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Integrated Pest Management of Citrus

Beth Grafton-Cardwell
60% Extension & 40% Research Entomologist: UC Riverside, stationed at the Kearney Ag Center Director: Lindcove Research and Extension Center

California Citrus Growing Regions

Sa Joaqu San Joaquin Valley navels, a ey a e s, Valencias & mandarins (>75% of citrus)
KAC LREC

Southern Interior Navels & Valencias

Coastal Lemons
UC Riverside

Desert Grapefruit

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citrus Red Mite Citrus Thrips Katydid Cutworm, fruit tree leafroller, amorbia California red scale Citricola scale

Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri

Fairly easily controlled by natural enemies and soft pesticides such as oils and miticides d iti id
Predatory mite, Euseius tularensis

Mite damaged

Undamaged

Summer heat + virus Cosmetic damage Lower yield

Citrus Thrips, Scirtothrips citri

Winged, adult citrus thrips

Wingless thrips nymphs


Cosmetic damage Natural enemies help help, but dont bring scarring below an economic threshold Wingless, 1st and 2nd instar thrips
Predatory mite, Euseius tularensis

Forktailed Bush Katydid, Scudderia furcata


Cosmetic damage Biological control is minimal and damage is heavy = pesticides are necessary

Citrus Cutworm, Egira curialis

Parasitic wasps, P iti Ophion spp.

Biological control is very effective if broad spectrum insecticides are avoided

Cosmetic Damage
Cutworm Katydid Thrips

Equipment

Hail

Wind/sand

Branch rubbing

Price per box Navels Valencias Mandarins

Juice $1.50 $1.60 $0.28

Choice $13.13 $12.50 $17.50

Fancy $25.30 $20.50 $29.70

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citrus Red Mite Citrus Thrips Katydid K did Spinetoram + Pyrethroid or organophosphate

Cutworm, fruit tree leafroller, amorbia

California red scale Citricola scale

Broad spectrum Soft on natural enemies

California Red Scale, Aonidiella aurantii


Downgrading of fruit Yield Loss

Biological control is very effective if broad spectrum insecticides p are avoided and trees are cared for

Parasitic wasp, Aphytis melinus

High pressure spray washer removes scale300 psi (21kg/cm2)

August

Parasitized scales flake off

September

Pesticide treatments timed using degree days = accumulation of the average daily temperature above the lower developmental threshold (53oF)

20000
1650 DD

300
1100 DD

Mal scale per ca le e ard

250 200 150 100

15000
550 DD Insecticides

10000

Insecticides

5000 50 0 13-Mar 27-Apr 11-Jun 0 24-Oct

26-Jul

9-Sep

Male Scale

Crawlers

Cr rawlers per tap pe

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citrus Red Mite Citrus Thrips Katydid K did Spinetoram + Pyrethroid P rethroid or organophosphate

Cutworm, fruit tree leafroller, amorbia California red scale Aphytis wasps or Pyriproxyfen

Citricola scale

Broad spectrum Soft on natural enemies

Citricola Scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum


Sooty mold Yield

Biological control is poor because appropriate g y host stage sizes are not always available = pesticides are necessary

Citricola Scale Lifecycle San Joaquin Valley


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Egg-laying Females on twigs

Eggs Crawlers
1st i instar nymphs on l h leaves

2nd instars on leaves 2nd i 2 d instars on twigs 2nd instars on twigs


Chlorpyrifos Imidacloprid Acetamiprid

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citrus Red Mite Citrus Thrips Katydid Caterpillars


Aphytis Pyriproxyfen Spinetoram + Pyrethroid

California red scale


Chlorpyrifos Imidacloprid, Acetamiprid

Citricola scale

Average number of insecticides applied to citrus each year: 3

Invasive Pests Affecting California Citrus


*Glassy-winged sharpshooter (1995) *Gl i d h h t *Citrus Peelminer (1998) *Citrus Leafminer (2000) Diaprepes Root Weevil (2005) Di R tW il Light Brown Apple Moth (2007) Asian Citrus Psyllid (2008) Fruit Flies (periodic)

*Infesting San Joaquin Valley citrus

Citrus Leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella

Economic damage for nurseries and new plantings of citrus

2000+ 2000

1994 1995

1993

We are one of the last citrus growing regions on earth to be invaded by citrus leafminer

2006

2000

Potential for Biological Control


Citrus leafminer and Citrus peelminer share many of the same p y parasites: Closterocerus Pnigalio Chrysocharis Sympiesis Cirrospilus

Pesticide and pheromone treatments for citrus leafminer recommended for nurseries and new plantings g Neonicotinoids: acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran Oil at frequent intervals methoxyfenozide Insect growth regulators: I t th l t diflubenzuron, neem abamectin abamectin spinetoram Spirotetramt p rynaxypyr, cyazypyr

Broad spectrum Soft on natural enemies

Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri

Tamarixia wasp Lady beetles

Bacterial Huanglongbing (citrus greening) disease


Leaves yellow, the fruit is small, doesnt color properly, forms uneven segments, th f t the juice turns bitter and eventually the tree dies

The distribution of the psyllid and HLB disease in North and Central America
Distribution of Asian citrus psyllid in orange and distribution of Huanglongbing in green.

CDFA: Trapping ACP and treating infested backyard citrus Citrus Industry: Trapping for ACP in commercial citrus, testing leaves for HLB, funding research, research supporting regulatory changes University of California: Research, scientific advice, extension education of growers and the general public

2008

1998

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Citrus Red Mite Citrus Thrips Katydid K did Caterpillars California red scale
Aphytis Pyriproxyfen Spinetoram + Pyrethroid P th id

Citricola scale
Asian citrus psyllid Pyrethroid

Chlorpyrifos Imidacloprid, Acetamiprid

Systemic Imidacloprid or Thiamethoxam

Pyrethroid

Grower psyllid management strategies


www.ucanr.org/sites/KACCitrusEntomology

Homeowner assistance
www.CaliforniaCitrusThreat.org www.peligrancitricosencalifornia.com

Radio, Newspapers, TV Posters, bookmarks, doorhangers Workshops with ppt, quizzing World wide web informational sites and training

Goa s of California Citrus Goals o Ca o a C t us IPM


Manage pests in a way that is economical and sustainable. Minimize broad spectrum pesticide use to maximize natural enemies. Address pesticide resistance, worker safety, safety and environmental issues.