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Air Systems Component Technology

Emmanuel Castillo Lider de Proyectos IGSA POWER- Liebert

Agenda

Basic Cooling
Refrigeration cycle and components Analysis of precision versus comfort

Component Technology Overview


Compressors Humidifiers Blower / Drives Water / Glycol Condensers

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle

120 deg F 263 PSIG

High Pressure

45 deg F 77 PSIG
Low Pressure

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle
Compressor Condenser (outdoor coil)

4 Major Components
Evaporator (indoor coil) Metering Device (expansion valve)

Liquid

Evaporator Coil

Gas Compressor

Indoor Unit Metering Device Low Pressure High Pressure

Liquid

Condenser Coil
Outdoor Unit

Gas

This type of refrigerant based system is referred to as direct expansion (DX)

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle
Indoor Coil
Liquid

Room Heat

Low Temp, Low Pressure


Cold Supply Air to Room

Evaporator Coil

Gas
Compressor

Metering Device

Liquid

Condenser Coil

Gas

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle
Indoor to Outdoor Piping
Liquid

Low Temp, Low Pressure

Evaporator Coil

Gas
Compressor

Metering Device
Increase Pressure

Liquid

Condenser Condenser Coil

Gas

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle
Outdoor Coil
Liquid

Low Temp, Low Pressure

Evaporator Coil

Gas
Compressor

Metering Device

Outdoor Air
Liquid

High Temp, High Pressure


Room Heat

Condenser Coil Condenser

Gas

Basic Air Conditioning


Refrigeration Cycle
Outdoor to Indoor Piping
Liquid
Decrease Pressure

Low Temp, Low Pressure

Evaporator Coil

Gas
Compressor

Metering Device

Liquid

High Temp, High Pressure

Condenser Coil Condenser

Gas

Basic Air Conditioning


Chilled Water
Indoor Coil
Room Heat

Evaporator Coil
Chilled Water Valve

Cold Supply Air to Room

Chilled Water Supply (< 50 deg F)

Room Heat is Rejected via a Building Chiller

Building Chiller & Cooling Tower

Chilled Water Return

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Comfort - Designed For People


Emphasis on latent (moist) heat As little as 2500 hrs / year operation Broad range of temperature control Comfort rooms can allow great fluctuations in temperature and humidity

Precision - Designed For Critical Electronic Equipment


Few or no occupants Dedicated environment 24 hours / 365 days operation (8760 hrs / year) Precise control of temperature and humidity

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Total Cooling Capacity

Latent Cooling Capacity

Sensible Cooling Capacity

= Total Cooling Capacity (unit cooling)


Latent is derived from the Latin word latente, meaning hidden, i.e.

moisture is hidden in the air. Sensible is the heat that you can sense. Sensible heat ratio (SHR) is sensible heat divided by the total heat.

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Typical Rooms
Typical Building Loads are 60-70% Sensible Precision Equipment Rooms Have 90-100% Sensible Loads

Latent

0.65 SHR

Sensible

0.90 SHR

Comfort Rooms

Lots of moisture in the air due to daily human activities. (Showers, cooking, sweat)

Precision Rooms

Rooms are dry due to high electronic equipment influence and minimal human influence.

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Equipment Comparison
1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00

0.65 SHR

0.60 to 0.70 SHR

0.90 SHR

0.80 to 1.00 SHR

Comfort Rooms

Comfort Equipment

Precision Rooms

Precision Equipment

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Equipment Comparison
55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Comparing 35 kW (10 ton) Air Conditioners

Precision R oom s

Precision Equipm ent

C fort Equipm om ent

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Equipment Comparison
55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Comparing 35 kW (10 ton) Air Conditioners

Precision Room s

Precision Equipm ent

Resized Com fort


The comfort unit would need to be 1.5 times larger!!

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Simple Cost Analysis
Cost to meet sensible cooling requirements
Room conditions of 72 deg F and 50% relative humidity, $0.10per kW-hr Comfort System $1,005 per sensible ton / year $9,045 per year for cooling with a 15 ton Comfort unit Precision System $726 per sensible ton / year $6,535 per year for cooling with a 10 ton Precision unit Why so different?
To get more sensible cooling, you need a larger compressor, which has a larger electrical draw, resulting in much higher operating costs.

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Simple Cost Analysis
And the comparison gets better!
A Comfort unit takes out too much moisture, so we need to Re-humidify the room A precision unit is designed to remove about 0.4 kW of latent heat per ton (3.5 kW) of sensible cooling A comfort unit is designed to remove about 1.9 kW of latent heat per ton (3.5 kW) of sensible cooling How much does this extra 1.5 kW per sensible ton cost you? Using a comfort unit adds $548 per ton (3.5 kW) of sensible cooling for re-humidification For our example, this equates to an additional $4,927 per year

Comfort vs. Precision Cooling


Simple Cost Analysis
Total Cost Difference
So, I decided to use a Comfort System to cool my precision room. What did it cost me? Utilizing a 15 ton comfort instead of 10 precision unit would cost: $2,513 more per year in operating costs $4,927 per year to maintain room humidity

At a difference of $7440 per year to operate, the 15 ton Comfort unit would need to have a much lower first cost to even be considered.

Compressor Technologies

Scroll Compressor

Digital Scroll Compressors

Semi-Hermetic Compressors with Unloaders

4-Step Semi-hermetic Operation Semi(TCO = Operating)

Microprocessor sets the control band at set point + sensitivity + 1 Every 25% of the band capacity is stepped up
Step 1 1 compressor unloaded Step 2 2 compressors unloaded Step 3 1 loaded, 1 unloaded Step 4 both loaded

72F

Control Band

74F

Scroll Compressor

Configurations
Single circuit Single circuit tandem Dual circuit Dual circuit tandem

Advantages
Inexpensive option for first cost Proven, reliable product

Disadvantages
Not best energy solution Not very flexible Solid shell; cannot be repaired

Digital Scroll Compressor Modulation

Digital Scroll Compressor


A solenoid valve cycles to switch the compressor from full load to no load. Capacity of the unit is precisely matched to the load to provide a tight control (10% to 100% unit capacity) Example: Unit has a capacity of 70kW. If room load is 23kW, the solenoid would only need to engage for 33% of the time. For a 15 second cycle, this would be 5 seconds at full load and 10 seconds at no load.

Full Load
5 Seconds

100% energy usage

25% energy usage

At 33% Room Load

10 Seconds

No Load

Digital Scroll Capacity Modulation


Takes Advantage Of Copeland Scroll Axial Compliance When Scrolls Are Separated Axially (~ 1.0 mm), No Gas Flow When Scrolls Are In Contact, 100% Gas Flow 10-100% Continuous Capacity
1 mm

Scrolls Separated No Pump


Full Capacity

Scrolls In Contact - Pumping


Full Capacity

Zero Capacity

Zero Capacity

4 Sec

11 Sec

7.5 Sec

7.5 Sec

27% Of Full Capacity

50% Of Full Capacity

Energy Savings 90% Load @ 75F / 50%

Compressor cost 10 ton Air Cooled


Scroll $3,902 Digital $2,714 4-Step $2,451 Scroll $2,347 4-Step $556 Digital $0 Scroll $6,249 4-Step $3,007 Digital $2,714

Cost of Humidification

Total

Humidifier Technologies

Steam Canister

Infrared

Ultrasonico

How an Infrared Humidifier Works


Reflector

Infrared Bulb, 4000-5000F Grains of pure moisture

Air Flow

Standpipe

Solids in water driven to bottom, water temperature 140F

Blower & Drive Technologies

Centrifugal Blowers

EC Plug Fans

What is an EC Motor?

Electrically Commutated DC Brushless Motor Speed control is integral to the motor, and is achieved by varying control voltage. (0-10V DC) Motor speed is linear to control voltage. Running EC motor at less than full speed does not result in decreased motor efficiency. Tracks CW valve position

Phase Out of R22


Montreal Protocol, an international environmental agreement, established requirements that began the worldwide phase-out of ozone-depleting CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons).

On January 1, 2010
After 2010, chemical manufacturers may still produce R-22 to service existing equipment, but not for use in new equipment. As a result, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system manufacturers will only be able to use pre-existing supplies of R-22 to produce new air conditioners and heat pumps. These existing supplies would include R-22 recovered from existing equipment and recycled.

On January 1, 2015
Latin America will implement the phase out
Source: http://www.epa.gov

Equipment Environment Specification


PRODUCT OPERATION Class Dry Bulb Temperature (F) Allowable 1 2 3 4
NEBS

Relative Humidity (%) Allowable 20 80 20 80 8 80 8 80 5 - 85 Recommended 40 55 40 55 NA NA Max 55

Recommended 68 77 68 77 NA NA 64 - 81

Max Dew Point (F) 62.6 69.8 82.4 82.4 82.4

59 89.6 50 95 41 95 41 104 41 - 104

Floor Mounted Cooling

Upflow

Floor Mounted Cooling

Downflow with Raised Floor

Coil Configurations

CW & DX Cooling Downflow


Dual A-frame coil Free cooling coil first DX coil last
AIR FLOW

3-ROW ECONOCOIL

3-ROW DX COIL

Chilled Water Operation


AIR FLOW CHILLED WATER VALVE

CONDENSER

Dx Operation
AIR FLOW 3-WAY VALVE DRYCOOLER

75F

3-WAY VALVE

PUMP

ECONOMIZER

Precision Applications
Mission-critical applications require precision cooling, even in smaller computer rooms.

Lower design conditions (ambient temperatures) Higher sensible heat ratio Higher load density Humidity control Higher efficiency filtration Redundancy Year-round operation

Applications Requiring Precision Systems


Computer Room Computers

Distributed Processing

Telecom

Industrial Medical

Applications Requiring Precision Systems


Labs No Load Precision CleanR ooms

Film Storage Tape/Diskette Storage

Book Storage

Adaptive Cooling Architecture


Highest Reliability Maximum Flexible Lowest TCO
Retrofit Any floor Any space Any time
Pre-piping assembly

Increasing Heat Load

Rack Solutions

XDO XDV XDF XDK XDC XDP


Overhead Module

XDH

Future Modules

Supplemental Cooling Rack or Room Floor Mount Cooling Base Load

Mini-Mate DataMate

Challenger3000

Liebert DS , Himod, PeX

Increasing No. of Racks

Containment Compatibility
All forms of complete and partial containment Liebert SmartAisle Cold Aisle Containment (optimized)

Liebert Cool Cap

Liebert Flex Cap

42

U2U Communications

No Teamwork Units work independently. No Shared Values or Shared Sensors


Standby and unit Rotation possible Cascading not possible

U2U Communications

U2U Communications

Maintenance on time.