awake awoke/awaked awoken/awaked Strong, class 6 be was been Suppletive. See: Indo-European copula.
bear bore born/borne forbear forbore forborne *misbear misbore misborne overbear overbore overborne underbear underbore underborne Strong, class 4 beat beat beaten/beat browbeat browbeat browbeaten Strong, class 7 become became become misbecome misbecame misbecome Strong, class 4 beget begot/*begat begotten/begot misbeget misbegot misbegotten/misbegot Strong, class 5 begin began begun Strong, class 3 bend bent/bended bent/bended overbend overbent overbent unbend unbent unbent Weak with assimilation of dentals beseech beseeched/besought beseeched/besought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law bet bet/betted bet/betted underbet underbet underbet Weak with assimilation of dentals bid (in playing cards, auctions, etc.) bid bid outbid outbid outbid overbid overbid overbid rebid rebid rebid underbid underbid underbid Weak with assimilation of dentals bid (meaning to request or say) bade/bid/bidded bidden/bid/bidded Strong, class 5 bide bided/bode bided/bidden abide abided/*abode abided/*abidden Strong, class 1 bind bound bound unbind unbound unbound underbind underbound underbound Strong, class 3 bite bit bitten Strong, class 1 bleed bled bled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals bless blessed/blest blessed/blest Weak with assimilation of dentals blow blew blown overblow overblew overblown Strong, class 7 break broke broken outbreak outbroke outbroken rebreak rebroke rebroken Strong, class 4 breed bred bred inbreed inbred inbred interbreed interbred interbred overbreed overbred overbred Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals bring brought brought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law build built built overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
class 2 *cleave (cling to) cleft/cleaved cleft/cleaved Weak with vowel reduction *clepe cleped/clept cleped/clept Weak with assimilation of dentals cling clung clung Strong. class 2 crow crowed/crew crowed cut cut cut clearcut clearcut clearcut crosscut crosscut crosscut intercut intercut intercut recut recut recut undercut undercut undercut Weak with assimilation of dentals deal dealt dealt misdeal misdealt misdealt redeal redealt redealt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals dig dug dug underdig underdug underdug
. defective cast cast cast broadcast broadcast broadcast downcast downcast downcast forecast forecast forecast miscast miscast miscast overcast overcast overcast podcast podcast podcast precast precast precast recast recast recast simulcast simulcast simulcast telecast telecast telecast typecast typecast typecast undercast undercast undercast upcast upcast upcast webcast webcast webcast Weak with assimilation of dentals catch caught caught Weak a French loanword conjugated perhaps by analogy wit h teach-taught choose chose chosen mischoose mischose mischosen Strong.rebuild rebuilt rebuilt underbuild underbuilt underbuilt Weak with assimilation of dentals burn burned/burnt burnt/burned Weak with assimilation of dentals burst burst/bursted burst/bursted/busted Strong. class 2 cleave (split apart) clove cloven/cleft Strong. class 3 clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad overclothe overclothed/overclad overclothed/overclad unclothe unclothed/unclad unclothed/unclad underclothe underclothed/underclad underclothed/underclad Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals come came come misbecome misbecame misbecome overcome overcame overcome Strong. class 3 buy bought bought/*boughten overbuy overbought overbought underbuy underbought underbought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law can (auxiliary verb only) could (none) Preterite-present. class 4 cost (the intransitive sense) cost cost Weak with assimilation of dentals creep crept crept Strong.
overdressed underdress underdressed .undressed Weak with assimilation of dentals drink drank drunk/drank outdrink outdrank outdrunk overdrink overdrank overdrunk Strong. class 3 find found found refind refound refound Strong. class 6 draw drew drawn outdraw outdrew outdrawn overdraw overdrew overdrawn redraw redrew redrawn underdraw underdrew underdrawn withdraw withdrew withdrawn Strong.underdressed undress undressed .fit/fitted
. class 3 fit . class 6 dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilati on of dentals dress dressed/*drest dressed/*drest overdress overdressed . class 3 drive drove driven overdrive overdrove overdriven test-drive test-drove test-driven Strong. class 1 dwell dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled Weak with assimilation of dentals eat ate eaten overeat overate overeaten undereat underate undereaten Strong.fit/fitted . class 7 feed fed fed breastfeed breastfed breastfed force-feed force-fed force-fed hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed misfeed misfed misfed overfeed overfed overfed self-feed self-fed self-fed spoonfeed spoonfed spoonfed underfeed underfed underfed Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals feel felt felt Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals fight fought fought Strong.dive dived/dove dived Weak with a naturally developing strong past tense do did done *fordo fordid fordone misdo misdid misdone outdo outdid outdone overdo overdid overdone redo redid redone undo undid undone underdo underdid underdone Reduplication with past participle springing from OE "gedon" drag drug/dragged drug/dragged Strong. class 5 fall fell fallen befall befell befallen *misbefall misbefell misbefallen *misfall misfell misfallen Strong.
forgone undergo .overhung .hung/hanged overhang . class 7 hang .forbidden Strong.hew/hewed .withwent .forewent . class 7 weak past tense and present influenced by OE causative "hangian" have .flown outfly .withgone Suppletive.unheard .underhung uphang .gave .hewn/hewed
.forbade/forbid .outflew . class 6 grind .refrozen unfreeze .undergirt/undergirded Weak with assimilation of dentals give .test-flew . class 5 forget .grown outgrow .gone bego .underhung .upgrown Strong.given forgive . class 2 forbid .flew .heard mishear . class 2 fling flung flung Strong.graven/graved Strong.gilded/gilt .forlorn forsake . class 2 get got gotten/got misget misgot misgotten *overget overgot overgotten *underget undergot undergotten Strong.had Weak pret.heard .had .E.hung/hanged .uphung Strong.forgot .uphung .forsaken Strong.forgave .begone forego .misgave . class 6 freeze .outgrew .ground/grinded .unfroze .overflew .forsook .regrew . See: go (verb).overflown test-fly .misfit .girt/girded undergird .overheard unhear .misgiven Strong.refroze .overgrew . class 5 *forlese .went .grove/graved .foregone forgo .forgiven misgive .forwent .overhung underhang . haefd hear .undergrown upgrow .overgrown regrow . class 5 gild .bewent .misfit/misfitted . *grave . class 5 go .misfit/misfitted Weak with assimilation of dentals flee fled fled Strong.underwent . class 3 fly .girt/girded .gilded/gilt Weak with assimilation of dentals *gird .overheard .frozen refreeze .upgrew .undergrew .outflown overfly .forgotten Strong.misheard overhear .outgrown overgrow .forlore .test-flown Strong.grew .undergirt/undergirded . and past participle spring from O. class 3 grow .unheard Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals heave heaved/hove heaved/hove/hoven upheave upheaved/uphove upheaved/uphove/uphoven hew .froze .ground Strong.misheard .unfrozen Strong.regrown undergrow .undergone *withgo .
kept .leaned/leant . class 6 laugh .mishit overhit .mislearned/mislearnt dentals and assimilati dentals
.mishit .re-laid .laughed/*laught lay .inheld mishold . class 7 hide .inheld .outlaid overlay . lead led led belead beled beled mislead misled misled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals lean .underhewed . class 7 learn .overladed .overladen/overladed Strong.uplaid waylay waylaid waylaid Weak.laid *forelay forelaid forelaid *forlay forlaid forlaid inlay .laded .inlaid mislay .underlaid .beheld inhold .leaned/leant Weak with vowel reduction on of dentals leap leaped/leapt leaped/leapt outleap outleaped/outleapt outleaped/outleapt Strong.mislaid outlay .uplaid .laughed/*laught .overhit underhit .hidden Weak vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals hit .upheld .inlaid .hit .held .re-laid underlay .overlaid .underhewn/underhewed Strong.hid .laden/laded overlade .hit mishit .held behold .withheld .underlaid uplay .underhit .withheld Strong.underkept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals *ken kenned/kent kenned/kent misken miskenned/miskent miskenned/miskent kill kilt/killed kilt/killed Weak with assimilation of kneel knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled Weak with vowel reduction on of dentals knit knit/knitted knit/knitted Weak with assimilation of know .known *acknow acknew acknown foreknow foreknew foreknown misknow misknew misknown Strong.underkept .mislaid .overlaid re-lay .misheld uphold .outlaid .knew . class 7 hurt hurt hurt Weak with assimilation of dentals keep .beheld .overhit .kept miskeep miskept miskept underkeep .laid .*underhew .underhit Weak with assimilation of dentals hoise hoist hoist hold .misheld .learned/learnt mislearn mislearned/mislearnt . class 7 lade .learned/learnt .upheld withhold .
input .met .input output . irregular in pronunciatio n
.output .put .backlit/backlighted green-light .underpaid Weak.left . class 3 mow .green-lit/green-lighted relight .put input .pleaded/pled Weak with vowel reduction and assimilati on of dentals prove .pleaded/pled .green-lit/green-lighted .unlearn .mowed/mown Strong.penned/pent Weak with assimilation of dentals plead .output Weak with assimilation of dentals *queath or quethe quoth quoth/quethen bequeath bequeathed/bequoth bequoth/bequethen Strong.lost .melted/*molt .repaid .penned/pent .overpaid .paid overpay .proved/proven borrowed French verb put . class 5 quit quit quit Weak with assimilation of dentals reach *raught/reached *raught/reached read read read lipread lipread lipread misread misread misread proofread proofread proofread reread reread reread Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals.meant .repaid underpay .backlit/backlighted .met Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals melt .proved . class 2 make made made remake remade remade unmake unmade unmade Weak contraction of "maked" may might (none) Preterite-present.mowed .relit/relighted .lost Strong.relit/relighted Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals lose .paid . defective mean . class 7 pay . class 7 lie (posture) lay lain *forelie forelay forelain *forlie forlay forlain overlie overlay overlain underlie underlay underlain Strong. but not in pronunciation pen .meant Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals meet . class 5 light lit/lighted lit/lighted backlight .melted/*molten Strong.unlearned/unlearnt .underpaid .unlearned/unlearnt Weak with assimilation of dentals leave .prepaid .prepaid repay .overpaid prepay .left *forleave forleft forleft/forlaft Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals lend lent lent *forlend forlent forlent Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals let (allow) let let *forlet forlet forlet sublet sublet sublet *underlet underlet underlet Strong. irregular only in spelling.
rived/rove .seethed/*sod .underran .run *forerun .foreran .arose .overran .*reave reft reft bereave bereaved/bereft bereaved/bereft Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals rend .saken Strong.rose .underrun Strong.sawed .risen arise .arisen uprise . class 6 saw .rent Weak with assimilation of dentals rid . class 1 run .reran .resent . class 5 seek sought sought beseek besought besought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law seethe .rung Strong.seethed/*sodden sell sold sold outsell outsold outsold oversell oversold oversold resell resold resold undersell undersold undersold upsell upsold upsold Weak with Rückumlaut send .rang .sent . class 1 *rive .ran .sawed/sawn say said said *forsay forsaid forsaid *gainsay gainsaid gainsaid missay missaid missaid *naysay naysaid naysaid *withsay withsaid withsaid Weak see saw seen *besee *besaw *beseen foresee foresaw foreseen missee missaw misseen oversee oversaw overseen undersee undersaw underseen Strong.sent missend .overrun rerun .outran .rid/ridded .sook .rerun underrun .rid/ridden/ridded ride rode ridden outride outrode outridden override overrode overridden Strong.outrun overrun .missent resend .forerun outrun .resent Weak with assimilation of dentals set set set beset beset beset handset handset handset inset inset inset misset misset misset *overset overset overset preset preset preset
.rent .uprose .rived/riven Strong.missent .uprisen Strong. class 1 ring . class 3 rise . class 3 *sake .
class 2 show . class 1.shined/shone .shit/shat/shitted Strong.resung Strong.reset .sat/*sitten babysit .shut Weak sing .showed .shot misshoot .shoed/shod .beshone .slipped/*slipt .undershot . with participle shown perhaps by analogy with sow.shit/shat/shitten Strong.upset *withset withset withset Weak sew sewed sewed/sewn handsew handsewed handsewed/handsewn oversew oversewed oversewed/oversewn shake .shown/showed reshow .shed . class 3 *shrive .sank/sunk .shrank/shrunk .shore/sheared .reshot .slung Strong.reset .overshot reshoot .shoed/shod/shodden Weak with vowel reduction shoot .reshot undershoot .sat . class 1 shut .overshined/overshone . class 7 slide slid slid/slidden backslide backslid backslid overslide overslid overslid/overslidden Strong.slung/slang .shot . class 3 sit .shed Strong.shaven/shaved Strong. class 6 sleep slept slept oversleep overslept overslept undersleep underslept underslept Strong. defective.sunk/sunken Strong. class 5 slay .withsat .shut . class 1 shit .sung resing .babysat .undershot Strong.withsat/*withsitten Strong.slunk .shaken overshake overshook overshaken Strong.misshot overshoot .overshrunk/overshrunken Strong. class 6 shall should (none) Preterite-present. class 1 sling .reshowed .misshot .shrunk/shrunken overshrink .babysat *withsit . class 7 shine .shorn/sheared Strong.outshined/outshone overshine .sang .slain/slayed Strong. class 4 shed . class 6 shear .shined/shone *beshine .reset upset .overshot .shook .beshone outshine .shit/shat/shitted .overshined/overshone Strong.shove/shaved . *shite .outshined/outshone . class 3 sink . see also Shall and will shape shaped shapen/shaped *forshape forshaped forshapen/forshaped misshape misshaped misshapen/misshaped shave . class 1 shoe . class 3 slink .slipped/*slipt
.shit/shat .slunk Strong. class 3 slip . sown shrink .shriven Strong.overshrank/overshrunk .upset .slew/slayed .resang .reshown/reshowed Weak.shrove .
spread .spilled/spilt .stank/stunk .strew/strewed .spread *bespread .bespread Weak with assimilation of dentals spring sprang/sprung sprung handspring handsprang handsprung Strong.spoiled/spoilt .stove/staved strew . class 4 stick stuck stuck sting stung/stang stung Strong. class 3 stave .overstruck .bespread .overslip overslipped/overslipt overslipped/overslipt slit slit slit Strong. class 6 stay stayed/*staid stayed/*staid steal stole stolen Strong. class 3 stand stood stood misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood understand understood understood upstand upstood upstood withstand withstood withstood Strong. class 3 spit spit/spat spit split split split Weak with assimilation of dentals spoil . class 1 strike .smelled/smelt . class 1 smell .smelled/smelt Weak with assimilation of dentals *smite smote/*smit smitten Strong.stricken/struck overstrike .spoiled/spoilt Weak with assimilation of dentals spread . class 1 string strang/strung strung hamstring hamstrung hamstrung
.struck .spilled/spilt overspill* overspilled/overspilt overspilled/overspilt Weak with assimilation of dentals spin span/spun spun strong. class 5 speed sped/speeded sped/speeded Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of de ntals spell spelled/spelt spelled/spelt misspell misspelled/misspelt misspelled/misspelt Weak with assimilation of dentals spend spent spent *forspend forspent forspent misspend misspent misspent outspend outspent outspent overspend overspent overspent Weak with assimilation of dentals spill .stunk Strong. class 7 speak spoke/*spake spoken/spoke *bespeak bespoke bespoken *forespeak forespoke forespoken *forspeak forspoke forspoken misspeak misspoke misspoken Strong.strewn/strewed stride strode/strided stridden/strided outstride outstrode outstridden overstride overstrode overstridden Strong.stove/staved . class 3 stink .overstruck Strong. class 1 sneak sneaked/*snuck sneaked/snuck Weak with s naturally-developing strong form sow sowed/sew sowed/sown Strong.
class 1 throw threw thrown misthrow misthrew misthrown outthrow outthrew outthrown overthrow overthrew overthrown underthrow underthrew underthrown upthrow upthrew upthrown Strong.swelled/swole . class 3 swing swung/swang swung/*swungen overswing overswung overswung Strong.strove/strived .swolt/swelted . class 5 wake woke/waked woken/waked Strong. class 6 wax waxed waxed/waxen Strong.overstring overstrung overstrung Weak with a naturally-developing strong form strive . class 6 teach taught taught Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law tear tore torn uptear uptore uptorn Strong.overstriven Strong.sweat/sweated sweep .forswore -forsworn outswear .swept upsweep . class 7
. class 3 *swelt .upswept .outstriven overstrive .upswept Weak with vowel reduction and assimilation of dentals swell . class 3 take took taken betake betook betaken mistake mistook mistaken overtake overtook overtaken partake partook partaken retake retook retaken undertake undertook undertaken *uptake uptook uptaken Strong.swept .outsworn Strong.swore .outstrove .swelled/swollen upswell .outswore . class 6 sweat .sworn forswear . class 3 swim swam swum Strong.overstrove .sweat/sweated .striven/strived outstrive .upswelled . class 1 swear . class 4 tell told told foretell foretold foretold retell retold retold *outtell outtold outtold Weak with Rückumlaut think thought thought outthink outthought outthought rethink rethought rethought Weak with Rückumlaut and Germanic spirant law thrive thrived/throve thrived/thriven Strong. class 7 thrust thrust/thrusted thrust/thrusted outthrust outthrust outthrust tread trod trodden/trod retread retrod retrodden/retrod Strong.upswelled/upswollen Strong.swolten/swelted Strong.
.rewritten underwrite . class 1 writhe writhed/*wrothe writhed/*writhen Strong.ghostwrote .worked/*wrought overwork .miswrote .miswritten overwrite . class 3 work . class 7 wend wended/*went wended/*went weak with assimilation of dentals wet wet/wetted wet/wetted overwet overwet/overwetted overwet/overwetted Weak with assimilation of dentals will (auxiliary verb only) would (none) Preterite-present. class 3 wreak wreaked/wrack wreaked/wreaken/*wroken wring wrang/wrung wrung Strong.ghostwritten miswrite .*worth/*worthed/*worthen Strong. class 7 wed wed/wedded wed/wedded rewed rewed/rewedded rewed/rewedded Weak with assimilation of dentals weep wept wept *beweep bewept bewept Strong. class 3 wind wound wound rewind rewound rewound unwind unwound unwound Strong.overwritten rewrite .overworked/*overwrought Weak with Rückumlaut and metathesis of r and o *worth .overworked/*overwrought .overwrote .written ghostwrite . see also S hall and will win won won Strong.worked/*wrought . class 3 write .underwrote .underwritten Strong.wear wore worn *forwear forwore forworn outwear outwore outworn overwear overwore overworn Weak with strong form based on "bear" weave weaved/wove woven interweave interwove interwoven unweave unwove unwoven Strong.rewrote .wrote/*writ .*worth/*worthed . defective.