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The Relationship between Org. Theory & Org.


Visible Aspects
Objectives Policies and procedures Structure Technology Formal authority Chains of command

Hidden aspects
Attitudes Perceptions Group norms Informal interactions Interpersonal and intergroup conflicts Dr. Friday - OB GRAD
Prentice Hall 2000

Behavior actions of people Organizational Behavior (OB) the study of the actions of people at work. Individual Behavior (psychology) attitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivation. Group Behavior (sociology, social psychology) norms, roles, team building, and conflict. Culture (anthropology) Goal of OB to explain and predict behavior to better manage employee behavior. Employee Behaviors of Concern: Productivity Absenteeism Turnover 4 major OB outcomes: Job Satisfaction attitude Productivity behavior Absenteeism behavior Turnover behavior
Dr. Friday - OB GRAD

Attitudes evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events 3 component of an attitude 1) Cognitive beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or info 2) Affective emotional or feeling segment 3) Behavioral an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone/something Job-Related Attitudes: Job Satisfaction employees general attitude toward his/her job. Job Involvement the degree to which an employee identifies with his/her job, actively participates in it, and considers his/her job performance important to his/her self-worth. Organizational Commitment employees orientation toward the organization in terms of his/her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. Personality the trait or characteristics of an individual. Big 5 Personality Model conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Dr. Friday - OB GRAD

Operant Conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its

consequences. Therefore, it deals with voluntary or learned behavior. People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they dont want. The tendency to repeat a behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement that happens as a result of the behavior.

Organizational Behavior Modification (OB Mod)

Positive Reinforcement when a behavior is followed with something pleasant Negative Reinforcement rewarding a response with the elimination or withdrawal of something unpleasant Positive Reinforcement and Negative Reinforcement strengthen a behavior. Punishment penalizes undesirable behavior Extinction eliminating any reinforcement thats maintaining a behavior Punishment and Extinction weaken a behavior or decreases its frequency.
Dr. Friday - OB GRAD

Perception ones interpretation of reality Self Fulfilling Prophecy - People perceive others in a certain way, and in turn,
those others behave in ways that are consistent with the perception

Fundamental Attribution Error the tendency to underestimate the influence

of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others

Self-serving Bias the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes
to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

Selectivity the process by which people assimilate certain bits and pieces of
what they observe, depending on their interest, background, and attitudes

Assumed similarity the belief that others are like oneself Stereotyping judging a person on the basis of ones perception of a group to
which he/she belongs

Halo Effect a general impression of an individual based on a single

Dr. Friday - OB GRAD

Attribution Theory
Observation Interpretation Attribution of cause

External Internal External Internal External Internal




Individual Behavior




Prentice Hall 2000

Dr. Friday - OB GRAD