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Water Pollution
1st semester 2012-2013

TYPES OF WATER POLLUTION


POINT SOURCE
pollution flowing from a single and identifiable source such as discharge pipe from a factory, roadway, or leaking underground storage tank

POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

NON-POINT SOURCE
pollution collected by rain falling over a larger watershed which is then carried by runoff to a nearby lake or stream, or by infiltration into the groundwater

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POINT SOURCE POLLUTION


Hazardous and toxic materials from manufacturing and industry discharged directly into the water usually through a pipe or a leaky underground tank Oil and gasoline Solvents (toxic liquids) Toxins and poisons Heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, etc.) THERMAL POLLUTION - heated water causes the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in a body of water to decrease - can result in fish kills

NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

A HARDER PROBLEM TO SOLVE

THE CHANGING URBAN LANDSCAPE


Changing the landscape changes the amount of runoff in a watershed NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION is pollutants being collected by rainwater falling over a large watershed and carried directly to a river, lake or stream Gas, oil, chemicals, detergents containing phosphorus, trash and other pollutants collected off driveways, roads and city streets flow directly down drains and storm sewers to a nearby body of water untreated

THE CHANGING RURAL LANDSCAPE


MODERN FARMING IS A MAJOR SOURCE OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION
Pesticides (bug killer) and herbicides (weed killer) can wash into nearby lakes and rivers Crop fields, especially after harvest, can wash large amounts of dirt and sediment into nearby lakes and rivers Animal waste and manure can be a source of nutrients and harmful bacteria Fertilizer can be a source of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, entering nearby lakes and rivers leading to the serious problem of EUTROPHICATION

EUTROPHICATION
The story of nutrients, algal blooms and fish kills
HEALTHY LAKE
AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF WHEN FARMS ATTACK! huge corporate farms, due their size, use large quantities of fertilizers, herbicides (weed killers) and pesticides (bug killers) huge corporate livestock farms (cows, pigs, etc.) concentrate animal waste and manure in one place, thus concentrating nutrients and bacteria in rain runoff

EUTROPHIC LAKE

BIGGER FARM = BIGGER PROBLEM

URBAN & SUBURBAN RUNOFF THE UGLY SIDE OF A BEAUTIFUL LAWN & GARDEN fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides used on lawn and gardens can get into rainwater runoff and groundwater

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Eutrophication
-natural process in the aging of a confined body of water such as lake As nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen are supplied organisms grow, reproduce and die, remains settle at the bottom and a layer of bottom sediments builds up and lake becomes shallower, lake is converted to a marsh, choked with plant life and eventually disappears

can be accelerated by human activities inside and around the lake which result in the influx of more and more nutrients, results in algal bloom Algal blooms increased in nutrient levels permit algae to multiply rapidly until they exhausted supply of elements, starve and die, decomposition lead to depletion of dissolved oxygen and results to fish kill Observed many times in Laguna de Bay

CONSTRUCTION & MINING


Clear-cutting trees and plowing a field to create a mining or construction site can be a major source of non-point source pollutants
Without the trees and the plants in the field to hold the soil in place, large amounts of dirt and sediment can be discharged into a nearby lake or stream Can be a source of toxic chemicals, acids, or heavy metals used in the construction or mining process

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION

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Organic Pollutants
a) Sewage from domestic, commercial, foodprocessing and industrial sources contains a wide variety of pollutants, including organic pollutants

b) soap, detergents and phosphate builders c) Biorefractory organics- synthetic chemicals which are nonbiodegradable, low molecular weight compounds of low volatility, aromatic or/and chlorinated hydrocarbons e.g. acetones, camphor, ethylbenzene,chloroform -found in drinking water cause tatse and odor problems -not completely removed by biological treatment, requires physical and chemical means : solvent extraction, ozonation

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d) Pesticides in water refers to any substance which can poison or otherwise eliminate an organism which is considered by man as a pest -classified according to the target organism as insecticides, herbicides, according to chemical properties as inorganic compounds, organophosphates -biological poison, toxic not only to insects but also to birds, fish and mammals -large quantities enter water either directly in applications such as mosquito control or indirectly from drainage and runoffs from agricultural lands

e) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)- found throughout the world in water, sediments, bird tissue and fish tissue - Used as coolant-insulation fluids in transformers and capacitors; as plasticizers and as additives to some epoxy paints - Endocrine disrupter or gender bender, US stopped the manufacture of PCBs and their uses and disposal were strictly controlled

Water Quality Management


Water quality- term used to express the sustainability of water to sustain various uses or processes, any particular use will have certain requirements for the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water Water Quality Monitoring as defined ISO as the programmed process of sampling, measurement and subsequent recording or signalling, or both, of various water characteristics often with the aim of assessing conformity to specified objectives

Monitoring - long term standardized measurement and observation of the aquatic environment in order to define status and trends in the water quality in relation to its sustainability for a purpose or purposes - this purpose is most commonly related to water quality management, which aims to control the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. Aspects of management may include control of pollution, use and abstraction of water, land use, etc

Criteria and Standards


Part of water quality management is the enforcement of pollution control laws and regulation based on water quality criteria and water quality standards Criteria- the scientific data evaluated to derive recommendations for characteristics of water for specific uses water quality criteria do not have regulatory impact but they provide guidelines for the preservation of the intended uses of water

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Water quality standards which are set based on water quality criteria, provide the legal basis for the regulation and enforcement of permissible limits established for the intended use of a particular body of water, establishing standards is subject to political, social, and economic factors Realistic standards are dependent on criteria, designated uses and implementations as well as identification and monitoring procedure.

Water Pollution Control in the Philippines


DENR through EMB is the main government agency responsible for protecting the environment and controlling all forms of pollution of our land, air and waters a. Classification of Philippine waters into their best usages b. Setting of water quality criteria for different parameters and different classes of waters c. Setting of effluent standards for different water quality parameters and different types of industries

Water Classification, Water Quality Criteria and Standards


In 1990, the DENR-EMB, issued two administrative orders (DAO # 34 and DAO #35) containing the revised water usage and classification, water quality criteria and revised effluent standards, respectively, based on the 3978 NPCC Rules and Regulations. Included in the description of the contents of these two administrative orders are representative tables of quality criteria and standards.

Water Usage and Classification. Under DENR Administrative Order No. 34, Philippine surface waters are divided into a) Fresh Surface Waters and b) Coastal and Marine Waters, and then classified according to their beneficial uses as follows: => Fresh Surface Waters (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc) are classified into Classes AA, A, B, C, and D with their corresponding beneficial use designation => Coastal and Marine Waters on the other hand are classified into Classes SA, SB, SC, and SD according to their beneficial uses..

a) Water Quality Criteria, DAO 34 also prescribes the water quality criteria for different types of parameters for different classes of waters. b) Effluent Limitations, DAO 35 prescribes the effluent regulations for different classes of waters and for industries

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Why the need for the Clean Water Act?

Clean Water Act Republic Act 9275

As early as 1996, monitoring of the countrys rivers showed that only 51% of the classified rivers still met the standards for their most beneficial use. The rest were already polluted from domestic, industrial and agricultural sources.

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Most studies point to the fact that domestic wastewater is the principal cause of organic pollution (at 48%) of our water bodies. Yet, only 3% of investments in water supply and sanitation were going to sanitation and sewage treatment.
A recent World Bank report pointed out that Metro Manila was second to the lowest in sewer connections among major cities in Asia and less than 7% compared to 20% for Katmandu, Nepal and 30% for Dhaka, Bangladesh. Thirty-one percent (31%) of all illnesses in the country are attributed to polluted waters. Clearly, to ensure access to clean water for all Filipinos, it was imperative that government put together a comprehensive strategy to protect water quality.

What is the Clean Water Act?


The Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Republic Act No. 9275) aims to protect the countrys water bodies from pollution from land-based sources (industries and commercial establishments, agriculture and community/household activities). It provides for a comprehensive and integrated strategy to prevent and minimize pollution through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all the stakeholders.

How will water quality be managed?


Management of water quality will either be based on watershed, river basin or water resources region. Water quality management areas with similar hydrological, hydrogeological, meteorological or geographic conditions which affect the reaction and diffusion of pollutants in water bodies are to be designated by the DENR in coordination with the National Water Resources Board (NWRB).

Who will manage these areas?


Management will be localized. Multi-sectoral governing boards will be established to manage water quality issues within their jurisdiction.

Who are the members of the Governing Boards?


Governing Boards shall be composed of representatives of mayors and governors as well as local government units, representatives of relevant national government agencies, duly registered nongovernment organizations, the concerned water utility sector and the business sector.

What are the functions of the Governing Boards?


The Governing Boards will formulate strategies to coordinate policies necessary for the effective implementation of this Act. They will create a multi-sectoral group to establish and effect water quality surveillance and monitoring.

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How will discharges of wastewater be controlled?


All owners or operators of facilities that discharge wastewater are required to get a permit to discharge from the DENR or the Laguna Lake Development Authority. Existing industries without any permit are given 12 months from the effectivity of the implementing rules and regulations (IRR) promulgated pursuant to this Act to secure a permit to discharge.

How will domestic wastewater be addressed?


The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), in coordination with local government units will prepare a national program on sewage and septage management not later than 12 months from effectivity of this Act. A priority list will likewise be prepared which will be the basis for the allotment of funds on an annual basis by the national government for the construction and rehabilitation of required facilities.

On the other hand, LGUs are to provide the land including road right of the way for the construction of sewage and/or septage treatment facilities and raise funds for the operations and maintenance of said facilities. The Department of Health (DOH) will formulate guidelines and standards for the collection, treatment and disposal of sewage as well as the guidelines for the establishment and operation of centralized sewage treatment system. The MWSS and other agencies mandated to provide water supply and sewerage facilities are required to connect existing sewage lines, subject to the payment of sewerage service charges/fees within five years following effectivity of this Act. All sources of sewage and septage are required to comply with the law.

How will the discharge of wastewater be discouraged?


Anyone discharging wastewater into a water body will have to pay a wastewater charge. This economic instrument which will be developed in consultation with all concerned stakeholders is expected to encourage investments in cleaner production and pollution control technologies to reduce the amount of pollutants generated and discharged.

Effluent trading per management area will also be allowed.


Rewards will also be given to those whose wastewater discharge is better than the water quality criteria of the receiving body of water. Fiscal and non-fiscal incentives will also be given to LGUs, water districts, enterprise, private entities and individuals who develop and undertake outstanding and innovative projects in water quality management.

What safeguards are provided for?


All possible dischargers are required to put up an environmental guarantee fund (EGF) as part of their environmental management plan. The EGF will finance the conservation of watersheds and aquifers, and the needs of emergency response, clean up or rehabilitation.

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Among others, the Act prohibits the following: Discharging or depositing any water pollutant to the water body, or such which will impede natural flow in the water body Discharging, injecting or allowing to enter into the soil, anything that would pollute groundwater Operating facilities that discharge regulated water pollutants without the valid required permits Disposal of potentially infectious medical waste into sea by vessels Unauthorized transport or dumping into waters of sewage sludge or solid waste.

What are the prohibited acts under R.A. 9275?

Transport, dumping or discharge of prohibited chemicals, substances or pollutants listed under Toxic Chemicals, Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act (Republic.Act No. 6969) Discharging regulated water pollutants without the valid required discharge permit pursuant to this Act Noncompliance of the LGU with the Water Quality Framework and Management Area Action Plan Refusal to allow entry, inspection and monitoring as well as access to reports and records by the DENR in accordance with this Act

Refusal or failure to submit reports and/or designate pollution control officers whenever required by the DENR in accordance with this Act Directly using booster pumps in the distribution system or tampering with the water supply in such a way to alter or impair the water quality Operate facilities that discharge or allow to seep, willfully or through grave negligence, prohibited chemicals, substances, or pollutants listed under R.A. No. 6969, into water bodies. Undertake activities or development and expansion of projects, or operating wastewater treatment/sewerage facilities in violation of P.D.1586

What are the fines and penalties imposed on polluters?


Upon the recommendation of the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB), anyone who commits prohibited acts such as discharging untreated wastewater into any water body will be fined for every day of violation, the amount of not less than Php 10,000 but not more than Php 200,000.

Failure to undertake clean-up operations willfully shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than two years and not more than four years. This also includes a fine of not less than Php 50,000 and not more than Php 100,000 per day of violation. Failure or refusal to clean up which results in serious injury or loss of life or lead to irreversible water contamination of surface, ground, coastal and marine water shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than 6 years and 1 day and not more than 12 years and a fine of Php 500,000/day for each day the contamination or omission continues.

In cases of gross violation, a fine of not less than Php 500,000 but not more than Php 3,000,000 will be imposed for each day of violation. Criminal charges may also be filed

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Who should implement the Clean Water Act?


The DENR is the primary government agency responsible for the implementation and enforcement of this Act, with the support of other government organizations, local government units, non -government organizations and the private sector.

Towards this end, the DENR will review and set affluent standards, review and enforce water quality guidelines, classify groundwater sources and prepare a national groundwater vulnerability map, classify or reclassify water bodies, establish internationally accepted procedures for sampling and analysis, prepare an integrated water quality management framework and subsequently prepare 10-year management plans for each water management area.

The roles of other key government agencies are:


The Philippine Coast Guard shall enforce water quality standards in marine waters, specifically from offshore sources. The Department of Public Works and Highways through its attached agencies shall provide sewerage and sanitation facilities, and the efficient and safe collection, treatment and disposal of sewage within their area of jurisdiction.

The Department of Agriculture shall formulate guidelines for the re-use of wastewater for irrigation and other agricultural uses and for the prevention, control and abatement of pollution from agricultural and aquaculture activities. The Department of Health shall set, revise and enforce drinking water quality standards.

The Department of Science and Technology shall evaluate, verify, develop and disseminate pollution prevention and cleaner production technologies. The Department of Education, Commission on Higher Education, Department of Interior and Local Government, and the Philippine Information Agency shall prepare and implement a comprehensive and continuing public education and information program.

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