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Caring for others

25.1 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to: read and understand an interview and a newspaper report read about people who care for others use adverb clauses of time identify doing words (verbs) match words with their meanings interview a person

25.2 Lets Read

Mother Teresa looked after the poor and the needy. What did she do for the dying? We will know about Mother Teresa. She was born in South Yugoslavia. At the age of nineteen she came to Darjeeling, India to teach. In 1931 she decided to serve the poorest of the poor. She belonged to the order of Missionaries of Charity. They run forty schools, where about 30,000 children are educated. They also have mobile dispensaries, training centers and destitute home for poor and the needy. 1


In 1979, she received the Nobel Prize for her services to the poor. She was also given the Bharat Ratna by the Government of India in 1980. Here is an extract from an interview with Mother Teresa. The interviewer is the well known journalist Malcolm Muggeridge. Does it tell us how Mother Teresa cared for the poor? Lets read and find out.

25.2 Section I
Malcolm : When you say Home for the Dying you mean that these are people on the streets who have been abandoned and are dying? Mother Teresa : Yes, the first woman who I saved, was picked up from the street. She had been half-eaten by the rats and the ants. I took her to the hospital, but they could not do anything for her. They only took her in because I refused to move until they accepted her. From there I went to the municipality and asked them to give me a place, where I could bring such people. The health officer of the municipality took me to the Kali temple and showed me the dharamshala. I was very happy to have that place. Within twenty four hours we had our patients there, and we started the work of the home for the sick and the dying. In 1952, we opened the first Home for the Dying. Malcolm : What exactly are you doing for these dying people? I know you bring them in here.

Mother Teresa : First of all we want to make them feel they are wanted; we want them to know that there are people who really love them, who really care for them at least for the few hours that they have to live. They too should know that they are the children of God and that they are not forgotten and that they are loved and cared. Malcolm : What happens to those who are cured?

Mother Teresa : Those who are able to wok we try to find some work for them, the others we try to send them home, where they can spend at least a few years in happiness and comfort.

25.1 Read, Think and Answer I

I. How old was Mother Teresa when she came to India?

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. Who did Mother Teresa run homes, schools and hospitals for?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. What honours did Mother Teresa receive for her services to the poor?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2



When did Mother Teresa open the first Home for the Dying?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. Describe the first woman she picked up form the streets.

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 6. Why did she help the dying?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ II. Say whether the following statement are true or false, in the box provided against each statement. Mother Teresa was born in Asia Mother Teresa started her career as a teacher Mother Teresa worked for the rich only The worst disease that any human being can experience is being unwanted. According to Mother Teresa, to know the poor we must feel for the poor The disease of being unwanted can be cured in hospitals.

a) b) c) d) e) f)

25.3 Section II
What should a 70-year old woman do? Sit at home? Play with her grand-children? Or should she take to an unbeaten path and take up teaching under-privileged children in her courtyard? The Deccan Chronicle tells us how Janki Iyer chose the last option, and runs a school called Ananda Bharati.

A little distance from the Tarnaka crossroads, you come across a quiet house called Needa (refuge). Attached to it is a small school where in the afternoons, you will come across many little girls who are domestic servants, learning to read. This is no non-formal education center. Education is a very serious business here. The girls get to write their public exams, some of them join residential schools (after clearing the entrance exams) and some others go for higher studies. Innovative teaching methods help these first generation learners. Field trips, discussion on current events are common features in this school. Ananda Bharati is not just about education, many people have commented that the children here are transformed into confident individuals and that the values imbibed here stay with them wherever they go. 3


The woman who runs the school and whose house in Needa is Janaki Iyer, simply called Ja by her friends, Janaki could well be your neighbour across the wall babysitting her grandchildren. This sprightly 70-year-old is an unassuming, soft-spoken lady and comes across as a very gentle person. She chooses her words carefully, the precision speaks of a well- ordered mind. She attracts young people to her like bees to honey. Her school, appropriately enough called Ananda Bharati, has attracted many younger professionals in an unprecedented way to lend their time and effort to this venture. A computer professional helps with the accounts; a linguistics professor teaches Hindi; another professor teaches English, and another music. Despite the preponderance of highly-educated teachers, Janaki has been able to attract and retain teachers from under-privileged backgrounds. When a child needs to be put into a residential school, or needs to go in for higher studies in college, Janaki has many friends who help in sorting out the myriad problems that crop up. Sandhyarani, a 15 year old, says that she liked the combination of studies with vocational training. Janaki Iyer is doing a yeoman service to these domestic workers by educating them. I am getting a lot of help from committed teachers and young enthusiastic professionals, who volunteer to help in the school. I am very thankful for it, she says. With such committed social workers, there is hope on the horizon.

25-2 Read, Think and Answer II

1. a) b) c) d) e) State whether the following are True or False Janaki Iyer teaches child-labourers and domestic servants in her courtyard. Ananda Bharati is a girls school. The children do not enjoy going to Ananda Bharati. It is a residential school. It was the absence of the spirit of competition, which brought out the best in each of these children. Tick the correct answer, from the options given : Ananda Bharati is an institution ____ Like any other coaching center Meant for domestic workers For computer-training

II. 1. a) b) c)


2. a) b) c) 3. a) b) c)

The working hours for Ananda Bharati are from_____ 2.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 9.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. 4.00 p.m. to 8.00 p.m. The school has this timing so that the girls Are free from their morning duties Can attend other schools in the morning hours Are free to talk with their teachers.


Janaki Iyer writes the story of Bhagya who studied at Ananda Bharati. Why was she shocked by what she told her?

BHAGYA is a ten-year old, who attends my non-formal education unit Ananda Bharati. She comes to my class, which starts at 2 p.m. with her younger sister Swarna and baby sister Swapna. As soon as she comes to class there is a change in Bhagya. She sheds her responsibilities the instant she hands over Swapna to me. For the next two and half hours she like any other child of her age is interested in her work be it an exercise in Telugu or sums or some drawing. After playing around for a while and scribbling on a slate Swapna settles on my lap for her siesta. Work gets more intense after Swapna is put down. Before any of us realize it, it is 4.15 and time for games. On good days Swapna sleeps through this also. At a quarter to five all are ready to leave for home. One afternoon in July, Bhagya came to class wearing a pair of rubber slippers. She explained that she had started working for the occupants of a flat just completed. This gave her a little money to get some things for herself which she badly needed. Another day she wore pretty green bangles on her slender wrists. They looked beautiful on her bringing Sarojini Naidus delicate, bright rainbow-tinted circles of light to my mind. Soon she had a set of new clothes. Days went by. We continued our work in the afternoon. Bhagya was busy cooking and looking after Swapna in her own home. She also had her work in the flat on the 3rd floor. Some days she was late coming to my class and took my admonition with a serious downcast look. One day I found Lakshmi, another of my students going along with Bhagya to the newly constructed flats. When I asked her what she was up to she said Bhagya had got her work in one of the new 5


apartment. Bhagya herself came running to me and said, The lady of that house wanted me to work for her for a hundred rupees per month. I know that I cannot take on more work if I want to study in the afternoon. So I decided that I would give Lakshmi the job. I was stunned. Bhagya had made a deliberate choice, giving up a hundred rupees every month in order to study. What was even more remarkable was the matter of fact way she said it. To her the issue seemed crystal clear. There was awe in her voice when she mentioned the grand sum of 100 rupees or Vanda as she called it in Telugu but there was no a trace of regret in either her face or voice for having given it up. N.B. Its. rainbows like these that make all the rainy teaching days seem worth-while!

25.3 Read, Think and Answer III

1. Who was Bhagya? How old was she when this story was written?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 2. How many sisters did she have?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 3. Why did she want to shed her responsibilities the moment she entered Ananda Bharati?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 4. What did she buy with the money she earned as domestic servant?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 5. Why did Mrs. Janak Iyer scold her?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 6. Why did Bhagya give Lakshmi the job that was offered to her?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 7. What kind of choice did Bhagya make deliberately?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ 8. Did she have any regret?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _



Why was there awe in her voice?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _

25.5 Overall Questions

1. Describe the first dying woman whom Mother Teresa picked from the street? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. What did she want the dying to realize? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. Who gets admission to Ananda Bharati? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. Why do you think Janaki has been able to retain teachers from under privileged backgrounds? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5. Was Bhagya very keen to be educated? Give a reason in support of your answer. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

25.6 Lets Learn Grammar

Read these sentences When a child wants to go to a secondary school, Janaki Devi helps her As soon as she comes to class there is a change in Bhagya. After Swapna has played around for a while she has her afternoon nap. 7


I was pleased when Lakshmi got a job. The underlined words are adverb clauses of time. They begin with words like when, before and tell us about the time when a certain action was performed. (I) 1. 2. 3. 4. Complete these sentences: Domestic help goes to Janakis Ds school when The students enjoy themselves when . Bhagya wore green bangles after .. I had arrived at the platform before

(II) Join these pairs of sentences using the words given in brackets. f) g) h) i) j) We will go home. We finish our work. (as soon as) We come to school. The bell rang. (before) The price of wheat will fall. The harvest is reaped. (after) I will see the Taj. I go to Agra. (when) Hari will go to bed. You put out the light. (after)

25.7 Increase Your Word Power

1. Match the words in circle A with words of similar meaning given in circle B. A Admonish Siesta Innovative Myriad Snnned B Shocked New Scold Respect combined With fear Afternoon map

(2) Doing words (verbs) Reading and writing are doing words, one of the words in each of these lists is not a doing word. Pick it out. playing, jumping, ball, skipping 8


fruits, eating, cutting, peeling buying, selling, vegetables, weighing washing, cleaning, soap, brushing

25.8 Lets Talk

Mrs Singh cares for others. She runs a school for orphans and street children. Interview her. Your partner should be Mrs. Singh. Her responses are given below. Complete the dialogueYou : .. Your Partner (Mrs. Singh): I run a school for orphans and street children. You : .. Your partner: I want them to acquire a skill so that they have a regular monthly income. You : .. Your Partner: Because they cant go to a regular/formal school. You : Youre wonderful! Your partner (smiling) : I enjoy working with children.

25.9 Lets Write

Imagine your are Bhagya. Write a short note for your friend. You can use the following points: What you do in the morning. When you go to school. What your plans are for the future. Begin: Every morning I go to the house of Mrs. Sharma, I do the dishes and clean her kitchen. Then I look after Swapana, my baby sister. ______________________________

25.10 Check Your Answers

Read, Think and Answer I nineteen 2. poor and the needy 3. nobel prize and bharat ratna 4. 1952 5. was half eaten by rats and ants. 6. to make them feel wanted. 9


II (a) F (b) T (c) F (d) T (e) T (f) F. Read, Think and Answer II I. (a) T (b) T (c) F (d) F (e) T.

II. (a) meant for domestic workers. (b) 2.00 PM to 5.00 PM (c) are face from their morning duties

Read, Think and Answer III

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A student of Ananda Bharati. Ten. Two Because she wanted to learn. Bangles and clothes Because she was late for classes. Because she already had a job and wanted study in the afternoon. Giving up a hundred rupees every month No. Awe - because hundred rupees was lot of money to her.

Lets learn grammar

I. 2. 3. 4. II 2. 10 when they finish their work in the morning when they are in Ananda Bharati after she started working in the new flat before her/his train arrived. we will go home as soon as we finish hour work. we came to school before the bell rang


3. 4. 5.

the price of wheat will fall after the harvest is reaped I will see the Taj when I go to Agra Hari will go to bed after you put out the light

Increase your word power

II. ball, fruits, vegetables, soap




Hill Station: Darjeeling, 1970

26.1 Objectives
After reading this lesson you will be able to : read and understand a passage on Darjeeling and answer the questions based on it. use words that convey sounds. match describing words with nouns use infinitive to +V make plans and give suggestions. describe a place you have visited.

26.2 Lets Read

Why is Darjeeling one of the most famous of the Indian hill stations. How do we reach Darjeeling from Calcutta? Section I Darjeeling, the most celebrated of the Indian hill stations, is all smallness. It is small physically, of 12


course- hard even to find upon the map of India, so tucked away it is like a trinket on the northern frontiers. One crosses vast scorched plains to reach it from Calcutta, over colossally winding rivers, through a landscape that has no end; but at the foot of the hills Darjeeling sends a toy train to meet you a gay little blue painted trundle of a train, which takes you indefatigably puffing and chugging up through the forests and the tea gardens to the town.

26.1 Read, Think and Answer I

Say whether the following statement are True and false1. Darjeeling is near Calcutta. 2. Darjeeling is a famous hill station. 3. You reach the hill station from the foot of the hills by train. 4. On your train journey, you cross many long winding rivers. 5. Darjeeling is on the southern frontier of India.

26.3 Section II
Darjeeling is perched upon a narrow bridge, about 7000 feet up, with deep gorges falling away on either side. Darjeeling is built in layers, neatly along its ridge like an exhibition town, from the posh hotels and the villas at the top to the jumbled bazaar quarter at the bottom: and all the way down this dense tiered mass of buildings life incessantly buzzes, hums and fizzes. Little people greet you at the top. Little ponies canter about little streets. Hundreds and thousands of merry little children tumble all about you. It is a place of astonishing cheerfulness. Everybody seems to be feeling simply splendid. Perhaps they all are, for the air is magnificently brilliant, the heat is seldom too hot and the cold often not icy. One can see Kanchenjunga and its peers from Darjeeling. Some visitors never see the snow peaks at all, for they are often invisible for days at a time when the town is swirled all around by cloud. To see the divine mass of the Himalayan Mountains, in the cool of the morning, is one of the noblest experiences of travel.

26.2 Read, Think and Answer II

Fill in the following details about Darjeeling from section II of the passage. a. Height ______________________________. b. The town appears like an ______________________________.



c. Nature of people ______________________________. d. Weather ______________________________. e. Most popular place ______________________________. f. Natural sights ______________________________.

g. The town is built in ______________________________. h. On clear days you can see ______________________________.

26.4 Section III

Today Darjeelings high spirits never seem to flag. The children never stop playing, the youths never end their horseplay, the tourists never tire of clattering hilariously about the town on hired ponies. The cicadas sing all day long in the gardens, and over and again from down the hill comes the hoots and puffs of the little trains. To the stranger it all seems intense, more concentrated than real life, and especially after dark, when the braziers are aglow in the alleys of the bazaar, and the hotel lights comfortably shine above. Then half Darjeeling turn out for a stroll at chaurasta, a triangular piazza halfway along the ridge, and on my own first evening in Darjeeling I went and sat on a bench there, and watched the town go by. There were tall flashing girls in saris and nose-clips. There were brown gnome-like men in fur caps. There were slant-eyed children of astonishing beauty, and boys with wide eager faces like Gengis Khan. There were monks, and priests, and soldiers, and grand Indian gentlemen in tweeds, and giggly Indian girls in cotton party frocks. There were mountain porters hastening back from work, carrying rucksacks and tent-poles. There were ancient men with plaited pigtails. There were two hippies, and a nun, and four French tourists, and me watching it all, as a hallucination, from a corner bench beside the bandstand. It was like a microcosm of the world, assembled up there from the plains and mountain, ushered into that little square. No small town in the world can show so many kinds, and types, and manners of people.

26.3 Read, Think and Answer III

1. Say whether the following statements are True or False (i) There are many tourist attractions in Darjeeling. (ii) People in Darjeeling go to chaurasta for a walk. (iii) Seven people (including the author) were watching the passersby. (iv) Darjeeling is a miniature world. (v) Everyone in Darjeeling is happy and excited. 14


26.5 Overall Questions

1. Pick up ten words/phrases used to describe Darjeeling in the passage and list them here. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Based on your reading of the passage, which do you think are the tourist attractions of Darjeeling? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Would you like to go to Darjeeling for a holiday? Give reasons for your answer. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

26.6 Increase Your Word Power

Onomatopoeic words (a) The words which seem to sound like their meaning are called onomatopoeic words. In section I, the way the train moves is described with the help of the following words. Puffing and chugging up You may have come across these words for the first time but I am sure you did not have any problems in understanding the meaning of these words. Exercise Read the passage on Darjeeling again and pick up the words which sound like their meaning and list them here. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________



Describing words Match the words which go together in Column A and B. Col A Scorched Winding Narrow Eager Fur Col B Tall Faces girls Plains Caps Rivers Example Winding rivers __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Bridge

26.7 Lets learn Grammar

the to + Infinitive Study these sentences: 1. One crosses vast scorched plains to reach Darjeeling from Calcutta. 2. At the foot of the hills, Darjeeling sends a toy train to meet you. The underlined words in the above sentences (i.e. to reach and to meet) are examples of infinitives. The function of the infinitives is to express purpose. An infinitive consists of to + the base form of the verb. Here are some more examples: They have hardly any water to drink. I have a flat to let. The postman has many letters to deliver. 16


She turned on the light to see what time it was. He sent Rahul to the market to buy some vegetables. He went to London to study Economics. Exercise I Can you now underline the infinitives in the following sentences? 1. Manish went to the city yesterday to do some shopping. 2. I am writing to congratulate you on your success. 3. You need a passport to go abroad. 4. He started early to reach on time. 5. Rashi has gone to book tickets for the evening show. Exercise II Given below are a few questions. Answer each question in a complete sentence. While answering questions you will be using the infinitive to + V. 1. Why are you studying English? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do children go to the playground in the evening? _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Why do we go to a restaurant? _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Why do people buy music systems? _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Why do people go to the bazaar? _____________________________________________________________________ 17


26.8 Lets Talk

Practice this with your partner. A You Your Partner You Your Partner You : What should we do on Sunday? : Lets go to the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. : What will you we there? : Well take photographs of the migratory birds. : Great Lets do that.

Talk to your partner on what you are going to do on Sunday. Use in place of

Gir Forest ... Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Lions . Migratory birds Mughal Gardens . Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Beautiful flower . Migratory birds. River .. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. swim .. Take photographs of the birds Sports complex .. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Play volleyball/cricket.. Take photographs of the birds.

26.9 Lets Write

Describing a place You have read about the famous hill station, Darjeeling. After reading the passage, dont you feel that you have actually visited the place? This is because, the author has described the place, keeping in mind the questions that the readers are likely to ask when they start reading the description. This enables the reader to get a clear picture of the place. 18


When people read about a tourist place, they try to know about different things. There are a few questions everyone would like to find answers to. For example, 1. Where is the place located? 2. How can one reach there? 3. What does one get to see and hear on the way to the place? 4. What type of accommodation is available at the place? 5. What sights and sounds greet someone as he/she arrives? 6. What are the other attractions at the place? I am sure you listed these questions when you started reading the passage. If you read the passage again, you will find the author has answered the first three questions in section 1, the next two in section 2 and the last one in section 3. Now write 2 3 paragraphs on any place you have visited. It could be a hill station. A valley, a seashore, a historical place. If you have not visited any such place, you can describe your village/ town/city or the nearest village/town/city. Make sure you include answers to the questions listed above. Perhaps you would also like to add descriptive information about how the place looks. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

26.10 Check Your Answers

Read, Think and Answer I 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. True 5. False 19


Read, Think and Answer II a. 7000 ft b. exhibition town c. cheerful and friendly d. cool e. chaurasta f. Himalayas

g. Layers h. Kanchengunga Read, Think and Answer III 1. True 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True Overall Questions Small, cheerful, trinket, cool, cloudy, simply splendid, magnificently, brilliant, intense, like an exhibition. Increase your word power Buzzes, hums, fizzes, hoots, puffs, giggle Lets Learn Grammar 1. to do 2. to congratulate 3. to go 20


4. to reach 5. to book Exercise II I am studying English to learn the language or I am studying English to get a good job. Children go to the playground in the evening to play. We go to a restaurant to have a meal/to have snacks. People buy music systems to listen to music. People go to the bazaar to buy things.




A Prayer for Healing

27.1 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to: read, understand and enjoy a simple poem. admire the ideas in the poem. appreciate how ideas are linked with each other. appreciate the use of words in the poem. We live on earth. Whether we live in towns or in villages, we need air, water and food. The earth and its atmosphere give us all these. The earth has been a good home for us But have we been good to the earth? Do we think of protecting it? This poem is about the earth and ourselves. Read the poem a few times. You may refer to the meanings given on the right. Then sit back and think. If you were praying for the earth and for living beings, what would be your prayer? Would you pray 22


i. ii. iii.

for pure fresh air, and water? That the land should yield good crops? That the rivers and seas should not be made polluted, so that these waters would support fish and other beings found in water? The sunlight should not be made dim by too much smoke?


27.2 Lets read the poem and find out what the poet prays for. We join with the earth and with each other to bring new life to the land To restore the waters To refresh the air We join with the earth and with each other To renew the forests To care for the plants To protect the creatures We join with the earth and with each other To celebrate the seas To rejoice the sunlight To sing the song of the stars We join with the earth and with each other To recreate the human community To promote justice and peace To remember our children We join with the earth and with each other We join together as many and diverse expressions Of one loving mystery, for the healing of earth and the renewal of all life. Discussion The words we join with the earth and with each other appear five times in the poem. So it seems to be an important idea that has to be thought over and again. When a line is repeated several times in a poem it is called a refrain. A refrain stands for the central idea of the poem. Stanza 1 and 2 Read the first and the second stanzas and answer the questions given below: 1- Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences. (I) We join with the earth and with each other means that . (i) we are related to each other. 23

restore: to bring back an earlier undamaged state refresh: to make fresh and pure again renew to forests: to make the forests grow back at if new Creatures: all living things celebrate: to show that we value and appreciate something Rejoice: to express happiness recreate: to make it better promote: to help to develop Diverse: different Mystery: something not understood Healing making whole and healthy again renewal: making new again


(ii) We agree to work together. (iii) We should hold each others hands. (iv) We live on the earth. (II) The words/phrases to bring to new life, to restore, to refresh and to renew suggest that .................................................... (i) Life, air and water and forests have never been in a good state. (ii) Life, air and water and forests should be changed into a completely new state. (iii) Life, air, water and forests should be brought back to their old good state. 2- The poem in the first and second stanzas advises us to take care of certain things. Make a list of these. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Stanza 3 Read the third stanza and mark the use of the words celebrate, rejoice and sing. All the three words are expressions of joy. You celebrate you birthday because you are happy. You rejoice over your success in the exam because you are happy. You sing a song because you are happy. So you see, you make use of these words to express your happiness. Can you now guess? 1. Why is the poet happy to think of the sea, the sun and stars? (i) Because the sea, the sun and the stars support life. (ii) Because the sea, the sun and the stars are beautiful objects. (iii) Because the sea, the sun and the stars are things of nature. (iv) Because we can see the sea, the sun and the stars everyday. Stanza 4 You have seen that in the first, second and third stanzas the poet has been talking of objects of nature like water, air, forests etc. that we need to take care of. In the fourth stanza the focus shifts to the human world. The poet now prays that we should work together to make the human world a better place to live in. 24 mark the correct answer.


Read the stanza and answer the following questions. 1- What two things does the poet want us to promote? _________________________________________________________________________________________ 2mark the correct answer. The line to remember our children means:

(i) That children will be adults in future. (ii) That parents love their children. (iii) That we should leave behind for our children a good world. (iv) That naughty children can destroy peace. Now, read the last two lines of the poem. The poet calls all the people expressions of one loving mystery. What is this loving mystery? Is it life? It is nature or is it God? The poet leaves it a mystery but can you guess what does the following line lay stress on? mark the correct option. 1. Many and diverse expressions of one... (i) That we are different people. (ii) That we may be different yet we are expressions of one. (iii) That there is no difference among people. (iv) That it is a mystery that we are different.

27.2 Overall Questions

1- Why does the poet call the poem A Prayer of Healing? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2mark the correct answer.

Who is the poet praying to? (i) his fellow people (ii) God 25


(iii) Earth (iv) Nature

27.3 Check your answers

Stanza 1 and 2 1. (i) we agree to work together (ii) life, air, water and forests should be brought back to their old good state. 2. water, air, forests, plants and creatures. Stanza 3 1. because the sea, the sun and the stars support life. Stanza 4 1- Justice and peace 2- That we should leave behind for our children a good world.




The Way You Look

28.1 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to: read and understand a passage on genes identify and use adjectives use the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives ask and answer questions write a well knit paragraph

28.2 Lets Read

Section I Whenever we see a new-born baby, we ask this question-Does she look like her father or her mother? What about you? Who do you look like? What about your sister and brother?Why do we look like our parents? Read and findout Do you look like your father or mother? Perhaps you do not look like either! You may resemble an aunt or an uncle, or even one of your grandparents. The way you look depends mostly upon 27


tiny particles in the cells of you body called genes. The way we look or get chronic illnesses depends upon our getting some chemical substances from our parents from called Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA). These are the materials of heredity and our children get them. Thats how flow of information from generation to generation is ensured. These genes come down to you from your parents. Some come from your mother and some from your father. The genes decided before you were born what you would look like and how tall you would grow.

28.1 Read, Think and Answer I

Fill in the blanks with the words, given in the box below: 1- What are genes? Genes are tiny particles in the __________ of our body that _________ before we are ___________ what we would ___________ like and how ________ we would grow. They are one of the _______________ controlling ______________. look cells tall decide factors born heredity

2- (i) Draw your family tree, putting in the names of your family members. Indicate the person you resemble with an arrow. Remember you must show at least three generations and the members in each in some detail. (ii) Now use the right gene word in the blanks below: (a) I have drawn a ________________ tree.

(b) A geneologist is a student of ____________. (c) I am interested in biology, particularly the area that deals with heredity, I therefore want to study ___________ in college.

(d) In the joint-family system, people of three or four ____________ stay together.

28.3 Section II
What kind of ideas did people have about heredity in the past? Who changed those ideas? Until the discoveries of Gregor Mendel nobody knew anything about genes. People did not 28


really understand why people of the same family resembled each other. They did not know very much about heredity. People thought that if a tall person married a short person, their children would be of medium height a combination of tallness and shortness. Mendel showed that this wasnt true. Gregor Mendel was born in 1822, in Central Europe. He was a very intelligent person, but he could not pass exams. So he left school and studied on his own. Mendel was especially interested in the breeding of plants. In those days, many people still thought that if you crossed (mixed) a white flower with a red one, all the next generation must turn out pink. Mendel knew this was not true. He began to experiment with peas to prove his point. Every year, for many years, he grew pea plants. Sometimes he crossed short plants with tall plants, sometimes purple-flowered plants with white-flowered plants. For several years he took down details of all the plants he grew. He noted their height, the shape of their leaves, the kind of pods they produced, whether they were strong or weak, and so on. Mendel discovered that something in the plants gave them certain qualities, such as tallness, shortness, purple flowers or poor fruit. Mendel called them characters. Today we call them genes.

28.2 Read, Think and Answer II

Fill in the blanks with the words given in the boxes below: 1. What kind of ideas did people have about heredity in the past? People thought that if a _________ person married a _________ person, their ______ would have ________ or ___________height a ______________of ___________and ____________. combination tall average tallness medium short children shortness

2. Who changed their ideas? __________________, who did a lot of ___________________with ________________of ________________, changed their ideas. experiments plants breeding Gregor Mendel



3. How did Mendel prove his point? Describe one of his experiments. Mendel experimented with _________ to prove his _________. He __________ observed _________ over a _______________. Sometimes he __________ tall and __________ plants, at other times, he _________________________ plants with ____________ plants. He kept a __________, noting down the ________ about ________, ___________, _______ the variety of ___________ they produced, whether they were _________ or ___________. point mixed pea-plants mixed purple few years short dairy strong peas height detailsflowered weak shape pods white-flowered colour

4. What did he discover? Mendel discovered that something in the plants gave them certain _______, such as ________, _______, particular _____________, the quality of the __________, the ________ of the ____________. Mendel called them _____, another term of ___________. genes pod characters qualities tallness pea strength colour


5. What are pods? Can you draw them? (Colour them light green) (if you do not know what pods are look up the dictionary and fill in the blanks) Pods are long ________ of various ____________, especially peas and ___________. For example, we have to take the peas out of the pods when we eat them ________ as __________ or when we _____________ them. cook plants 30 salad seeds raw beans vessels peas


28.4 Section III

What were his other discoveries? He realized that all the characters of each plant could be passed on to another generation quite separately, but that some characters were stronger than others. If your father, for instance, has big ears and your mother has small ears, you will inherit both bigear genes and small-ear genes. But your ears will be big or small, depending upon which of your parents genes were stronger. One of Mendels experiments was to cross a purple-flowered plant with a white-flowered plant. The first generation of new plants all had purple flowers. When seeds from the new purpleflowered plants grew up, one plant of the next generation was white. So although the white gene did not show in the first generation, it must have been there. The purple came out more often because it was stronger. Mendel then found that if he crossed tall plants with short ones, the same thing happened. Tallness won over shortness in the first generation, but some short plants came up in every later generation. This diagram will show this: He explained how these characteristics showed up in different generations. Then he sent a pamphlet to several of the most famous scientists of his day, showing the results of his work. Unfortunately, Mendels ideas were too difficult for other scientists to understand. It was many years before the world accepted the truth of Mendels ideas.

28.4 Read, Think and Answer III

1. What did Mendel realize after his experiment with peas? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do some children have big ears and some small? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did purple flowers come out more often in his experiments? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Although the first generation of new plants had purple flowers, how did one white-flowered plant emerge in the second generation? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Explain the three steps when a tall plant was mixed with a short plant. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 31


28.5 Overall Questions

The sentences given below are not in the right order. Arrange them correctly. 1. Generation refers to each succeeding group of people in a family. 2. You and your cousins form the generation after that. 3. First, come your grandparents, who form one generation. 4. Second, your parents, uncles and aunts are the next generation. 5. If you have nephews and nieces, they form the fourth generation. 6. If they are married, and they have children, they form the fifth generation.

28.6 Lets Learn Grammar

(A) Forming Nouns from Adjectives e.g. Strong is an Adjective. It means having power to resist, cannot be easily broken. Strength is the quality of being strong; ability to resist strain. It is an abstract noun. Abstract Nouns are names of the qualities, for example, courage, happiness, honesty, goodness, virtue etc. Simple Adjective Short Tall Strong Comparative Shorter Taller Stronger Table 1 However, if we have an adjective of more than two syllables, then more and most are used for the comparative and superlative form respectively. Simple Adjective Beautiful Educated Comparative More beautiful More educated Table 2 32 Superlative Most beautiful Most educated Superlative Shortest Tallest Strongest


Use the words from Table 1 above in the following sentences: 1. The first pencil is short. The second is ___________than the first one. The third pencil is the _________ of the three 2. The first fir-tree is tall. The second is ______________ than the first one. The third tree is the _______ of the three. Compound Adjectives You must have come across these words _________ kind hearted white Starched hottest selling white blossommed i) complete the blanks below using the right words given above. a. _________________ - _______________ plants b. _________________ - _______________doctor c. _________________ - _______________bed sheets d. _________________ - _______________ car. ii) Now again use these compound-adjectives from the box above, in the blanks below. Do you see how differently we can use words and phrases? a) I did not know that all Taureans like White-starched bed sheets b) Do you know what is the __________ bike in town? c) I like to talk to a ____________ nurse in this hospital. d) Have you seen ____________ trees from hill-tops or roof-tops?

28.7 Increase Your Word Power I

(A) We often use these words and expressions for comparison and contrast: look like either or 33


neither nor resemble even Now use these new words to fill in the blanks below. The twins Anu and Tanu ______________1 each other. They are dressed in the same manner all the time . ___________2 you see them jogging early in the morning, _______3 you see them cycling round the campus in the evening. ___________4 Anu ________5 Tanu are fond of reading books. They ___________6 their grandmother not only in their looks, but _______ in the way they watch the cartoon network on T.V. (B) Derivatives from gene (i) Study all these words that are derived from gene: * genetics (n)Science, particularly a branch of biology, dealing with heredity, the ways in which characteristics are passed on from parents to offspring. * geneology (n)- Science of the development of plants and animals from earlier forms. * geneological (adj)Showing family descent

* generation (n)- Single step or step in family descent C. New words Match the new words in column A with their meanings in column B. Column A 1. resemble 2. cells 3. heredity Column B a) look like b) growing plants in a scientific way c) very small units of living matter (our bodies are made up of millions of cells) d) the passing on the physical and mental qualities from parents to children e) each succeeding group of people in a family f) mix two different kinds of plants to produce a third kind.

4. breeding 5. cross 6. generation 34


Example 2 3 4 5 6


____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

28.8 Lets Talk

Seeking Information and Supplying Information Practice the following with your friend A. You : Do you look like your father or your mother?

Friend : I look like my __________. What about you? You B. You : At what time does the Rajdhani Express arrive at Secunderabad? : I look like my _________.

Friend : It arrives at 7.10 p.m. You : At what time does the Rajdhani Express leave Secunderabad?

Friend : At 6.55 a.m. Role Play 1. 2. Ask a few questions and compare your family tree to your friends family tree. Imagine that you are at the enquiry of a Railway Station. Your friend should ask you a few questions and you should answer them.



28.9 Lets Write

You have already described people in the unit Snake-Bite. a) Now write a paragraph describing the person you resemble. Keep these points in mind: Name Age Profession Nature Strength Begin : I resemble my _____________. I am ___________ like him. ______ ________. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

28.10 Check Your Answers

Read, think and Answer I 1. 2. cells decide born look tall factors heredity (i) family (iii) genes (iv) science (v) generations Read, Think and Answer II 1. 2. 3. 36 Tall short children tall short combination tallness shortness Gregor Mandel experiments breeding plants Peas point pea plants few years mixed short mixed white flowered purple diary details height shape colour pods strong weak



Qualities tallness shortness strength pod colour pea characters genes

5. Seeds plants beans raw salad cook Read, Think and Answer III 1. Mendal realized that all characters of each plant could be passed on to another generation quite seperately, and that some characters were stronger than others. Some children have big ears and some small, depending upon which of the parents genes are stronger. Purple flowers came out more because its genes were stronger. One white flowered plant emerged in the second generation because the white gene must have been there. (i) Took down details of all the plants he grew. (ii) Noted their height, the shape of their leaves and the kinds of pods they produced. (iii) It was discovered that something in the plants gave them certain qualities, such as tallness, shortness, purple flowers or poor fruit. Read, Think and Answer IV (a) 1. (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 5 (f) 6. Lets Learn Grammar A. 1. shorter 2. taller tallest Adjectives (a) white blossomed (b) kind hearted (c)white starched (d) hottest selling ii) (a) white strached (b) hottest selling 37 shortest


3. 4.



(c) kind hearted (d) white blossomed. Increase Your Word Power A. look like either or Resemble C. 1 (a) even 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (b) 5(f) 6(e) neither nor




New Goods from Rubbish

29.1 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to: read and answer questions based on an informative piece identify and use linkers identify words which refer to our natural resources describe a process

29.2 Let s Read

Have you ever wondered what happens to old newspapers, bottles, cans and other used material which we sell off? These old, used things are converted into new things which we can use again. Dont you find this interesting? This is called recycling. Im sure you would like to know more about this. Section I Recycling rubbish not only helps save money- it also helps the environment. We lessen the pollution that is created by burning rubbish and we save valuable resources. Western countries waste a 39


great deal of the earths resources. For example, in the USA about 75, 000 trees are felled every week just for printing the Sunday edition of the New York Times. Recycling used paper would easily save these trees. Many countries encourage recycling and new technology allows more waste to be reused. Most of the worlds rubbish can be reused paper, metals, glass, and even some plastics.

29.1 Read, Think and Answer I

Say if the following statements are True or False. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recycling is reusing the waste Recycling doesnt increase pollution Technology makes recycling possible Only a few used things can be recycled. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

About 3,00,000 trees would be spared every month just by recycling the Sunday edition of the New York Times. ( )

29.3 Section II
Plastic is one of the most difficult substances to recycle, because it comes in so many varieties. Some plastic bottles, for example, consist of six layers of different types of plastic, each designed to give the bottles certain qualities shape, strength, flexibility. And as yet there is no simple way to be turn an old plastic bottle into a new one. Plastic scrap can only be turned into a product of lower quality a plastic might be cleaned, cut into very, very tiny pieces and used to stuff seat cushions, a mixture of plastic waste can be recycled into plastic timber and used to make durable fencing. But a lot of plastic waste still has to thrown away. Metals are different. Any car on the road today will consist, in part, of earlier cars that have been scrapped and recycled into new steel and other metals. The more valuable the metal, like gold and silver, the more it pays to recycle it. Aluminum is worth recycling because extracting it from bauxite consumes a huge amount of electricity. Since most aluminum today is recycled, the energy used to make aluminum has fallen by a quarter since the early 1970s.

29.2 Read, Think and Answer II

Say if the following statement are True or false 1. Plastic can be recycled and converted into a new plastic mug. ( ) 3. A new car may have a component produced by recycling metal scrap. ( ) 40


4. Recycling some of the products helps in saving electricity.


29.3 Section III

Glass is also worth recovering. The most sensible method is to use glass bottles as often as possible. In countries which still use milk bottles, the average bottle makes about 30 trips to and from the dairy. Broken glass known as cullet can also be recycled, and many western countries have bottle banks into which used bottles can be thrown. Usually there are payments. Bottle banks depend on peoples goodwill. The success of bottle banks varies widely from country to country. The Swiss and Dutch recover 50 percent of their glass, while in Britain only 12 percent is recovered. In India of course, we sell our bottles which are then reused. Glass is best separated by colour, since cullet of mixed colours can be used only to make green glass. Broken glass can be remelted in furnaces and then it can easily be shaped into new bottles or other objects. Half the worlds waste consists of paper. Many countries import waste paper rather than new pulp for their paper mills. The waste is pulped, cleaned and bleached to remove most of the ink and dirt, before it is turned into new paper in the same way as wood pulp or rags, Japan now makes half its paper by recycling. It is true that in India we generally avoid waste. However, as we enter the twenty-first century, we are beginning to imitate some of the wasteful habits of the western countries. This is something that all of us need to think about.

29.5 Read, Think and Answer III

Say if the following statements are True or False. 1. The Swiss and the Dutch make half their paper by recycling. 2. Cullet cannot be recycled 3. Green glass can be made from broken glass of different colours 4. A major portion of the worlds waste consists of paper. () () () ()

29.5 Overall Questions

1. What are the advantages of recycling?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________




When you go shopping, would you like the shopkeeper to use paper or polyethylene to pack the things you buy? Give reasons for your answer.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

29.6 Lets Learn Grammar

Read the following sentences from the text: 1. It is true that in India we generally avoid waste. However, as we enter the twenty-first century, we are beginning to imitate some of the wasteful habits of the western countries. A mixture of plastic waste can be recycled into plastic timber and used to make durable fencing. But a lot of plastic waste still has to be thrown away.


In the above pairs of sentences, the second sentence is introduced by words however and but. These words connect the second statement that has a contrasting idea with the first. But is generally used in informal contexts. Sometimes but can be replaced with still, or yet. For example, The teacher was angry. But he did not punish the student. The teacher was angry. Still he did not punish the student. The teacher was angry. vet he did not punish the student. But in more contexts and when we wish to be emphatic we use however. Notice that however is used in the middle of the sentence with a comma. The teacher was angry. He did not, however, punish the student. If we wish to be more emphatic still, we use however in the initial position as in the following sentences. The teacher was angry. However, he did not punish the student. Rewrite the following sentences using different contrast words like Yet, but, however. 1. Children in the play school are allowed to play, but they cannot play in mud. _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. The Prime Minister can become the President of the country. However, he cannot become the Governor of a state. _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 42


3. Cars can go very fast. They cannot, however, go as fast as aeroplanes. _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 4. We can send ships to the Mars. However, we cannot send space ships to the Sun. _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

29.7 Increase your word power

1. Score out words which do not constitute our natural resource Air Water Earth Plastic Trees Paper Bottles Gold

2. Match the describing words with the noun they describe Describing word Valuable Coloured Western Plastic Precious Noun bottles metals glass countries resources Eg : plastic bottles.

28.9 Lets talk

Now a days we talk a lot about green colour. We hear about green cities, we read about green environment, and when we go shopping we look for green products. We find there is a campaign for clean and green environment and various suggestions are being given to preserve nature and natural resources. Assume you are discussing with a friend of yours the ways and means of keeping the environment clean and green. You can use the clues given in box A and box B.



Box A Do not waste paper Use lead-free petrol Do not use plastic use paper Use public transport instead of private transport. Box B The One Another The main The only Example You Your Friend You : Do not waste paper : Why should we not throw away used paper? : One reason is, it can always be recycled. advantage (of) reason (for) disadvantage (of) problem (with) result (of)

29.9 Lets Write

Describing a process Read the following. The waste is pulped, cleaned and bleached to remove most of the ink and dirt, before it is turned into new paper in the same way as wood pulp or rags. What is the above description about? It describes the process of manufacturing paper using waste substances. The process involves four stages. All these stages in the process can diagrammatically be shown as follows: The waste Pulped cleaned Bleached Manufactured into paper.



When we describe a process we describe a series of things that happen and its result. We describe the order in which things happen or the steps and stages involved in the process. In such descriptions, the action taken is important but not who has performed the action. Hence passive sentence are used (without any reference to the agent). We usually do not say. S pulped it, Y cleaned it and Z bleached it. Instead we say, Paper is pulped, cleaned and bleached. To make the process more explicit, we use time markers such as first, second and next. We can say First, the waste is pulped, Next it is cleaned and after that it is bleached. Finally, it is turned into new paper. Given below are the important stages involved in writing and sending letters. Rewrite them in the form of a paragraph. Use time markers to connect the sentences. Write a letter Put the letter in the envelope Get it weighted Buy stamps Paste stamps Drop the letter into the letterbox.

29.10 Check Your Answer

Read, think and answer I 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. True



Read, think and answer II 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. True Read, think and answer III 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. True Overall Questions 1. Recycling rubbish not only helps save money it also helps the environment. We lessen the pollution that is created by burning rubbish and we save valuable resources. I would like the shopkeeper to use paper for packing things because after use it can recycled but polyethylene cannot be recycled.


Lets learn grammar 1. Children in the play school are allowed to play, but they cannot play in mud. Children in the play school are allowed to play. However, they cannot play in mud. Children in the play school are allowed to play. They, however, cannot play in mud. Children in the play school are allowed to play, yet they cannot play in mud 2. The Prime Minister can become the President of the country. However, he cannot become the Governor of a state. The Prime Minister can become the President of the country, but he cannot become the Governor of a state. The Prime Minister can become the President of the country. He cannot, however, become the Governor of a state. 46


The Prime Minister can become the President of the country. Yet, he cannot become the Governor of a state. 3. Cars can go very fast. They cannot, however, go as fast as aeroplanes. Cars can go very fast, but they cannot go as fast as aeroplanes. Cars can go very fast. However, they cannot go as fast as aeroplane. Cars can go very fast. Yet, they cannot go as fast as aeroplanes. 4. We can send space ships to the Mars. Still, we cannot send space ships to the Sun. We can send space ships to the Mars. However, we cannot send space ships to the Sun. We can send space ships to the Mars. We cannot, however, send space ships to the Sun. We can send space ships to the Mars, but we cannot send space ships to the Sun. Increase your Word Power 1- plastic, paper, bottles 2- valuable resource coloured western precious glass countries metal




Studies in the Park

30.2 Objectives
At the end of the lesson you will be able to: read and understand a story use the correct form of verbs talk about a place of your interest write a short paragraph describing an event.

30.2 Lets Read

Do you remember those moments when you wanted quiet all around you and people just did not understand you. Do you remember how you felt? Here is a story of a young student Suno. He is preparing for his exams and wants to study quietly. But there is too much noise around him. Lets read and find out what he does. Section I These people dont know the meaning of the word Quiet. When my mother fills buckets, washes the kitchen floor, fries and sizzles things in the pan, she thinks she is being Quiet. My younger brother and sisters have never even heard the word, it amazes and puzzles them. On 48


their way back from school they fling their bags in at my door, bawl when I pull their ears, screech when mother whacks them. Stuff themselves with her fries and then smear the grease on my books. So I raced out of my room, with my fingers in my ears, to scream till the roof fell down about their ears, But the radio suddenly went off, the door to my parents room suddenly opened and my father appeared, bathed and shaven, his white dhoti blazing, his white shirt cracking his patent leather shoes glittering. He stopped in the doorway and I stopped on my heels and wavered. My fingers came out of my ears, my hair came down over my eyes. Then he looked away from me, took his watch out of his pocket and enquired, Is the food ready? He went off towards his meal, I turned and slouched back to my room. On his way to work, he looked in to say, Remember Suno I expect good results from you. Study hard, Suno. Just behind him, I saw all the rest of them standing, peering in, silently. All of them stared at me, at the exam I was to take. At the degree I was to get. Or not get. Horrifying thought. Study, I said, and found I croaked. I know I ought to study. And how do you expect me to study in this mad-house? Im getting out, I screamed, leaping up and grabbing my books, Im going to study outside, Even the street is quieter, I screeched and threw myself past them and down the stairs and paid no attention to the howls that broke out behind me of Suno, Suno, listen. Your milk you studies- you exams, Suno!

30.1 Read, Think and Answer I

1. Complete this table of activities Mothers activities She . 1. fill bucket 2. 3. 4. Whacks the children 2. Mention three things that father wore. Scream when Suno pulls their ears. Children activities They.

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 49



Suno was preparing for his exams. How do we know that?

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 4. Which sentence in paragraph 4 tells us that the house is very noisy?

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 5. What does Suno decide to do?

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

30.3 Section II
Where does Suno finally go? Lets read and find out.

At first I tried the tea shop at the corner. In my reading I had often come across men who wrote at Caf tables letters, verse, whole novels over a cup of coffee. I thought it would be simple to read a chapter of history over a cup of tea. There was no crowd in the mornings, none of my friends would be there. But the owner would not leave me alone. He kept on complaining about the new waiter and the high prices. So it went on. I didnt read more than half a chapter that whole morning. I didnt want to go home either. I walked along the streets, and stopped at the iron gate of King Edwards Park. Exam troubles? asked a gram vendor who sat outside it, in a friendly voice. The parks full of boys like you, he continued I see them walk up and down, up and down with their books, like mad poets. Nodding at the greenery beyond the gates, he said, The parks a good place to study in, and, taking his hint, I went in. I wonder how it is I never thought of the part before. It isnt far from our house and I sometimes went there as a boy, if I managed to run away from school, to lie on a bench, eat peanuts and drink from the fountain. But then it was not as exciting as playing marbles in the street or stoning rats with my school friends in the vacant lot behind the cinema. What I hadnt noticed, or thought of about the park were all the students who escaped from their city flats and families like mine to come and study here. Now, walking down a path with my 50


history book tucked under my arm. I felt like a gatecrasher at a party or a visitor to a public library trying to control a sneeze. They all seemed to belong here, to be at home here. Dressed in lose pyjamas, they strolled up and down under the palm trees, books open in their hands, heads lowered into them. In the beginning, when I first started studying in the park, I couldnt concentrate on my studies. Id keep looking up at the boy strolling in front of me, reciting poetry in a kind of thundering whisper, waving his arms about and running his bony fingers through his hair till it stood up like a thorn bush. It took me time to get accustomed to the ways of the park. I went there daily, for the whole day, and soon I got to know it as well as my own room at home and found I could study there, or sleep, or daydream, as I chose. Then I fell into its routine, its rhythm, and my time moved in accordance with its time. We were like a house-owner and his house, or a turtle and its shell, or a river and its bank so close. I resented everyone else who came to the park I thought they couldnt possibly share my feeling for it. Except, perhaps, the students.

30.2 Read, Think and Answer II

Complete the sentences. a. Suno had read about men who wrote ______,___________,or _______ over cups of coffee. Suno thought it would be easy to read a chapter of history because _______ and ________________. But the owner disturbed him by talking about ____ and ______. Suno finally went to _______________. He used to go there after school and _____, ______________ and ___________. The park was full of __________________. The students were dressed in ____________ and were reading from ___________ in their hands. Suno was distracted by one of the Mad Poet because he was _____________ almost loudly, __________ his arms and ____________through his hair. Suno finally got used to the ways of the park. His relation with the park was like a _____________ to _________________ or a ________ to its __________ or like a __________ to its ______________.


c. d. e. f. g.





30.6 Overall Questions

1) Write briefly about the noisy activities in Sunos house is not more than 50 60 words.

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2) What did Suno see in the park? Was he able to study in the park? How did he feel in the park?

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

30.5 Lets Learn Grammar

Comparative We often compare one thing with another with the help of phrases using like+a/the/noun or pronoun.. e.g. like a tiger, like yours, like a king. I. 1. There are a number of such phrases in this unit. Pick them out and complete the sentences with them Students from families ________________ come to the park. I felt __________________. We were ___________________________. The students were ______________________. The boys hair stood up __________________.

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of words given in brackets. Computer graphics are pictures and drawings _________ (produce) by computers. Computer graphics help users to understand complex information quickly by __________ (present) it in a clear visual form. A graphics program ___________ (interpret) the input ___________ (provide) by the user and _____________ (transform) it into images that can be _________ (display) on the screen, printed on paper or transferred to microfilm. 52


In the process the computer _________ (use) hundreds of Mathematical formulas to convert the bits of data into precise shapes and colours. Graphics can be ___________ (develop) for a variety of uses ___________ (include) presentations, desk top publishing, illustrations, architectural designs and detailed engineering drawings.

30.6 Increase Your word power

Sound Words I. Sounds are heard Can sound be heard through special words? Yes. There are few special words to suggest sounds. In this unit you have come across a number of noise words. These words have special sound effect.

There are other words which describe activities. These are verbs to indicate action or feeling. 1. 2. Read the unit again. Underline all the noise words. Circle all the activity words. Match the words in A with those in B.Remember there should be one sound word and one activity in every new word that you form. A Taps Bells Tumblers Things in the frying pan Watches Coins Dishes, Voices Doors Drums Crying children Vegetables Radios Grease B Tick Jingle Clatter Clang bawl Slam, screech Sizzle Roar, drip Beat Ring Buckets Tables Kitchen floor Satchels 53


II There are many ways of describing people, places, feelings and things. We can use describing words naming words and ing words. e.g. the young man -Delhi police -singing bidrs

Sometimes the describing word is used after the naming word. e.g. girls running in the sun - ladies waiting at the bus stop -men sitting in the park


Here is a list of describing words. They describe certain persons or things. Read the text. Write the name of the person or thing described. Look up the dictionary if you are not sure of the meaning of a word. SeriousAnnoyedscarednoisycuriousquietersurprised-



List all the ing words used for describing persons, places or feelings in this section. e.g. dhoti-blazing, eyes-goggling


Add a few ing words to describe the words below. E.g. babies crawling Children___________ Cars___________ breeze ______________

Telephone___________ lamps _________ women ______________ Stars________________ 4. rivers __________ cows _______________

Make your own sentences with all these phrases.

E.g. I could see the baby crawling under the bench!

30.7 Lets Talk

You want to make request to people not to disturb you. Put yourself into Sunos place and say at least 2 sentences to each of the following. 1) 2) Your father .. please Your mother .can.




Your brothers and sister

Taking about a place of interest Practise the following with your friend. You : Heard you had been to Jaipur.

Friend : Yes, Its a lovely city. You : Tell me about it. Did you go to the Pink city.

Friend : Yes. I did. I saw the Hawa Mahal and the Amber Fort. You : And the City Palace?

Friend : Yes. I went there too. You : Did you go on a Camel ride?

Friend : Just once. At the base of the Amber Fort. You : So you had a good time.

Friend : And it being winters, Jaipur was really pleasant. Role Play Practise talking about a place of your interest with your friend along the lines given in the model.

30.8 Lets Write I

Complete the paragraph on Craft Mela given below. You can use the following words. (word limit 80 words) Pottery, wood craft, sell, handicrafts, costly, food, fun A Craft Mela is held close to my town every year. Crafts men from neighouring towns and villages come there. They display _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________

30.9 Lets WriteII

1You have now read the whole story. You know about the problems of space in a city flat or in a small house.

-Think about you own home and about the members in your family. 55


Make a list of all the problems you face before an examination e.g. I dont have a room to myself. Think of a possible solution for each problem. E.g. I can share a room with my brother. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. Task: You are Suno. Write a letter in about 150 words to a friend about your experience in the park. In your letter you should: i. first let him/her know about your preparation for the exams. ii. Then ask him/her about his preparation iii. Inform him about the park iv. Ask him how he feels about it. Read the text again before you write. ______________________________________________________________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

30.10 Check Your Answers

Read, Think and Answer I 1. Mothers activities She .. 1. 2. washes the kitchen floor 3. fries and sizzles things 4. Children activities They 1. fling their bags at Sunos door. 3. screech when mother whacks them 4. stuff themselves with fries. Or Smear the grease on sumos books.




(i) white dhoti (ii) white shirt (iii) patent leather shoes

2. 3. 4.

Father says, Remember Suno, I expect good results from you. Study hard. And how do you expect me to study - in this mad house. Suno decides to go and study outside the house.

Read, think and Answer II 1. 2. letters, verse, whole novels there was no crowd in the mornings none of his friends would be there. 3. the new waiter the high prices 4. 5. King Edwards Park lie on a bench eat peanuts drink from the fountain 6. 7. students lose pyjamas books 8. reciting his poetry

waving running his bony fingers 9. house owner his house a turtle a river shell bank



Overall Questions 1. mother filling buckets, washing kitchen floor, flying and sizzling things in the pan and whacking children. -children flinging their bags at sumos door, bawling when sumo pulled their ears, screeching on being whacked. 2. a whole lot of students who seemed to have escaped from their city flats and families. - Yes, he was able to study in the park. - Sumo felt comfortable Lets learn grammar 1. (i) like mine (ii) like a gatecrasher (iv) like a house owner and his house (v) like a river and its bank (vi) like a thorn bush. II produced develoed presenting interprets including provided transformingdisplayed users

II 1. Serious studies Scared students Curious family Surprised vendor Annoyed suno Noisy atmosphere/surroundings Quietes place Worried father 2. Children playing Telephone ringing Stars shining Cars running 58


Lamps dazzling Rivers flowing Breeze blowing Women cooking Cows grazing