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BECHTEL MECHANICAL MACHINERY ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE FOR ROTARY TYPE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS 3DG M56 002,

Rev. 00, 02/93 Prepared by: D. Gamlen et al. Approved by: A. J. Reidy

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 PURPOSE CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION CONSTRUCTION FEATURES APPLICATIONS REFERENCES LIST OF PREFERRED VENDORS TYPICAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION
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2 3 4 5 5 5 8 13 19 26

APPENDIX A APPENDIX B
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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 3.1 TABLE 4.0

COMPRESSOR FAMILY TREE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 3.1, 3.5, 3.6 COURTESY OF EQUIPMENT DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS, BY FRANK L. EVANS, JR. (PAGE 42, FIG. 2.5) AND (PAGE 41, FIG. 2.4 AND FIG 2.3) FIGURE 3.2 COURTESY OF SULZER GROUP, TECHNICAL REVIEW 2/1988. FIGURES 3.3, 3.4, 3.7 COURTESY OF COMPRESSED AIR-GAS HANDBOOK, 5TH EDITION BY COMPRESSED AIR-GAS INSTITUTE, (PAGE 143, FIG. 2.49 AND FIG. 2.50) AND (PAGE 164, FIG. 2.64) FIGURE 5.1 FIGURE 5.2 FIGURE 5.3 FIGURE 5.4 FIGURE 5.5 FIGURE 6.1 COURTESY OF A-C COMPRESSOR COURTESY OF ATLAS COPCO COURTESY OF DRESSER COURTESY OF A-C COMPRESSOR COURTESY OF SIEMENS ENERGY AUTOMATION, INC. TYPICAL COMPRESSOR COVERAGE CHART

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

ACFM AGMA API ICFM

ACTUAL CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (TAKEN AT ANY LOCATION) AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURER'S ASSOCIATION AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE INLET CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (TAKEN AT COMPRESSOR INLET CONDITIONS) FEET PER SECOND GROSS HORSEPOWER (OFTEN SEEN AS GAS HORSPOWER) MERCURY LBS PER SQUARE INCH GAGE SUCTION PRESSURE DISCHARGE PRESSURE STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (AT 60F, 14.7 psia) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

FPS GHP HG PSIG Ps Pd SCFM ANSI ASME NEMA

FOR ADDITIONAL COMPRESSOR RELATED ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS, REFER TO "COMPRESSED AIR AND GAS DATA" BOOK, 3RD EDITION, 1982.

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1.0

PURPOSE The purpose of this design guide is to provide general information and to assist an equipment engineer to select appropriate equipment types based on different operating parameters such as pressure requirements, gas compositions and mechanical seal requirements etc. Scope of this design guide is limited to Rotary Positive Displacement blowers and compressors. Other compressor type machines shall be covered in other design guides. The guide primarily provides an overview of applications and construction features for different types of rotary blowers/compressors. It provides check lists to assist the equipment engineer for generating Technical Specifications, equipment data sheets and technical notes for Material Requisitions.

2.0

CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS API Standard 619, Second Edition, May 1985. Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services.

Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers by Baumeister & Marks, Seventh Edition. Compressed Air-Gas Handbook, 5th Edition, by Compressed Air-Gas Institute. Equipment Design Handbook for Refineries and Chemical Plants by Frank L. Evans, Jr.

3.0

GENERAL Not too many years ago, it was common practice to use reciprocating compressors when high pressures were required. Dynamic type machines were used only where larger volumes and lower pressures were involved. Dynamic compressors were usually called blowers when air/gas was compressed to approximately 15-20 40 psig, and the term compressor was

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applied to any such machines where air or gas was compressed to a final pressure about 20 psig. In recent years, this differentiation has become insignificant. Industry now uses the term compressor for all type of machines compressing air or gas. Table 3.1 shows the compressor family tree. There are two basic types of compressors: dynamic type and positive displacement type. Dynamic compressors are classified as centrifugal, axial or mixed flow machines. Comparison of constant speed characteristics of different types of compressors is shown in Figure 3.1. Positive-displacement type compressors are machines in which volumes of air or gas are confined within a closed space. The pressure is increased as the volume of the closed space is decreased. Four general types of rotary positive displacement compressors are available. They are briefly discussed in Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 of this guide. Figure 3.2 shows capacity ranges of various compressor types. The centrifugal compressor is essentially a variable-capacity, constant pressure machine; the axial compressor and the positive-displacement compressors are essentially constant-capacity, variablepressure machines. These basic characteristics, however, represent only part of the process of selecting the type of compressor best suited to a specific application. Equally important is the capacity range that can be built into a single machine. As a general rule, positive displacement machines are for small capacities, centrifugals are for medium capacities and axial are for large capacities per machine. As in all other general statements, however, it must be realized that there is considerable overlap of capacity range between these different types of compressors. 3.1 Rotary Screw Compressors (Figures 3.3, 3.4) They are further classified as: a. b. c. Oil-injected rotary screw compressors Liquid-injected rotary single screw compressors Oil-free rotary screw compressors.

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Rotary screw compressor has relatively high efficiency at low specific speeds, providing small to moderate capacities at high heads. It provides the characteristics of reciprocating piston machinery without the problems of a pulsating discharge flow, maintenance, space and vibration. It, however, requires four sets of shaft bearings and seals. It also supplements low specific speeds centrifugal compressors with more favorable efficiency. These are constant-volume variable-pressure machines. 3.2 Rotary Lobe Compressors (Figure 3.5) These machines are used extensively for high vacuum and low compression. The slippage or internal recirculation varies directly as the square root of the change in absolute pressure and inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature and specific gravity. The rotor tip speed of heavy duty two-lobe compressors is limited to approximately 57 fps, light models range from 25 to 30 fps. 3.3 Rotary-Sliding Vane Compressors (Figure 3.6) The rotor runs eccentrically within the casing. Radial slots in the rotor carry sliding vanes which form a series of longitudinal cells. The cell volume diminishes as the rotor approaches the discharge chamber. A single stage sliding vane compressor can produce a 28 inch Hg vacuum or compresses to approximately pump 50 psig. A two stage unit can compress air to approximately 250 psig. This machine is normally furnished as totally engineered skid mounted packaged unit. Installation is simplified, and it minimizes maintenance and vibration problems and does not require an extensive foundation. Generally, the unit is not suited for handling saturated and super-saturated vapor, and is particularly inapt for cold jackets. Cold jackets increase the cylinder wall condensation. In some cases the best solution is a warm jacket and the use of a lubricant heavily loaded with a solvent resistant inhibitor such as rapeseed oil, lanolin or tallow. However, each application should be looked at on a case by case basis before selecting this type of machine. 3.4 Rotary Liquid Ring Compressors (Figure 3.7)

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In this type of compressor, the vanes, along with the action of centrifugal force throw the liquid sealant fluid in a cylindrical form within the casing forming a liquid ring. This liquid ring contains and compresses the gas flow between the entrance and the discharge port. This compressor is used to handle highly saturated vapor, more corrosive and volatile gases in chemical plants. It is indispensable for handling exothermic gases like chlorine, oxygen and acetylene. The units are more commonly used as vacuum pumps with maximum absolute discharge pressure of 2 inch of Hg in single stage and 0.78 inch of Hg in two stages. Compressor efficiency is generally less than 50 percent. Principles of operation, construction features and application of these machines are discussed in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 respectively. Rotary screw compressors and rotary lobe compressors are specified in API Standard 619, Second Edition, May 1985. All the "modifications", "additions", "deletions", and "decisions" for specific paragraphs of API Standard 619, and all other design requirements for rotary screw and rotary lobe compressors, should be addressed in the Technical Specification. 4.0 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Positive displacement compression occurs when successive volumes of gas are confined within a closed space and elevated to a higher pressure. The increase in pressure can come from either trapping the gas in an enclosure, then reducing the volume and thereby increasing the pressure, or the trapped gas may be carried in the enclosure without a change in volume to the discharge opening, thus allowing the backflow from the discharge system to do the compression. Positive displacement rotary compressors types include screw, lobe, sliding vane, and liquid piston. Typical operating characteristics are: TABLE 4 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
Maximum Discharge

Inlet
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Adiabatic

Operating

Maximum
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Capacity (ACFM) Screw (Wet) Screw (Dry) Rotary Lobe Sliding Vane Liquid Ring 50-3,500 50-25,000 15-30,000 10-3,000 5-2,500

Pressure (PSIG) 300 15-400 15-30 130 80-150

Efficiency (%) 60-70 55-65 55-65 40-70 25-50

Speed (RPM) 3600 2500-5,000 300-4,000 400-1,500 200-3,600

Horsepower (GHP) 400 800 200 450 300

4.1

Screw Compressor (Helical or Spiral-Lobe) This compressor is a rotary positive displacement machine in which two intermeshing rotors, each with a helical form, compress and displace the gas. The basic element is the housing with its enclosed rotor assemblies. The lobes of the two rotors are not identical. The male, or driven, rotor has a form that fits into the pocket of the female, or gate, rotor. About 85 to 90 percent of the power is used by the main rotor, the gate requiring only 10 to 15% of the total power at the most. There are two types, usually considered "wet" or "dry" screws. The dry screw compressor uses timing gears to properly phase the two rotors at all times. The rotors do not come into contact with each other and sealing is by close tolerances, so no lubrication is necessary. The wet screw compressor uses a mist of oil through the machine to lubricate and seal and to cool the compressed gas. In this style, the timing gears may be omitted and the second rotor is driven from the first. Wet screws have capacities from 50 to 3500 CFM; dry screw capacities range from 50 to 25,000 CFM. These units have internal compression. The built-in or design compression ratio is predetermined by the location of the opening edges of the discharge port and the wrap angle of the lobes. There are no valves. The maximum efficiency is obtained when the discharge pressure corresponds to the maximum pressure developed within the compressor. If the discharge pressure is higher than the maximum pressure developed by the compressor, gas will flow back into the compressor momentarily when the rotor lobes open the discharge port. If the discharge pressure is lower than the maximum pressure developed within the compressor, the compressed gas will expand

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inefficiently into the discharge line when the discharge port is initially exposed. These two conditions decrease the efficiency of the compressor and create high frequency pressure waves in the discharge line resulting in excessive noise. The rotors may or may not have the same number of lobes. Usually the main rotor has fewer than the gate and therefore operates at a higher speed. Designs vary in the helix angle and the contour of the lobes. Cross section diagrams for single stage and double stage compressors are shown in figures 3.3 and 3.44. 4.2 Rotary Lobe Compressor (Two Impeller Straight Lobe) This compressor is a rotary positive displacement machine in which two straight mating lobed impellers trap gas and carry it from intake to discharge. There is no internal compression. A two-impeller straight lobe positive displacement compressor element consists of a casing containing duplicate symmetrical rotors or impellers usually having a figure eight cross section. Some have three lobes. These intermesh, are kept in phase by timing gears, and rotate in opposite directions. The term "cycloidal" occasionally is used for this type even though the impellers may have other than cycloidal form. There is no compression or reduction of gas volume during the turning of the rotors. The rotors merely move the gas from the inlet to the discharge. Compression is by backflow into the casing from the discharge line at the time the discharge port is uncovered. Displacement of the compressed gas into the discharge system then takes place. There are no valves. The operation can be visualized from figure 3.5. There is no contact between the impellers or between the impellers and the casing. Sealing is by close clearances and lubrication is not required within the gas chamber. One impeller is driven directly while the other is driven through phasing gears. Both impellers do the same amount of work. 4.3 Sliding Vane Compressor

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This is a rotary positive displacement machine in which vanes slide radially in a rotor eccentrically mounted in a cylindrical casing. The vanes are free to move radially within slots and maintain contact with the cylindrical casing by the centrifugal force generated as the rotor turns. Gas trapped between vanes is compressed and displaced, (see figure 3.6). This compressor has a rather narrow range of capacity and pressure because of inherent limits imposed by vane length, rubbing speed on the cylinder wall, and the bending forces acting on the vane when in an extended position. The rotary sliding vane compressor has as its basic element the cylindrical casing with its heads and rotor assembly. There are no valves; inlet and discharge is determined by the ports over which the vanes pass. Gas enters through the inlet port and is trapped between vanes between the rotor and the casing. The inlet port is normally wide and is designed to admit gas up to the point when the pocket between the two vanes is the largest. The pocket is closed when the following vane of each pocket passes over the edge of the inlet port. As the rotor turns, vanes are pressed inward toward the rotor by the eccentrical casing, decreasing the volume and increasing the pressure of the gas. The compressed gas then exits the discharge port when the leading edge of the vane passes over the port. Due to the fixed location of the inlet and discharge ports in the compression cycle, discharge pressure always occurs at the design point, regardless of the pressure of the receiver into which it is discharging. If the discharge pressure is lower than the receiver, then gas will momentarily reverse flow into the pocket before the gas is discharged. If the discharge pressure is higher than the receiver, gas will expand inefficiently into the receiver. Either of these two offdesign conditions lowers the adiabatic efficiency and can contribute to excessive noise. Flows range from 50 to 3,000 SCFM. 4.4 Liquid Ring (Liquid Piston) Compressor This is a rotary positive displacement machine in which a ring of liquid (usually water) forms a variable volume chamber to compress and displace the gas handled, (see Figure 3.7). A rotary liquid piston or liquid ring compressor uses an eccentrically mounted rotor with multiple fixed forward turned blades turning about a central cone (a characteristic of Nash compressors) containing inlet and discharge ports, the
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blades driving a captive ring of liquid around the inside of an elliptical or circular casing. The basic element of the liquid piston compressor are the casing, heads, and rotor assembly. Whirling liquid partially fills the casing and is trapped between adjacent blades. As the rotor turns, the liquid face follows the circumferential contour of the casing and forces the liquid to enter and recede from the motor chambers. This creates, in effect, a liquid piston. Gas is admitted to the rotor through and removed through ports within the ends of the casing. The liquid orients itself in a ring like manner as the rotor turns. The center of the ring forms a gas pocket around the admitted gas, and as the rotor turns it carries the gas from the maximum clearance side to the minimum clearance. The ring seals off the inlet port, the compressed gas is discharged. Porting in the central cone is built-in and fixed; there are no valves. In those liquid ring compressors with elliptical casings, two eccentric sweeps usually are provided to form the elliptical casing. These are opposed diametrically and thus balance out radial thrust loads. For every revolution, two compression cycles are completed in each rotor chamber. There is compression within the pockets or chambers between the blades before the discharge port is uncovered. Since the port location must be designed and built for a specific compression ratio, the discharge will always be at the design point, regardless of the pressure of the receiver. The cooling of a liquid ring compressor is direct rather than through the walls of a casing. The required additional cooling liquid is fed into the casing where it comes into direct contact with the gas being compressed. The excess liquid is discharged with the gas. The discharged mixture is passed through a conventional baffle or centrifugal type separator to remove the free liquid. Because of the intimate contact of gas and liquid, the final discharge temperature can be held close to the temperature of the inlet cooling water. However, the discharge gas is saturated at the discharge temperature of the compressing liquid. The amount of liquid that may be passed through the compressor is not critical and can be varied to obtain the desired results. The unit can handle saturated vapors, entrained liquid and occasional foreign matter. A unique characteristic
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of this type of compressor, is that the unit will not be damaged if a large quantity of liquid enters its suction. Lubrication is required only in the bearings which are generally located external to the casing. The gas or air being compressed is therefore oil free. The liquid itself acts as a lubricant, sealing medium and coolant for the stuffing boxes. 5.0 5.1 CONSTRUCTION FEATURES Oil Free Screw Compressor

5.1.1 Materials 5.1.1.1 The major components of an oil free rotary screw compressor are the case, male and female rotors, radial bearings, thrust bearings, and timing gear. Refer to figure 5-1 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component, refer to API Standard 619, Second Edition, May 1985, Appendix B. 5.1.1.2 The compressor case is generally a casting and can be made of ductile steel. The compressor case can either be vertical or horizontal split depending upon the manufacturer's design. 5.1.1.3 The male and female rotors are generally made from a forging, either made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel. For special application services, the rotor can be plated with special materials such as nickel. 5.1.1.4 The timing gears are generally made of chrome molybdenum steel and heat treated for added strength. The gears are pressed onto the rotors and doweled in place to obtain proper rotor-to-rotor clearance and timing gear backlash. Since the rotors do not touch the case or each other, there is no need for lubrication in the compression chamber. Lubrication is only required for the bearings and timing gears. 5.1.2 Bearings 5.1.2.1 The radial bearings are a sleeve type and are pressure lubricated to support the radial loads imposed upon the rotors. The bearings are located outboard the compressor chamber to prevent oil entrainment into the process stream.

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5.1.2.2 The thrust bearings are generally a tilting pad type design to carry the axial loads imposed by the compression gas loads and the thrust reaction of the synchronizing gear teeth upon the rotors. A tapered-land or fixed wedge type thrust plate should be provided to reduce the reverse thrust loads during startup or shutdown. 5.1.3 Mechanical Seals 5.1.3.1 The main types of mechanical seals available are mechanical contact type, restrictive-ring type, and labyrinth type. Each seal has its own unique application and should be reviewed carefully. 5.1.3.2 The restrictive-ring type seal is generally used for air and non-hazardous or non-toxic gas applications within the maximum pressure limits of the compressor. It is a close clearance type seal easily replaceable as a unit for maintenance service. The seal can be designed with options for eductor system or with a combination clean gas buffer and eductor system for use in hazardous or toxic gas services. 5.1.3.3 The labyrinth seal has the advantage of being able to handle particulate contained in the process gas. It typically has a higher leakage rate than the restrictive-ring type seal. The seal can be designed with options for eductor system or with a combination clean gas buffer and eductor system for use in hazardous or toxic gas services. 5.1.3.4 The mechanical contact seal is used for applications where toxic or hazardous gases are not permitted to leak into the atmosphere or into the compressor. A positive pressure oil film is provided between the shoulder which rotates with the shaft and the stationary pressure balanced face seal ring. A clean buffer gas can be added to fill the seal chamber and separate the leakage oil from the process gas. Dry running gas-buffered mechanical seals are now available where no oil film is required to operate the seal. These types of seals are considered special types and additional engineering is required for each particular application. 5.2 Oil Flooded Screw Compressor

5.2.1 Materials

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5.2.1.1 The oil flooded screw compressor is generally designed the same as an oil free screw compressor with exception, there typically is not any timing gears required to maintain tolerances between the male and female rotor. The oil flooded screw compressor typically has drive gears which compensate the axial thrust loads during the compression cycle. The oil provides a film and prevents any contact between the rotors. Refer to Figure 5-2 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component, refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition, May 1985, Appendix B. 5.2.1.2 The compressor case is generally a casting and can be made of ductile iron or cast iron. 5.2.1.3 The male and female rotors are generally made from a forging either made of carbon steel or alloy steel. 5.2.2 Bearings 5.2.2.1 Each rotor and shaft is supported by antifriction type bearings located near the ends of the rotor body. The bearings at one end, usually the discharge end, take the rotor axial thrust and support the radial loads. 5.2.3 Mechanical Seals 5.2.3.1 The typical mechanical seal supplied for an oil flooded screw compressor is a restrictive-ring type seal. This is a general purpose seal used for air or nonhazardous gas applications. 5.3 Lobe Compressor

5.3.1 Materials 5.3.1.1 The major components of a lobe compressor are the case, shaft, lobe, bearings, and timing gear. Refer to Figure 5-3 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component, refer to API Standard 618 Second Edition, May 1985, Appendix B. 5.3.1.2 The compressor case is generally a one piece cast construction with separate head plates. The typical metallurgy of the compressor case with head
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plates is ductile iron. The castings can either be air cooled or internally jacketed and water cooled. Proper cooling of the air end is important to assure dimensional stability and to allow operation over a wide range of temperatures. 5.3.1.3 The compressor shafts are generally made form alloy steel forging. 5.3.1.4 The lobes are made from ductile iron, stainless steel, or coated carbon steel. The profiles have computer-generated shapes that optimize the compression and minimize the discharge port lobes. The profile consists of either one or two lobes extending form a center hub section. Since the profile is a plane figure, no inherent axial thrust loads are created by the rotor as in rotary-screw designs. The compressor has a constant slippage or recirculation rate for a fixed set of clearances, pressure, temperature and gas molecular weight. These clearances are located between the housing and facing, between the intermeshing rotor lobes, and between the rotor outside diameter and the compressor housing. 5.3.1.5 The timing gears are generally made from a forging and manufactured to AGMA standards. Depending on the manufacturer, these gears can operate either independent from the drive gears or perform a dual function or timing and drive. 5.3.3 Mechanical Seals 5.3.3.1 There are various type of seals which are available for use in compressors to provide oil-free process systems. These include labyrinth seals, restrictive-ring type seal, and mechanical contact seal. 5.3.3.2 To prevent lubrication from migrating along the rotor shaft and into the rotor chamber, the same principle can be applied as noted for the screw compressor where a buffer or inert gas can be injected into the seal. 5.4 SLIDING VANE COMPRESSOR

5.4.1 Materials 5.4.1.1 The major component of a sliding vane compressor are the cylinder, heads, rotor and shaft, blades, and bearings. Refer to figure 5-4 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for
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each major component, refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition, May 1985, Appendix B. 5.4.1.2 The cylinder and heads are generally made from a casting either of ductile iron or gray iron materials. 5.4.1.3 The rotor and shaft assembly are generally machined from a single forging or bar stock made typically either of carbon steel or low alloy steel. The radial slots for the blades must be machined for the full length of the rotor. 5.4.1.4 The blades are made of a laminated cloth impregnated with a blended phenolic resin. Each blade in heat treated and then machined to manufacturer's tolerances to allow for thermal growth. After machining and heat treating, each blade is checked for warpage and then impregnated with hot oil to maintain manufacture's tolerances. The blades also are available in a kevlar material impregnated with a phenolic resin composite. 5.4.2 Bearings 5.4.2.1 The rotor and shaft is generally supported at each end by anti-friction type bearings. 5.4.3 Mechanical Seals 5.4.3.1 The typical mechanical seal applied for the sliding vane compressor is a liquid film single mechanical contact type. A seal ring is installed between the bearing and the compression chamber and oil is injected which acts as a buffer to minimize gas leakage to the bearings. Depending on the manufacturer, the seal faces can either be oil mist or force lubricated. A liquid film double mechanical contact type seal is also available for applications requiring greater control of toxic or hazardous gases. 5.5 Liquid Ring Compressor

5.5.1 Materials 5.5.1.1 The major components of a liquid ring compressor are the case, rotor, shaft, port piece(s), heads, and bearings. Refer to figure 5-5 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for
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each major component, refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition, May 1985, Appendix B as a guide only as API Standard 619 does not include liquid ring compressors. 5.5.1.2 Depending on the manufacturer and the particular size of the liquid ring compressor, the case can either be cast or fabricated in carbon steel, low alloy steel, or stainless steel. 5.5.1.3 The shaft is generally machined from a single forging or bar stock made typically either of carbon steel, low alloy steel, or stainless steel. 5.5.1.4 The rotor assembly is typically cast and is made of either of carbon steel, low alloy steel, or stainless steel. The rotor is pressed fit onto the shaft and is not keyed. 5.5.1.5 The port pieces and heads are cast and is made of either of carbon steel, low alloy steel, or stainless steel. 5.5.2 Bearings 5.5.2.1 The rotor and shaft is generally supported at each end by anti-friction type bearings. The bearings can either be oil mist or grease lubricated depending on the application requirements. 5.5.3 Mechanical Seals 5.5.3.1 The typical seals supplied on the liquid ring compressor are single, double, or tandem acting mechanical seals. The seals can be designed with various types of flush plans to detect the failure of a seal face. 6.0 APPLICATIONS Rotary positive displacement compressors have a wide range of gas compression applications. These machines combine the benefits of positive displacement with simplified rotary motion mechanics. This Section will discuss the most common applications of the following types of compressors: 1. 2.
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ROTARY SCREW (Wet) ROTARY SCREW (Dry)


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3. 4. 5.

ROTARY LOBE SLIDING VANE LIQUID RING

Variations of the above types of compressors, with custom designed features, may be desirable in some applications. However, this Section will discuss the standard configurations available from established manufacturers. 6.1 Application Parameters The typical operating range of rotary positive displacement compressors is shown in Figure 6-1, Typical Compressor Coverage Chart. This chart is based on the normal range of operation of commercially available machines. In addition to this chart the following application parameters should be considered: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Inlet Capacity Discharge Pressure Head Efficiency Operating Speed Horsepower (5 - 30,000 cfm) (15 - 400 psig) (100 - 10,000 ft gas) (25 - 70 %) (200 - 5,000 rpm) (1 - 800 hp)

The limiting values (min/max) for rotary positive displacement compressors are indicated in parentheses. If the normal operating conditions fall outside the above limits, rotary positive displacement compressors may not be suitable or available. The capabilities of standard equipment based on these parameters is shown in Table 4.0, Operating Characteristics. 6.2 Selection Criteria Many factors influence the selection of a particular type of rotary positive displacement compressor. These factors involve both process/operation compatibility and economics. The following checklists may be a useful guide to begin the selection process. 6.2.1 Process/Operation Compatibility Factors
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Mass Flow Rate Suction Pressure/Temperature Discharge Pressure Gas Physical Properties Process Gas Interaction with Machinery (Corrosion, Erosion, Fouling) Machinery Interaction with Process Gas (Lubricants, Buffer Fluids, Sealants) Upset or Off Design Operating Conditions Start-Up and Shut-Down Process Conditions Desirability of positive displacement characteristics in the system application.

6.2.2 Economic Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Safety Standards Capital Costs vs Energy Costs Maintenance Costs vs Capital/Energy Costs Machine Reliability vs Replacement Availability vs spared units Space and Utility Requirements Spare Parts Availability Auxiliary and Accessory Equipment Requirements

6.2.3 These checklists should provide a useful guideline. Any checklist that is developed should be continually updated in order to improve the decisionmaking selection process. 6.3 Advantages/Disadvantages

6.3.1 The general advantages and disadvantages of rotary positive displacement compressors are listed below: ADVANTAGES 1. 2. Combines positive displacement characteristics with simplified rotary motion mechanics. Provides a broad "surge free" range of operation for gases with varying molecular weights. (Some types i.e. screw types are inefficient in low molecular-weight applications)
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3. 4. 5.

Less potential erosion damage due to moderate rotative tip speeds. Very suitable for direct drive applications. Smooth operation with no unbalanced forces and no special foundation requirements.

DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. Capacity limited to about 30,000 cfm. Compression ratio limited to about 6:1. Auxiliary skid-mounted accessory equipment may be required. Multistage (3 or more) configurations are not standard, but available.

A discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of each type of compressor follows. 6.3.2 Rotary Screw (Wet) ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wide range of operating conditions. Wide range of applications. Excellent efficiency. High single stage compression ratios. High capacity-to-size ratio. Low parts wear due to lubricating design.

DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. Noisy, may require noise hood and line silencers. Accessory oil separation equipment required. Four shaft seals required.

6.3.3 Rotary Screw (Dry) ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. Gases are not contaminated with oil. Widest capacity-head range of application. Good efficiency.
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4. 5.

Multistage configurations are available. Minimum amount of auxiliary and accessory equipment is required.

DISADVANTAGES 1.. 2. 3. 4. Noisy, may require noise hood and line silencers. Four shaft seals and timing gears required. Efficiency and noise level are adversely affected if the machine and process requirements are not precisely matched. Precision machining tolerances are required to obtain maximum efficiency and avoid mechanical failure.

6.3.4 Rotary Lobe ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. Simple construction features. High capacity range (up to 30,000 cfm) Excellent choice for air blower low pressure ratio applications.

DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. Limited discharge pressure and compression ratio. Used primarily for air service with very limited process applications. Four shaft seals and timing gears required.

6.3.5 Sliding Vane ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. Very simple construction features. Very reliable with high efficiency operation if properly matched with process application. Very suitable for direct drive with common industrial drivers. Wide range of process applications.

DISADVANTAGES 1. Accessory oil separation equipment required.


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2. 3.

Limited range of application with respect to capacity (up to 3000 cfm) and discharge pressure (up to 150 psig for small units). Sensitive to particulate materials in the gas resulting in excessive wear and/or potential jamming of the vanes.

6.3.6 Liquid Ring ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Very simple construction features. High reliability with relatively low maintenance requirements. Wide range of process applications. Liquid compressant can act as a coolant to control discharge temperature. Smooth operation virtually free of measurable pulsation. Corrosive gases may be handled with standard materials.

DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.4 Sealing liquid separation equipment required. Process gas / Sealing liquid compatibility is critical to application. Suction pressure is limited to vapor pressure of sealing liquid. Relatively low efficiency. Relatively low capacity range.

Typical Applications Rotary positive displacement compressors have a wide range of industrial applications from simple air blower service to handling corrosive and dangerous gases. Some of the more typical applications are listed below for each type of compressor.

6.4.1 Rotary Screw 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Petrochemical and Refinery Process Gases Refrigeration Packages Gas Gathering Landfill Gas Fuel Gas Boosting
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6. 7. 8.

Inert Gas Boosting Sewage Gas Compression Vapor Recovery

6.4.2 Rotary Lobe 1. 2. 3. Air Handling Vacuum Service Pneumatic Service

6.4.3 Sliding Vane 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Some Process Gases Refrigeration Packages Gas Gathering Landfill Gas Sewage Gas Compression Vapor Recovery Blast Hole Drilling Vacuum Service

6.4.4 Liquid Ring 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.0 7.1 Corrosive/Explosive Gas Handling Fuel Gas Boosting Air Handling Digester Gas Circulation Furnace Flue Gas Compression Vapor Recovery

REFERENCES BOOKS 1. Baumeister and Avallone MARKS' STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 8th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978. Perry's CHEMICAL ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.
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2.

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3.Loomis, A. W., COMPRESSED AIR AND GAS DATA, 3RD Ed. Ingersoll Rand Company Washington, N.J. 1982. 7.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS AND ARTICLES 1. Example of Rotary Type Possitive Displacement Air Compressor Specification with ten page Compressor Data Sheets (attached).

7.3

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION PUBLICATIONS 1. API STANDARD 619, Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services, 2nd Ed., May 1985, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

7.4

VENDOR DOCUMENTATION 1. A-C COMPRESSOR CORPORATION, COMPRESSOR CAPABILITIES Catalog. DRESSER INDUSTRIES,INC., LeROI DIVISION, LeROI ROTARY SCREW GAS COMPRESSORS Catalog.

2.

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TABLE 3.1
COMPRESSOR FAMILY TREE

INTERMITTENT FLOW

CONTINUOUS FLOW

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

DYNAMIC TYPE

RECIPROCATING

ROTARY TYPE RADIAL AXIAL FLOW MIXED FLOW

CYLINDER LUBRICATED

NONLUBRICATED CYLINDER TYPE

CENTRIFUGAL

AXIAL

MIXED FLOW

CRANKCASE TYPE

CROSSHEAD TYPE

CROSSHEAD CYLINDER TYPE

DIAPHRAGM HYDRAULIC TYPE

CYLINDER LUBRICATED

NONLUBRICATED CYLINDER

LIQUID PISTON

OIL FLOODED SINGLE ECCENTRIC LOBE AND SLIDING VANE

SLIDING VANE

OIL FLOODED HELICAL LOBE

OIL FLOODED VANE

STRAIGHT LOBE ROOTS TYPE

HELICAL LOBE LYSHOLM 1.6 TO 4.5 Pd/Pg1

HELICAL LOBE 1.25 TO 2.0 Pd/Pg

SPIRAXIAL 1.5 TO 3.0 Pd/Pg

125 PSIG SMALL PLANT AIR AND CONSTRUCTION AIR PORTABLE

125 PSIG SMALL PLANT AIR AND CONSTRUCTION AIR PORTABLE

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APPENDIX A LIST OF PREFERRED VENDORS

Typical manufacturers include: Roots Division of Dresser Industries Gardner-Denver Sutorbilt of Cooper M-D Pneumatics of Tuthill Corp. Spencer Ingersoll Rand Atlas-Copco A-C Compressors Graham Manufacturing Company Mycom Carrier Sullair Howden Dresser Rand Kobelco (Turbomachinery Industries) Siemens Energy and Automation Nash Sihi

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APPENDIX B

Typical Engineering Specification: Specification: CH04035-56-16-501 Rotary Type Positive Displacement Air Compressor Package for Spent Caustic Treatment System (oil flood screw compressor)

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