You are on page 1of 4

Reviewer in Science

Important Scientists that determined DNAs Importance Frederick Griffith bacterial transformation Oswald Avery DNA = key to transformation Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase Bacteriophage transformation experiment Erwin Chargaff base-pairing rules Important Scientists in the Race for the Double Helix Maurice Wilkins & Rosalind Franklin X-ray diffraction DNA must be a some type of spiral (helix) DNAs diameter is constant and stable James Watson & Francis Crick Created the first accurate model of DNA Won the Nobel Prize DNAs Structure DNA is a double helix DNA contains four nucleotide bases: adenine (A) cytosine (C) guanine (G) thymine (T) Chargaffs Rule The bases form the rungs on the DNA ladder by complementary pairing A == T C == G T == A G == C A == T T == A

DNA Replication Replication = Duplication Happens in the S phase of Interphase Must replicate before mitosis or meiosis I Part of the double helix is unwound Replication in small pieces (Okazaki fragments) Enzyme stitches pieces together later Semi-Conservative Replication One-half of each new molecule of DNA is old (template strand) One-half of new molecule of DNA is new (complementary strand) A length of DNA on a chromosome May be in several parts Exon the expressed parts of the DNA sequence Intron the intervening, junk DNA, not expressed Parts are cut, put together and then used to make RNA and proteins Odd Types of Genes Multigene families Transposons (Barbara McClintock) Protective Genes Viruses may give us new DNA that can be kept over time to cause new evolutionary changes! The scientific study of heredity is called genetics. Traits - Specific characteristics that vary from one individual to another Hybrids-The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits Genes - Chemical factors that determine traits Alleles - The different forms of a gene Traits - Specific characteristics that vary from one individual to another Hybrids-The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

Genes - Chemical factors that determine traits Alleles - The different forms of a gene Alleles State the principle of dominance. Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive. Alleles An organism with a recessive allele for a particular form of a trait will NOT always exhibit that form. Characteristics of Traits Mendel assumed that a dominant allele had masked the corresponding recessive allele in the F1 generation. Characteristics of Traits At some point, the allele for shortness was segregated, or separated, from the allele for tallness. Punnett Squares-Punnett squares can be used to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross. Allele Types Homo - Same Hetero - Opposite Pheno Physical Geno - Genetic Allele Types Definitions Organisms that have two identical alleles particular trait (TT or tt) Homozygous Organisms that have two different alleles same trait (Tt) Heterozygous Physical characteristic of an organism Phenotype Genetic makeup of an organism (Tt) Genotype

Rule of Unit Factors Each organism has two alleles for each trait Alleles - different forms of the same gene Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops Rule of Dominance - The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase) - The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase) Law of Segregation - The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed - A parent randomly passes only one allele for each trait to each offspring Law of Independent Assortment - The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other. Phenotype & Genotype Phenotype - the way an organism looks red hair or brown hair genotype - the gene combination of an organism AA or Aa or aa Heterozygous & Homozygous Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa) Dihybrid vs Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)