TopoGrafix ExpertGPS and EasyGPS. The accessories you need to do the actual measurement will be the following: a tripod to support the transit. Mud. When the tripod is in use. MapTech Chart Navigator and Terrain Navigator.be used with Google Earth applications along with the increasingly popular KML format. Topo Quads. The metal parts should be coated with a light film of oil or wiped with an oily cloth. and so forth. and the head should not be scratched or burred by mishandling. When the legs are set in the ground. National Geographic Topo!. Note: Not all formats are available for every GPS Map. A tripod consists of a head to which the instrument is attached. The engineer’s level should be held at the center of the telescope. The instruments should be screwed down to a firm bearing but not so tightly that they will bind or the screw threads will strip. or sand adhering to the tripod has to be removed. Pressure across the leg can crack the wooden pieces. Other data formats available include: MapCreate. or damaged . while theodolites and precise levels should be gripped near the base of the instrument. Tripod The tripod is the base or foundation that supports the survey instrument and keeps it stable during observations. a plumb bob to center the instrument on the point. and pointed metal shoes on each leg to be pressed or anchored into the ground to achieve a firm setup. Proper care must be observed in handling the tripod. tools. the protective cap is to be placed in the instrument box to prevent it from being misplaced or damaged. 3. You should grip the surveying instrument firmly to avoid dropping it while you are mounting it on the tripod. Any damage to the protective cap can be transferred to the tripod head. clay. perhaps tape supports if the survey is of high precision. The hinge joint should be adjusted and not overtightened to the degree that it would cause strain on the joint or strip or lock the metal threads. When you run a traverse. and other devices used in surveying that are not considered to be an integral part of the surveying instrument itself. or a hole or slot through which a special bolt is inserted to attach to the instrument. The machined tripod head is to be kept covered with the head cover or protective cap when not in use. care must be taken to apply pressure longitudinally. wear. DeLorme Topo USA. Street Atlas. It is important that you become familiar with the proper care of this equipment and use it properly. The tripod head may have screw threads on which the instrument is mounted directly. The leg hinge is adjusted so that the leg will just begin to fall slowly when it is raised to an angle of about 450.6 Surveying Accessories Surveying accessories include the equipment. three wooden or metal legs that are hinged at the head. Stability is the tripod’s greatest asset. a range pole to sight on in line. Garmin MapSource (including IMG files). Instability. your primary instruments may be the transit and the steel tape. and the tripod is to be wiped with a damp cloth and dried. a screw projecting upward through the plate.

7 Accuracy and Sampling The required precision and accuracy of a survey varies with the intended purpose.and the 16-oz are the most popular. 3. The cord from a plumb bob can be made more conspicuous for observation purposes by the attachment of an oval form aluminum target (fig. and 24 OZ. a flat rectangular plastic target may be used (fig. A plumb bob usually has a detachable tip. Figure 3. and the bob should be placed in the sheath whenever it is not in use. Each survey party member should be equipped with a leather sheath. If the tip becomes bent. It has rounded corners with alternate red and white quadrants on its face. These plumb bob string targets are pocket size with approximate dimensions of 2 by 4 in. the 12.1. 18.1 Plumb bob and target 3. tapered brass or bronze weight that is suspended from a cord for the general purpose of determining the plumb line from a point on the ground. Common weights for plumb bobs are 6. enough checks must be applied to the . and Target A plumb bob is a pointed. 14. Whether the survey is rough (cursory) or precise. 10. 8. the cord from which the bob is suspended will not occupy the true plumb line over the point indicated by the tip. 3. so if the tip becomes damaged. 16. it can be renewed without replacing the entire instrument. Also. Plumb Bob. and the face is enameled in quadrants alternately with red and white. The oval target has reinforced edges. view A). A plumb bob is a precision instrument and must be cared for as such. Cord.bearing surfaces on the tripod can evolve into unexplainable errors in the final survey results. 12. view B).1.

Precision is the degree of tolerance applied in instruments. Accuracy standards for horizontal and vertical control Type of survey Ordinary surveys Rough surveys 1.0/5000 By stadia 1.06 m √km 0. Accuracy checks should be made as soon as possible after the survey is completed preferably before the surveying party leaves the site.0/1000 Triangulation: Maximum error of angular closure 1. No surveying measurements are exact. No point shall be in error more than a full contour interval. large channels.2 m √km 1.0/1000 1. Rough survey accuracy is adequate for level circuits of less than six instrument setups. so errors must be continuously corrected or checked. km is the kilometers of levels run.0 minute √N Maximum error of horizontal closure By chaining 1. Ordinary survey accuracy should be attained in establishing bench marks. An objective of surveying is to obtain the required data with the desired accuracy at the lowest cost.0 ft √M The elevation of 90 percent of all readily identifiable points shall be in error not more than one-half contour interval.0/5000 By stadia 1. and fourth order. Third. waterways.10 ft √M 0. and should check and recheck the work until assured of its correctness. and other major structural practices. Surveying skill is obtained only with practice. third. irrigation. M is the miles of levels run. and for surveys for such conservation practices as diversions. and small ponds (see Table 3-1) Table 3-1.0/1000 3.08 m √km 0. level circuits involving six or more instrument setups. Accuracy is the degree of tolerance obtained or the quality of the results. Accuracy has been defined for Federal Government surveys and mapping since 1925 by classes of first.fieldwork and in the preparation of the plans to provide acceptable accuracy of the results. for preliminary and reconnaissance surveys.0/1000 Traverse: Maximum error of angular closure 1.30 ft √M 0.40 ft √M 0. methods.02 m √km 0.0 minute √N Maximum error of horizontal closure By chaining 1.0/1000 Leveling: Maximum error of vertical closure By level and rod Metric English By transit and stadia Metric English Topographic: 0. A surveyor should practice working accurately. and observations. N is the number of angles turned.5 minutes √N 1.and fourth-order accuracy generally apply in soil and water conservation engineering work as "ordinary" and "rough" surveys. second. Although errors can result . and surveys for drainage.0/1000 3.5 minutes √N 1.

Measuring Equipment 1. 2. Human Errors: Sufficient redundant measurements should be made to detect blunders and oversights. Accidental errors occur according to the laws of chance. Maintenance A. Office A. in durable form. Accidental errors are due to limitations or imperfections in the instrument used. Office (i. They are caused also by lack of skill in determining values with instruments. either from faults in manufacturing or improper adjustment of parts. Random Errors: Judgment should be exercised regarding i. thereby tending to accumulate. 4. the proper method of adjusting measurements for random errors. the need for. stored safely. Type A. B. as well as in transport and in storage. retrievable upon demand. B. Record Keeping: Collected and processed data should be i. B. Measurement of a line with a tape of incorrect length is an example. Field A. B.e. The reliability of the measurements depends on the equipment and techniques employed in measuring. ii. . they can be kept within proper limits if the surveyor is careful. Field equipment should be chosen on the basis of its appropriateness to a given task. and iii. They tend to cancel with repeated measurements. Measuring Techniques 3. Systematic errors are errors that occur in the same direction. The accidental error in the final result varies with the square root of the number of individual measurements. Errors are either accidental or systematic. Condition: All field equipment should be kept in such working order as to achieve the precision normally expected of the equipment. and ii. calculating and drafting) equipment should be integrated with field equipment. Placement: Precaution should be taken to avoid unexpected damage to the equipment in actual use. Measurement with a steel tape at low winter temperature and again at high summer temperature is an example. Surveying consists largely of determining the measurements of parcels of land.from sources that cannot be controlled. Others are due to changing field conditions that remain constant in sign but vary in magnitude in proportion to the change. Instrument Errors: Repeat measurements and proper corrections to measurements should be made to minimize systematic errors.

1 Preparation and Pre-Survey There are several sources of information that can be obtained for your project area and some surveying techniques that should be investigated prior to departing on the trip. (3) degree of accuracy acceptable. For a fee. and many useless data are collected. many staff hours are lost. If the community location is not available on the archived data. The survey plan should contain the following: (1) list of the data needed. (2) best method of obtaining the data.When surveys are not carried out in accordance with a carefully prepared plan.digitalglobe. Chapter 4 Fieldwork EWB-USA projects cover all levels of required surveying accuracy. date and source of .com at relatively reasonable prices (less than $500 for a square kilometer). this section is intended to be a checklist of preparing for the survey and the basic concepts.com/ . However. The scale (if possible). needed data are omitted. (4) list of the people needed to perform the work. Whether it is available online or requires locating the Department/Ministry once in the country varies by nation. and (6) complete time schedule for performing the survey work. (5) list of needed equipment. then the fee increases by a couple orders of magnitude! Basemaps The existing map information will serve as the basemap. EWB projects are in every type of terrain and demographic region.fallingrain. possibly the best free source information can often be obtained from the NGO or community that could draw a reasonable sketch of the survey area for you with relative distances and slopes. or if you want topographic contours. Free sources for locating the community are available online from sources such as http://www. This information will provide a better evaluation of the time and equipment that will be necessary to complete the survey.google. However. Therefore.com/world/ and http://earth. north arrow (showing true and magnetic north). 4. Caution should be used when using existing maps for design purposes as the source and reported accuracy may not be trustworthy. or field map for the survey. archived satellite photography may be obtained from sources such as www. Existing Maps Many nations have geologic and topographic information available. satellite photography will not provide topography. from general logistical assessment of a community and surrounding areas to precision measurements for structural projects.

relative location is called a "datum. The fieldbook is the official record of the survey and should not be on loose leaf pages. Descriptions: Descriptions may be only one or two words to clarify the recorded measurements. For magnetic declination of the world. a water-resistant fieldbook should be obtained for the project with the community and country clearly written on the cover. it is more convenient to tie features to a datum that is within the area of the basemap. They may be drawn to scale or approximate scale. or exaggerated for clarity. Checking Level Accuracy Prior to Survey Over time. The lines of error are shown greatly exaggerated (lines AY1. Tabulations: The numerical measurements are recorded in columns according to a prescribed plan depending on the instrument used.gov/charts/ig00d. distance and elevation. see http://geomag. or for that matter any field worker. natural or artificial. order of accuracy of the survey. 2. and the type of measurement. There are three general types of notes: 1. these points are government documented. the line of sight may depart from level. 3." Often. Avoid using existing ground elevation as a datum as erosion may change the terrain. More information. notes and the measurements of direction. It can be something as inconspicuous as the top of a cornerstone of a public building or a nail in the root of a baobab tree. absolute location is called a "bench mark. The magnitude of error can be checked as follows: . should try to get his or her hands on well before going into the field is a good map or aerial photograph of the study area. Datum A temporary point of known. Photos and Sketches One of the first things a geographer. BY1 and EW1 below). Instead.pdf." In most cases. of known. Benchmarks A relatively permanent point. Measurements and direction should be added to the sketch. These notes are ultimately the survey and represent the time taken in the field and should be safeguarded by duplication by recording in a fieldbook as well as on the fieldmap.usgs.existing map should be included on the basemap. but non-governmentally-documented. Sketches: Sketches clarify field notes and should be used liberally. Fieldnotes The fieldnotes include sketches. causing error.

Vegetation and Runnability You will also face the threat of injury. barbed wire and animals.2 Errors Accuracy and Traverses The orders of accuracy for surveys are called first order. third order. 3. Some field workers. Engineering in Emergencies Set the level at point Y on gently sloping ground and measure vertical to instrument line of sight to obtain Y1. Read AX and turn instrument to read BZ. the cross hairs of the instrument need to be adjusted – a job for a specialist. Survey Boundaries The nature and size of the study will determine the accuracy and degree of coverage. dogs. and lower order (with first order being the most accurate). field workers often have to employ sampling procedures. In a traverse a series of points are surveyed by measuring the distance and direction from one point to the second. or "intensity" of the field work. However. call each of the points of the traverse a "station. The orders are typically based on the length of traverses used to obtain point data in the reference area. some areas are relatively flat and have few features. close to the staff at point Z. second order. e. interpolation between measured points and sketches would be appropriate. 2. to avoid confusion with stations as determined by engineers. 4.. EL/LW1 = EG/GF a. 1. Move instrument to point W. especially geologists. 4. affect the “runnability” of the survey. Read EX and FZ. and from the second to the third. Error from true level at point 1 to point W is EL." However.g.Source: RedR. The presence of thorny bushes. EL = LW1 x ( (EG/GF) b. To compensate for this. other field . If EL is greater than 20 mm for 30 m distance. In these areas. a given area may be so large or the terrain so varied that total coverage by mapping or interviewing is not feasible. and so on to the last point. if the area is crossed with barbed wire fences and difficult vegetation. In some cases. not to mention more time required for the survey. Set a staffs points X and Z equidistant from Y at 20 m from the level.

preferably more. this is triangulation as triangles are being completed.1 Leveling and HOI Locating points in a vertical plane is called leveling. a level reading known as a backsight (BS) is taken as the vertical distance from the ground elevation at the point of known elevation (benchmark or datum) to the line of sight of the instrument.000 Second Order Accuracy = 1:10. The leveling operation consists of a reconnaissance of the terrain to find setup locations were the line of sight of the instrument is above the ground in all directions. the line-of-sight elevation is determined. In effect." Often." The lines between the points are referred to by everyone as the "legs. closed traverses (i. the ending point and the starting point might not coincide. a horizontal line of sight is established for the transit to establish a horizontal plane about the vertical axis of the level. . Chapter 5 Surveying Techniques Prior to departure. This vertical distance can be subtracted from the line of sight elevation to determine the ground elevation at the transit location. Once a location has been selected. all the legs should be re-measured and the bearings reread. can be checked. 5. The degree of accuracy tolerance is relative to the project. In direct leveling. it is a proportion of the traverse length. If the gap or error is too great. should have good knowledge of surveying techniques that may be needed in the given reference area. By adding this backsight reading to the known elevation. Turn the telescope slowly about its vertical axis and make sure bubble is centered in cross-hairs in all directions.. With one person holding a survey rod vertically on a point of known elevation.e.000 Third Order Accuracy = 1:5. The closure.000 Lower Order Accuracy = User specified Another way to assist in improving the accuracy of a traverse is to determine the azimuths and measure the distances of a few legs between two points that are not in sequence or next to each other. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ First Order Accuracy = 1:25. at least one member." That is. This section provides a brief overview of techniques required for the operation of an engineering transit. place the transit on a tripod and adjust the level to perpendicular to the axis of rotation using diametrically opposite leveling screws and a center bubble to the cross-hairs. The height-of-instrument (HOI) is determined by either the benchmark elevation plus the backsight or measuring the vertical distance along a plumb line from the center of the instrument sight piece to the ground and adding to the ground elevation at that point. Generally speaking. This happens frequently and is in large part a function of the accuracy of equipment.workers call the points of a traverse the "hubs. begin and end at the same point) will not "close." "corners" or just "points. or lack of it as the case may be.

750 ft.250 ft.500 .250 Elevation TP2 146.975 +BS + 4. B to TP3 = 45 ft.250 HOI @ A = 149. By subtracting the foresight reading from the line-of-sight elevation. BS D to TP 4 = 4.250 + BS + 4.750 ft.750 Elevation TP3 144. FS C to TP 4 = 0. The vertical distance from the ground elevation at the point to the elevation of the line of sight is measured on the staff. FS D to BM 11 = 1.525 ft. D to BM 11 = 75 ft. This procedure is shown on the example below.FS .250 ft. BM 1 elevation = 145.750 ft. C to TP 4 = 53 ft. Notation: Elevation BS A to BM 10 = 4. the elevation of the new point is established.100 ft.250 HOI @ B = 147. FS A to TP 2 = 3.100 .500 . BS C to TP 3 = 1.2.0. FS B to TP 3 = 2.500 -FS . the staff is moved to a point of interest at an unknown elevation and a foresight (FS) shot to the point is taken.To establish elevations at new points.750 HOI @ C = 146.250 ft. TP 4 to D = 73 ft. TP 3 to C = 51 ft.750 +BS + 1.525 Elevation TP4 145. Source: Schaum’s Outline Introductory Surveying Given: Distance BM 10 to A = 50 ft. A to TP2 = 50 ft.3. TP 2 to B = 45 ft.250 + BS + 1.FS . BS B to TP 2 = 1.

.e. Azimuths are measured from north or south.html.325 (checks out with survey) Note: If only one known point. 5.fcc. meaning the sum of interior angles equals the sum of angles in a closed polygon. . The bearing keeps measurements within quadrants with reference to a meridian (i.350 . and the angles vary from 0° to 360°. An example of the same direction in azimuth and bearing are would be 177° and South 03° East..750 148.FS BM 2 elevation = BM 1 elevation = + sum of BS’s . For converting degrees. This is shown below.325 145. minutes. where n = the number of angles in the polygon.8.1.sum of FS’s Check of BM 2 150.250 +11. (n-2)(180°). a useful website is http://www. north or south) and. i.2 Horizontal Angle Measuring Some surveys follow the border of a figure or area and close (tie in) to the starting point. The accuracy of the angle readings can be determined by how close the end of the survey is to the first point or.e. if you can close the horizon.gov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDMMSS-decimal.275 148. seconds into decimal degrees. then the survey should continue and end with BM 1 as the last point to close the loop. therefore angles are less than 90°.075 .HOI @ D = . Bearing and Azimuth The azimuth of a line is the horizontal direction measured clockwise from a zero direction which points north from the station occupied. The angles inside the figure are interior angles and those outside are exterior angles.

934 2. An open traverse continues on in more or less a continuous line.A traverse consists of a series of angles and distances. the distance to the rod is 0.518 bottom). e. but in general it is close to distance. Station/ Stadia Top Stadia Bottom Distance Angle Remarks Point Sta 2 Pt A 2.2 m. A closed traverse ends at the beginning point of the survey and should be conducted for most site maps in order to evaluate the accuracy of “closing” the loop.g.276 65. Therefore. The example below shows the staff elevation being 2..336 72.064 1. Each instrument has its own precise relationship. the survey of a road.2 Distance Measuring Pacing Pacing is a valuable tool as it requires no equipment for experienced pacers to measure distances of 50 m or longer to a precision of typically less than 1:50.383 0. The accuracy attained by pacing is sufficient for a great many purposes in surveying and field sketching. This involves taking readings from a staff held vertically over the point to be measured against the stadia hairs seen in the telescope.072m * 100 m = 7.8 105. Horizontal by Stadia Most transits have a facility for measuring distance using tacheometry.590 top – 2.10° Foresight to Pt B Pt C 2. This relationship should be checked before beginning any survey by accurately measuring a known distance by tape. This should be repeated on gentle inclining and declining slopes to develop a sense of the appropriate stride length for the terrain. 5. By simply walking “normally” and counting your steps to cover a 100 m tape placed on the ground and dividing the distance by number of steps.5 99.553 m above the ground surface and the difference between the upper and lower stadia hairs being 0.3° Backsight to Sta 1 Source: RedR Engineering in Emergencies .8 18. The procedure for recording mapping data using tacheometry is shown below. The method for determining your average pace should be done on both flat and on relatively gentle slopes.648 73.25° SE corner compound Pt B 1. or distances and bearings (or azimuths). d = 100 (or one unit measured vertically on the staff by the stadia hairs equals 100 units horizontal distance).072 m (2.

but the effects are typically small. In addition to using the transit for orientation and geologic strike and dip. This is described in the Brunton Manual as below. less than a few centimeters over a kilometer. .g. Some of these waves are affected by changes in temperature. Vertical by Transit The Brunton compass field transit is particularly handing as a compass and as a transit. and humidity. pressure. a market or a highway). or very crowded areas (e.. An obvious advantage of using EDMs is the ease of obtaining distance measurements in hard to access areas. the field transit can be used to estimate difficult vertical distances using basic pacing for horizontal distances and trigonometry for the vertical. infrared waves. or lasers to measure distances precisely.Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) EDM devices use electromagnetic waves.

g. . one can evaluate the accuracy of the bearing measurements. ♦ The spacing of the contour lines indicates steepness. The courses run between a series of points that should be marked and identified as traverse stations that can be used as temporary points of known coordinates for additional measurements. An open traverse ends without closure and therefore the accuracy of the measurements is difficult to evaluate without having to repeat the survey to find mistakes. and knowing that the sum of angles in a closed polygon is (n-2)(180°). ♦ Parallel and equally spaced contours typically indicate anthropogenic features. However. The points show accurate distances between features and their relative elevation differences using contour lines.1. e. Some basic rules for contours help to read the topographic map. where n = the number of angles in the polygon. slope gradient equals the contour interval divided by the distance between the contour lines.Source: www. ♦ The V’s formed by the contours crossing a stream always point upstream. Traverses can be open or closed. the shoreline of a still lake is a good example). They give essential information of land forms and individual features such as hills. Contours Contour lines are generally the information that most surveys are trying to determine.g.brunton. When available. A closed traverse should use a limited number of line segments to identify a polygon. ♦ Contour lines are perpendicular to slope. ♦ Valleys are shown as V-shaped contours and ridges as U-shaped contours. the interval between contour lines is typically 1 meter.3 Topographic Survey Topographic surveying is the method of determining the positions of features of interest on a map. valleys and ridges. as shown on below.. or 5 feet.com 5. very coarse topographic maps often have 5 meter or 20 foot contours. Using the angle measuring techniques identified in Section 5. drainage in watersheds should always be drawn perpendicular to contour lines. Traverses A traverse is a continuous series of lines called courses whose lengths have been determined by field distance measurements. A contour line is a line that passes through points of equal elevation (e. Therefore.

19in The distance between two adjacent 5-ft contours is: 2.8 ft =0.Closed Traverse Example: Angle A = 61. However. 685.6 ft) 22. the contour lines that should be crossed can be approximated by interpolation.78 in * (1.2 ft respectively. Depending on the terrain.002° error per angle Error: Cross Sections Cross sections are typically used in earthwork computations.6 feet. To find the horizontal distance from a to the 675-ft contour is: 2.01° 0. has the following five-foot contour lines that can be found along the line between a and b: 675. The horizontal distance between points a and b on the map is 2.4 ft and 696.66° Angle E = 100.231. For example.78 inches and the vertical distance between a and the 675 ft contour is 1.51° Sum = 540. but can also be used for subsurface information such as the phreatic surface of the groundwater table if the elevation of the well and depth to groundwater is known. 690 and 695.34° Angle D = 100.00° Angle B = .8 ft = 0.50° Angle C = 46.61 in . Interpolating Given two points whose elevations are known. 680.78 in * (5 ft) 22. stakes are set at constant intervals of 50 ft to 100 ft. two points a and b whose elevations are 673.01/5 = 0. different intervals can be included in order to pick up a special feature of the terrain.

If the diagonals are too long to provide adequate accuracy. Baseline and Offset Control The baseline and offset method eliminates the serious problem of the vulnerability of surveyed stakes at the construction site to disturbance by equipment and human traffic. A level is set in the middle of each square and corner elevations are taken at the corner points. Chapter 6 Construction Surveying When surveying for a construction project. then note the location of features in terms of their distances from the baseline. is useful for interpolating contours and allows additional checking between points along the square’s diagonals. the surveyed area is staked in squares with side lengths of up to 100 ft. Depending on the terrain. 6. the resulting hypotenuse needs to be five units to have a right angle.1 Site Surveying Squaring Site Check squareness of a rectangle by measuring the length of the diagonals. . This is illustrated below. the site is square. the primary need is to stake the needed points just prior to construction and be able to rebuild points as they are destroyed by construction work. measured at a right angle.Coordinate Square Method The coordinate square method. each corner can be checked for squareness by applying the “3-4-5” rule where if you measure three units on one lateral and four on the other. all that is involved in mapping an area by means of a baseline is to layout a straight line through the area to be mapped (the baseline). thereby increasing the accuracy of the survey. “Squareness” can be determined if the diagonals are equal to each other. Essentially. and the distances of these points from one end of the baseline. If the diagonals are equal. also known as the grid method.

fill is required. 6. Distances (offset) are then pulled from these baselines to establish control.1 Service and Repair To a great extent. It is different from the ordinary operations of leveling the instrument. and so forth. the accuracy and quality of your surveys will depend upon how well you take care of your surveying equipment. As used in this chapter. stowing. Study this user’s manual thoroughly before you even attempt to use the instrument. plotting the cross section to scale on engineering graph paper and counting squares to estimate the volume is acceptable. Earthwork computations are as accurate as the survey that has determined the cross sections needed for estimating. Typically. taking care of your equipment properly cannot be overemphasized. Where the solid line is below the dashed – cut is required and when the solid is above the dashed . If the topography is irregular and the proposed grade is not a continuous grade through the cut. Areas Cross sectional areas between the existing and proposed can be determined by simple geometry if the grades are more or less straight lines. when you’re not in the field. These cross sections are also critical on long roads where understanding where cut and fill locations are helpful to stage the entire project. the term adjustment means bringing the various fixed parts of an instrument into proper relationship with one another. Some suggestions for the care and maintenance of surveying equipment are discussed in the following paragraphs. Chapter 7 Care of Instruments 7. and maintenance is very important. In this chapter we also discuss instrument adjustment and repair. aligning the telescope. every instrument is accompanied by a user’s manual that tells you not only the proper operation and components of the instrument but also its proper care and maintenance. where the movement of large volumes or earth is necessary. Of course. As you know. accurate estimates are critical to schedule the number of workers. the proper instrument handling. equipment and time necessary. one showing the existing ground surface (dashed) and the other line showing proposed grade (solid). estimates are made from cross sections with two lines. While to some readers this review may seem redundant.2 Earthwork In road and other major construction projects. . therefore. The following techniques are used in estimating earthwork.The baseline method is often used with offset to stake the proposed structure when either a well defined property line or the wall of an existing building is relatively close to the project. AutoCAD or a planimeter are preferable.

NEVER rub the lenses of a telescope with your fingers or with a rough cloth. Wrenching the telescope in this manner could damage a number of delicate parts. are available for carrying small tools. In time you will learn various conveniences. Overtightening these screws may strip the threads. equipment. you should first place the instrument on the other side with the tripod legs well spread. Remove all dust with a soft brush before wiping dirty components with a clean cloth. So does a Navy seabag. NEVER leave a wet instrument stored in the carrying case.3 Cleaning and Lubrication All surveying instruments. or tools must be thoroughly cleaned immediately after you have used them. leveling screws. Occasionally. These are usually canvas bags equipped with a shoulder strap and closely resemble a newsboy’s bag. also usually attachable to the belt. or place undue stresses in the instrument.2 Handling. NEVER leave an instrument unattended while it is set upon a street. you may clean the lenses with a soft cloth that is dampened with a mixture . This leaves the uphill arm and hand free to catch yourself should you trip or stumble. and the like. Most of these can be attached to the belt. Before climbing over a fence. Clean chamois leather or a lint-free soft cloth is suitable for this purpose. bend the connecting part. The instrument and its accessories can be stowed in the case in a manner that ensures a minimum of motion during transportation. twist off the screw. When you set up an instrument. you should always carry the instrument on the downhill shoulder. instead. make sure that it is securely fastened to the tripod head. place the instrument and tripod on one shoulder with the tripod legs pointing forward and held together by your hand and forearm. The instrument should ALWAYS be stowed in the carrying case when it is not in use. makes an excellent carrying bag for stakes and hubs. are provided for various items of equipment. plumb-bob sheaths. and adjustment screws. turning-point pins. after each use.7. such as chaining-pin quivers. Various types of leather or canvas bags and sheaths. and sheaths for Abney and Locke levels. A newsboy’s bag. such as carrying your supply of surveyor’s tacks stuck in a rubber ball or in a piece of softwood attached to your belt 7. Bags are provided for carrying stakes and hubs. for example. When removing an instrument from its carrying case. Also. Carrying and Storing Always exercise care in handling instruments. When you carry an instrument mounted on a tripod. When the carrying case and dry it thoroughly at room temperature once you get home. NEVER grasp the telescope. near construction work or in any other place where it can be damaged. Every instrument comes equipped with a carrying box or case. In tightening the various clamp screws. marking equipment. when carrying an instrument. If you are walking alongside a hill. you must dust off the instrument and wipe it dry before placing it back in its case. you should carry it under your arm with the head of the instrument to the front. Avoid carrying the instrument on your shoulder through doorways or beneath low-hanging branches. bring them only to a firm bearing. equipped with a shoulder strap. you should ensure that all clamp screws are only lightly clamped so that the parts will move if the instrument is struck. in fact. Leather pouches.

it is recommended that graphite be used to lubricate the moving parts of a transit when the transit is to be used in sub-zero temperatures. 4. if one or both of the plate-level bubbles of an engineer’s transit are centered when the plate is. The process of adjustment chiefly involves the steps that are necessary to bring a bubble to center when it should be at . in fact. Most surveying instruments are precision instruments for which major adjustments and recalibration require special skills and tools that can be provided only by the instrument company or its subsidiaries. The ability to make these adjustments is an important qualification of any surveyor. and the reticle. 3. the surveyor should have the following knowledge: 1. immediately after each use. especially when the surveying gear is made of a material that is susceptible to rust action or decay. 5. Generally. for instance.of equal parts of water and alcohol. not level. Consult the manufacturer’s manual whenever you are in doubt before doing anything to an instrument. An optical instrument equipped with vertical and horizontal cross hairs is out of adjustment if the point of intersection between the cross hairs does not coincide with the optical axis. instrument adjustments involve the level tubes. They must know the procedure for making adjustments and the correct sequence by which adjustments must be made. If the defect in the instrument cannot be corrected by minor adjustment or minor repair. When lubricating instruments. make necessary arrangements for sending the instrument to the manufacturer. in warmer climates you should use alight film of oil (preferably watch oil). the telescope. for example. This is very important. range poles. 2. as used in this chapter. To make proper adjustments. however. and so forth. If the reflected bubble on a Locke or Abney level is centered when the optical axis is other than horizontal. 7. the instrument is out of adjustment.4 Instrument Adjustment and Repair Making minor adjustments and minor repairs to surveying instruments are among the responsibilities of the survey crew. do not attempt to disassemble it. Major adjustments and major repairs are those generally done in the factory. Minor adjustments and minor repairs are those that can generally be done in the field using simple tools. means the process of bringing the various parts of an instrument into proper relationship with one another. They must be familiar with the principles upon which the adjustments are based. You should always remove mud and dirt from tripods. They must be able to tell what effect the adjustment of one part will have on other parts of the instrument. instead. They must understand the effect of each adjustment upon the instrument when it is actually used for measurement. They must know the methods or tests used to determine if an instrument is out of adjustment. adjustment. you must use the right lubricant that is recommended for the climatic condition in your area. leveling rods. the instrument is out of adjustment. Instrument Adjustment As stated previously.

Before assuming that the adjustment is necessary. Instrument manufacturers publish handbooks containing recommended adjustment procedures. To detect any possible creep. After leveling. that is.) 5. Tighten all screws with equal firmness but avoid overtightening. loosen all level screws slightly (again to release residual friction) and relevel. Carry out all checks in the order prescribed for the instrument. These are usually small pamphlets. where a sight of at least 200 feet can be taken in opposite directions. Make adjustments in a prescribed order. 4. indicates the same amount of error every time. 6. a need for adjustment is frequently caused by a previous improper adjustment that was not really required but resulted from errors in checking. however. Too much tightness will eventually deform the centers. you should follow the appropriate manufacturer’s instructions. might cause an eventual shift in the legs. General Adjustment Procedures Instruments should be carefully checked periodically to determine whether or not they need adjustment. retighten the adjusting parts firmly but not too tightly. Ascertain that the tripod shoes are tight and that the instrument is screwed all the way down on the tripod. For adjusting your particular instruments. Level the instrument with particular care. a change in position caused by settlement or by temperature change in the instrument. Before an adjustment is made. The following discussion is intended to give you an idea of general instrument adjustment procedures. After making an adjustment.center or to bring a cross-hair point of intersection into coincidence with the optical axis. or set them in cracks or chipped depressions if on a hardened surface. in general. but in a good light. Be especially watchful for creep. Check the instrument on a cloudy day. After the tripod feet are set. The basis for this adage is the fact that modern quality instruments get out of adjustment much less frequently than is generally believed. (Avoid setting up on asphalt pavement in warm weather. After making all the . Press the shoes in firmly. Do NOT make an adjustment unless the same check. 2. Set the tripod up on firm ground in the shade. Then repeat the original check and readjust if necessary. you should allow every set bubble or setline of sight to stand for a few seconds and ensure that no movement occurs during the interval. The following procedures apply. There is an adage that an instrument should be checked frequently but adjusted rarely. you must positively ascertain that an apparent maladjustment actually exists. 7. obtainable free of charge. repeated at least three times. Spread the tripod feet well apart and place them so that the plate is approximately level. 3. if not released. release and then retighten the wing nuts. consequently. The purpose of this is to release any possible residual friction that. if possible. 8. to all tripod-mounted optical instruments that you may use in surveying: 1. consider whether or not the error discovered will have a material effect on field results. causing both friction and play. Remember that most tests show an error that is double the actual displacement error in the instrument.

5 Engineer’s Level Adjustments Regardless of how well an engineer’s level is manufactured. the test and adjustment procedures that you should follow when checking and adjusting the engineer’s level. 7. these compensations should seldom be necessary. another adjustment. you should perform certain checks and field adjustment at regular intervals. you must make a parallax check each time you observe a new object. 7. After each day's use. avoid dragging the tape with markings face down. The following paragraphs describe. While the principles of performing the adjustments are nearly the same for one manufacturer’s level or transit as compared to those produced by another manufacturer. tapes will be broken occasionally. This will indicate whether or not an adjustment has been disturbed by a subsequent adjustment. When results of lower accuracy can be tolerated. because abrasive action will remove markings. and the objective focusing must be refined. For this reason. To do this. In spite of reasonable care. When adjusting the engineer’s level. you must perform the tests described in the following sections and make any necessary adjustments to the instrument. it is important that you accomplish the tests and adjustments in a prescribed sequence. in proper sequence. Since this condition can occur each time the objective lens is focused. Therefore. you can usually compensate for the maladjustment of a part until a proper adjustment can be made. or alter. there are some differences in detail. when preparing to perform an adjustment to an instrument. use a well-defined object at least 250 feet away. After being cleaned. In this event. wipe the tapes dry and clean them with a clean cloth. The reason for this is that one adjustment may depend upon. The most common cause of a broken tape is pulling on it when there is a loop or kink in it. The parts of the level that you will check are the level tube and the cress hairs. at the end of each of the following instrument-adjustment discussions. You also should check it for proper adjustment anytime the level is bumped or jolted. that if you frequently check your instruments and keep them in good adjustment. bent around sharp corners.contemplated adjustments. be sure that parallax is removed and that the cross hairs and objective are sharply focused. for example. so a tape repair kit is necessary if you use steel tapes and chains. you should test the instrument every day before starting work.6 Maintaining Tapes Steel tapes are broken easily if not handled properly. When parallax is present. For the latter. however. the level or transit used must be in perfect adjustment. stepped on. Insofar as practicable. you should first consult the operator’s manual for that instrument. When a high degree of accuracy is required for surveying results. steel tapes should be given a light . Slight deformations caused by kinking should be straightened carefully. or run over by vehicles. They should not be jerked needlessly. a method of compensating for the maladjustment is noted. however. the image is not exactly in the plane of the cross hairs. repeat the entire round of checks in the prescribed order. You should keep in mind.

carnets may or may not be of help. and if you get a customs supervisor who doesn't understand the law. descriptions and so on. it can get dicey.8 Customs You can't afford to ignore the other country's customs procedures. One way to avoid these problems is to use either a customs broker — who will typically charge a couple hundred dollars for the service — or a carnet. Laws are subject to interpretation. Tripods and other surveying equipment should be similarly protected from damage and the weather. Don't wait until they're at the border to discover that you need a pre-shipment inspection certificate or an import permit or license. 2. Steel tapes and chains are often wound on a reel for storage and ease of handling. One caveat in certain Third World countries. For example.7 Transporting Surveying Instruments and Accessories Surveying instruments should be carried in the instrument case in the cab of the vehicle. Delays at customs could potentially affect your project. Make sure the documents are consistent and complete in terms of quantities. Your customs arrangements will depend on the product and its foreign market. Rods should be in cases and carried where they will be protected from weather and from materials being piled on top of or against them. they tend to be big problems. . 7. Make sure that you are familiar with customs authorities’ requirements and practices and that the goods can be released from customs on a timely basis. You usually don't have problems — but if you do. a document that proves you're the owner of the equipment and that you'll be leaving the country with the same equipment you brought in. 7. Often we’re not aware of the documents they need to clear customs in the target market. preferably on the floor or in a well-padded equipment box. also provide a written description that will help classify the goods for customs purposes. Problems typically occur at re-entry — and registering equipment with a foreign customs agency may not work if the value of a single piece of equipment exceeds $1.S. either through your own research or by obtaining expert advice. because customs law there may be so esoteric they don't recognize the document. Follow these basic guidelines for getting your exports smoothly through foreign customs: 1. To ensure your compliance with local customs regulations you should understand your target country's requirements. Complete all customs requirements before you ship or bring the goods. Registering all equipment with U.500. when using part numbers. Customs on your way out of the country reduces questions about whether it was purchased during your trip.covering of oil by wiping with an oily cloth.

Wirshing and Roy H. it may create problems for your importer. 5.gov/charts/ig00d.com http://www.tpub.lsrp.google.sonic.3. 4. If you use a customs broker.brunton. Wirshing.pdf http://www. 1985 . Engineering in Emergencies: A Practical Guide for Relief Workers. McGraw-Hill Publishing.com/content/engineering/14069/index.pdf http://www. Introductory Surveying.usda. Make sure the documents match the shipment exactly.info.gov/CED/ftp/CED/EFH-Ch01.usda. If possible.johann-sandra. GPS http://www. Finally obtain expert advice from sources familiar with that market's customs procedures and regulations. ITDG Publishing. Chapter 8 Source of Supply General Equipment http://www.com/earth_pro.usgs.com/surveying/land-surveying-links. RedR.html free surveying software Maps http://www. James R. Transits.com/ http://www.htm Software http://www. 2. Schaum’s Outlines.info.forestry-suppliers.magellangps.benmeadows.usgs. 1995.gov/CED/ftp/CED/tr62. Jan Davis and Robert Lambert.net/ Chapter 9 References 1.com http://www.com http://www.usace. also choose a broker who deals with your type of product.net/~trollhei/survsoft.silva.se/ http://www.gpstm.htm http://www.html http://geomag.htm http://www.pdf Compasses.mil/usace-docs/eng-manuals/em1110-1-1005/toc.gov/ http://earth.army.com Land Surveying References http://www. make sure you pick a reputable one.com/ http://gpsinformation. If you toss in a few promotional items at the last moment and they're not on the invoice.

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