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Sewer Appurtenances- 3rd Class)(

Dr. Sataa Al-Bayati (10-11)

1. Manholes They are used for inspection & cleaning. They placed when: 1. Intervals between manholes: 90-150m (300-500ft.) 2. Change in direction. 3. Change in pipe slope. 4. Change in pipe size. - For total depth < 4m (12ft) 250mm (10) thick brick wall. For any additional 2m depth additional 125mm thick. - Concrete walls are often used in Iraq, Figs.(1). - Manholes bottom: Upper surface sloped toward the open channel, why? Channel depth should be equal to pipe diameter to prevent sewage from spreading over manhole bottom, & odors result. Changes of direction are made in channels.

Fig. ( 1) Precast concrete manhole, City of Perry, Georgia, US, [1]

Fig. (2) Drop manhole, City of Perry, Georgia, [1] - Drop manhole, see (Fig. 2) It is a join between submain & a deeper sewer. It is used when the drop between two sewers 0.6m (2ft). - Manhole opening Cast iron frame & cover 500-600mm (20-24). - Manholes in large sewers 1520mm (60), These sewers can be entered for inspection & need fewer manholes. - Manhole cover & frame (Fig.3) For heavy city traffic 340kg (750Lb) Light city traffic 245kg (540Lb) Suburban traffic 150-180kg (325-400Lb) Foot traffic 70kg (150Lb) Covers shall be roughened to prevent slipperiness. Perforated covers should not be used for sanitary sewers. Ventilation should be done by stacks, not by openings. Opening disadvantages: permitting rainwater, sand & grit to enter sewers. Ladder: steps made of epoxy coated cast iron.

Fig. (3) Manhole cover & frame, CITY OF PETALUMA,[3] 2. Cleanouts: They may be used instead of manholes as an economy measure. They permit flushing the sewer with a fire hose & rods mat also be inserted to clear heavy obstructions. Some cities not permit cleanouts. They may be used at head end of small sewers.

Fig. (4) Clean out, CITY OF PETALUMA, [3]


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3. Inlets

Fig. (5) Grade and curb-opening inlets. They are openings into a storm or combined sewer for entrance of storm runoff. They placed at: 1. Street intersections, they located near the intersection but not in it, why? a. Crosswalks will not flooded. b. Inlets will not subjected to traffic wear & damage. 2. Midpoints of the blocks for > 150m (500ft) long. Locally 40m, why? Inlets connected to: 1. A manhole, or 2. Through Ys at nearest points. Design of curb- opening inlet Curb- opening inlet (Fig.5)

Capacity determination by using Manning formula, Q = K (z/n) * S1/2 * y8/3 Where: Q = gutter flow, z = reciprocal of transverse slope of gutter bottom, n = 0.015, S = gutter slope, y = water depth in gutter at curb line, K = constant = (units) = 22.6 (m3/min, m) = 0.56 (ft3/s, ft) ---- (1)

Table (1) Capacities of inlets per m length. Depth Depth Capacity Depth Depth Capacity of flow of per m of of flow of per m of in gutter depression length in gutter depression length 3 mm mm m /mm mm mm m3/mm (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) 15 0 90 0 0.641 25 0.351 25 1.143 50 0.825 50 1.784 75 1.394 75 2.508 100 1.990 100 3.289 125 2.843 125 4.225 30 0 0.123 120 0 0.975 25 0.479 25 1.544 50 1.003 50 2.23 75 1.617 75 3.01 100 2.341 100 3.802 125 3.094 125 4.794 60 0 0.346 150 0 1.377 25 0.786 25 2.018 50 1.366 50 2.731 75 1.996 75 3.567 100 2.787 100 4.437 125 3.623 125 5.295

Example: The storm water runoff in a gutter at an inlet is 2.55 m3/min. The transverse slope of gutter is 0.0156 & its longitudinal slope is 0.03. The value of n=0.015. Determine the value of y & inlet capacity per meter of length. Solution: z = 1/0.0156 = 64 Q = K (z/n) * S1/2 * y8/3 2.55 = 22.6 *(64/0.015) * (0.03)1/2 * y8/3 y = 0.037m. From Table (1) Choose depression = 75mm With y = 30mm Q = 1.617 y = 37mm ? y = 60mm 1.996 30 0.379 7 x x = (7 0.379)/30 = 0.088 m3/min For y = 37mm Q = 1.617 + 0.088 = 1.705m3/min/m length. Inlet length = 2.55/1.705 = 1.5m. ******************************** 4.Catch Basins (Fig.6) Catch basin is an inlet with a basin which allows debris to settle out. Outlet pipe is trapped in order to prevent escape of odors from sewer & causes retention of floating matter. It is limited in use, why. Advantages: Collect sand, grits, & floating objects. Disadvantages: 1. Produce mosquitoes. 2. Source of odors. 3. Must be cleaned frequently, this is costly. This done by pumping the basin contents into trucks by means of a portable centrifugal pump.

Fig. (6) Catch basin 5. Flushing Devices Formerly automatic flush tanks were used at upper ends of laterals where grades are low. Now they dont used. The flush is 750L of water. 6. Grease & Oil Traps Grease traps (Fig.7). They used after sewers from kitchens, hotels, garages & restaurants to trap grease which tends to accumulate on sewer walls & cause clogging.

Fig. (7) Grease trap, IRAC, [2]

Road drain

Fig. (8) Drainage of Flexible Paving

Fig. (9) Drainage of Rigid Paving Flap Gates (Fig. 10)

Reference: 1. City of Perry, Georgia, US, 2004, "Water & Sanitary Sewer Standard Specifications" JMM Inc., Gravity Sewer Installation Guide. 2. Interagency Resource for Achieving Cooperation (IRAC), 2004, "A Guide to restaurant grease management". 3. US CITY OF PETALUMA, 2000, "SEWER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS"