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Semester 2 project
SUBMMITED TO: MISS ANCHAL BY: NITIKA SHARMA AMM2 INSTITUTE OF APPERAL MANGEMENT, GURGAON
Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn is turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitted fabric consists
of consecutive rows of loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a fabric, often used for garments. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. There exist numerous styles and methods of hand knitting. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different colour, texture, weight, and/or integrity. Using needles of varying shape and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn can also change the effect.
History and culture
The word is derived from knot and ultimately from the Old English cnyttan, to knot. . Knitting is often done in a group with other knitters. Although knitting may have had a reputation as hobby one does alone, it is becoming more and more of a social activity. Knitting guilds and other knitting groups or knitting clubs are becoming exceedingly popular. One of the earliest known examples of knitting was cotton socks with stranded knit color patterns, found in Egypt from the end of the first millennium AD. Originally a male-only occupation, the first knitting trade guild was started in Paris in 1527. With the invention of the knitting machine, however, knitting "by hand" became a useful but non-essential craft. Similar to quilting, spinning, and needlepoint, knitting became a leisure activity. Hand-knitting has gone into and out of fashion many times in the last two centuries, and at the turn of the 21st century it is enjoying a revival. According to the industry group Craft Yarn Council of America, the number of women knitters in the United States age 25–35 increased 150% in the two years between 2002 and 2004.  The latest incarnation is less about the "make-do and mend" attitude of the 1940s and early 50s and more about making a statement about individuality as well as developing an innate sense of community. During the 1940s, English knitting rose in popularity while Continental knitting fell. This is due to the fact that continental knitting originated within Germany and was spread by immigrants. During World War II, continental knitting fell out of style due to its relationship with Germany. It wasn't until Elizabeth Zimmermann publicized continental knitting in the 1980s that it again was popularized.  Additionally, many contemporary knitters have an interest in blogging about their knitting, patterns, and techniques, or joining a virtual community focused on knitting,  such as Ravelry, affectionately known as Rav to fiber-lovers around the world. There are also a number of popular knitting podcasts, such as the Manic Purl Podcast and the Savvy Girls Podcast. Contemporary knitting groups may be referred to in the U.S. as a "Stitch 'N Bitch" where a group of knitters get together to work on projects, discuss patterns, troubleshoot their work and just socialize. In the UK, the term has been "knitting circle" since the early 20th century.
forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. can be obtained with short rows or by increasing or decreasing the number of stitches. curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts. to secure the final stitches in a wale.Structure Courses and Wales Like weaving. The meandering red path defines one course. either from individual hooks (in knitting machines) or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting. The uppermost white loops are unsecured and "active". By contrast. Each stitch in a wale is suspended from the one above it. depending on the yarn and knitting pattern. etc. which in turn secure the loops below them. knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions. which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric. Alternating wales of red and white knit stitches. If they are not secured. unravelling knitting. but they secure the red loops suspended from them. Structure of stockinette. a method for casting on is used. For this reason. In weaving. by contrast. running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). the red loops secure the white loops just below them. such as socks and hosiery. which gives knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics. one uses a method of binding off. at least one new loop is passed through it. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. Although the new stitch is itself unsecured ("active" or "live"). In turn. this sounds like a frog croaking: 'rib-bit'). the loops of a knitted course will come undone when their yarn is pulled. the path of the yarn through the fabric. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting than woven garments. it secures the stitch(es) suspended from it. this is known as ripping out.frogging (because you 'rip it'. To secure a stitch. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams. woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias) and are not very elastic. and so on. or humorously. knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course). unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. flares. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions. the active stitches are secured mechanically. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting. For comparison. the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. threads are always straight. flares. . gussets and gores. the effect of darts. knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric. as in the heel of a sock. since their elasticity allows them to follow the body's curvature closely. During knitting. a common knitted fabric.
the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn.Weft and warp knitting There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. and are commonly used in lingerie. the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn. By contrast. in warp knitting. whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine. . a knit stitch on one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other. In the more complex stranded approach. Patterns and pictures can be created in knitted fabrics by using knit and purl stitches as "pixels". the wales and courses run roughly parallel. the stitch is denoted as a knit stitch or a plain stitch. The two types of stitches have a different visual effect. Short and tall stitches may also alternate within a row. Thus. rather than square..g. the next (red) loop passes through the previous (white) loop from below. such pixels are usually rectangular. Double knitting can produce two separate knitted fabrics simultaneously. e. e. one yarn is required for every wale. the yarns are used in well-segregated regions. each loop securing a loop of an adjacent strand from the previous row. depending on the gauge of the knitting. as seen in Fair Isle sweaters. usually to produce interesting color patterns. giving it great warmth and excellent drape. whereas in the purl stitch (right). In the knit stitch on the left. as a purl stitch. warp knitting is typically done by machine. In weft knitting. may be made taller by drawing more yarn into the new loop (an elongated stitch). however. in that case.g. Warp-knitted fabrics such as tricot and milanese are resistant to runs. forming a fish-like oval pattern. the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time. Weft-knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns.. the next stitch can pass through the previous loop from either below or above. the two fabrics are usually integrated into one. which is the basis for uneven knitting: a row of tall stitches may alternate with one or more rows of short stitches for an interesting visual effect. however. moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. if the latter. and vice versa. or rows of stitches. In the more common weft knitting. a red apple on a field of green. the knit stitches look like "V"'s stacked vertically. The two stitches are related in that a knit stitch seen from one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other side. The two most common approaches are intarsia and stranded colorwork. two socks. Individual stitches. by adding stitches to each wale in turn. Parallel yarns zigzag lengthwise along the fabric. two or more yarns alternate repeatedly within one row and all the yarns must be carried along the row. Inwarp knitting. whereas the purl stitches look like a wavy horizontal line across the fabric. Basic pattern of warp knitting. Knit and purl stitches In securing the previous stitch in a wale. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales. the next stitch enters from above. If the former. In intarsia.
This is known as drop-stitch knitting. The lower red course is knit into the white row below it and is itself knit on the next row. rows of purl stitches tend to form an embossed ridge relative to a row of knit stitches. a stitch slipped for one row before knitting would be roughly twice as tall as its knitted counterparts. the lower leaves of a flower. an important technique in handknitting patterned fabrics. this produces stockinettestitch. Both types of plaited stitches give a subtle but interesting visual texture. Conversely. By contrast. since the neighboring knit wales come forward. the smallest of which is known as seed stitch: the stitches alternate between knit and purl in every wale and along every row. The slipped stitches are naturally longer than the knitted ones. mosaic-knit fabrics tend to be stiffer than patterned fabrics produced by other methods such as Fair-Isle knitting. i. garter stitch or seed stitch) tend to lie flat and drape well. a tuck can be formed by knitting stitches together from two different rows. a new stitch is passed through a single unsecured ("active") loop. Not every stitch in a row need be knitted. Typically. respectively. consistent with garter stitch.and left-plaited stitches. thus clustering the intervening stitches. etc. Depending on the distance between where the loop is drawn through the fabric and where it is knitted. For example. Wales of purl stitches have a tendency to recede. but sometimes twice and (very rarely) thrice. those in which knit and purl stitches are arranged symmetrically (such as ribbing. this approach is often used to produce a smocking effect in the fabric. because the slipped stitch "pulls" on its neighbours and is less deformable. Slip-stitch knitting plays an important role in mosaic knitting. Vertical stripes (ribbing) are possible by having alternating wales of knit and purl stitches. for example.. but wrapping the yarn as usual. Horizontal striping (welting) is also possible. by alternating rows of knit and purl stitches. making it stiffer.and left-plaited stitches Both knit and purl stitches may be twisted: usually once if at all. The new loop may also be passed between two stitches in the present row. although the resulting fabric is more rigid. Checkerboard patterns (basketweave) are also possible. The merged stitches need not be from the same row. The upper red course is purled into the row below and then is knit. all of the stitches are knit or purl. and tend to draw the fabric inwards. Right. this is known as a garter stitch. a stitch may be deliberately left unsecured by a new stitch and its wale allowed to disassemble. such as stockinette. However. producing a decrease and merging wales together. a common choice is 2x2 ribbing.g. When seen from above. these are denoted as right. the left-plaited stitch is generally formed by hand-knitters by wrapping the yarn in the opposite way. Hand-knitters generally produce right-plaited stitches by knitting or purling through the back loops.. This can produce interesting visual effects.Two courses of red yarn illustrating two basic fabric types. rather than by any change in the needle. Fabrics in which the number of knit and purl stitches are not the same. e. by contrast. for example. whereas those of knit stitches tend to come forward. In the simplest knitted fabrics. dip stitches can produce a subtle stippling or long lines across the surface of the fabric. corresponding to where the wale had been. passing the needle through the initial stitch in an unusual way. The new loop may also be passed through two or moreprevious stitches. the twist can be clockwise (right yarn over left) or counterclockwise (left yarn over right). Alternating rows of knit stitches and purl stitches produce what is known as a stockinette pattern. This is the basis of shadow knitting. the new loop may be passed through an already secured stitch lower down on the fabric.e. or even between secured stitches (a dip stitch). this need not be so. This is known as slip-stitch knitting. in which two wales of knit stitches are followed by two wales of purl stitches. in which the appearance of a knitted fabric changes when viewed from different directions. some may be left as is and knitted on a subsequent row. and produces a vertical ladder of see-through holes in the fabric. have a tendency to curl. Plaited stitches are a common method for knitting jewelry from fine metal wire . thus lengthening that wale by one stitch. producing a raised horizontal welt on the fabric. the purl wales in ribbing tend to be invisible. Thus. In some cases. rightand left-plaited stitches are functionally equivalent. Although they are mirror images in form.
up to four successive tucks can be accumulated before tension causes yarn rupture or needle damage. yarn count. Float Stitch A float stitch or welt stitch (Fig. The limit is affected by machine design. It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop. respectively. thus reducing width-wise elasticity and improving fabric stability. Instead of knitting a whole rectangle-shaped piece of material. Under normal conditions.C). whether they be knit or purl. so that the head of the tuck is on the reverse of the stitch Successive Tucks and Floats on the Same Rib Needle Successive tucks on the same needle are placed on top of each other at the back of the head of the held loop and each.A) is composed of a held loop. The yarn passes from the sinker loops to the head that is intermeshed with the new loop of a course above it. Its side limbs are therefore not restricted at their feet by the head of an old loop. A single float stitch has the appearance of a U-shape on the reverse of the stitch. needle hook size. joining together the two nearest needle loops knitted from it. It is produced when a needle (M) holding its old loop fails to receive the new yarn that passes. to the back of the needle and to the reverse side of the resultant stitch. Float stitch fabrics are narrower than equivalent all-knit fabrics because the wales are drawn closer together by the floats. so they can open outwards towards the two adjoining needle loops formed in the same course. a single twist is illustrated. one or more float loops and knitted loops. Within limits. assumes a straighter and more horizontal appearance and theoretically requires less yarn. The Tuck Stitch A tuck stitch is composed of a held loop. one or more tuck loops and knitted loops. which becomes a tuck loop because it is not intermeshed through the old loop but is tucked in behind it on the reverse side of the stitch(Fig. with left-plaited and right-plaited stitches on the left and right. in turn. guidelines from a knit design on a value card or computer file guide a fully-fashioned knitting unit's tiny needles to add or drop appears to create customized . as a float loop. whereas the stitches on the left are left-plaited. Structures incorporating float stitches tend to exhibit faint horizontal lines.The stitches on the right are right-plaited. Here. . an arbitrary number of twists may be added to new stitches. elasticity and fabric take-down tension Fully Fashioned Knitting Completely created knitting devices are flat knitting devices that produce customized pre-shaped items of a knitted clothing. The tuck loop thus assumes an inverted V or U-shaped configuration.
fairly good shape retention. rib to interlock) Varying the structural elements (stitch length. firm. which are made with knits stitches on the front and purl stitches on the reverse (see the drawings above). Usually looks same on fabric’s face and reverse. With full-fashioning. the remnants that would be left after cutting from a rectangular fabric sheet. which appear as loops in crosswise direction. turtlenecks. blouses. one knit stitch followed by one purl stitch). . and semicircular loops running across reverse. Raw or cut edges don’t curl. A new creation of fully-fashioned devices. two simple ribbed fabrics. Best use: Sweater-type garments. each of the four pieces would be cut out.‖ from the German word links (―left‖). Interlock Description: Compound fabric made by ―inter-knitting. adjusting pattern (by cutting it slightly smaller in body girth) may be necessary. Ribs can be small (1x1. or sheath dresses. Properties: Almost no lengthwise stretch. suits. since knitting machine’s mechanism always moves to left. If particular double knit has some crosswise stretch. casual skirts and dresses. tuck. thick. ranging from delicate openwork to heavy. purl knits. Rib knit Description: Double-faced. the front piece. Fancy double knits may have novelty stitch on fabric’s face and fine ribs on reverse. which are a combination of knit and purl stitches. and children’s wear. with fine ribs running lengthwise on fabric’s face. reversible fabric produced by intermeshed rows of knit and purl stitches. and the remaining fabric would be discarded. Best use: Jersey with little or no crosswise or lengthwise stretch (like most wool jerseys) can be used for skirts. Double knit Description: Made with two sets of yarns. Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch. and the back piece. and jersey knits. Fabric’s face and reverse look same. usually has almost no stretch in either direction. the machine produces only the four required pieces. stretches in both directions. reversible fabric with distinct vertical ribs on both sides. Best use: Wonderful for T-shirts. making it reversible. (2x2 or 3x3). making it reversible.g. The items appear from the machine ready to be made together. cut edges don’t curl. more crosswise stretch than double knits or jerseys. Curls to fabric’s right side. cut edges unravel only from end knitted last. float) Shaping through loop transfer Wale fashioning by 'needle parking' Segmented takedown for varying rates of takedown across the width of the fabric. Prior to fully-fashioned machine techniques. Because of its crosswise stretch. and dresses without pattern adjustments. unravels only from end last knitted.two perspective forms appropriate to the preferred completed clothing framework. For example. Jersey knit Description: Also referred to as plain knit or single knit.‖ or interlocking. a sweater requires at least four pieces of fabric: two sleeves. for example). each made with single yarn. or uneven (1x3. All weft knits fall into three basic categories: rib knits. Many variations of stitches and fibers create wide variety of single knits. varying amounts of crosswise stretch. like jackets. result effortless 3-dimensional apparel by knitting linked tubular forms. The necessary techniques for changing the fabric width or diameter are achieved by: Changing knit structure (e. thick piled fabric. These knit alternatives above may also be used to modify the framework of each item to make restricted curve (such as convexity at the breast of a sweater) in the relatively 2-dimensional result. weft insertion. Has distinct right and wrong sides. or be prepared to adjust pattern. Good shape retention. Sometimes called ―Links-Links. Properties: Heavy. which are made with purl stitches alone. a full sheet of material would have to be produced. use pattern designed for interlock knits. Purl knit Description: Double-faced. Properties: Usually heavy and bulky. this doubleconstructed fabric has fine ribs running lengthwise on both sides. outerwear. Best use: Tailored garments. knit. Cut edges do not curl. Fully-fashioned knitting cuts down on the amount of material required to make a garment by eliminating selvage. produced by alternating knit and purl stitches. that is. Has fine ribs running lengthwise. known as finish clothing knitting devices. Jersey with crosswise stretch requires pattern adjustments or pattern designed for crosswise stretch.
Cut edges do not curl. In each row there may be a number of stitches depending upon the width of the fabric to be knitted.Properties: Little or no lengthwise stretch. Milanese Description: Made from two sets of yarns knitted diagonally. It’s essential to assess stretch of particular tricot for given project. can be used for blouses and dresses. since its nature is so diverse. In weft knitting. Best use: Because of its elasticity. can be either stable or stretchy. but lots of crosswise stretch and good. almost no crosswise stretch. and even piled. Properties: Runs gamut from dense and compact to open and lofty. In each cycle which is known as course. Types of Weft Knitted Stitches There are three fundamental stitches in weft knitting: Plain-knit Stitch Purl Stitch Rib Stitch Plain-Knit Stitch The basic form of knitting is the Plain Knit. the warp knit fabrics produced can be very complex and intricate in structure. cut edges tend to curl. or circular forms. soft blouses and eveningwear. Weft knitted fabrics can be produced in either tubular or flat form. Some machines can produce complex patterns. warp and weft Warp knitting is resistant to runs. thereby creating interesting textures and surface designs. Face has fine vertical rib. Assessing amount of stretch. The vertical row of stitches or loops hanging vertically from the needles is known as wale. drapey. Knits can be fine and lacey. tubular. Best use: Historically used for gloves and lingerie. However. Best use: Besides traditional use for lining and lingerie. this fabric is not as elastic as weft knitted fabric. smooth texture. Weft knitted fabric is usually highly elastic and highly drapable. Each stitch of the row is built-up intermeshing with the previously held stitches of the previous row. reverse has crosswise ribs. Let us now study in detail the two basic types of knitting: Weft Knitting Warp Knitting Weft Knitting The process of hand knitting is known as weft knitting and it can also be done by machines. Properties: Some lengthwise stretch. warp knit fabrics Because of the multiple-needle configuration of warp-knitting machines. Weft knitted fabric is produced in either flat or tubular form. which makes it suitable for a wide range of apparel applications. natural recovery. May be a little difficult to find. the work progresses back and forth. and recovery in a raschel knit is essential. highly patterned. Usually soft and drapey. Tricot Description: Face has fine lengthwise ribs. The . Raschel Description: Raschel-knitting machine produces wide variety of fabrics and can incorporate conventional or novelty yarns. ideal for trimming other knits (and wovens). Best use: Almost any garment. and some can incorporate a weft insertion (extra yarn inserted crosswise) for added texture or color. makes lovely. a new row of stitches is formed. and reverse has diagonal structure. extremely run-resistant. Properties: Lightweight. Garments made from rib knits are usually close-fitting and therefore use a pattern designed for knits. give. and single-faced or reversible. The main advantage of warp knitted fabric is that it is not easy to unravel like weft knitted fabric. This stitch can be produced in flat knit. that is width-wise. but worth looking for. and is commonly used as a lingerie fabric. and they don’t fall neatly into groups or categories as weft knits do.
The hooks alternately draw loops to the front of the fabric in one course. Raschel Knit The raschel knit ranks in importance of production with tricot but it make varieties of products ranging from veilings. shirts. each loop is drawn through other loops to the right side of the fabric. In plain knitted stitch. Simplex fabric is used to make gloves. The needles produce parallel rows of loops simultaneously that are interlocked in a zigzag pattern. sportswear and slip covers. Rib Stitch The Rib knitted stitch is produced either on a flat rib machine or a circular rib machine. also called wales. Warp Knitting While a weft-knitted fabric consists of horizontal parallel courses of yarn and requires only a single yarn. Milanese Knit The milanese stitch produces a fabric very similar to tricot. and crosswise rows. blouses. regularity of structure. Tricot knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights and designs. laces. Eyelets and other openwork can also be produced on the simplex machine. It is a small part of warp knit production. on the back. wrinkle resistant and has good drapability. and to the back in the next course. The basic feature of warp knitting is that these yarns make vertical parallel wales. It is made on flatbed and circular machines by needles using hooks on both ends. split and tear resistance. Weft knitted fabric is considered to be comfortable both for outer garments and undergarments. dresses.flat knit is also called jersey stitch. Weft Knitted Fabric is usually highly elastic and highly drapeable and these two properties make the fabric suitable for a wide range of apparel applications. These floats are also called Laps or Underlaps. Because the purl stitch has crosswise stretch and excellent lengthwise stretch. The loops form vertical rows. power nets for foundation garments. giving it a sheen. Simplex Knit Simplex fabric is made of fine yarn and is relatively dense and thick. sleepwear. warp knitting requires one yarn for every stitch in the row or course. loungewear. to carpets. Raschel knitting is done with heavy yarns and usually has an intricate lace-like pattern. Some examples of tricot fabric are lingerie. The term 'warp knitting' refers to machine knitting. and are a distinguishing identification of warp knits. on the fabric face. milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness. Purl-stitched fabric looks the same on both sides and resembles the reverse of the plain knit. handbags. . elasticity. slacks etc. Purl Stitch This stitch is also known as the links/links stitch. The plain-knit stitch produces relatively lightweight fabric compared with the thicker fabrics produced by other stitches. It can be identified by the fine rib on the face and a diagonal pattern on the back. It is a slow and costly technique. Rib construction is costlier because of the greater amount of yarn needed. It differs from weft knitting in that each needle loops its own thread. Rib knitted fabric has alternating rows of plain and purl stitches constructed so that both the face and back of the fabric look alike. Types of Warp Knitted Stitches There are six fundamental stitches in warp knitting: Tricot Knit Milanese Knit Simplex Knit Raschel Knit Ketten Raschel Knit Crochet Knit Tricot Knit Tricot fabric is soft. However. it is widely used in kids' and infant wear. The stitches on the face of the fabric appear vertically and the stitches at the back appear horizontally as floats at a slight angle. also called courses.
This construction is used in a wide variety of fabrics ranging from nets and laces to bedspreads and carpets . The fabric is finer.Ketten Raschel Knit This is also known as the chain raschel. The machine can be equipped to produce raised pattern effects in one or more colors. superior elasticity and cover. has a better hand. Crochet Knit This basic stitch is used in hand-crochet.
On the right side. and the yarn holding side-by-side stitches together is all on the back. and usually called a stocking or stockinette pattern) has a definite "right side" and "wrong side". which only stretch along the bias. and toward the back on the left and right side. yarn that has been knitted follows a loopy path along its row. On the wrong side. Stitches can be worked from either side. ." reverse stockinette is frequently used as a pattern in its own right. welting). stockinette fabric has a strong tendency to curl toward the front on the top and bottom. both the tops and bottoms. Because there is no single straight line of yarn anywhere in the pattern. and various patterns are created by mixing regular knit stitches with the "wrong side" stitches. Unlike woven fabrics. the ends of the loops are visible. in which the loops of one row have all been pulled through the loops of the row below it. Close-up of front of stockinette stitch Close-up of back of stockinette stitch. even as they rely on elastic synthetic materials for some stretch. arranged in a grid of V shapes. the visible portions of the loops are the verticals connecting two rows. This elasticity is unavailable from woven fabrics. where strands usually run straight horizontally and vertically. creating a much more bumpy texture sometimes called reverse stockinette.) Because the yarn holding rows together is all on the front. known as purl stitches. also same appearance asreverse stockinette stitch The basic knitted fabric (as in the diagram.Properties of fabrics Schematic of stockinette stitch. also achieve at least some of their stretch through knitted patterns. (Despite being the "wrong side. a knitted piece can stretch in all directions. either in columns (ribbing). rows (garter. or more complex patterns. Many modern stretchy garments. the most basic weft-knit fabric The topology of a knitted fabric is relatively complex. Each such fabric has different properties: a garter stitch has much more vertical stretch. as with the red strand in the diagram at left.
The appearance of a garment is also affected by the weight of the yarn. which can create small eyelet holes in the resulting fabric. Most Western-style knitters follow either the English style (in which the yarn is held in the right hand) or the Continental style (in which the yarn is held in the left hand). including heel and linen stitches. There are various method employed to "cast on. Changing the order of stitches from one row to the next. when knitted. Adding a "slip stitch" (where a loop is passed from one needle to the other) allows for a wide range of textures. Other simple textures can be made with nothing but knit and purl stitches. where the stitches are created by a series of loops that will. from flat to tightly curled. while tweed yarns may have greater amounts of different colored fibres. from gauzy to very dense. a very open fabric resembling lace. with assorted decreases is key to creating knitted lace." which produces a firmer edge ideal on its own as a border. Process There are many hundreds of different knitting stitches used by knitters. Because of their front-back symmetry. The thicker the yarn. while another provides a decorative edging — Provisional cast-ons are used when the knitting will continue in both directions from the cast-on. Some yarns are dyed to be eithervariegated (changing color every few stitches in a random fashion) or self-striping (changing every few rows). the more visible and apparent stitches will be. in machine-made stockings and T-shirts—which is worked in the round as nothing but knit stitches. and many more. Different combinations of knit and purl stitches. The number of active stitches remains the same as when cast on unless stitches are added (an increase) or removed (a decrease). for example). ropes. and so on. and moss and seed stitches. including garter stitch. and knitting more squares to continue the piece. for example. . even when their stretch properties are not desired.whileribbing stretches much more horizontally." such as the "thumb method" (also known as "slingshot" or "long-tail" cast-ons). for example). picking up their side edges. More complicated techniques permit large fields of color (intarsia. honeycombs. Yarn with multiple shades of the same hue are called ombre. and worked flat as alternating rows of knit and purl. give a very loose edge ideal for "picking up stitches" and knitting a border. generate fabrics of considerably variable consistency. which describes the thickness of the spun fibre. or both (double knitting and slip-stitch color. red and yellow yarn might be dubbed the "Parrot Colorway" by its manufacturer. usually with the help of a cable needle or stitch holder. these two fabrics have little curl. Different methods of casting on are used for different effects: one may be stretchy enough for lace. whereby each loop placed on the needle is then "knitted on. Texture The most common texture for a knitted garment is that generated by the flat stockinette stitch—as seen. the "double needle method" (also known as "knit-on" or "cable cast-on"). producing an endless variety of cables. making them popular as edging. from highly stretchy to relatively stiff. is key to cable knitting. the finer the texture. Heathered yarns contain small amounts of fibre of different colours. and a number of more complicated patterns. the thinner the yarn. Color Plenty of finished knitting projects never use more than a single color of yarn. but there are many ways to work in multiple colors. Combining certain increases. Close-up of ribbing Some more advanced knitting techniques create a surprising variety of complex textures. along with more advanced techniques. andAran sweater patterning. though very small. which involves the initial creation of the stitches on the needle. Entrelac forms a rich checkerboard texture by knitting small squares. ribbing. while a yarn with multiple hues may be known as a given colorway — a green. busy small-scale patterns of color (such as Fair Isle). A piece of knitting begins with the process of casting on (also known as "binding on").
The diameter affects the size of stitches. Needles Knitting needles in a variety of sizes and materials.There are also different ways to insert the needle into the stitch. straight sticks tapered to a point at one end. Different materials have varying amounts of friction. Different materials have different frictions and grip the yarn differently. Seamless knitting. Double-pointed knitting needles in various materials and sizes. There is also a technique of knitting with a crochet hook that has a cord attached to the end. The first and most common type consists of two slender. In knitting certain articles of clothing. there is a similar variety of methods. Elizabeth Zimmermann is probably the best-known proponent of seamless or circular knitting techniques. wood. thus securing them. there are several different size systems. whereas rougher needles such as bamboo offer more friction and are therefore less prone to dropping stitches. are usually knit in one piece on double-pointed needles or circular needles. due to the compressibility of knitted fabrics. the remaining live stitches are "cast off". usually through active stitches. Thus. these stitches must be released sometime after they are secured 3. but the most common materials are metals. Although knitting needle diameter is often measured in millimeters. such as socks and hats. The knitting of new stitches occurs only at the tapered ends. Other tools are used to prepare yarn for knitting. the final knitted garment will be made of several knitted pieces. Knitting through the front of a stitch is called Western knitting.) Mega Knitting Tools The process of knitting has three basic tasks: 1. knitting rings (also called knitting looms) or knitting spools (also known as knitting knobbies. Although the mechanics are different from casting on. five or six. particularly those specific to the United States. may be used to knit pieces significantly wider. to measure and design knitted garments. using only the fingers to do these tasks. knitting machines or rigid frames. Casting (or "binding") off loops the stitches across each other so they can be removed from the needle without unravelling the item. . Such needles are usually 10–16 inches (250–410 mm) long but. Needles with lighted tips have been sold to allow knitters to knit in the dark. Smaller items. where a whole garment is knit as a single piece. bamboo. with individual sections of the garment knit separately and then sewn together. called combination knitting. knitting can be done without tools. however. goes through the front of a knit stitch and the back of a purl stitch. a conversion table is given at knitting needle. and plastic. In very simple cases. (See Circular knitting. They come in sets of four. to hold the stitches while they're being worked. which is the basis of uneven knitting. a simple way to change gauge is to use different needles. especially larger ones like sweaters. and are suitable for different yarn types. which ranges from below 2 to 25 mm (roughly 1 inch). Depending on their size and shape. Going through the back of a stitch is called Eastern knitting. is also possible. This technique is called knooking. the rigid frames are called knitting boards. Such knitting needles may be made out of any materials. slick needles such as metallic needles are useful for swift knitting. which affects the gauge of the knitting and the elasticity of the fabric. There are three basic types of knitting needles (also called "knitting pins"). or to make knitting easier or more comfortable. the United Kingdom and Japan. A third method. The most important property of needles is their diameter. the active (unsecured) stitches must be held so they don't drop 2.  Once the knitted piece is finished. knitting nancies. new bights of yarn must be passed through the fabric. knitting is usually carried out using tools such as knitting needles. or corkers). and with a knob at the other end to prevent stitches from slipping off.
allowing for easy knitting. Cable patterns are made by permuting the order of stitches. When in use. and socks. usually one needle is active while the others hold the remaining active stitches. The ability to work from either end of one needle is convenient in several types of knitting. the cable needle is used at the same time as two regular needles. cables of three or more generally require a cable needle. and are usually used singly or in pairs. however. aluminum. allowing the knitter to have both flexible straight needles or circular needles. . When cabling a knitted piece. the two ends are connected by a flexible strand (usually nylon) that allows the two ends to be brought together. These kits consist of pairs of needles with usually nylon cables or cords. although they usually are not straight. although one or two stitches may be held by hand or knit out of order. materials and sizes. and are used to hold stitches temporarily while others are being knitted. then the cable needle is turned around to a different position to create the cable twist. which allows them to be knit from either end. The cables/cords are screwed into the needles. This also allows the knitter to change the diameter and length of the needles as needed. again. A developing trend in the knitting world is interchangeable needles. Cable needles are typically very short (a few inches). Cable Needles Cable needles are a specific design. which produces cables of different widths.The second type of knitting needles are straight. Circular needles may be used for flat or circular knitting. double-pointed knitting needles (also called "DPNs"). Doublepointed needles are tapered at both ends. especially smaller tube-shaped pieces such as sleeves. They are made in different sizes. collars. the stitches on it are worked by the other needles. the width of the knitted piece may be significantly longer than the length of the circular needle. such as slipstitch versions of double knitting. At specific points indicated by the pattern. the cable needle is moved. including plastic. which are long. Circular knitting needles in different lengths. they have the form of a hook. and are used to create the twisting motif of a knitted cable. a hook is easier to grab and hold the yarn. steel and nickel-plated brass. Circular needles are typically 24-60 inches long. Often. Cable needles are a special case of DPNs. but dimpled in the middle. flexible double-pointed needles. DPNs are typically used forcircular knitting. DPNs are somewhat shorter (typically 7 inches) and are usually sold in sets of four or five. It functions by holding together the stitches creating the cable as the other needles create the rest of the stitches for the knitted piece. The two tapered ends (typically 5 inches (130 mm) long) are rigid and straight. The third needle type consists of circular needles.
. Dropped Stitch: This is an un knitted stitch caused either by the yarn carrier not having been set properly or the stitch having been knitted too loosely. Some of the popular defects are as follows: Barrie Effect: A Barrie effect has the appearance of a stripe with shaded edges. The barrie effect is caused by various factors like: » Lack of uniformity in yarn size. color or luster. Streak or Stop Mark: A straight horizontal streak or stop mark in the knitted fabric is due to the difference in tension in the yarns caused by the machine being stopped and then restarted. This is also called the bird's eye defect. Float: This is caused by a miss stitch which is the result of failure of one or more needles to have been raised to catch the yarn.Common defects in knit Bands and Streaks There are different kinds of bands and streaks that may occur in knitting. Run or ladder: A run or ladder indicates a row of dropped stitches in the wale. This bowing is the distortion caused by faulty takeup mechanism on the knitting machine. Cockled or puckered: If the knitted fabric is cockled or puckered. This is caused by needle movement due to a tight fit in its slot or a defective sinker. Stitch Defects There are various kinds of stitch defects like: Boardy: The knitted fabric becomes boardy (a stiff or harsh hand) when the stitches have been knit very tightly. it is due to uneven stitches or uneven yarn size. Skewing: Skewing effect is seen as a line or design running at a slight angle across the cloth. It is horizontal in weft knits and vertical in warp knits. Tucking: This is the result of an unintentional tucking in the knitted fabric. » Uneven shrinkage or other finishing defects. » Mush tension on the yarns during knitting one section of the fabric. Needle Lines: Needle lines or vertical lines are due to a wale that is either tighter or looser than the adjacent ones. Bowing: A line or a design may curve across the fabric. Hole: A large hole or a press off is the result of a broken yarn at a specific needle feed so that knitting cannot occur.
The padding operation itself consists of two essential steps: thorough impregnation by immersion of the absorbent fabric in a dye solution containing a wetting agent.it is used at various stages of production to add color to textile and increae product valve .it is a higly complex substance which both chemically or physically with an equally complex textile fiber . Dyes :the first method is by dying the textile material in an aqueous soln the process invole dyestuff .desired to dye is old method . spcly dye houses operates either on a commission baisa or purcahase gray good and finis them b4 selling dem 2 apperal color and d other prodt manufacture. Any fabric paint may be used for pigment dyeing. The dye bath has one or more guide rollers .natural coloring is used frm many yrs . orminerals. with appropriate dilution. The glue is provided by the binder in the paint. The cloth to be padded is taken up by either from the folded form or from the batched condition and fed to the padding machine over a set of guide rollers. around which the cloth travels . it is chemical rxt bw a fibre n dye so dat d fabric is taken on d color of d dye 2 achieve unique color. The fabric is straighten in warp as well as weft directions . followed by squeezing of the wet fabric between rollers to expel air and replace it with dye liquor. leaves. so colorless extender should be used for thinning beyond manufacturer's recommendations. the direction is reversed . and wood — and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens. as well as expressing surplus liquor back down the sloping fabric surface to the pad trough. it is a colorant that become molecules dispread in the aqueous medium pigment 'dyes' are typically made from insoluble pigments which have no attraction to the fiber. Dyeing always involves an even number of ends. The real dyeing takes place not in the dye liquor but when the cloth is on the rollers. When all the fabric has passed through the bath.It is necessary to attach and end piece on both the sides of batch. During this passage the fabric picks up adequate quantity of dye liquor . During rotation of rollers this dye penetrates and diffuse into the fabric. bark. The open-width fabric passes from one roller through the dyebath at the bottom of the machine and then onto a driven take-up roller on the other side. invertebrates. They must be glued to the fiber. On their own. but excessive dilution will result in there being an inadequate amount of glue to keep the pigment attached to the fiber. they would just wash out. Therefore the speed of cloth during immersion in dye liquor has a very little effect on percentage of shade produced. and during this immersion achieves the desired contact with the dye liquor. berries. fibre depend on both physical and chemical structure of dye n binders. . Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants. Textile r dyed using wide range of dye stuff and equipments.with d exception of pigment bidera sys d type of dyestuff 2 be chosen to suit for d fibre substance becoz foramation bw physical n chemical bound of dye. excess of which is drained out but still a good quantity is held in the fabric . Jigger dying In the dyeing on jigger machines the cloth revolves on two main rollers . A fabric paint may be diluted with water as recommended by the manufacturer. since only a very small length of fabric is in the dyebath and major part is on the rollers . Each passage is called an end.Dying applyin color to fibre yarn or fabric or parts thereof usully immersesd in a bath of dye . The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources –roots.
Features and Parameters: The machine operates at a maximum temperature 95-98°C The liquor ratio is generally quite high (1:20-1:40) This is a dyeing machine for fabrics in rope form with stationary liquor and moving material. flat . positioned at a distance of 15-30 cm from its vertical side creates an inter space for heating and for adding reagents. Now-a-days stainless reels with corrugated and broken surface for increase frictional forces are used. The maximum motion speed of the fabric must be approximately 40m/min. As for all forms of rope dyeing.oily matter . The winch reel not only controls the rate of movement of the fabric rope. It is suitable for practical all types of fabric. To obtain consistency of shade it is most important that the fabric running speed and the length of immersion of fabric in the dye liquor remain constant throughout the padding run. Differential pressure detectors: those with a hollow tube projecting downwards from the liquor surface are difficult to clean and the preferred type is that with a closed diaphragm set in the base of the vessel. expects those which tend to originate permanent creases or which could easily distort under the winch stretching action. This a dyeing machine for fabrics in rope forms with stationary liquor and moving material. circular and warp knitted fabrics. The construction is comparative simple and therefore economical to purchase and operate. but by the weight of the wet fabric and the friction between the reel and fabric. 4. Conductivity probes: these are small and neat but foaming of the pad liquor adversely affects their performance 3. free from loose fly .The fabric to be padded should be padded should be pretreated . a number (1-40) of endless ropes or loops of fabrics of equal length (about 50-100m) are loaded with much of their length immersed in folded form inside the dye bath. crease free and with opened-out selvedges. The winch dyeing method is suitable for all fabrics. Float switches: these are reliable and are unaffected by foam but they are relatively bulky 2.waste .its is costly method of dying level of product is relatively low. Introduction The winch or beck dyeing machine is oldest form of piece dyeing machine. The three main types of automatic level control are: 1. The rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels. The control of pad liquor temperature is highly desirable to achieve consistent results. It result in excellent pentartion into the fibre . which can normally withstand creasing when in rope form as woolen and silk fabric. In winch machines. The winch reel does not grip the fabric positively. but also the configuration of the rope in the dye bath. Stock dying Is refer to fibre dying . Heating can be supplied by means of direct or indirect stem heating. The first roller is free-running (jockey or fly roller) and the second is winch reel. especially light weights. the fabric must be fairly resistant to length ways creasing. loosely woven cotton and synthetic fabrics. the fibre is completely packed in perforated containers and in dye liquors is circulated inside out at an elevated temrature. A perforated separating compartment.
the dye is circulated back n forth thru the wollen fibers Yarn dying Is the dying of yarn b4 det hav ben woven or knitted into fabrics .lose roops of wool from the combining machines are wound on perforated cylinders and enclosed in a tank with d dye . the element of fashion risk is high REASON FOR STOCK DYING gives hether like color effect.and eveness of color throughout . bean. Ex tweed Top dying Dying of wool which are long in lenth to produce soft hether like color effect is known as top dying .those loose arrangement of yarns allow for excellent dye penetration and results in softa . The fabric is made of dye yarn is called dyes Skening syeing It consist of immersing large .oosely wound hanks of yarns into dye container. lofty yarns which may be used 4 hand knitting. wollen fabric dyed balck n gray can be blended wid undyes or white wollen fabroc or cotton fabric to produce soft hether like shade of gray.It is a very expensive form dying methods the skwing are hangover a roller or ring Package dying: in package dying are wound on spools or cones and then dyed the package of yarn are stacked on perfo rods in a rack and dip in tank wher dye is forced outward from the rod under pressure through the spools and back to packages toward center in order penetrate the entir yarn. yarn may be dyes in diff forms that is skewing packing . It don’t retain softness and lofty ness Beam line is donefor warp yarn it is a larger vision of pacg dying(ditoo as above)Its is used when fabric ar woven wid dyed warped .
dye recirculatd fluid move faster then cloth Garment dyeing When the finished textile product such as hosiery or sweaters are dyed. capacity 1400pnds.fabric is plced in a heated tube and soln reforced through it . Garment dyeing is the dyeing of the completed garments. Knitted fabrics. shrter dying cycle . From 10 to 50 of the bags are placed in large tubs containing the dye bath and kept agitated by a motor – driven paddle in the dye tub. zippers. A number of garments are packed loosely in a nylon net and put into a dyestuff filled tub with a motor driven paddle. . Warp Beam Dyeing Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. The types of apparel that can be dyed are mostly non-tailored and simpler forms. . thread. Tailored items. but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. are not adaptable to beam dyeing.Jet dyeing Useless wter . depending on the weight) into large nylon net bag. Garment dyeing is done by placing a suitable number of garments (usually about 24 sweaters or the equivalent. where the flow of the dye bath alternate as in the package dyeing. cannot be dyed as garments because the difference in shrinkage of the various components and linings disort and misshape the article. The dye is thrown upon the garments by the moving paddles' effect. sweatshirts. nrg . T-shirts. The machine is appropriately called a paddle dryer. An entire warp beam is wound on to a perforated cylinder. trims and snaps must be considered. such as suits or dresses. hosiery. which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn. it is called garment dyeing. The effect on sizing. such as sweaters. Beam dyeing is more economical than skein or package dyeing. and pantyhose. which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine. The garments are loosely packed. chemical .
pad dyeing and beam dyeing. The dye is continually recirculated as the fabric is moved along the tube. The rope moves over a rail onto a reel which immerses it into the dye and then draws the fabric up and forward to the front of the machine. In terms of overall volume. continuous process used to dye long yards of fabric. The various methods used for this type of dyeing include jet dyeing. like jig dyeing. Pad dyeing. It is the most common method of dyeing used. 1975). This reduces fabric tendency to crack or crease. and jet methods for dyeing. dyes the fabric at full width. Beck dyeing is a versatile. Jig dyeing uses the same procedure of beck dyeing. This process is repeated as long as necessary to dye the material uniformly to the desired color intensity. The fabric is passed in rope form through the dyebath. .Piece Dyeing The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. About 1. the largest amount of dyeing is performed using beck and jig equipment (Figure 11). Figure 11 illustrates the beck. Jig dyeing equipment can handle 550 pounds (250 kg) of fabric. 1975).100 pounds (500 kg)) by placing it in a heated tube or column where jets of dye solution are forced through it at high pressures. however. jig.980 pounds (900 kg) of fabric can be dyed on beck equipment at a time. Other piece dyeing methods include jet dyeing and pad dyeing. Fabric can be jet-dyed (at up to 1. the fabric is held on rollers at full width rather than in rope form as it is passed through the dyebath (Corbman. The fabric is passed through a trough containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the cloth and squeeze out the excess (Corbman. Jig dyeing. ost dyed fabric is piece-dyed since this method gives the manufacturer maximum inventory flexibility to meet color demands as fashion changes.
leaving uncoloured patterns against a coloured ground. which remove background color from the substrate when exposed to steam. The printing of a mordant in the desired pattern prior to dyeing cloth. in printing one or more colours are applied to it in certain parts only.berized blanket during printing. or silkscreens can be used to place colours on the fabric. and the mordants or substances necessary for fixing the colour on the cloth are printed in the desired pattern. and a layer of gray cloth is used between the cloth and the rubber blanket to absorb excess ink. whereas in dyeing proper the whole fabric is uniformly covered with one colour. Sometimes. Most modern industrialised printing uses direct printing techniques. and stencil printing. the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on a dark background. so as to resistwashing and friction. The cloth is backed with a rub. 1996). and the number of rollers reflects the number of colors. The waxed areas do not accept the dye. engraved plates. some type of paste. in which a wax or other substance is printed onto fabric which is subsequently dyed. in which colourants containing dyes. resist printing encompasses several hand and low-volume methods in which the pattern is applied by preventing color from penetrating certain areas during piece-dyeing. In printing. ResistPrinting In this technique. The dye affects only those parts that are not covered by the resist paste. This approach is on decline these days. and deposits it on the applicator roller. and in sharply defined patterns. thereby creating a pattern and ground. which provides a solid surface to print against. Another form of resist involves using a chemical agent in . Discharge printing is performed on piece-dyed fabrics. or a mechanical resist that manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. a resist paste is imprinted on the fabric and then it is dyed. picks up color. Colors may be added to the discharge paste to create different colored discharge areas (EPA. The patterns are created through removal. the color adheres only where the mordant was printed. Discharge Printing In this approach. Examples of resist printing methods include batik. a large cylindrical roller picks up the fabric. The most common forms use wax. Discharge printing. Resist and discharge techniques were particularly fashionable in the 19th century.Textile printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs. Traditional textile printing techniques may be broadly categorised into four styles: Direct printing. Each smaller roller is supplied with color by a furnisher roller. Doctor blades scrape excess color off the applicator roller so that only the engraved portions carry the color to the cloth. Direct printing In direct printing. Textile printing is related to dyeing but. rollers. hence most discharge printing is done on dark backgrounds. rather than addition. thickeners. the base colour is removed and another colour is printed in its place. tiedyeing. Resist dyeing. of color. as were combination techniques in which indigo resist was used to create blue backgrounds prior to block-printing of other colours. screen printing. The printed fabric is steamed and then thoroughly washed. The smaller rollers are etched with the design. the fabric is dyed in piece and then it is printed with a chemical that destroys the colour in the designed areas. Colourants used in printing contain dyesthickened to prevent the colour from spreading by capillary attraction beyond the limits of the pattern or design. In properly printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fiber. After dyeing. and smaller rollers containing the color are brought into contact with the cloth. The dyed fabric is printed using discharge pastes. in which a bleaching agent is printed onto previously dyed fabrics to remove some or all of the colour. stencils. which rotates in the color trough. Methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth. wooden blocks.
Similarly with other objects. paper. One example is in model building. Flocking of an article can be performed for the purpose of increasing its value in terms of the tactile sensation. The majority of flocking done worldwide uses finely cut natural or synthetic fibers. and. a capable man utilizes them to supply the drawing. sponge. Another use is on a Christmas tree. Flock material flies vertically onto the substrate attaching to previously applied glue. and that moreover. of late years. or to any material used primarily for its flocked surface. It consists of an endless stencil plate of thin sheet steel that passes continuously over a revolving cast iron cylinder. a complete circle cannot be cut without its center dropping out. The flocking process is used on items ranging from retail consumer goods to products with high technology military applications. The sheet is now laid on the material to be decorated and colour is brushed through its interstices. where a grassy texture may be applied to a surface to make it look more realistic. stencil printing The art of stenciling is very new. A flocked finish imparts a decorative and/or functional characteristic to the surface. Between the two the cloth to be ornamented passes and the colour is forced on to it. It can also be performed for functional reasons including insulation. automotive plastic. this is usually done by the application of a high-voltage electric field. In a flocking machine the "flock" is given a negative chargewhilst the substrate is earthed. and. the exploration of the flock phenomenon can be seen in the fine arts. by mechanical means. The pattern is cut out of a sheet of stout paper or thin metal with a sharp-pointed knife. and prevent them from falling apart in separate pieces. A number of different substrates can be flocked including. certain parts of them have to be left uncut. PVC. Uses Flocking is used in many ways. H.For single-colour work a stenciling machine was patented in 1894 by S. They range from screen printing to modern digital printing in order to refine for instance fabric. fabric. and when thus treated they form an integral part of the pattern and enhance its artistic value whilst complying with the conditions and the process. aesthetics. It has been applied to the decoration of textile fabrics from time immemorial by the Japanese. its outline has to be interrupted at convenient points by ties or uncut portions. Other things may be flocked to give them a velour texture such as t-shirts. which may be flocked with a fluffy white spray to simulate snow. that is to say. or upholstery. and in the hands of a designer of indifferent ability they may be very unsightly. the uncut portions representing the part that is to be reserved or left uncoloured. consequently. The most well-known varieties today include tie-dye and batik. clothes or books by multicolor patterns. Sharp. gift/jewellery boxes. woven fabric.a specific type of dye that will repel another type of dye printed over the top. color and appearance. Similarly. so as to connect them with each other. The peculiarity of stenciled patterns is that they have to be held together by ties. wallpaper. has found increasing employment in Europe for certain classes of decorative work on woven goods for furnishing purposes. it is used by model car builders to get a scale carpet effect. as many colours as plates may be introduced into it. through the holes in the stencil. textiles. Presently. On the other hand. if several plates are used. toys. Flocking is the process of depositing many small fiber particles (called flock) onto a surface. and low reflectivity Flocking is the application of fine particles to adhesive coated surfaces. The necessity for ties exercises great influence on the design. The variety of materials that are applied to numerous surfaces through different flocking methods create a wide range of end products. It is obvious that with suitable planning an all over pattern may be just as easily produced by this process as by hand or machine printing. Nowadays. Besides the application of velvety coatings to surfaces and objects there exist various flocking techniques as a means of color and product design. It can also refer to the texture produced by the process. For instance. . slip-or-grip friction.
Flock print feels somewhat velvet and a bit elevated. Many rally cars also have a flocked dashboard to cut down on the sun reflecting through the windscreen. In the photographic industry. vat. It is also used to produce light-tight passages for film such as in135 film cartridges. A view on the present state-of-the-art of flocking can be found in the first international exhibition "Flockage: the flock phenomenon" in the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum in Bournemouth.Flocking in the automotive industry is used for decorative purposes and may be applied to a number of different materials. flocking is one method used to reduce the reflectivity of surfaces. and naphthol dyes. . including the insides of some bellows and lens hoods. Flock consists of synthetic fibers that look like tiny hairs. thicker fibers a more bristle-like surface Ink-Jet printing Ink-jet printing is a noncontact printing method in which droplets of colorant solution are propelled toward a substrate and directed to a desired spot. sulfur. The length of the fibers can vary in thickness which co-determines the appearance of the flocked product. Thin fibers produce a soft velvety surface. Ink jet is an emerging technology in the textile industry and has not yet been adopted for widespread commercial use. The dye types most amenable to ink-jet printing of textiles are fiber reactive.
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