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Dry Stone Wall Cross sections

Boulder Wall:

Double Wall:

Cornish Hedge:

Turf Cap-stone Cap-stone

Local stones

Rubble Tie-stone Earth

Large flatter boulders

Boulder wall is a type of single wall in which the wall consists primarily of large boulders. The largest stones are being placed at the bottom and the whole wall tapers toward the top. Sometimes a row of cap-stones completes the wall, with the long rectangular side of each cap-stone perpendicular to the wall alignment.

Double wall is composed of large flattish stone and is built up layer-by-layer. Large tie-stones are placed at intervals which span both faces of the wall. These have a bonding effect, greatly increasing the strength of the wall. The final layer on the top consists of large cap-stones, span the entire width of the wall and prevent it breaking apart.

The typical Cornish Hedge has an earth core, faced each side with local stones, topped by turf, scrub, or trees. They are usually tapered with an inward curve from the base to half-way up. As with many other varieties of wall, the height is the same as the width of the base, and the top is half the base width. This is vital for the stability of the hedge structure.

FURTHER RESEARCH
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Path Lines for Boulder Wall

Outline

One side to another

Acute angle

Right angle

Obtuse angle

One stone to another

Cross Section

Boulder Wall 1

Boulder Wall 2

Material Investigation
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Path Lines for Double Wall

Cross Section

Double Wall 1

Double Wall 2

Material Investigation
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Path Lines for Cornish Hedge

Cross Section

Cornish Hedge 1

Cornish Hedge 2

Material Investigation
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Path line Overlays For Boulder Walls

Boulder Wall 1

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Boulder Wall 2

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
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Path Line Overlays For Double Walls

Cross Section

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Double Wall 1

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Double Wall 2

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Path Line Overlays For Cornish Hedge


Cornish Hedge 1

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Cornish Hedge 2

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Line Combinations For Boulder Walls

Boulder Wall 2 + Boulder Wall 1 + Cross Section

Outline

One stone to another

Centered

Aligned start points Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Acute angle

One side to another

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Right angle

Obtuse angle

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Line Combinations For Double Walls

Doublle Wall 1 + Double Wall 2 + Cross Seciton

Right angle

One side to another

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Outline

Acute angle

Obtuse angle

Centered

Aligned start points Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

One stone to another

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Line Combinations For Cornish Hedge


Outline One stone to another

Cornish Hedge 1 + Cornish Hedge 2 + Cross Section

Centered

Aligned start points Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

One side to another

Acute angle

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Right angle

Obtuse angle

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Centered

Aligned start points

Aligned end points

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Negative Spaces

Boulder Wall:

Double Wall:

Material Investigation
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3D Forms - Outline
Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Aligned Centered Aligned start points end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Centered Aligned Aligned start points end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

3D Forms - One side to another


Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

3D Forms - Acute angle


Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

3D Forms - Right angle


Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

3D Forms - Obtuse angle


Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Level 1 Aligned start points Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

3D Forms - One stone to another


Boulder Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Double Walls

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Cornish Hedge

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Top

Front

Section

Right

Perspective

Perspective

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Scale

Boulder wall - One side to another

Boulder wall - Acute angle

Double wall - Outline

Cornish Hedge - One side to another

Boulder wall - Obtuse angle

Boulder wall - One stone to another

Material Investigation
TESSA (YICHEN) SONG

Negative Spaces
Boulder Wall - One stone to another Cornish Hedge - One side to another Double Wall - One stone to another Double Wall - Right angle

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Level 3 Centered

Level 2 Aligned start points

Level 1 Aligned end points

Level 3 Centered

Level 1 Level 2 Aligned Aligned start points end points

Level 3

Level 3

Level 3

Level 3

Level 2

Level 2

Level 2

Level 2

Level 1

Level 1

Level 1

Level 1

Material Investigation
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