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25

Food and Nutrition


Why do we have food? We have food because we feel hungry. In i ? B i g st t e n h n r i t e b d s w y o s y n t a i n e s m r f e t k e g i g T e f o ugy s h oy a f aig ht t ed oe ul o ep on. h od we eat provides energ f r a l b d f n t o s a d i a s u e t f r n w c l s y o l oy ucin n s lo sd o om e el f r t e b d We e t a v r e y o f o a c r i g t o r t s e b d r q i e e t o h o y. a ait f od codn o u at, oy eurmn adaalblt Sm o u my pee t et rc t bed o caats Ohr n v i a i i y. o e f s a r f r o a i e o r a r h p t i . t e s m y l k t h v d s s i l s b rg r , n o l s e c We m y b a v g t r a o a a ie o ae oa, di, u es ode, t. a e eeain r nnvgtra.Allvn big,bt pat adaiasne fo frgot, o-eeain l iig ens oh lns n nml ed od o rwh repair and maintenance. OBJECTIVES Atrcmltn ti lso,yuwl b al t: fe opeig hs esn o il e be o dsrb vrosmdso ntiini o e c i e a i u o e f u r t o n rganisms; dfn tetr pooytei,adls isrwmtrasadpout; eie h em htsnhss n it t a aeil n rdcs epanteiprac o pooytei a asuc o fo frallf o erh xli h motne f htsnhss s ore f od o l ie n at; ls addsrb tefcosa e t n p o o y t e i ; i t n e c i e h a t r ff c i g h t s n h s s l s t ec m o e t o ab l n e d e a ds a et ef n t o so e c o t e ; it h opnns f aacd it n tt h ucin f ah f hm da teprso teaietr cnladdsrb tefntoso ec; rw h at f h lmnay aa n ecie h ucin f ah dsrb sm ntiinldsres tercue adpeeto; ecie oe urtoa iodr, hi ass n rvnin define food adulteration, and list some common food adulterants. 25.1 FOOD Food provides the essential raw material our body needs to grow and stay healthy. 25.1.1 The need for Food How do you feel if you do not have food for a day or two? You may feel exhausted and weak. Think of a young child who is deprived of food for a few days. Wilte l h c i ds r i ea dg o ?T ea s e i o .A ll v n b i g n e f o t s r i e hl uvv n rw h nwr s N l iig ens ed od o uvv. Food serves the following purposes: p o i e e e yf rv r o s m t b l c a t v t e ( i - h m c l r a t o s t k n r v d s n rg o a i u e a o i c i i i s b o c e i a e c i n a i g paei tebd) sc a rsiainaddgsin lc n h oy, uh s eprto n ieto. hlsi got o tebd adrpi o wr-u tsus ep n rwh f h oy n ear f onot ise. poet u fo dfcec dsae. rtcs s rm eiiny iess

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25.1.2 Nutrition Yo r f o m y i c u e a n m e o i e s i i m e s y u e t r b d s r q i e e t u od a nld ubr f tm, f t et or nie oy eurmn a d i u i i e b t e b d i i c l e n t i i n (n t i e: t n u i h . n s t l z d y h o y, t s a l d u r t o u r n o o r s ) The process by which, org n s s o t i a d u i i e f o f r t e r g o t a d aim ban n tls od o hi rwh n dvlpet(rmterevrnet i cle ntiin eeomn fo hi niomn) s ald urto. 2 . . Types of nutrition 513 Depending upon the mode of food uptake, nutrition could be of two b o d t p s autotrophic n t i i n ra ye urto ad h t t n e ro rophic nutrition. a Autotrophic nutrition ) ( u o : sl; t p o : food) a t s ef ro h s You must have noticed a gardener wtrn tepat o ocsoal aeig h lns r cainly p o i i gt e w t f r i i e s A e rvdn hm ih etlzr. r wtradfriiesfo frte? ae n etlzr od o hm I i alta alpat ne? s t l ht l lns ed
From soil through absorption

C O2 f o a r rm i Sun Chlorophyll + W ae tr Glucose + Oxygen Rlae it tear eesd no h i

Lgtee i h n rgy

To dff r n p r s o t e p a t i eet at f h ln

Fig. 25.1 Gre n p a t s n h s s t e r e lns yteie hi

Green plants synthesize their own food food from water and carbon dioxide, i t e p e e c o s n i h . T i p o e s i c l e p o o y t e i . The gre n p a t n h rsne f ulgt hs rcs s ald htsnhss e lns and certain bacteria which can manufacture t e r o n f o w t i t e s l e , hi w od ihn hmevs a cle att re a l d u o rophs, a d t e r m d o n t i i n i c l e a t t o h c n t i i n n hi oe f urto s ald uorpi urto (i.2.) Fg 51. b Hetro rophic nutrition(h t ro: dff r n ; t p o : f o ) ) t e e s i e e t ro h s o d W e cannot make food inside our own body. All animals including man and nongreen plants cannot make their food and depend on green plants. The organisms, which depend on other org n s s f r t e r f o , a c l e h t rorophs a d t e r a i m o h i o d re a l d e e t n hi md o ntiini cle htorpi ntiin oe f urto s ald ertohc urto. O te bss o ter feig hbt htrtoh my b casfe a n h ai f hi edn ais eeorps a e lsiid s sapro rophs a d parasites. t n i ) Sapro rophic nutrition: You must have seen a white cottony growth t developing on your wet leather shoes or belts especially when they get wet during rainy days. This is a fungal growth. The fungus grows and feeds on s b t n e ,w i hw r o c p r o t el v n o a i m ,s c a s o e f o , u s a c s h c e e n e a t f h i i g rg n s s u h s t r d o d wood, leather and rotten plant products. Some common examples are bacteria, mushrooms, yeast, bread mould, etc. Org n s s t a d r v t e r f o f a i m h t e i e h i o d rom dead and ro t n o t e rganisms are c l e s p t a l d a rorophs ( i . 2 . ) S p o r p s Fg 52. artoh help in cleaning the environment by decomposing the dead and recycling the ntins uret.

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Fungal spots Sieo bed lc f ra

Fig. 25.2 Some saprorophs t

i P r s t c n t i i n Have you ever been bitten by a head louse or a bed bug? i aaii urto: ) Have you heard of some children having worms inside their body? These o aim ta lv o o isd ohrlvn o aim,t drv terfo rg n s s h t i e n r n i e t e i i g rg n s s o e i e h i o d a c l e p r s t s. S c a m d o n t i i n i k o n a p r s t c n t i i n re a l d a a i e u h o e f u r t o s n w s a a i i u r t o . Bed bug, head louse and leech remain outside the body. S m b c e i , a d oe atra n worms, such as tapeworm and roundworm, live inside the body (Fig. 25.3). Dodder plant (Amar bel) i a p r s t o g e n p a t . s aaie n re lns
Mouth Gut Mosquito Ovary Hookworm Head Mouth Sucker

Rare Sucker Tapeworm Leech

Fig. 25.3 Some parasites on human body

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.1 1 Which are the two major groups of org n s s o t e b s s o n t i i n . aim n h ai f urto? 2 Give two examples of saprotrophs. . 3 Which group of org n s s i c p b e o p e a i g i s o n f o a w l a . aim s aal f rprn t w od s el s nourishing others? 4 D ff r n i t b t e n p r s t c a d s p o r p i m d o n t i i n . i eetae ewe aaii n artohc oe f urto. 5 Casf tefloiga sporpso prsts . lsiy h olwn s artoh r aaie: leech, yeast, head louse, mushroom 6 Name one parasitic plant. . 25.2 NUTRITION IN PLANTS Yo m s h v s e a i a s s c a c w , h r e , s e p e c g a i g i t e f e d u ut ae en nml, uh s os oss he, t rzn n h ils for food. How do plants get their food? Yo h v a r a y s u i d t a a t t o h , u ae led tde ht uorps

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sc a genpat,cnsnhsz teronfo.Genpat uiieee y u h s r e l n s a y t e i e h i w o d r e l n s t l z n rg from sunlight to prepare food. The food that humans and animals eat, consists of patpout,o pout o aiasta etpat. ln rdcs r rdcs f nml ht a lns The process by which green plants manufacture food from carbon dioxide adwtri tepeec o snih i cle pooytei n ae n h rsne f ulgt s ald htsnhss ( photos:lgt s n h s s: t c m i e . ih; y t e i o obn) 25.2.1 Where does photosynthesis occur? I ocr i te cls o gen lae ad ohr gen prs o te pat ta ae t cus n h el f re evs n te re at f h ln ht r e p s d t l g t T e e c l s p s e s t n s r c u e c l e chloro l s s. T e e xoe o ih. hs el oss iy tutrs ald pat hs structures remain packed with chlorophyll, a green pigment, about which you h v a r a ys u i di l s o 2 .P a t r q i ee e yf rp o o y t e i .L tu a e l e d t d e n e s n 4 l n s e u r n rg o h t s n h s s e s sehwpat hret(ahr ti ee yfrtepoeso mkn fo. e o l n s a v s g t e ) h s n rg o h r c s f a i g o d 25.2.2 How does photosynthesis occur? I ti poes pat ue cro doie ad wtr a rw mtras t bid n hs rcs, lns s abn ixd n ae s a aeil o ul ee n rgy containing chemical compounds. Glucose is one such compound. Such compounds are needed by all living beings for energy production. The process of photosynthesis is completed in two steps l g t reaction a d ih n dark reaction.

C O2 Sun Chlorophyll Glucose + W ae tr + Oxygen Glucose + W ae tr + Oxygen Sun

W ae tr

F g 2 . T e p cs o i . 5 4 h ro e s f pooytei i ala htsnhss n ef

F g 2 . T e products i. 55 h o pooytei f htsnhss

i )

Light re c i n T e f r t s e o p o o y t e i o c r i t e p e e c o ato: h is tp f htsnhss cus n h rsne f lgt Drn ti se,clrpylcnandi teclrpato patcls ih. uig hs tp hoohl otie n h hools f ln el a s r s l g t e e y. T i e e b o b i h n rg h s n rgy is converted into another form, which can b sple frtecmlto o tedr rato. e upid o h opein f h ak ecin

i Dark re c i n T i s c n s e o p o o y t e i d e n t r q i e l g t i ) ato: hs eod tp f htsnhss os o eur ih, a di c l e d r r a t o .I c na s c r yo i t ep e e c o l g t D r n n s ald ak ecin t a lo ar n n h rsne f ih. uig ti se, ee h s t p n rgy generated during light reaction is used to combine carbon dioxide and water molecules to form energy rich compounds, such as glucose. Oye i as rlae i ti poes xgn s lo eesd n hs rcs.

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Green plants The green lungs Green plants constantly absorb carbon dioxide from the environment and r t r e o g o y e i t i .I i n tw r ha p e i t n t a w d n th v t eun nuh xgn no t s t o ot prcaig ht e o o ae o by oye fle clnes fr or sria! Oye i ntrly add t u xgn ild yidr o u uvvl xgn s aual de o the environment by the plants. They are sometimes called the g reen lungs a t e help in keeping the environment clean by maintaining low levels of s hy carbon dioxide. The following equation summarizes the raw materials and products of photosynthetic process: R AW M ATERIALS 6CO2 + 12H2O cro abn wtr ae doie ixd snih ulgt clrpyl hoohl PRODUCTS C 6H 12O 6 + 6H2O + 6O2 guoe lcs wtr oye ae xgn

(Wa e a d c r o d o i e a e u e i e u l p o o t o s i t e s n h s s o tr n abn ixd r sd n qa rprin n h ytei f o rganic compounds.) 25.2.3 Factors that influence photosynthesis T e r t o p o o y t e i i i f u n e b external a d internalf c o s h ae f htsnhss s nlecd y n atr. a External factors ) These include l g t c r o d o i e w t r a d t m e a u e ih, abn ixd, ae n eprtr. Lgt Tert o pooytei dpnsdrcl o teitniyo lgt ih: h ae f htsnhss eed iety n h nest f ih. Guoei ntfre i teasneo lgt lcs s o omd n h bec f ih. Carbon dioxide: H g c r o d o i e c n e t a i n i c e s s t e r t o ih abn ixd ocnrto nrae h ae f pooytei u t acranetn.Guoecno b snhszdi is htsnhss p o eti xet lcs ant e yteie n t asne bec. W ae: I i a e s n i l r w m t r a , i s l w a a l b l t r d c s t e r t o tr t s n s e t a a a e i l t o v i a i i y e u e h a e f photosynthesis, whereas the excess present is removed by transpiration. Temperature M s o t e p a t w r b s a a o t m m t m e a u e o 2 oC : ot f h lns ok et t n piu eprtr f 5 . A r s a o e 3 oC l a s t a d c e s i t e r t o p o o y t e i . P a t t a i e b v 5 ed o erae n h ae f htsnhss lns ht go i tetoiscne i i n l p o u es a c e e a ah g e t m e a u e r w n h r p c a ff c e t y r d c t r h v n t i h r e p r t r .

b Internal factors ) These include chlorophyll content, number of stomata, and the shape, structure a d a e o t e l a . C l r p y l i t e m s i p r a t i t r a f c o Tert o n g f h e f h o o h l s h o t m o t n n e n l a t r. h a e f pooytei dcesswt a ices i teaeo la. htsnhss erae ih n nrae n h g f ef Tecceo lf h yl f ie L o a t e F g r 2 . . Yo h v a r a y s u i d t e s r c u e a d f n t o s ok t h iue 56 u ae led tde h tutr n ucin o mtcodi adclrpat.Ltu suytewyte aefntoal f iohnra n hoolss e s td h a hy r ucinly itreae. nerltd

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Te atvte ta h ciiis ht o c ri c l r p a ta d cu n hools n Sun mitochondria make life Oxygen Mitochondrion possible. Inside the chloroplast, energy Chloroplast f o t es ni c p u e rm h u s atrd and stored in the Carbon dioxide AT f r c l a t v t e : P o el ciiis Atv tasot cie rnpr and water glucose molecules, Pat lns Movement Animals Growth with the release of Reproduction Fig.25.6 Chloroplasts and mitochondria Repair oxygen. Inside the t e r i t rr l t o s i hi ne e a i n h p mitochondria, the energy stored in guoei ue t cryotohrcl atvte.I adto,oye poue lcs s sd o ar u te el ciiis n diin xgn rdcd i teclrpati ue i tebekono guoe n h hools s sd n h radw f lcs.
Photosynthesis Respiration Glucose

25.2.4 Materials synthesized by plants as a sourc o f o e f od You may have seen farmers caring for their crops. Young plants of wheat, maize a dp d yg o t y e dg a n .T i p o u t o o f o g a n o g o t o f u t n ad rw o il ris hs rdcin f od ris r rwh f ris and vegetables is a result of photosynthesis. Products of photosynthesis are ipratfrtenuihetadsria o allf frso teerh motn o h orsmn n uvvl f l ie om n h at. Glucose formed during photosynthesis is converted into starch and a number of other useful forms by undergoing chemical changes or combining with other molecules. Following table indicates materials synthesized by green plants and teruea asuc o fo. hi s s ore f od Ta l 2 . : Nutrients synthesized by plants that are used as food be 51 Type of nutrient Carbohydrates
l l l l l

Food source ( some examples ) Grapes Alfut ta tseset l ris ht at we Sugarcane and beet root, common sugar P e so f u t a dv g t b e ,w o eg a n ( r ng o el f ris n eeals hl ris ba od source of roughage) Cereals (wheat, rice, maize, barley), and vegetables (potato, sweet potato, tapioca, onion, banana, water c e t u o singhara) hsnt r Ple (oaen bas pa,lnis ga) nt uss syba, en, es etl, rm, us Groundnut, mustard seeds, coconut

Glucose Fructose Sucrose Cluoe ells Sac trh

Pro e n tis Oil and fats

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.2 1 Weede pooytei tk paei tepatcl? . hr os htsnhss ae lc n h ln el 2 During which step of photosynthesis are carbohydrates synthesized light or . dr rato? ak ecin

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3 N m a yt op a t t a a ear c s u c o s a c ? . ae n w lns ht r ih ore f trh 4 W i hf r o s g ri p e e ti s g r a ea db e r o ? . hc om f ua s rsn n uacn n etot 5 G v t eo e a lc e i a r a t o i v l e d r n p o o y t e i . . ie h vrl hmcl ecin novd uig htsnhss 25.3 OUR DIET The food that we have on regular basis forms our diet. You may have diff r n eet t p s o f o i y u d e . You may prefer to take more of one and less of another. ye f od n or it D e y u d e f l i l y u b d s r q i e e t ? S o l i s t s y y u t s e b d os or it ufl or oy eurmns hud t aif or at us or body needs? For healthy growth and development of the body, y u n e t e t f o s t a o ed o a od ht provide enough of the essential nutrients. What does the term nutrient mean? Nutrients are the chemical constituents present in our food that arerequire d for the nourishment of our body. 25.3.1 Components of diet and their functions From the wide variety of food items that we consume, we get mainly six types of ntins Ms fospoie a lat salaonso ec kn o ntin. uret. ot od rvd, t es, ml mut f ah id f uret T e e n t i n s a e c r o y r t s f t , p o e n , v t m n , m n r l a d w t r. hs uret r abhdae, as rtis iais ieas n ae a Carbohydrates ) Carbohydrates are compounds made up of three elements carbon,hydrogen a d oxygen. These are the main source of energy in our diet. One gram of n carbohydrates on complete oxidation yields 17 kJ ( k l c l r e ) o e e y. 4 i o a o i s f n rg Carbohydrates may be in the form of s g r , s a h o c l u o e. u a s t rc r e l l s Sugars a e a a l b e i t e f l o i g f r s g u o e f u t s ( r i s g r , r vial n h olwn om: lcs, rcoe fut ua) lactose (natural sweetness in milk) and sucrose (common sugar made f rom sugarc n j i e G u o e p o i e a m s i s a t e e y. I i as a e u c ). l c s r v d s l o t n t n n rg t s lo gvnt teptet wocno dgs fo. ie o h ains h ant iet od Starc c n b e s l d g s e i o r b d I f r s t e b l o o r d e . P t t , h a e a i y i e t d n u o y. t o m h u k f u i t o a o wheat, rice, sweet potato and banana are few good sources of starch. C l u o e c n o b d g s e i o rb d y t i i i p r a tt h v s m c l u o e ells ant e ietd n u oy e, t s motn o ae oe ells ( n t e f r o roughage) i t e d e . R u h g h l s i e s m v m n o i h om f n h it ogae ep n ay oeet f fo truhtefo cnlpeet cntpto adhlsi dgsin Woe od hog h od aa rvns osiain n ep n ieto. hl gan,peso ms fut advgtbe aego sucso ruhg. ris el f ot ris n eeals r od ore f ogae

b Fats ) Much like carbohydrates, fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but i dff r n p o o t o s A f t m l c l c n i t o t o p r s glycero a d f t y n i eet rprin. a oeue osss f w at: l n at a i s On complete oxidation each gram of fat provides around 37 kJ ( cd. 9 klclre) o ee yt t eb d F t p r o mt ef l o i gf n t o s i o a o i s f n rg o h o y. a s e f r h o l w n u c i n : Keep body warm by providing extra energ y Ftdpst i tebd peetls o bd ha a eois n h oy rvn os f oy et

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A ta s o ka s r e a dp o e ti t r a o g n a a n ti j r c s hc bobr n rtc nenl ras gis nuy H l i t et a s o to f t s l b ev t m n ep n h rnpr f a-oul iais S m c m o s u c s o f t a e e i l o l g e , b t e m a a dn t l k g o n n t . o e o m n o r e f a s r d b e i , h e u t r, e t n u s i e r u d u s c Proteins ) Yo m s h v o t n h a d y u m t e i s s i g o h v n a g a s o m l o a b w o u ut ae fe er or ohr nitn n aig ls f ik r ol f c o e p l e (d l o e e a e g A l t e e a e r c i p o e n . P o e n a e m d o k d u s s a s) r v n n g . l h s r i h n r t i s r t i s r a e up of molecules of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and sometimes sulphur a s .G o t o b d t s u si t em i f n t o o p o e n .D r n s a v t o p o e n lo rwh f oy ise s h an ucin f rtis uig train rtis a s s r e a a s u c o e e y. O t e b s s o f n t o p r o m d p o e n m y b o l o e v s o r e f n rg n h a i f u c i n e f r e r t i s a e f f l o i gs xt p s olwn i ye: Structural proteins h l b i d u t s u s a d r p a e w r o t c l s f r e a p e ep ul p ise n elc on u el, o xml c l a e a de a t n olgn n lsi. Enzymes r g l t t e c e i a r a t o s g i g o i s d o r b d l k d g s i n euae h hmcl ecin on n nie u oy ie ieto a dr s i a i n f re a p ep p i a dt y s n n eprto, o xml esn n rpi. P o e t v p o e n p o i ep o e t o t b d a a n ti f c i n w t t eh l o r t c i e r t i s rvd rtcin o oy gis netos ih h ep f a t b d e ,f re a p eg m ag o u i s niois o xml am lbln. C n r c i ep o e n h l i m v m n a dl c m t o o b d p r s f re a p e otatl rtis ep n oeet n oooin f oy at, o xml a t na dm o i . ci n ysn Transportp t i s c r yd ff r n s b t n e i t e b o d t b d t s u s f r ro e n a r i e e t u s a c s n h l o o o y i s e , o e a p eh e o l b ni t eb o dt a s o t o y e . xml amgoi n h lo rnprs xgn Hormones serve as chemical messengers, which regulate body functions, for example insulin and thyroxine.

d Vitamins ) You have often heard your mother saying Eat carrots and your eyesight will improve. This is because carrots contain vitamin A. What are vitamins? Vi a i s tmn ( ia: e s n i l o i p r a t a e c m l x o a i c m o n s e s n i l f r l f . vt s e t a r m o t n ) r o p e rg n c o p u d s e t a o i e W e cannot make vitamins for ourselves and so must get them from our diet. Ta l be 2. lsscranvtmn ta aeesnilfrhmn.Te aencsayfr 52 it eti iais ht r seta o uas hy r eesr o normal growth, and maintenance of the body, a d a e r q i e i r l t v l s a l n r eurd n eaiey ml aons Dfcec o a priua vtmn fr a ln pro cue dsae mut. eiiny f atclr iai o og eid ass ies. Overdose of certain vitamins, such as vitamins A and D, also proves harmful. O tebsso slblt i wtrvtmn myb wtrslbeo ftslbe n h ai f ouiiy n ae iais a e ae-oul r a-oul. VITAMINS

W ae-oul trslbe Vitamins B-complex n ( 1,B2,B4,B12) a d C B

Ftslbe a-oul Vitamins A, D, E and K

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Ta l 2 . : Types of vitamins, their sources, functions and deficiency diseases be 52


Vitamin A Retinol B1 Thiamine B2 Riboflavin B4 Niacin Sourc s e Milk, green leafy vegetables, bte c r o s t m t e , c d u t r, a r t , o a o s o lvr ol eg ie i, g Milk, peas, cereals, green vegetables, sea food, meat Peas, yeast, egg, meat, Whole cereals, potatoes, tomatoes, meat, fish Functions Deficiency disease Normal growth, keeps Night blindness (poor eyes and skin healthy v s o i d m l g t iin n i ih) Growth and development Healthy skin, growth Healthy skin, digestive and nervous system Formation of red blood corpuscles Healthy growth, strong blood vessels Formation of strong bones and teeth Beri-beri (a disease which a ffects the nervous system) Skin disease and retarded growth Pellagra (a disease which a et te si, ff c s h k n alimentary canal and nervous system) Anaemia (deficiency of red blood corpuscles) Scurvy (a disease in which gums swell up and bleed) Rickets (a disease which a ffects bones in children making them soft and deformed) Aff c s f r i i y t s m et etlt o oe etn xet Excessive bleeding from wounds

B 12 Liver, e g , m l , f s gs ik ih Cyanocobalamine C Amla, tomatoes, green leafy Ascorbic acid vgtbe, ctu fut, wtr eeals irs ris ae chestnut D Sunlight, milk, butter, whole Calciferol grains and vegetables

E Tocopherol K Phylloquinone

Ve e a l o l , m l , b t e g t b e i s i k u t r, whole grains, vegetables

Poet te cl rtcs h el membranes

Green vegetables like spinach H l s i t e c o t n ep n h ltig and cabbage, soya bean oil of blood

e Minerals ) M n r l a ei o a i s b t n e r q i e b t eb d i s a lq a t t e .M n r l , i e a s r n rg n c u s a c s e u r d y h o y n m l u n i i s i e a s sc a io,clim popou,idn,sdu adptsim aeesnilfr uh s rn acu, hshrs oie oim n oasu, r seta o te frain o bd tsus Te as hl i rgltn bd fntos ad h omto f oy ise. hy lo ep n euaig oy ucin n m t b l s ,i e t ev r o sc e i a r a t o st k n p a ei t eb d F l o i g e a o i m . . h a i u h m c l e c i n a i g l c n h o y. o l w n tbeidctstesucsadfntoso sm ipratmnrl. al niae h ore n ucin f oe motn ieas Ta l 2 . : Some important minerals, their sources and functions be 53
Mineral Io rn Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Iodine Sourc s e Functions Green vegetables, turnip, Formation of haemoglobin, which is the oxygens r u s y a t l v r, e g , m a carrying pigment in RBCs pot, es, ie gs et Milk and milk products Formation of strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, clotting of blood Tapioca, green leafy vegetables For the development of strong bones, teeth, making n rgy-rich compounds in our bodies Whole grains, meat, eggs, fish e e For growth and keeping osmotic balance of cells and Green and yellow vegetables blood Proper functioning of the nervous system, osmotic Common salt balance Sea food, iodized salt Body metabolism, development of brain

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) W ae f tr W a e i a i p r a t p r o o r d e . I m k s 6 - 0 o o r b d w i h . Wae t r s n m o t n a t f u i t t a e 5 7 % f u o y e g t tr does not provide any energ y t i i c n i e e a i p r a t c n t t e t o y, e t s o s d r d n m o t n o s i u n f blne de.I hstefloigfntos aacd it t a h olwn ucin: W ae rgltstebd tmeaue tr euae h oy eprtr. Provides means of excretion of body wastes. Poie mdu frbohmclratos sc a dgsin rsiain rvds eim o iceia ecin, uh s ieto, eprto. Pasa ipratrl i asrto,tasotto adueo ntins ly n motn oe n bopin rnprain n s f uret. 25.3.2 Balanced diet Now that you are aware of the components of diet, try to analyze your own food intake. Do you include all the components in your diet? For healthy growth and development of the body, y u n e t e t f o s t a o ed o a od ht poieeog o alteesnilntins Etn avreyo fosi poe rvd nuh f l h seta uret. aig ait f od n rpr q a t t e e y d y p o i e a balanced diet.A balanced diet contains adequate uniy vr a rvds a o n o e s n i l n t i n s s c a c r o y r t s f t , p tis vtmn, m u t f s e t a u r e t u h s a b h d a e , a s ro e n , i a i s minerals and water.The amount of these nutrients in diet depends upon a number o fcos sc a ae sxadntr o wr a idvda prom. f atr, uh s g, e n aue f ok n niiul efrs CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.3 1 Sgetoeueo icuigruhg i orde. . ugs n s f nldn ogae n u it 2 Which group of functional proteins serves as chemical messengers? . 3 Which of the two will provide greater amount of energy one gram of starchy . food or one gram of fatty food? 4 Ctgrz vtmn o tebsso terslblt . a e o i e i a i s n h a i f h i o u i i y. 5 H g l g t o e d fference between vitamins and minerals. . ihih n i 25.4 THE PROCESS OF NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS T e f o t a w e t i i q i e a d ff r n s a e f o t e o e t a c n b u e b h od ht e a s n ut i eet tt rm h n ht a e sd y t e c l s i t e b d Conversion of complex food material into smaller units so h e l n h o y. t a t e c l s c n a s r i i c l e d g s i n The digestive system enables ht h el a bob t s ald ieto. cneso o igse fo it is smlr fr. Dgsin rqie seii ovrin f netd od no t ipe om ieto eurs pcfc c n i i n f r d ff r n n t i n s p e e t i t e d e . odtos o i eet uret rsn n h it The digestive system includes the food canal (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, s o a h s a l i t s i e l rg i t s i e rectum), and the glandular organs t m c , m l n e t n , a e netn, ( a i a g a d , l v r a d p n re s T e l n t b , s a t n f o t e m u h t s l v ry l n s i e n a c a ). h o g u e t r i g r m h o t o t e a u , i c l e alimentary canal a d t e d g s i e p o e s i c l e e t a h ns s ald n h ietv rcs s ald xrc l u a d g s i n. ellr ieto Digested food is transferred from the external environment to bodysi t r a nenl e v r n e t H r i c nb d s r b t dt a lb d c l sb t ec r u a o ys s e . niomn. ee t a e itiue o l oy el y h icltr ytm 25.4.1 Enzymes The process of digestion requires a number of enzymes for the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones.

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E z m sa ec e i a sn e e f rt ec m l t o o c e i a nye r hmcl edd o h opein f hmcl r a t o st k n p a ei a ll v n c l s ecin aig lc n l iig el. A le z m sa ec m l xp o e n a dr m i u c a g dd r n t er a t o .T e l nye r ope rtis n ean nhne uig h ecin hy c n b u e r p a e l S n et e s e du t er t o c e i a r a t o si t eb d a e s d e e t d y. i c h y p e p h a e f h m c l e c i n n h o y te aeas kona boaayt. Ezmsmyhl i jiigo sltigo hy r lo nw s ictlss nye a ep n onn r pitn f booeue. imlcls 2.. Ntiin 542 urto S mt t lo c r a np o e s st a e a l ac l t u i i en t i n si c l e n t i i n u oa f eti rcse ht nbe el o tlz uret s ald urto. T ee t r p o e so n t i i ni c u e t ef l o i gs e s i g s i n d g s i n h nie rcs f urto nlds h olwn tp: neto, ieto, absorption, assimilation and egestion. a I ) ngestion and digestion T ep o e so t k n i o f o t r u h h rcs f aig n f od hog te muh i cle igsin Te h ot s ald neto. h d g s i no f o s a t f o t em u h ieto f od trs rm h ot Mouth Salivary gland a de d i t ei t s i e . n ns n h netns
W idpp n ie

) i

i i )

i) i i

Mouth: The food is (trachea) Oesophagus ingested through the Diaphragm mouth. Carbohydrates, Spleen s c a s a c , a e b o e Liver uh s trh r rkn Stomach down or digested to form Gall bladder Pancreas Ascending colon s g r. T e s l v c n a n ua h aia otis Transverse colon Salitsie ml netn an enzyme salivary Descending colon Appendix amylase t a h l s i t e ht ep n h Rectum dgsin o sac it ieto f trh no sugar. The saliva also Fig. 25.7 Alimentary canal in human beings h l si l b i a i gt ef o ep n urctn h od a dm k n i e s e f rs a l w n .T et n u h l si r l i ga dp s i g n aig t air o wloig h oge ep n oln n uhn o f o i t t eo s p a u . f od no h eohgs Slvr ayae aiay mls Sac trh Mloe ats Oesophagus: T e o s p a u o t e f o p p h l s i p s i g t e f o h eohgs r h od ie ep n uhn h od into the stomach. The expansion and contraction of muscles of the o s p a u i c l e prsass o p r s a t cm v m n . e o h g s s a l d eitli r e i t l i o e e t Stomach: T e s o a h i a h g l m s u a o g n T e g s r c g a d p e e t h tmc s ihy uclr ra. h ati lns rsn i i sw l ss c e eg s r cj i e a dh l i t ed g s i no f o .T e e n t al ert ati ucs n ep n h ieto f od hs j i e c n a n h d o h o i a i ( C ) a d e z m s l k p p i H lc e t s u c s o t i y r c l r c c d H l n n y e i e e s n. C r a e a a i i m d u f rt ea t v t o o e z m sa dk l sb c e i .T e e n cdc eim o h ciain f nye n il atra hs e z m s b e k d w t e p o e n i t s a l r f a m n s c l e peptones. nye ra on h rtis no mle rget ald T em s l so t es o a hh l i c u n n t ef o s t a i i p o e l h uce f h tmc ep n hrig h od o ht t s rpry m x dw t t ed g s i ej i e . ie ih h ietv ucs Pepsin Proen tis Ppoe (atydgse poen) etns prl ietd rtis

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Pepsin i) v Milk pro e n tis Calcium paracaseinate Small intestine: The food moves from the stomach to duodenum, wihi teuprpr o tesalitsie Hr teeusfcto hc s h pe at f h ml netn. ee h mliiain o ft(a i boe i t ftdolt)tkspaewt tehl o te f a ft s rkn n o a rpes ae lc ih h ep f h b l j i e s c e e b t e l v r. T e b l j i e i s o e i t e g l b a d r. ie uc ertd y h ie h ie uc s trd n h al lde P n r a s c e e t y s n,amylase a d l p s ( a c e t c j i e ) w i h aces erts rpi n iae p n r a i u c s h c are poured into the duodenum. Trypsin Ppoe etns Amino acids (opeeydgse poen) cmltl ietd rtis Amylase Glucose Maltose and Sugars Lipase Ft as Fatty acids + Glycero l

T ef o m v st i e m w i hi t el w rp r o t es a li t s i e h od oe o lu, hc s h oe at f h ml netn. T ei n rs r a eo t ei e mc n a n t i f n e - i ep o e t o sc l e h ne ufc f h lu otis hn igrlk rjcin ald vli. T e e a e r s o s b e f r i c e s n t e s r a e a e o a s r t o il h s r e p n i l o n r a i g h u f c r a f b o p i n o dgse fo i t tebod Tebodte cristeasre f ietd od n o h lo. h lo hn are h bobd f o t d ff r n p r s o t e b d a d u d g s e f o i p s e i t od o i e e t a t f h o y n n i e t d o d s u h d n o t el rg i t s i e h a e netn. v ) Large intestine: T i p r o t e b d a s r s w t r f o t e u d g s e hs at f h oy bob ae rm h nietd fo adsldwsei lbiae t fr tefee.Tefee ps od n oi at s urctd o om h acs h acs as o t t e l w r p r o t e l rg i t s i e c l e t e r c u , a d t r w n o h oe at f h a e n e t n , a l d h e t m n h o n oto tebd truhteau. u f h oy hog h ns b Absorption ) The simple soluble food molecules are absorbed from the small intestine into the bodwihtkste t alteclso tebd Ti i kona asrto. l o h c a e h m o l h e l f h o y. h s s n w s b o p i n c Assimilation ) The absorbed food supplied to cells is used to release energy and build up the cell components. This is called assimilation. For example, glucose from digested food is broken down into carbon dioxide and water along wt te rlae o ee i h h e e s f n rgy. Amino acids are used to make proteins required b t ec l s y h el. d Egestion ) The process by which the undigested food material or waste is released from the bd i cle eeto. oy s ald gsin CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.4 1 Wa aetefne-iepoetospeeti salitsie cle? . ht r h igrlk rjcin rsn n ml netns ald 2 Name the enzyme that converts proteins into peptones in the stomach? . 3 What is the movement of muscles of oesophagus that pushes down food called? . 4 Name the two glands associated with digestion. .

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5 N m t ea i t a t k sp r i d g s i np o e s . ae h cd ht ae at n ieto rcs. 25.5 DEFICIENCY DISEASES OR NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS Ad s a et a o c r d et l c o a e u t a db l n e d e i ies ht cus u o ak f dqae n aacd it s cle dfcec dsae ald eiiny ies. Etn tomc o antin o dfcec o antin myla t anme o aig o uh f uret r eiiny f uret a ed o ubr f nutritional disorders.Intake of improper or inadequate diet in human beings is c l e malnutrition. I a i i y o t e b d t a s r n t i n s p o e l m y a s ald nblt f h oy o bob uret rpry a lo l a t m l u r t o .M l u r t o i h r f lf rc i d e a i r t r st e rp y i a ed o antiin antiin s amu o hlrn s t ead hi hscl growth and may cause mental disabilities. Deficiency diseases caused due to mlurto aeo tretps antiin r f he ye: Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Mineral deficiency diseases Vi a i d f c e c d s a e tmn eiiny iess 2 . . Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) 551 D f c e c o p o e n i t ed e m yl a t m l u r t o eiiny f rtis n h it a ed o antiin i c i d e .T i i t ep i er a o w yy u p r n si s s n hlrn hs s h rm esn h or aet nit t a y us o l d i km l ,e tp l e a do h rs u c so ht o hud rn ik a uss n te ore f proteins. PEM is the most common nutritional disorder among children. Two diseases caused due to PEM are marasmus and kwashiorkor.

() a

() b

Fg 2. Efc o i. 58 fet f

(a) Marasmus, and a Marasmus ) (b) Kwashiorkor I a et cide u t oe ya o ae Ti ocr i t ff c s h l r n p o n e r f g . h s c u s n deprived children of mother milk. The symptoms of this disease include: s ls o wsigo msls os r atn f uce, bd dvlp loeflso si, oy eeos os od f kn ribs become prominent, digestion becomes weak, body growth and development slows down. I c nb c r db e s r n m t e sm l f ri f n s b d l y n a o h rp e n n y t a e u e y n u i g o h r i k o n a t , y e a i g n t e r g a c i cniuto adb hvn ade rc i poen croyrts ft,vtmn n otnain n y aig it ih n rti, abhdae, as iais admnrl. n ieas

b Kwashiorkor ) Amongst children of age group 1-5 years protein deficiency causes kwashiorkor. The symptoms of this disease are: e l rg m n o l v r d e t w t r r t n i n na e e t f i e u o a e e e t o , darkening of the skin with scaly appearance, hair become reddish-brown, legs become thin, and rtraino pyia a wl a mna got. eadto f hscl s el s etl rwh Etn apoenrc de ta cnit o ml,ma,gonnt syba, aig rti-ih it ht osss f ik et rudu, oaen j g e y, e c c n c r i . a g r t. a ue t

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25.5.2 Mineral deficiency diseases Yo a e a a e o t e i p r a c o c r a n m n r l i y u d e ( e e Ta l 2 . ) u r wr f h motne f eti ieas n or it rfr be 53 dfcec o teemnrl i yu de myla t crandfcec dsae. eiiny f hs ieas n or it a ed o eti eiiny iess Let us study about two common mineral deficiency diseases goitre and anaemia. a Goitre ) I d n i r q i e f rt es n h s so h r o e t y o i e p o u e b t et y o d oie s eurd o h ytei f omn, hrxn, rdcd y h hri g a dl c t di o rn c r g o .P o o g di d n d f c e c ln oae n u ek ein rlne oie eiiny c u e e l rg m n o t y o d g a d i e g i r . S a o d i a ass na eet f hri ln .. ote efo s go suc o idn. Pol lvn i catl rgo d od ore f oie epe iig n osa ein o n t s ff r f o i d n d f c e c I d z d s l , e p c a l o u e r m o i e e i i n y. o i e a t s e i l y fr pol lvn i te hly rgos o ee pan i o epe iig n h il ein r vn lis s recommended to reduce incidence of goitre. b Anaemia ) This is a very common diet related condition in which the level of haemoglobin becomes lower than normal. Iron is F g 2 . G i re : e l rgement i. 59 ot na an important constituent of haemoglobin, the respiratory o tety f h h roid gland pigment of our blood. Iron deficiency causes deficient production of haemoglobin, resulting in the following symptoms: Body becomes pale, lc o aptt, ak f peie ehuto, xasin ls o bd wih, os f oy egt retarded growth. A io-ihde cnitn o siah ape bnn,gaa eg,gonnt, n rnrc it ossig f pnc, pl, aaa uv, gs rudus ec cnhl t cr aama t. a ep o ue nei. 25.5.3 Vitamin deficiency diseases a Xerophthalmia ) Lack of Vitamin A leads to Xerophthalmia, a disease in which the following symptoms are observed: cornea (white area of the eye ball) may become dry, foggy or cloudy and may utmtl la t ttlbides liaey ed o oa lnns, retarded growth, dysaysi,ad r cl kn n ngtbides(mrprvso i dmlgt. ih lnns ipoe iin n i ih)

T i c nb a o d db p o e i t k o g e nl a yv g t b e l k S i a h y l o hs a e vie y rpr nae f re ef eeals ie pnc, elw vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkin, papaya and ripe mango. Liver, c d l v r o l b t e a d g e also provide vitamin A. o ie i, utr n h e b Rickets ) Milk and liver are good sources of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. Beans, green vegetables, whole gram and tapioca are other sources of calcium.

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P o p o u i a s i b j a g e nl a yv g t b e a d hshrs s lo n ar, re ef eeals n n t .C l i ma dp o p o u a et em j rc n t t e t o us acu n hshrs r h ao osiuns f b n sa dt e h T e rd f c e c m yr s l i ad s a e oe n et. hi eiiny a eut n ies c l e r c e si c i d e . ald ikt n hlrn Symptoms of this disease are pigeon chests and bone d f r i i s p r i u a l o t el n b n s a t e c n o eomte, atclry f h og oe, s hy ant ssanbd wih,lk bwlg. uti oy egt ie o es c Beri-beri ) Deficiency of Vitamin B1 i t e d e l a s t b r n h it ed o ei Fg 2.0Rces: i. 51 ikt b r .I i ad s a eo h a ta dn r e .T es m t m o ei t s ies f er n evs h ypos f dfriisi lg eomte n es ti dsaeicue hs ies nld: seln o tsus ad wtr acmlto i te wlig f ise n ae cuuain n h body, extreme weakness, headache, prlssadee hatfiue aayi n vn er alr. This disease is observed more in people consuming more of polished rice in t e rd e . hi it d Pellagra ) Deficiency of vitamin B4 r s l s i p l a r . T i d s a e c u e : eut n elga hs ies ass reddening and drying of skin (eczema), swelling of gums and tongue, along with diarrhoea, and mna dsretto. etl ioinain Consuming a lot of maize interferes with the absorption of Vitamin B4 i t e b d P l a r c n b a o d d b h v n a n h o y. e l g a a e v i e y a i g d e f l o w o eg a nc r a s b a s g e nv g t b e ,t m t , it ul f hl ri eel, en, re eeals oao ptt,fs adeg. oao ih n gs

Normal hand

P l a r v c i s h n elga itm ad

25.6 FOOD ADULT E R ATION pro sfeigf e s n u f r n rom Wy d w pee t by fo pout sl i sae pces h o e rfr o u od rdcs od n eld akt? pellagra Why do we prefer to buy items made by a standard reliable cmay A sml ase i ta te mnfcue slig is pout i sae opn? ipe nwr s ht h auatrr eln t rdcs n eld p c e s o b a d e s r s d l v r o q a i y o i s c n e t t t e c n u e Any a k t r r n s n u e e i e y f u l t f t o t n s o h o s m r. a t m t t m x p re f o s b t n e w t c e p r, s b s a d rd e i l o i e i l tep o i u o d u s a c s i h h a e u - t n a , dbe r ndbe s b t n e i c l e food adulteration. usacs s ald Adulterants n t o l d t r o a e t e q a i y a d f o v l e o t e p o u t o ny eeirt h ult n od au f h rdc btmyas cuesvr ile u a l o a s e e e l ffects. Mixing water in milk may reduce its food value. Mixing colour (complex org n c d e ) s o e , t x c c r a s a d r t e ai ys, tns oi eel n otn ingredients in grains and pulses causes severe damage to body parts and hence s c n s . Ta l 2 . g v n b l w l s s s m o t e a u t r n s u e i d ff r n ikes b e 5 4 i e e o i t o e f h d l e a t s d n i eet fo mtras od aeil.

F g 2 . Hands of a i . 5 11

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Table 25.4 : Some food items and their common adulterants Food item Cras eel Ple uss Wheat flour,maida, sj ec ui, t. Milk Eil ol dbe is Honey Tu m r c ( a d ) rei hli Coriander Black pepper Cile hlis Common adulterants Straw, h s , m d s o e , g i , i f r o q a i y g a n , uk u, tns rt neir ult ris ifce o isc ifse gan netd r net netd ris Straw, k s r d l i f r o q a i y g a n , i f c e eai a, neir ult ris netd grains, metanil yellow dye Gi,ifse sok ecs o ba rt netd tc, xes f rn S a c , w t r, m l o o h r a i a s e t a t o o trh ae ik f te nml, xrcin f ft,snhtcml as ytei ik Mnrlol a eoeol atfca clr i e a i , rg m n i , r i i i l o o s Sugar syrup, jaggery Starch coloured with chromate or metanil yellow dye Powdered cow/horse dung, saw dust, starch Dried papaya seeds Saw dust, colour dust

25.6.1 Prevention of food adulteration To p e e t a u t r t o o f o p o u t , o r g v r m n h s i s e c r a n l w . rvn dleain f od rdcs u oenet a sud eti as T e e i c u e Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and Rules a d Food hs nld: n Product Orders w i h s r e t e f l o i g f n t o s hc ev h olwn ucin: lay a minimum standard for the quality of food requires date of manufacture and expiry to be mentioned on the packet of the food item qatt o tecnett b idctd uniy f h otn o e niae

I I d a t e Bureau of Indian Standards c r i s o t t e c r i i a i n o n ni, h are u h etfcto f food products at the manufacturer e d s n. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 25.5 1 Give the full form of PEM. . 2 Name any two diseases caused due to lack of vitamins. . 3 Wihtp o sl itk cnpeetocrec o gir? . hc ye f at nae a rvn curne f ote 4 List any two symptoms of anaemia. . 5 Name one common adulterant used in edible oils. . 6 Name the org n z t o t a c r i i s f o q a i y i I d a . aiain ht etfe od ult n ni. LET US REVISE Food is the raw material that our body needs to grow and stay healthy. Nutrition amongst org n s s c u d b a t t o h c o h t r t o h c ( a a i i aim ol e uorpi r eeorpi prstc adsporpi) n artohc. The process by which green plants synthesize their food is called pooytei. htsnhss

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T e r w m t r a s o p o o y t e i a e c r o d o i e a d w t r. T e e d p o u t h a aeil f htsnhss r abn ixd n ae h n rdcs a eg u o ea do y e . r lcs n xgn E t ag u o em yg tc n e t di t s c o e f u t s ,c l u o e s a c ,f t , xr lcs a e ovre no urs, rcoe ells, trh as ol,poen,ec i orbd i s r t i s t . n u o y. Ab l n e d e i c u e a lt ee s n i ln t i n s i t er q i e p o o t o , aacd it nlds l h seta uret, n h eurd rprin along with water and roughage. Components of balanced diet are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and m n r l .T er t oo t ea o e m n i n di e s i t ed e ,n e st c a g ieas h ai f h bv-etoe tm, n h it ed o hne wt teae sxadpoeso. ih h g, e n rfsin Lc o blne de last vrosntiinldsres ak f aacd it ed o aiu urtoa iodr. Te poes o ntiin icue ses o igsin dgsin asrto, h rcs f urto nlds tp f neto, ieto, bopin asmlto adeeto. siiain n gsin C n e s o o c m l xf o m t r a i t s a l ru i ss t a i c ne t rt e ovrin f ope od aeil no mle nt o ht t a ne h clsi cle dgsin el s ald ieto. Certain chemicals called enzymes play an important role in the process of d g s i n. ieto Hormones are the chemical messengers, which regulate body functions. Slvr gad i te muh lvr ad pnra hl i dgsin ad ae aiay lns n h ot, ie n aces ep n ieto n r cle gadlro aso ascae gad. a l d l n u a rg n r s o i t d l n s D g s i no p o e n y e d a i oa i s D g s i no o l a df t g v sf t y ieto f rtis ils mn cd. ieto f is n as ie at a i sa dg y e o . cd n lcrl D g s i n s a t i t e m u h a d c n i u s u t t e l rg i t s i e i e t o t r s n h o t n o t n e p o h a e netn. Teln tb o cnlo tedgsiesse i cle aietr cnl h og ue r aa f h ietv ytm s ald lmnay aa. Lc o blne de myla t ntiinldsres ak f aacd it a ed o urtoa iodr. D f c e c d s a e m yb d et p o e n ( w s i r o a dm r s u ) m n r l eiiny iess a e u o rtiskahokr n aams, ieas (oteadaamao vtmn(xrptama br-ei plar,rces gir n nei)r iais eohhli, eibr, elga ikt) Mixing pure food substances with cheaper, s b s a d r , e i l o i e i l u-tnad dbe r ndbe sbtne i cle fo autrto. usacs s ald od dleain TERMINAL EXERCISES A. Multiple choice type questions. 1 Oeo tefloigi ntase o ntiin . n f h olwn s o tp f urto a ) Igsin neto b ) Assimilation c ) Scein erto d ) Egestion 2 Rcesi cue det dfcec o . ikt s asd u o eiiny f a ) Io rn b ) Vitamin D c ) Poen rtis d ) Carbohydrates

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3 One gram of a substance was oxidized. The energy released amounted to 9.0 . Kcal. The substance was of the type: a ) Carbohydrates b ) Ft as c ) Vi a i s tmn d ) Poen rtis 4 Apro lvn i tehlyrgoso Sil dvlpdseln i hsnc . esn iig n h il ein f hma eeoe wlig n i ek region. The doctor said his thyroid gland got swelled up. Can you name the ntin dfceti hsde? uret eiin n i it a ) Calcium b ) Io rn c ) Phosphorus d ) Idn oie 5 Tevtmnta hlsi tecotn o bodi . h iai ht ep n h ltig f lo s a ) Vitamin A b ) Vitamin D c ) Vitamin E d ) Vitamin K B. Descriptive type questions. 1 List the major components of food. . 2 Dfn blne de. . eie aacd it 3 If equal amounts of fats or carbohydrates were oxidized, which of them would . yield more energy? 4 How would you establish the presence of starch in a given sample? . 5 What are vitamins? Name the diff r n t p s o f t s l b e v t m n . . eet ye f a-oul iais 6 Ls tefntoso fo? . it h ucin f od 7 Dfn autrto i fo.Nm a aec ta criisrlaiiyo fo . eie dleain n od ae n gny ht etfe eiblt f od produced. 8 Name five common adulterants in food. . 9 D ff r n i t b t e n p r s t c a d s p o h t c n t i i n . i eetae ewe aaii n arpyi urto. 1 . What are the main steps of photosynthesis? Is sunlight essential for 0 photosynthesis and why? 11 Give the chemical equation of photosynthesis. . 1. A p t e t c m l i s o l c o a p t t , e h u t o a d i l s n w i h . 2 ain opan f ak f peie xasin n s oig egt Diagnose the deficiency. W a k n o d e w u d y u s g e t f r t e p t e t ht id f it ol o ugs o h ain? 1 . Deficiency of which vitamin causes night blindness. What would you suggest 3 t peetti dfcec? o rvn hs eiiny 1. W y i w t r a e s n i l n t i n o a b l n e d e ? 4 h s ae n seta uret f aacd it 1 . Draw a neat and labelled diagram of the human alimentary canal. 5

F o a d N t i i n : 191 : od n urto

1. D s u st ef v s e si v l e i t ep o e so n t i i n 6 ics h ie tp novd n h rcs f urto. 1. W e e d e t e d g s i n o s a c , p o e n a d f t t k p a e a d w a i t e 7 hr os h ieto f trh rtis n as ae lc n ht s h r l p a e b t ea s c a e g a d ? oe lyd y h soitd lns 1 . Which component in your diet will not be digested if the enzyme lipase is not 8 scee?As nm tesceinta hlsi teatvt o ti ezm. ertd lo ae h erto ht ep n h ciiy f hs nye 1. W a a e t e b i d n b o k o p o e n ? C a s f p o e n o t e b s s o 9 ht r h ulig lcs f rtis lsiy rtis n h ai f their functions along with one example. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2. 51 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 2. 52 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . Autotrophs and heterotrophs Mushrooms, bread mould, bacteria, yeast (any two) Autotrophs/plants P r s t s L v o o i s d o h rl v n o a i m t d r v t e rf o a a i e : i e n r n i e t e i i g rg n s s o e i e h i o d Saprophytes: Derive their food from dead and rotten organisms P r s t s l e h Cuscuta ( o d r p a t , h a l u e aaie: ec, dde ln) ed os Saprotrophs: yeast and mushroom D d e p a t o Amar bel odr ln r Chloroplast Dark reaction Ptt,oin tpoa(n to oao no, aic ay w) Sucrose snih ulgt 6CO2 + 12H2O cro abn wtr ae clrpyl hoohl doie ixd

C 6H 12O 6 + 6H2O + 6O2 guoe lcs wtr oye ae xgn

2. 53 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 2. 54 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 .

Roughage adds bulk to the food and helps in digestion. Hormones, such as insulin, growth hormone, thyroxine One gram of fatty substance yeilds more energy upon oxidation; Carbohydrates: 4.2 Kcal/g; Fats: 9 Kcal/g W a e s l b e Vitamins B and C; Fat soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K tr oul: Vi a i s a e o t m n r rganic molecules, while minerals are inorg n c s l s ai at. Vil (s n Vils li i g. lu) Pepsin Prsass eitli Slvr gad,lvradpnra aiay lns ie n aces HCl (hydrochloric acid)

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2. 55 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 .

P o e nE e g M l u r t o rti nry antiin Ngtbides plar,br-ei rces(n to ih lnns, elga eibr, ikt ay w) Ueo idzdsl s f oie at Lc o aptt,ls o bd wih ak f peie os f oy egt Mnrlol a i e a i , rgemone oil (any one) Bureau of Indian Standards

GLOSSARY Nutrition: The process by which org n s s o t i m t r a f r t e r g o t aim ban aeil o hi rwh and development (from their environment). Autotrophs: O rganisms that can manufacture their own food. Hetero rophs: O t rganisms that depend upon other org n s s f r t e r f o . aim o hi od Sapro rophs: O t rganisms that derive their food from dead and rotten o rganisms. P r s t s O a i m t a l v o o i s d t eb d o o h rl v n o a a i e : rg n s s h t i e n r n i e h o y f t e i i g rganisms t drv terfo. o eie hi od Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants manufacture food from cro doieadwtri tepeec o snih. abn ixd n ae n h rsne f ulgt Nutrients: C e i a c n t t e t p e e t i o r f o a d r q i e f r t e hmcl osiuns rsn n u od n eurd o h nourishment of our body. Balanced diet: D e t a c n a n a e u t a o n s o e s n i l n t i n s it ht otis dqae mut f seta uret, s c a c r o y r t s f t , p o e n , m n r l , v t m n a d w t r. uh s abhdae, as rtis ieas iais n ae Dgsin Cneso o cmlxfo mtra it salruiss ta i ieto: ovrin f ope od aeil no mle nt o ht t cnb asre b tecls a e bobd y h el.