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Lecture 17 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT): Part 1 Qualitative Understanding - How do they work? Reading: Pierret 10.1-10.6, 11.

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ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

Looks sort of like two diodes back to back

pnp mnemonic: Pouring N Pot


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npn mnemonic: Not Pouring N


ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Voltage Nomenclature Standard V+-

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Emitter emits holes Narrow Base controls number of holes emitted Collector collects holes emitted by the emitter

Emitter emits electrons Narrow Base controls number of electrons emitted


ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals


Collector collects electrons emitted by the emitter

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

I E = I B + IC V EB + VBC + VCE = 0

Georgia Tech

ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

Both the input and output share the base in common


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Both the input and output share the emitter in common

Both the input and output share the Collector in common


ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

Active: Is useful for amplifiers. Most common mode Saturation: Equivalent to an on state when transistor is used as a switch Cutoff : Equivalent to an off state when transistor is used as a switch Inverted: Rarely if ever used.

Georgia Tech

ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals Equilibrium


Base Emitter Collector Emitter Forward Biased Forward Biased

Saturation
Base Collector

Cutoff

Active (or Forward Active)


Emitter Accelerated by the Electric Field

Base Collector Emitter Reverse Biased


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Base Forward Biased

Reverse Biased

Collector Reversed Biased


ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals


Operational modes can be defined based on base-emitter voltages and base-collector voltages

When there is no base current, almost no collector current flows When base current flows, a collector current can flow The device is then a current controlled current device

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ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals: Electrostatics in Equilibrium


Emitter Doping >Base Doping>Collector Doping Emitter is heavily doped W=width of the base quasi-neutral region WB=Total Base width WEB=Base-Emitter depletion width WCB=Base-Collector depletion width WEB< WCB
Base-Collector built in voltage

Base-Emitter built in voltage

Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor Georgia Tech ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals


Equilibrium

Active Mode
Few electrons injected into the emitter

Forward Biased

Narrow Base required to minimize recombination

Many Holes injected into the base

Reverse Biased
Injected Holes diffuse through the base and are collected by the huge electric field at the collector
Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor

Georgia Tech

ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

Note: Subscript indicates emitter/collector current (E/C) and hole/electron contribution (p/n)

I E = I Ep + I En I C = I Cp + I Cn

Neglecting recombinationgeneration means ICp~=IEp

Since emitter is more heavily doped than the base, IEn<<IEp Since the base-collector junction is reverse biased, ICn<<Icp IC ~=IE and (IB= IE - IC ) is small compared to IC and IE
Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor Georgia Tech ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals

Consider a pnp Transistor: A small electron base current (flowing into the emitter from the base) controls a larger hole current flowing from emitter to collector. Effectively, we can have the collector-emitter current controlled by the base-emitter current.
Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor Georgia Tech ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals:


Performance Parameters

(1)

I Ep IE

I Ep I Ep + I En

Emitter Efficiency: Characterizes how effective the large hole current is controlled by the small electron current. Unity is best, zero is worst. Base Transport Factor: Characterizes how much of the injected hole current is lost to recombination in the base. Unity is best, zero is worst.

(2) T

I Cp I Ep

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Note: This slide refersDr. a pnp transistor ECE 3040 - to Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals:


Performance Parameters Active Mode, Common Base Characteristics
ICBo is defined as the collector current when the emitter is open circuited. It is the Collector-base ICBo junction saturation current. Reverse

Forward Biased

Reverse Biased

Biased

IC=fraction of emitter current making it across the base + leakage current

(3)

I C = dc I E + I CBo

where dc is the common base DC current gain

Combining (1) and (2),

I Cp = T I Ep = T I E

I C = I Cp + I Cn = T I Ep + I Cn = T I E + I Cn
Thus comparing this to (3),

dc = T
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and

I CBo = I Cn

Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle

Bipolar Junction Transistor Fundamentals:


Performance Parameters Reverse Active Mode, Common Emitter Characteristics Biased ICEo is defined as the Forward Biased
collector current when the base is open circuited.

IC=multiple of the base current making it across the base + leakage current

(4)

I C = dc I B + I CEo where dc is the common emitter DC current gain


and solving for I C

But using IE=IC+IB in (2), (5) I C = dc (I C + I B ) + I CBo

(6)

IC =

I dc I B + CBo 1 dc 1 dc and I CEo = I CBo 1 dc and

comparing (4) and (6)

dc =
Note: This slide refers to a pnp transistor Georgia Tech

dc 1 dc

dc =

IC IB

ECE 3040 - Dr. Alan Doolittle