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Effects of Input Filter on Stability of Matrix Converter Using Venturini Modulation Algorithm

Ebubekir ERDEM1, Yetkin TATAR2, Sedat SNTER3

3 1, 2 Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23119, Elazg, Turkey Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, 23119, Elazg, Turkey 1 e-mail: aberdem@firat.edu.tr 2 e-mail: ytatar@firat.edu.tr 3 e-mail: ssunter@firat.edu.tr

Abstract - In this paper; simulation, design, and implementation of three-phase to three-phase matrix converter using Venturini modulation algorithm have been presented. Furthermore, effects of input filter on stability of matrix converter have been examined. A Simulink model has been developed in such a way that it supports real time work with the use of DSP control card supported by Simulink. Simulation and experimental results for the input and output waveforms of the matrix converter using R-L load are given at various operating conditions. Good agreement was obtained between the simulation results and the results obtained from the prototype. Index Terms- Matrix converter, Venturini modulation algorithm

I. INTRODUCTION Matrix converter is a static circuit which consists of an array of bidirectional switches connected between supply and load in matrix form. It provides single or three-phase variable voltage and frequency source at its output from 3-phase fixed input supply without requiring any intermediate dc link. Hence, the power/volume ratio of the converter is higher then that of the other type of converters such as diode-bridge rectifier fed inverters. The converter is capable of operating at lagging, unity or even leading fundamental input displacement factor, regardless of the load displacement factor. The converter offers the advantages of four quadrant operation, sinusoidal input and output waveforms, minimum energy storage components and controllable displacement factor [1]. Because of these advantages, matrix converters become an important alternative to voltage source inverters. There are many researches carrying on matrix converters about the modulation techniques and power circuit improvements. The main idea of the modulation algorithms for controlling the output voltage is to chop three-phase input voltages at the proper instant and for a time to construct single or three-phase output voltage waveforms which have a desired amplitude and frequency with low harmonic distortion. Since there are a number of switches in the power circuit the control algorithms should be able to perform all the processes mentioned above with a minimum switching frequency. This is important from the point of switching losses [2,3]. One of the modulation algorithms which is mostly used in matrix converters is Venturini control algorithm. In this algorithm, the output voltage amplitude is

restricted to the half of input voltage amplitude. However, this rate can be increased up to 0.866 by adding the third harmonics of the input and output voltages to the desired output voltage waveform [3,4]. In order to calculate the target output voltages it is necessary to know the instantaneous input voltages. Therefore, from the point of the correct calculations the process of measuring the instantaneous input voltages becomes crucial because of both the possible noises on the input voltage waveforms and filtering process. There would be notching and spikes on the input voltage waveforms in case of high power applications or voltage supplies with having high impedance and stray inductances. In this case, the instantaneous value of the input voltage might be inaccurately measured and as a result the target voltages would be incorrectly calculated. Filtering the input voltages of the matrix converter will result in phase shift, which will affect the calculations [1].

In this work, simulation and implementation of a three-phase matrix converter fed by a three-phase supply having high impedance has been performed and particular attention was paid to the input filter. First, importance and design of the input filter will be discussed. Then, simulation and experimental results from a three-phase matrix converter with and without having input filter will be given and discussed. II. INPUT FILTER Matrix converters produce reactive harmonic currents to the ac supply because of their discontinuous input currents. These harmonic currents cause voltage distortions which affect the operation of the matrix converter. At the switching process of the converter voltage spikes will be produced in both input and output of the converter because of high di/dt and dv/dt rates by the presence of stray inductance. Spikes on the input voltage waveforms cause wrong detection of the input voltages and instantaneous input vector position which is required to be used by Venturini

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control algorithm. Fig.2 shows the input voltage waveform of the matrix converter without using filter. Here, we can see the voltage spikes with maximum instantaneous value of 150V feeding the matrix converter. For instance, lets consider the situation where the real instantaneous input voltage is about 140V. Because of the spikes this instantaneous value would be incorrectly measured as 120V or 174V. Therefore, this would cause wrong calculations in Venturini algorithm.

fc =

(1)

Schematic representation of three-phase to threephase matrix converter used in this work is illustrated in Fig.4. Venturini algorithm has been used for modulation.

Fig.4. Schematic representation of 3x3 phase matrix converter Figure 2. Unfiltered input voltage waveform.

In order to prevent this undesired situation a second order L-C filter is usually used at the input of the matrix converter [5,6]. Fig.3 shows filter topologies used in the matrix converter input where C components are usually used to decrease the voltage disturbances occurred on the input voltages and they should be placed as close as to the bidirectional switches. In order to limit slope of the circulating currents, filter inductances are used since noactive protection exists during circulation instants [1,5].

Venturini control algorithm provides variable voltage frequency source to the load by controlling bidirectional switches which are connected between the input supply and load. As can be seen in Fig.4, the subscripts, a,b,c represent the input of the converter whereas A,B,C represent the output. In this algorithm the maximum output voltage rate of the converter is restricted to the half of the input (q 0.5). However, this can be increased up to 0.866 by adding third harmonics of the input and output voltage waveforms. For unity input displacement factor, duty cycle for the switch connected between the input phase, and output phase, can be defined as [3,4];

1 2Vo Vi 2q + sin(i t + ) sin(3i t ) (2) T = Ts + 2 9qm 3Vim 3 Where; : 0, 2/3, 4/3 corresponds to the input phases a, b and c, respectively, qm is the maximum voltage ratio (0.866), q is the desired voltage ratio, Vim is the input voltage vector magnitude and Vo is given by;

q Vo = qVim cos(o t + ) Vim cos(3o t ) 6 q + Vim cos(3i t ) 4q m

Fig.3. Basic input filter configurations used in matrix converter a) Capacitors star or delta connected b) Second order LC filter c) LC filter with parallel damping resistors.

According to various national and international agencies (such as IEEE), magnitudes of harmonic currents and harmonic voltage distortion of a power electronic equipment connected to the utility have to be limited below specified limits. Input filters are a solution to limit THD. In this work, an L-C filter which is mostly preferred in the matrix converters has been used as shown in Fig.3(c). By considering Eq(1), the filter inductance is calculated as L=2.93 mH for C=12.5 F . Switching frequency (fs) and cutting frequency (fc) are taken as 2 kHz and 830 Hz, respectively.

(3)

Where; :0, 2/3, 4/3 corresponds to the output phases A, B and C, respectively and o is angular output frequency. IV. SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE

SYSTEM

The modified Venturini algorithm (Eq(2-3)) has been used to calculate the duty cycle of the bidirectional

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switches [3]. Fig.5 shows Simulink model of the threephase matrix converter with Venturini modulation algorithm. This model consists of three parts. First part contains the supply voltage blocks. Generation of the duty cycles of the devices are placed in the second part and finally third part consists of nine bidirectional switches. Ideal switches are used in the Matlab/Simulink model [7]. Equations (2) and (3) are evaluated every sampling period with updated values to calculate the duty cycles for the switches. As can be seen from Fig.5, the algorithm only requires the instantaneous three phase input voltages to be measured from which the input vector position is calculated as follows; Vbc (4) i t = arctan( ) 2 1 3 ( Vab+ Vbc ) 3 3 4 2 2 2 Vim = (Vab + Vbc + VabVbc ) (5) 9

Hence, the duty periods of the switches which connect each input phase to one output phase during one switching period can be calculated by using Eq(2) and (3) (for instance these times will be tAa, tAb, tAc for output phase, A). The duty cycle generation block for one

output phase of the matrix converter is given in Fig.6 in detail (0 q 0.866) where modified Venturini algorithm is used. The related input phase is connected to the related output phase during a period, which is calculated in this generation block. For the real time application of Venturini algorithm, the switching blocks forming the input and output voltages in the simulation model shown in Fig.5 has been removed and instead voltage transducers (Model:LV25P) and MUX-ADC which is required to convert this measured voltages for DSP environment are placed. I/O blocks are placed instead of the switches. Hence, experimental models have been obtained by these modifications. These models are converted to the realtime codes by Real-Time Workshop in Simulink and Real-Time Interface software of DSPACE. Real-Time Interface software is added to Simulink block library. A link is constructed between Simulink and real-time hardware by these additional blocks. In addition, realtime control signals and voltage and current data taken from ADC can be measured by Control Desk Developer software and are saved in a computer environment to be analyzed later. DS1103 dSPACE GmbH control board has been used for controlling the converter [8].

Figure 5. Simulink model of the matrix converter with Venturini control algorithm ( 0

q 0.866 )

t Aa

t Ab t Ac

Figure 6. Simulink model of duty cycle generation for one output phase of the matrix

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The matrix converter induction motor drive has been designed by using 1200V, 35A three-phase matrix converter module produced by EUPEC Company. The module consists of nine-bidirectional switch (commoncollector) composed by IGBTs. The block scheme and a photograph of the drive system constructed in the laboratory are shown in Fig.7.

with unity displacement factor so that the input voltage and current are in phase.

(a)

(a)

(b) Fig. 8. Experimental waveforms of input line voltage and current for f0=10Hz a) With input filter b) Without input filter

(b) Fig. 7. 3x3 phase matrix converter experimental prototype a) Block diagram b) A view of the experimental setup.

V. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The simulation and experimental results of the matrix converter feeding a passive RL load have been obtained with and without using input filters. The bidirectional switches are controlled by using Venturini control algorithm where the voltage ratio, q is taken as 0.8. The converter is fed by a three- phase supply which has line voltage and frequency of 100V and 50Hz, respectively. The load parameters are 50 and 0.15H. Simulation and experimental results for various output frequencies are given in Figs.8-11. The switching frequency was taken as 1500Hz. Fig.8(a) illustrates the input phase voltage and current of the matrix converter using input filter for 10Hz output frequency. Results shown in Fig.8 (b) illustrate the matrix converter operation with the absence of the input filter. Similar operating conditions are repeated for 50Hz output frequency and results are given in Fig.9. It can be clearly seen that the converter operates

(a)

(b) Fig. 9. Experimental waveforms of input line voltage and current for f0=50Hz a) With input filter b) Without input filter

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Fig.10 shows experimental and simulation waveforms of the output line voltage, spectrum and output phase currents of the matrix converter for 10Hz output frequency. In Fig.10 (a) and (b), the experimental results were taken without input filter and with input filter, respectively. Fig.10(c) shows the corresponding simulation results using three-phase ideal supply. Similar results are given in Fig.11 for 50Hz output frequency. If the impedance of the supply feeding the converter is high, voltage spikes will be seen on the input voltages.

Since Venturini control algorithm requires the input voltages to be measured there will be wrong calculation process of the duty cycles because of the false detection of it. This will directly affect the output voltage and current waveforms. This effect is seen in Fig.10 and Fig.11. For instance, the peak line voltage in Fig.10 (a) and Fig.11 (a) were incorrectly measured as 130,8V and 172,5V, respectively in which its value would be 195V.

Fig. 10. Output line voltage, harmonic spectrum and phase currents of the matrix converter (f0=10Hz) a) Experimental (without input filter) b) Experimental (with input filter) c) Simulation (with input filter)

VI. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, three-phase to three-phase matrix converter using Venturini modulation algorithm has been modeled, simulated and implemented. Furthermore, effects of input filter on stability of the matrix converter have been examined. Simulation has been performed in Matlab 6.5 and then it has been converted into real time codes for DS1103 control card. The current and voltage waveforms and harmonic

spectrum for the input and output of the converter have been examined with and without using input filter for various output frequencies using simulation model and experimental setup. Good agreements were observed between the simulation and experimental results. It has been also demonstrated that the converter operates with unity displacement factor regardless of the load power factor (in our case the load has inductive characteristic).

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(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 11. line voltage, harmonic spectrum and phase currents of the matrix converter (f0=50Hz) a) Experimental (without input filter) b) Experimental (with input filter) c) Simulation (with input filter)

The matrix converter which is fed by a supply having high impedance will face high voltage spikes on the input voltage at high switching frequencies. This will cause both harmonics at the output voltages and false detection of the input voltage signals required by matrix converter modulation algorithms such as Venturini algorithm. This problem can be eliminated by using a well designed input L-C filter. In this paper, an input filter with the parameters of L=2.93mH and C=12.5 F has been used and it has been observed that it has eliminated both the spikes on the input voltages and errors on the detection of input voltage vector. In addition, this filter is also filter harmonics in the input currents. REFERENCES

[1] Andreu, J., de Alegria, I.M., Kortabarria, I., Martin, J., L., Ceballos, S., Improvement of the Matrix Converter Start-up Process, IECON, Taipei, Taiwan, 5-8 Nov., 2007, pp. 1811-1816 [2] Wheeler, P., Rodriguez, J., Clare, J, Empringham L., Weinstein A., Matrix converter: A technology review, in IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics, Vol. 49, No:2, 2002, pp. 276-288

[3] Sunter, S., Clare, J.C., A true four quadrant matrix converter induction motor drive with servo performance, Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '96 Record., 27th Annual IEEE, 1996, pp. 146151 [4] Erdem, E., Design of an induction motor drive fed by a matrix converter and a novel approach in application of control algorithms. (in Turkish), PhD Thesis 2008; Firat University, Elazi -Turkey. [5] Matteini, Marco, Control techniques for matrix converter adjustable speed drives, PhD Thesis, 2001, University of Bologna, Italy. [6] Wheeler, P., Grant, D.A., Optimised Input Fitler Design and Low-Loss Switching Techniques for a Practical Matrix Converter, lEE Proceedings, Electrical Power Applications, 144(1), 1997, pp. 53-60 [7] MATLAB for Microsoft Windows, The Math Works Inc., 1999. [8] Erdem, E., Tatar, Y., Sunter, S., Implementation of DSPbased matrix converter using space vector modulation algorithm, ACEMP07, Bodrum-Turkey, 10-13 September, 2007, pp. 474-479.

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