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CRYOGENICS Cryogenics is generally referred to as the science and technology of producing a low-temperature environment for applications. The word cryogenics has its origin in the Greek language where kryos means frost or cold and gen is a common root for the English verb to generate.

It is not well-defined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins, but most scientists assume it starts at or below -150 C or 123 K (about -240 F). The National Institute of Standards and Technology at Boulder, Colorado has chosen to consider the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below 180 C (-292 F or 93.15 K). This is a

logical dividing line, since the normal boiling points of the so-called permanent gases (such as helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and normal air) lie below 180 C while the Freon refrigerants, hydrogen sulfide, and other common refrigerants have boiling points above 180 C.

APPLICATIONS OF CRYOGENICS There are numerous applications of cryogenics, some of which are described as follows. 1. Storage and transport of gases 2. Separation of gases 3. Biological and medical applications 4. Altering material properties by reduced temperature 5. Electronics 6. Superconductivity

Large-quantity storage and transport of gases are best achieved with the help of cryogenics. It is much more efficient from the standpoint of total weight, to transport cryogenic fluids in the liquid state rather than as a pressurized gas. Furthermore, the gases evolved from a storage dewar can maintain a lower impurity content than is common in high-pressure gas storage. There are a number of examples where cryogenic storage and transport are widely practiced. At relatively high temperatures, liquid natural gas (LNG) is transported on a large scale in tanker ships containing over 100,000 m3 of liquid. Liquid oxygen is stored in large quantities for applications in steel production as well as to provide high-purity gaseous oxygen supplies for hospitals. Another major application for cryogenic storage and transport is in liquid fuel rockets where LO2 and LH2 are common propellants. Even helium is often transported in the liquid state. This is not only because many users do not possess the necessary liquefaction equipment but also to save weight for transportation.

The separation of gas mixtures such as air or natural gas is a commercial enterprise in which cryogenics plays a major role. By using the physical properties of adsorption, that is, the tendency for gases to condense on cold surfaces, it is possible to separate gas mixtures by differences in their adsorption rates. This procedure is used commonly in extracting O2 and N2 from air, for purification of LNG or separation of rare gases such as Ne or He. Related to gas separation is the technology of cryopumping, where the physical process of adsorption provides a mechanism for clean, oil free, high-speed pumping systems. For this process to be effective, the pumping surfaces must be well below the critical temperature of the gas to be pumped.

Biological and medical uses for cryogenics are extensive. In these applications the goal is to store, modify, or destroy a biological structure by reducing its temperature. Storage of cellular structures in liquid nitrogen is a common practice, the largest of these being the storage of blood plasma. Other examples of this technology include storing cattle semen for artificial insemination and the preservation of food. Apart from cellular storage, medicine is making increasing use of cryogenics. In a procedure known as cryosurgery, selected areas of tissue are frozen and removed with less difficulty or trauma to the patient than by conventional surgical methods. Such techniques are commonly experienced by almost anyone who has visited a dermatologist.

The basic properties of materials change as the temperature is reduced and these effects are used in several engineering applications of cryogenics. A good application for material property variation is in the recycling industry. Cryogenic recycling uses low temperatures to separate materials. The approach takes advantage of differential thermal contraction and the increased brittle nature of materials at low temperatures. There are numerous examples of composite materials that can be recycled by this method. Thermal contraction can also be used in the construction of mechanical structures. The assembly of a close tolerance connection can be facilitated if one of the components is first cooled in a cryogenic fluid to make it slightly smaller. In these applications there is little need to reduce the temperature below the normal boiling point of liquid nitrogen because very little thermal contraction occurs below this temperature.

Besides mechanical properties, low temperatures also are used to change electrical properties of materials. One of the major applications of this process is in the cooling of detectors and other electronic sensors. The low temperature reduces the thermal noise and provides an isothermal environment for the sensor. Examples of devices that use low temperatures include infrared detectors for everything from night vision equipment to large-scale astrophysical science experiments

The technology of superconductivity warrants special attention as an application that depends on cryogenics. The largest-scale application of superconductivity is in magnet technology. At present, superconducting magnets are an integral part of high-energy physics accelerators, magnetic fusion confinement systems, energy storage, magnetic levitation, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners as well as specialized research magnets. Additionally, RF particle accelerators us superconducting Nb cavities that must be cooled to low temperature (T ~ 2 K) to achieve the required performance. Most of these systems operate at low temperature (T < 10 K) and thus require fairly complex helium refrigeration systems.

The discovery and development of high temperature superconductors has significantly impacted the development of cryogenic systems. Large-scale HTS superconducting applications such as are proposed for the power industry are now contemplated to operate at significantly higher temperatures, T > 30 K. Small-scale applications of HTS are also being developed many of which only require a few watts of cooling. These applications have had a major impact on the development of small-scale, intermediate temperature refrigeration systems. The development of cryocoolers for such applications has been an active thrust area of the field in recent years.

A Cryocooler is a standalone cooler. It is used to cool some particular application to cryogenic temperatures. STIRLING CYCLE The Stirling cycle refrigerator evolved from the heat engine cycle invented by Robert Stirling in 1827. Operated in reverse, the Stirling engine produces cooling. The Phillips Company was the first to commercially produce refrigerators that operated on this cycle. The Stirling cycle may be approximated as consisting of two isothermal and two isochoric (constant volume) processes. Refrigeration is achieved by isothermal expansion of the working fluid. There are three main components shown: regenerator (R), compressor/expander, and displacer (D). The displacer works in concert with the compressor during the compression, expansion, and shuttle processes to move the alternately high- and low-pressure working fluid through the regenerator.

The four stages displayed in Fig. below outline a procedure whereby these components produce cooling. Once the process has achieved the steady state it can be described in terms of p-V and T-S diagrams as in Fig.. However it is important to keep in mind that the fluid does not flow continuously around the cycle as in a recuperative refrigerator.

The cycle is described as follows. At (1) a unit of helium is compressed but resides in the upper compression chamber at high temperature since the displacer is at its lowest position. From (1) to (2), the displacer is moved to its upper position forcing the fluid through the regenerator into the expansion chamber. This process takes place at constant volume. Since the expansion end of the regenerator is colder than the helium the pressure of the gas decreases to (2). Step (2)(3) is an isothermal expansion of the fluid in the lower chamber achieved by moving the displacer upward with the compressor. This process extracts heat from the regenerator at Tc. Between (3) and (4) the displacer is returned to its lowest position, forcing the cold fluid back through the regenerator to the compression chamber. Heat is extracted from the regenerator since the gas is now colder and the working fluid is then recompressed to (1) isothermally. Because of the periodic nature of the cycle, cooling is not continuous. However, if the regenerator has sufficient heat capacity, temperature fluctuations at the low end can be minimized.

The regenerator is a component not present in most recuperative refrigeration cycles. It performs a similar function to the counterflow heat exchanger in a recuperative refrigerator with a few exceptions. A properly designed regenerator should have the following characteristics: 1. Minimum flow resistance. 2. Minimum longitudinal heat conductance. 3. Large surface area formaximum heat transfer between the fluid and the solidmatrix. 4. Large volumetric heat capacity of the solid matrix. 5. Minimum void volume. The characteristics of regenerators appear similar to those of good recuperative heat exchangers, with the exception of the large heat capacity. This requirement is particularly difficult in the application of the Stirling cycle to helium liquefaction or refrigeration because, most solid materials have rather low specific heats at liquid helium temperatures. As a result, metals with low Debye temperature (YD) like lead or tin are often used in the lower end of a regenerator. However, even these metals become unusable for regenerators below about 10 K. To achieve refrigeration below 10 K, recuperative refrigerators use special materials with specific heat anomalies that are associated with magnetic ordering phase transitions.


To design fins over the motor housing of the cryocooler to dissipate heat into the atmosphere and write a MATLAB code for the same.

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB MATLAB is a very popular language for technical computing used by students, engineers, and scientists in universities, research institutes, and industries all over the world. The software is popular because it is powerful and easy to use. For university freshmen in it can be thought of as the text tool to use after the graphic calculator in high school.

MATLAB IN MY TRAINING During my training I started to learn MATLAB in order to write a code for fin design, I also wrote a number of MATLAB codes which are given at the end. MATLAB codes are given for two types of fin designs, the one which will fulfill our requirements on the basis of heat transfer will be chosen.


NOMENCLATURE h = Convective heat transfer coefficient k = Coefficient of thermal conductivity t = Fin thickness Qinfinite = Heat dissipated by fin of infinite length Qfinite = Heat dissipated by fin of finite length Lc=Corrected length = Fin efficiency = Fin effectiveness Ab = Area of base P = Perimeter Z = Width


Fig. 1



MATLAB PROGRAM What the MATLAB program does? It program plots a graph of fin efficiency vs. mLc, and the ratio Using the graphs the user can select the appropriate length of fin. The program then gives the value of Heat dissipated, Efficiency, Fin effectiveness and Length of fin. vs. mLc.



%% ---------------Design of Rect. fin-------------------------k=input('Enter coefficient of thermal conductivity:'); h=input('Enter heat transfer coefficient:'); t=input('Enter fin thickness(mm):'); m=((2*h)/(k*(t/1000)))^0.5 Tb=input('Enter base temp.:'); Tinf=input('Enter ambient temp:'); Tb=Tb-Tinf; disp('Enter range of length...'); lmin=input('Enter min length(mm):'); lmax=input('Enter max length(mm):'); lmin=m*((lmin+(t/2))/1000); lmax=m*((lmax+(t/2))/1000); fplot('tanh(x)/x',[lmin,lmax]); xlabel('mlc'); ylabel('Efficiency,*-Qfin/Qinf.'); hold on fplot('tanh(x)',[lmin,lmax],'*'); l=input('Enter desired corrected length of fin(mm):'); z=input('Enter width of fin(mm):'); Qfin=((h*2*((z/1000)+(t/1000))*k*(z/1000)*(t/1000))^0.5)*(Tb-Tinf)*(tanh(m*(l/1000))); Efin=Qfin/(h*(z/1000)*(t/1000)*(Tb-Tinf)); str1=['Heat dissipated(W):',num2str(Qfin)]; str2=['Fin effectiveness:',num2str(Efin)]; n=(tanh(m*(l/1000)))/(m*(l/1000)); str3=['Fin efficiency:',num2str(n)]; l=l-(t/2000); disp('Length of fin(mm):'); disp(l); disp(str1); disp(str2); disp(str3);



NOMENCLATURE h = Convective heat transfer coefficient k = Coefficient of thermal conductivity t = Fin thickness R1 = Inner radius R2 = Outer radius R2c = Corrected outer radius Qfin = Heat dissipated by fin of finite length Lc = Corrected length = Fin efficiency = Fin effectiveness Ab = Area of base



Fig. 2



MATLAB PROGRAM What the MATLAB program does? It program plots a graph of fin efficiency vs. R2corrected (Corrected outer radius). Using the graphs the user can select the appropriate length of fin. The program then gives the value of Heat dissipated, Efficiency, Fin effectiveness and Length of fin.


PROGRAM %% ---------------Design of Circumferential fin-------------------------k=input('Enter coefficient of thermal conductivity:'); h=input('Enter heat transfer coefficient:'); t=input('Enter fin thickness(mm):'); R1=input('Enter inner radius(mm):'); R1=R1/1000; Tb=input('Enter base temp.:'); Tinf=input('Enter ambient temp:'); Tb=Tb-Tinf; m=(((2*h)/(k*(t/1000)))^0.5); disp('Enter range of outer radius'); Rmin=input('Enter min. outer radius(mm):'); Rmax=input('Enter max. outer radius(mm):'); Rcmin=(Rmin+(t/2))/1000; Rcmax=(Rmax+(t/2))/1000; s=input('Enter step size(mm):'); s=s/1000; %% -------------Calculating bessel functions----------------------------for Rc=Rcmin:s:Rcmax a=besseli(1,m*Rc); b=besselk(1,m*R1); c=besselk(1,m*Rc); d=besseli(1,m*R1); e=besseli(0,m*R1); f=besselk(0,m*R1); n=((a*b)-(c*d))/((e*c)+(a*f)); n=n*2*R1; n=n/m; n=n/((Rc^2)-(R1^2)); plot(Rc,n,'*'); xlabel('R2corrected(Outer radius) m'); ylabel('Efficiency'); hold on end %% -------------Results--------------------------------R=input('Enter desired value of corrected outer radius(mm):'); R=R/1000; u=besseli(1,m*R); v=besselk(1,m*R1); w=besselk(1,m*R); x=besseli(1,m*R1); y=besseli(0,m*R1); z=besselk(0,m*R1); y=((u*v)-(w*x))/((y*w)+(u*z)); y=y*2*R1; y=y/m; y=y/((R^2)-(R1^2));


q=((u*v)-(w*x))/((y*w)+(u*z)); q=q*2*pi*R1*k*m*(t/1000)*(Tb-Tinf); Ro=(R-(t/2000))*1000; disp('Outer radius(mm):'); disp(Ro); disp('Heat dissipated = '); disp(q); disp('Efficiency = '); disp(y); e=q/(2*pi*R1*(t/1000)*h*(Tb-Tinf)); disp('Fin effectiveness = '); disp(e);