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# CHAPTER 10

10.1. In Fig. 10.4, let B = 0.2 cos 120t T, and assume that the conductor joining the two ends of the resistor
is perfect. It may be assumed that the magnetic eld produced by I (t ) is negligible. Find:
a) V
ab
(t ): Since B is constant over the loop area, the ux is = (0.15)
2
B = 1.4110
2
cos 120t
Wb. Now, emf = V
ba
(t ) = d/dt = (120)(1.41 10
2
) sin 120t . Then V
ab
(t ) =
V
ba
(t ) = 5.33 sin 120t V.
b) I (t ) = V
ba
(t )/R = 5.33 sin(120t )/250 = 21.3 sin(120t ) mA
10.2. Given the time-varying magnetic eld, B = (0.5a
x
+ 0.6a
y
0.3a
z
) cos 5000t T, and a square la-
mentary loop with its corners at (2,3,0), (2,-3,0), (-2,3,0), and (-2,-3,0), nd the time-varying current
owing in the general a

## direction if the total loop resistance is 400 k: We write

emf =
_
E dL =
d
dt
=
d
dt
_ _
loop area
B a
z
da =
d
dt
(0.3)(4)(6) cos 5000t
where the loop normal is chosen as positive a
z
, so that the path integral for Eis taken around the positive
a

## direction. Taking the derivative, we nd

emf = 7.2(5000) sin 5000t so that I =
emf
R
=
36000 sin 5000t
400 10
3
= 90 sin 5000t mA
10.3. Given H = 300 a
z
cos(3 10
8
t y) A/m in free space, nd the emf developed in the general a

## direction about the closed path having corners at

a) (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), and (0,1,0): The magnetic ux will be:
=
_
1
0
_
1
0
300
0
cos(3 10
8
t y) dx dy = 300
0
sin(3 10
8
t y)|
1
0
= 300
0
_
sin(3 10
8
t 1) sin(3 10
8
t )
_
Wb
Then
emf =
d
dt
= 300(3 10
8
)(4 10
7
)
_
cos(3 10
8
t 1) cos(3 10
8
t )
_
= 1.13 10
5
_
cos(3 10
8
t 1) cos(3 10
8
t )
_
V
b) corners at (0,0,0), (2,0,0), (2,2,0), (0,2,0): In this case, the ux is
= 2 300
0
sin(3 10
8
t y)|
2
0
= 0
The emf is therefore 0.
167
10.4. Conductor surfaces are located at = 1cm and = 2cm in free space. The volume 1 cm < < 2 cm
contains the elds H

= (2/) cos(610
8
t 2z) A/m and E

= (240/) cos(610
8
t 2z)
V/m.
a) Show that these two elds satisfy Eq. (6), Sec. 10.1: Have
E =
E

z
a

=
2(240)

sin(6 10
8
t 2z) a

=
480
2

sin(6 10
8
t 2z)a

Then

B
t
=
2
0
(6 10
8
)

sin(6 10
8
t 2z) a

=
(8 10
7
)(6 10
8
)

sin(6 10
8
t 2z) =
480
2

sin(6 10
8
t 2z) a

b) Evaluate both integrals in Eq. (4) for the planar surface dened by = 0, 1cm < < 2cm,
0 < z < 0.1m (note misprint in problem statement), and its perimeter, and show that the same
results are obtained: we take the normal to the surface as positive a

## , so the the loop surrounding

the surface (by the right hand rule) is in the negative a

a

## direction at z = 0.1. Taking the left hand side rst, we nd

_
E dL =
_
.01
.02
240

cos(6 10
8
t ) a

d
+
_
.02
.01
240

cos(6 10
8
t 2(0.1)) a

d
= 240 cos(6 10
8
t ) ln
_
1
2
_
+240 cos(6 10
8
t 0.2) ln
_
2
1
_
= 240(ln 2)
_
cos(6 10
8
t 0.2) cos(6 10
8
t )
_
Now for the right hand side. First,
_
B dS =
_
0.1
0
_
.02
.01
8 10
7

cos(6 10
8
t 2z) a

d dz
=
_
0.1
0
(8 10
7
) ln 2 cos(6 10
8
t 2z) dz
= 4 10
7
ln 2
_
sin(6 10
8
t 0.2) sin(6 10
8
t )
_
Then

d
dt
_
B dS = 240(ln 2)
_
cos(6 10
8
t 0.2) cos(6 10
8
t )
_
(check)
10.5. The location of the sliding bar in Fig. 10.5 is given by x = 5t +2t
3
, and the separation of the two rails
is 20 cm. Let B = 0.8x
2
a
z
T. Find the voltmeter reading at:
a) t = 0.4 s: The ux through the loop will be
=
_
0.2
0
_
x
0
0.8(x

)
2
dx

dy =
0.16
3
x
3
=
0.16
3
(5t +2t
3
)
3
Wb
168
Then
emf =
d
dt
=
0.16
3
(3)(5t +2t
3
)
2
(5+6t
2
) = (0.16)[5(.4) +2(.4)
3
]
2
[5+6(.4)
2
] = 4.32 V
b) x = 0.6 m: Have 0.6 = 5t +2t
3
, from which we nd t = 0.1193. Thus
emf = (0.16)[5(.1193) +2(.1193)
3
]
2
[5 +6(.1193)
2
] = .293 V
10.6. A perfectly conducting lament containing a small 500-resistor is formed into a square, as illustrated
in Fig. 10.6. Find I (t ) if
a) B = 0.3 cos(120t 30

) a
z
T: First the ux through the loop is evaluated, where the unit normal
to the loop is a
z
. We nd
=
_
loop
B dS = (0.3)(0.5)
2
cos(120t 30

) Wb
Then the current will be
I (t ) =
emf
R
=
1
R
d
dt
=
(120)(0.3)(0.25)
500
sin(120t 30

) = 57 sin(120t 30

) mA
b) B = 0.4 cos[(ct y)] a
z
T where c = 3 10
8
m/s: Since the eld varies with y, the ux is
now
=
_
loop
B dS = (0.5)(0.4)
_
.5
0
cos(y ct ) dy =
0.2

## [sin(ct /2) sin(ct )] Wb

The current is then
I (t ) =
emf
R
=
1
R
d
dt
=
0.2c
500
[cos(ct /2) cos(ct )] A
=
0.2(3 10
8
)
500
[sin(ct ) cos(ct )] A = 120 [cos(ct ) sin(ct )] mA
10.7. The rails in Fig. 10.7 each have a resistance of 2.2 /m. The bar moves to the right at a constant speed
of 9 m/s in a uniform magnetic eld of 0.8 T. Find I (t ), 0 < t < 1 s, if the bar is at x = 2 m at t = 0
and
a) a 0.3 resistor is present across the left end with the right end open-circuited: The ux in the
left-hand closed loop is

l
= B area = (0.8)(0.2)(2 +9t )
Then, emf
l
= d
l
/dt = (0.16)(9) = 1.44 V. With the bar in motion, the loop resistance is
increasing with time, and is given by R
l
(t ) = 0.3 +2[2.2(2 +9t )]. The current is now
I
l
(t ) =
emf
l
R
l
(t )
=
1.44
9.1 +39.6t
A
Note that the sign of the current indicates that it is owing in the direction opposite that shown in
the gure.
169
b) Repeat part a, but with a resistor of 0.3 across each end: In this case, there will be a contribution
to the current from the right loop, which is now closed. The ux in the right loop, whose area
decreases with time, is

r
= (0.8)(0.2)[(16 2) 9t ]
and emf
r
= d
r
/dt = (0.16)(9) = 1.44 V. The resistance of the right loop is R
r
(t ) =
0.3 +2[2.2(14 9t )], and so the contribution to the current from the right loop will be
I
r
(t ) =
1.44
61.9 39.6t
A
The minus sign has been inserted because again the current must ow in the opposite direction
as that indicated in the gure, with the ux decreasing with time. The total current is found by
adding the part a result, or
I
T
(t ) = 1.44
_
1
61.9 39.6t
+
1
9.1 +39.6t
_
A
10.8. Fig. 10.1 is modied to show that the rail separation is larger when y is larger. Specically, let the
separation d = 0.2 +0.02y. Given a uniform velocity v
y
= 8 m/s and a uniform magnetic ux density
B
z
= 1.1 T, nd V
12
as a function of time if the bar is located at y = 0 at t = 0: The ux through the
loop as a function of y can be written as
=
_
B dS =
_
y
0
_
.2+.02y

0
1.1 dx dy

=
_
y
0
1.1(.2 +.02y

) dy

= 0.22y(1 +.05y)
Now, with y = vt = 8t , the above becomes = 1.76t (1 +.40t ). Finally,
V
12
=
d
dt
= 1.76(1 +.80t ) V
10.9. Asquare lamentary loop of wire is 25 cmon a side and has a resistance of 125 per meter length. The
loop lies in the z = 0 plane with its corners at (0, 0, 0), (0.25, 0, 0), (0.25, 0.25, 0), and (0, 0.25, 0) at
t = 0. The loop is moving with velocity v
y
= 50 m/s in the eld B
z
= 8 cos(1.5 10
8
t 0.5x) T.
Develop a function of time which expresses the ohmic power being delivered to the loop: First, since
the eld does not vary with y, the loop motion in the y direction does not produce any time-varying
ux, and so this motion is immaterial. We can evaluate the ux at the original loop position to obtain:
(t ) =
_
.25
0
_
.25
0
8 10
6
cos(1.5 10
8
t 0.5x) dx dy
= (4 10
6
)
_
sin(1.5 10
8
t 0.13x) sin(1.5 10
8
t )
_
Wb
Now, emf = V(t ) = d/dt = 6.0 10
2
_
cos(1.5 10
8
t 0.13x) cos(1.5 10
8
t )
_
, The total
loop resistance is R = 125(0.25 +0.25 +0.25 +0.25) = 125 . Then the ohmic power is
P(t ) =
V
2
(t )
R
= 2.9 10
3
_
cos(1.5 10
8
t 0.13x) cos(1.5 10
8
t )
_
Watts
170
10.10a. Show that the ratio of the amplitudes of the conduction current density and the displacement current
density is / for the applied eld E = E
m
cos t . Assume =
0
. First, D = E = E
m
cos t .
Then the displacement current density is D/t = E
m
sin t . Second, J
c
= E = E
m
cos t .
Using these results we nd |J
c
|/|J
d
| = /.
b. What is the amplitude ratio if the applied eld is E = E
m
e
t /
, where is real? As before, nd
D = E = E
m
e
t /
, and so J
d
= D/t = (/)E
m
e
t /
. Also, J
c
= E
m
e
t /
. Finally,
|J
c
|/|J
d
| = /.
10.11. Let the internal dimension of a coaxial capacitor be a = 1.2 cm, b = 4 cm, and l = 40 cm. The
homogeneous material inside the capacitor has the parameters = 10
11
F/m, = 10
5
H/m, and
= 10
5
S/m. If the electric eld intensity is E = (10
6
/) cos(10
5
t )a

## V/m (note missing t in the

argument of the cosine in the book), nd:
a) J: Use
J = E =
_
10

_
cos(10
5
t )a

A/m
2
b) the total conduction current, I
c
, through the capacitor: Have
I
c
=
_ _
J dS = 2lJ = 20l cos(10
5
t ) = 8 cos(10
5
t ) A
c) the total displacement current, I
d
, through the capacitor: First nd
J
d
=
D
t
=

t
(E) =
(10
5
)(10
11
)(10
6
)

sin(10
5
t )a

=
1

sin(10
5
t ) A/m
Now
I
d
= 2lJ
d
= 2l sin(10
5
t ) = 0.8 sin(10
5
t ) A
d) the ratio of the amplitude of I
d
to that of I
c
, the quality factor of the capacitor: This will be
|I
d
|
|I
c
|
=
0.8
8
= 0.1
10.12. Given a coaxial transmission line with b/a = e
2.5
,
R
=
R
= 1, and an electric eld intensity
E = (200/) cos(10
9
t 3.336z) a

V/m, nd:
a) V
ab
, the voltage between the conductors, if it is known that electrostatic relationship E = V
is valid; We use
V
ab
=
_
a
b
200

cos(10
9
t 3.336z) d = 200 ln
_
b
a
_
cos(10
9
t 3.336z)
= 500 cos(10
9
t 3.336z) V
b) the displacement current density;
J
d
=
D
t
=
200 10
9

sin(10
9
t 3.336z)a

=
1.77

sin(10
9
t 3.336z)a

A/m
2
171
10.13. Consider the region dened by |x|, |y|, and |z| < 1. Let
R
= 5,
R
= 4, and = 0. If J
d
=
20 cos(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
y
A/m
2
;
a) nd D and E: Since J
d
= D/t , we write
D =
_
J
d
dt +C =
20 10
6
1.5 10
8
sin(1.5 10
8
bx)a
y
= 1.33 10
13
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
y
C/m
2
where the integration constant is set to zero (assuming no dc elds are present). Then
E =
D

=
1.33 10
13
(5 8.85 10
12
)
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
y
= 3.0 10
3
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
y
V/m
b) use the point form of Faradays law and an integration with respect to time to nd B and H: In
this case,
E =
E
y
x
a
z
= b(3.0 10
3
) cos(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
z
=
B
t
Solve for B by integrating over time:
B =
b(3.0 10
3
)
1.5 10
8
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
z
= (2.0)b 10
11
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
z
T
Now
H =
B

=
(2.0)b 10
11
4 4 10
7
sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
z
= (4.0 10
6
)b sin(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
z
A/m
c) use H = J
d
+J to nd J
d
: Since = 0, there is no conduction current, so in this case
H =
H
z
x
a
y
= 4.0 10
6
b
2
cos(1.5 10
8
t bx)a
y
A/m
2
= J
d
d) What is the numerical value of b? We set the given expression for J
d
equal to the result of part c
to obtain:
20 10
6
= 4.0 10
6
b
2
b =

5.0 m
1
10.14. Avoltage source, V
0
sin t , is connected between two concentric conducting spheres, r = a and r = b,
b > a, where the region between them is a material for which =
R

0
, =
0
, and = 0. Find the
total displacement current through the dielectric and compare it with the source current as determined
from the capacitance (Sec. 5.10) and circuit analysis methods: First, solving Laplaces equation, we
nd the voltage between spheres (see Eq. 20, Chapter 7):
V(t ) =
(1/r) (1/b)
(1/a) (1/b)
V
0
sin t
172
10.14 (continued) Then
E = V =
V
0
sin t
r
2
(1/a 1/b)
a
r
D =

R

0
V
0
sin t
r
2
(1/a 1/b)
a
r
Now
J
d
=
D
t
=

R

0
V
0
cos t
r
2
(1/a 1/b)
a
r
The displacement current is then
I
d
= 4r
2
J
d
=
4
R

0
V
0
cos t
(1/a 1/b)
= C
dV
dt
where, from Eq. 47, Chapter 5,
C =
4
R

0
(1/a 1/b)
The results are consistent.
10.15. Let = 3 10
5
H/m, = 1.2 10
10
F/m, and = 0 everywhere. If H = 2 cos(10
10
t
x)a
z
A/m, use Maxwells equations to obtain expressions for B, D, E, and : First, B = H =
6 10
5
cos(10
10
t x)a
z
T. Next we use
H =
H
x
a
y
= 2 sin(10
10
t x)a
y
=
D
t
from which
D =
_
2 sin(10
10
t x) dt +C =
2
10
10
cos(10
10
t x)a
y
C/m
2
where the integration constant is set to zero, since no dc elds are presumed to exist. Next,
E =
D

=
2
(1.2 10
10
)(10
10
)
cos(10
10
t x)a
y
= 1.67 cos(10
10
t x)a
y
V/m
Now
E =
E
y
x
a
z
= 1.67
2
sin(10
10
t x)a
z
=
B
t
So
B =
_
1.67
2
sin(10
10
t x)a
z
dt = (1.67 10
10
)
2
cos(10
10
t x)a
z
We require this result to be consistent with the expression for B originally found. So
(1.67 10
10
)
2
= 6 10
5
173
10.16a. A certain material has = 0 and
R
= 1. If H = 4 sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
y
A/m, make use of Maxwells
equations to nd
R
: First nd
H =
H
y
z
a
x
= 0.04 cos(10
6
t 0.01z)a
x
=
0
E
t
So
E =
_
.04

0
cos(10
6
t 0.01z)a
x
dt =
.04
10
6

0
sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
x
where the integration constant is zero, since we assume no dc elds present. Next
E =
E
x
z
a
y
=
.04(.01)
10
6

0
cos(10
6
t 0.01z)a
y
=
R

0
H
t
So
H =
_
.04(.01)
10
6

R
cos(10
6
t 0.01z)a
y
dt =
.04(.01)
10
12

R
sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
y
= 4 sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
y
where the last equality is required for consistency. Therefore
.04(.01)
10
12

R
= 4
R
=
(.01)
2
(9 10
16
)
10
12
= 9
b) Find E(z, t ): This we already found during the development in part a: We have
E(z, t ) =
.04
10
6

0
sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
x
V/m = 4.5 sin(10
6
t 0.01z)a
x
kV/m
10.17. The electric eld intensity in the region 0 < x < 5, 0 < y < /12, 0 < z < 0.06 m in free space is
given by E = C sin(12y) sin(az) cos(2 10
10
t ) a
x
V/m. Beginning with the E relationship, use
Maxwells equations to nd a numerical value for a, if it is known that a is greater than zero: In this
case we nd
E =
E
x
z
a
y

E
z
y
a
z
= C
_
a sin(12y) cos(az)a
y
12 cos(12y) sin(az)a
z
_
cos(2 10
10
t ) =
B
t
Then
H =
1

0
_
E dt +C
1
=
C

0
(2 10
10
_
a sin(12y) cos(az)a
y
12 cos(12y) sin(az)a
z
_
sin(2 10
10
t ) A/m
where the integration constant, C
1
= 0, since there are no initial conditions. Using this result, we now
nd
H =
_
H
z
y

H
y
z
_
a
x
=
C(144 +a
2
)

0
(2 10
10
)
sin(12y) sin(az) sin(2 10
10
t ) a
x
=
D
t
174
10.17. (continued) Now
E =
D

0
=
_
1

0
H dt +C
2
=
C(144 +a
2
)

0
(2 10
10
)
2
sin(12y) sin(az) cos(2 10
10
t ) a
x
where C
2
= 0. This eld must be the same as the original eld as stated, and so we require that
C(144 +a
2
)

0
(2 10
10
)
2
= 1
Using
0

0
= (3 10
8
)
2
, we nd
a =
_
(2 10
10
)
2
(3 10
8
)
2
144
_
1/2
= 66 m
1
10.18. The parallel plate transmission line shown in Fig. 10.8 has dimensions b = 4 cm and d = 8 mm, while
the medium between plates is characterized by
R
= 1,
R
= 20, and = 0. Neglect elds outside
the dielectric. Given the eld H = 5 cos(10
9
t z)a
y
A/m, use Maxwells equations to help nd:
a) , if > 0: Take
H =
H
y
z
a
x
= 5 sin(10
9
t z)a
x
= 20
0
E
t
So
E =
_
5
20
0
sin(10
9
t z)a
x
dt =

(4 10
9
)
0
cos(10
9
t z)a
x
Then
E =
E
x
z
a
y
=

2
(4 10
9
)
0
sin(10
9
t z)a
y
=
0
H
t
So that
H =
_

2
(4 10
9
)
0

0
sin(10
9
t z)a
x
dt =

2
(4 10
18
)
0

0
cos(10
9
t z)
= 5 cos(10
9
t z)a
y
where the last equality is required to maintain consistency. Therefore

2
(4 10
18
)
0

0
= 5 = 14.9 m
1
b) the displacement current density at z = 0: Since = 0, we have
H = J
d
= 5 sin(10
9
t z) = 74.5 sin(10
9
t 14.9z)a
x
= 74.5 sin(10
9
t )a
x
A/m at z = 0
c) the total displacement current crossing the surface x = 0.5d, 0 < y < b, and 0 < z < 0.1 m in
the a
x
direction. We evaluate the ux integral of J
d
over the given cross section:
I
d
= 74.5b
_
0.1
0
sin(10
9
t 14.9z) a
x
a
x
dz = 0.20
_
cos(10
9
t 1.49) cos(10
9
t )
_
A
175
10.19. In the rst section of this chapter, Faradays law was used to show that the eld E =
1
2
kB
0
e
kt
a

## results from the changing magnetic eld B = B

0
e
kt
a
z
(note that the factor of appearing in E was
omitted from the original problem statement).
a) Showthat these elds do not satisfy Maxwells other curl equation: Note that Bas stated is constant
with position, and so will have zero curl. The electric eld, however, varies with time, and so
H =
D
t
would have a zero left-hand side and a non-zero right-hand side. The equation is
thus not valid with these elds.
b) If we let B
0
= 1 T and k = 10
6
s
1
, we are establishing a fairly large magnetic ux density in 1
s. Use the H equation to show that the rate at which B
z
should (but does not) change with
is only about 5 10
6
T/m in free space at t = 0: Assuming that B varies with , we write
H =
H
z

=
1

0
dB
0
d
e
kt
=
0
E
t
=
1
2

0
k
2
B
0
e
kt
Thus
dB
0
d
=
1
2

0
k
2
B
0
=
10
12
(1)
2(3 10
8
)
2
= 5.6 10
6

## which is near the stated value if is on the order of 1m.

10.20. Point C(0.1, 0.2, 0.3) lies on the surface of a perfect conductor. The electric eld intensity at C is
(500a
x
300a
y
+ 600a
z
) cos 10
7
t V/m, and the medium surrounding the conductor is characterized
by
R
= 5,
R
= 10, and = 0.
a) Find a unit vector normal to the conductor surface at C, if the origin lies within the conductor:
At t = 0, the eld must be directed out of the surface, and will be normal to it, since we have a
perfect conductor. Therefore
n =
+E(t = 0)
|E(t = 0)|
=
5a
x
3a
y
+6a
z

25 +9 +36
= 0.60a
x
0.36a
y
+0.72a
z
b) Find the surface charge density at C: Use

s
= D n|
surf ace
= 10
0
_
500a
x
300a
y
+600a
z
_
cos(10
7
t )
_
.60a
x
.36a
y
+.72a
z
_
= 10
0
[300 +108 +432] cos(10
7
t ) = 7.4 10
8
cos(10
7
t ) C/m
2
= 74 cos(10
7
t ) nC/m
2
10.21. The surfaces = 3 and 10 mm, and z = 0 and 25 cm are perfect conductors. The region en-
closed by these surfaces has = 2.5 10
6
H/m, = 4 10
11
F/m, and = 0. Let H =
(2/) cos(10z) cos(t ) a

## A/m. Make use of Maxwells equations to nd

H =
H

z
a

=
20

sin(10z) cos(t ) a

=
E
t
We then nd
E =
_
20

sin(10z) cos(t ) dt a

=
20

sin(10z) sin(t ) a

176
10.21a. (continued) At this point, a aw in the problem statement becomes apparent, since this eld should
vanish on the surface of the perfect conductor located at z = 0.25m. This does not happen with the
sin(10z) function. Nevertheless, we press on:
E =
E

z
a

=
(20)(10)

cos(10z) sin(t ) a

=
H
t
So
H =
_
200
2

cos(10z) sin(t ) a

dt =
200
2

cos(10z) cos(t ) a

## This result must equal the given H eld, so we require that

200
2

=
2

=
10

=
10
_
(2.5 10
6
)(4 10
11
)
= 10
9
sec
1
b) E: We use the result of part a:
E =
20

sin(10z) sin(t ) a

=
500

sin(10z) sin(t ) a

V/m
10.22. In free space, where =
0
, =
0
, = 0, J = 0, and
v
= 0, assume a cartesian coordinate system
in which E and H are both functions only of z and t .
a) If E = E
y
a
y
and H = H
x
a
x
, begin with Maxwells equations and determine the second order
partial differential equation that E
y
must satisfy: The procedure here is similar to the development
that leads to Eq. 53. Begin by taking the curl of both sides of the Faraday law equation:
E =
_

0
H
t
_
=
0

t
( H)
where H =
0
E/t . Therefore
E = ( E)
2
E =
0

2
E
t
2
where the rst equality is found from Eq. 52. Noting that in free space, D =
0
E = 0, we
obtain,

2
E =
0

2
E
t
2

2
E
y
z
2
=
0

2
E
y
t
2
since E varies only with z and t , and is y-directed.
b) Show that E
y
= 5(300t + bz)
2
is a solution of that equation for a particular value of b, and nd
that value: Substituting, we nd

2
E
y
z
2
= 10b
2
=
0

0
E
y
t
2
= 9 10
5

0
Therefore
10b
2
= 9 10
5

0
b = 1.0 10
6
m
1
177
10.23. In region 1, z < 0,
1
= 2 10
11
F/m,
1
= 2 10
6
H/m, and
1
= 4 10
3
S/m; in region 2,
z > 0,
2
=
1
/2,
2
= 2
1
, and
2
=
1
/4. It is known that E
1
= (30a
x
+20a
y
+10a
z
) cos(10
9
t )
V/m at P
1
(0, 0, 0

).
a) Find E
N1
, E
t 1
, D
N1
, and D
t 1
: These will be
E
N1
= 10 cos(10
9
t )a
z
V/m E
t 1
= (30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) V/m
D
N1
=
1
E
N1
= (2 10
11
)(10) cos(10
9
t )a
z
C/m
2
= 200 cos(10
9
t )a
z
pC/m
2
D
t 1
=
1
E
t 1
= (2 10
11
)(30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) = (600a
x
+400a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) pC/m
2
b) Find J
N1
and J
t 1
at P
1
:
J
N1
=
1
E
N1
= (4 10
3
)(10 cos(10
9
t ))a
z
= 40 cos(10
9
t )a
z
mA/m
2
J
t 1
=
1
E
t 1
= (4 10
3
)(30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) = (120a
x
+80a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) mA/m
2
c) Find E
t 2
, D
t 2
, and J
t 2
at P
1
: By continuity of tangential E,
E
t 2
= E
t 1
= (30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) V/m
Then
D
t 2
=
2
E
t 2
= (10
11
)(30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) = (300a
x
+200a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) pC/m
2
J
t 2
=
2
E
t 2
= (10
3
)(30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) = (30a
x
+20a
y
) cos(10
9
t ) mA/m
2
d) (Harder) Use the continuity equation to help show that J
N1
J
N2
= D
N2
/t D
N1
/t (note
misprint in problem statement) and then determine E
N2
, D
N2
, and J
N2
: We assume the existence of a
surface charge layer at the boundary having density
s
C/m
2
. If we draw a cylindrical pillbox whose
top and bottom surfaces (each of area a) are on either side of the interface, we may use the continuity
condition to write
(J
N2
J
N1
)a =

s
t
a
where
s
= D
N2
D
N1
. Therefore,
J
N1
J
N2
=

t
(D
N2
D
N1
)
In terms of the normal electric eld components, this becomes

1
E
N1

2
E
N2
=

t
(
2
E
N2

1
E
N1
)
Now let E
N2
= Acos(10
9
t ) +B sin(10
9
t ), while from before, E
N1
= 10 cos(10
9
t ).
178
10.23. (continued)
These, along with the permittivities and conductivities, are substituted to obtain
(4 10
3
)(10) cos(10
9
t ) 10
3
[Acos(10
9
t ) +B sin(10
9
t )]
=

t
_
10
11
[Acos(10
9
t ) +B sin(10
9
t )] (2 10
11
)(10) cos(10
9
t )
_
= (10
2
Asin(10
9
t ) +10
2
B cos(10
9
t ) +(2 10
1
) sin(10
9
t )
We now equate coefcients of the sin and cos terms to obtain two equations:
4 10
2
10
3
A = 10
2
B
10
3
B = 10
2
A +2 10
1
These are solved together to nd A = 20.2 and B = 2.0. Thus
E
N2
=
_
20.2 cos(10
9
t ) +2.0 sin(10
9
t )
_
a
z
= 20.3 cos(10
9
t +5.6

)a
z
V/m
Then
D
N2
=
2
E
N2
= 203 cos(10
9
t +5.6

)a
z
pC/m
2
and
J
N2
=
2
E
N2
= 20.3 cos(10
9
t +5.6

)a
z
mA/m
2
10.24. Given the elds V = 80z cos x cos 3 10
8
t . kV and A = 26.7z sin x sin 3 10
8
t a
x
mWb/m in free
space, nd E and H: First, nd E through
E = V
A
t
where
V = 80 cos(3 10
8
t )[z sin xa
x
cos xa
z
] kV/m
and
A/t = (3 10
8
)(26.7)z sin x cos(3 10
8
t )a
x
mV/m
Finally,
E =
_
7.9 10
6
z sin x a
x
+8.0 10
4
cos x a
z
_
cos(3 10
8
t ) V/m
Now
B = A =
A
x
z
a
y
= 26.7 sin x sin(3 10
8
t )a
y
mWb/m
2
Then
H =
B

0
= 2.12 10
4
sin x sin(3 10
8
t ) a
y
A/m
179
10.25. In a region where
R
=
R
= 1 and = 0, the retarded potentials are given by V = x(z ct ) V and
A = x[(z/c) t ]a
z
Wb/m, where c = 1/

0
.
a) Show that A = (V/t ):
First,
A =
A
z
z
=
x
c
= x

0
Second,
V
t
= cx =
x

0
so we observe that A =
0

0
(V/t ) in free space, implying that the given statement would
hold true in general media.
b) Find B, H, E, and D:
Use
B = A =
A
x
x
a
y
=
_
t
z
c
_
a
y
T
Then
H =
B

0
=
1

0
_
t
z
c
_
a
y
A/m
Now,
E = V
A
t
= (z ct )a
x
xa
z
+xa
z
= (ct z)a
x
V/m
Then
D =
0
E =
0
(ct z)a
x
C/m
2
c) Show that these results satisfy Maxwells equations if J and
v
are zero:
i. D =
0
(ct z)a
x
= 0
ii. B = (t z/c)a
y
= 0
iii.
H =
H
y
z
a
x
=
1

0
c
a
x
=
_

0

0
a
x
which we require to equal D/t :
D
t
=
0
ca
x
=
_

0

0
a
x
iv.
E =
E
x
z
a
y
= a
y
which we require to equal B/t :
B
t
= a
y
So all four Maxwell equations are satised.
180
10.26. Let the current I = 80t A be present in the a
z
direction on the z axis in free space within the interval
0.1 < z < 0.1 m.
a) Find A
z
at P(0, 2, 0): The integral for the retarded vector potential will in this case assume the form
A =
_
.1
.1

0
80(t R/c)
4R
a
z
dz
where R =

z
2
+4 and c = 3 10
8
m/s. We obtain
A
z
=
80
0
4
__
.1
.1
t

z
2
+4
dz
_
.1
.1
1
c
dz
_
= 8 10
6
t ln(z +
_
z
2
+4)

.1
.1

8 10
6
3 10
8
z

.1
.1
= 8 10
6
ln
_
.1 +

4.01
.1 +

4.01
_
0.53 10
14
= 8.0 10
7
t 0.53 10
14
So nally, A =
_
8.0 10
7
t 5.3 10
15
_
a
z
Wb/m.
b) Sketch A
z
versus t over the time interval 0.1 < t < 0.1 s: The sketch is linearly increasing with
time, beginning with A
z
= 8.53 10
14
Wb/m at t = 0.1 s, crossing the time axis and going
positive at t = 6.6 ns, and reaching a maximum value of 7.46 10
14
Wb/m at t = 0.1 s.
181