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INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION CONSORTIUM RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY FORUM MAY 2-3, 2012

Overview

1 2 3 4

Basics of insulation & insulation systems Industry insulation recommendations Annual energy simulation Conclusions

INSULATION BASICS

Preserve the refrigerant state by limiting heat loss or gain Limit temperatures of jacketing to

protect personnel (high temperature) protect product/space/system (low temperature) from free water (condensation) or weight (ice formation)

Protect the underlying piping from corrosion by keeping the piping cold & dry (vapor retarder)

Uses low thermal conductivity materials Material manufactured with trapped bubbles of low thermal conductivity blowing agents Reduction of surface temperature relative to ambient further reduces convection & radiation and inhibits condensation & ice growth

Heat Transfer

TS,1 k

d2 d1

TS,2

One-dimensional, steady-state, conduction heat transfer in cylindrical coordinates 2 ,1 ,2 = ln 2 1 is a property of the insulation chosen 2 = 1 + 2 is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt

Convection = 2 ,2

k

TS,2

is a property of the orientation, diameter, velocity, and temperatures 2 = 1 + 2 is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt

Radiation = 2 ,2 4 4

is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt is the surface emittance is the Stefan Boltzmann constant 2 = 1 + 2

Increasing the insulation thickness

increases the conduction resistance, reducing heat transfer & surface temperature relative to surroundings increases the area over which convection & radiation acts, increasing relative heat transfer Does an optimum exist?

= +

Design Analysis

Assumptions:

Ambient conditions: quiescent, 95F, outdoors Pipe at uniform temperature Insulation = 0.0195 Btu/hr-ft2-F Aluminum jacket (weathered) = 0.3

,2 ,1 1

Analysis

Observations

Used NAIMAs 3EPlus (v. 4) to verify the analysis with good agreement For the range of insulation thicknesses in our industry, an optimum insulation thickness doesnt occur

INDUSTRY RECOMMENDATIONS

Industry Recommendations

Outdoor horizontal piping

100F dry bulb, 90% relative humidity, wind velocity 7.5 mph, metal jacket

90F dry bulb, 80% relative humidity, wind velocity 0 mph, PVC jacket, or 40F dry bulb, 90% relative humidity, wind velocity 0 mph, PVC jacket

Table 7-3 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on outdoor piping Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 3.5 3.5 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 5.5 5.5 -20 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4.5 4.5 5 5 0 3 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 +20 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 3.5 +40 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3

Table 7-4 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on indoor piping (90F) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 -20 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 0 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 +20 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 +40 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Table 7-5 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on indoor piping (40F) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 4 4 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 -20 3 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4.5 0 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 +10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5

SIMULATION

Energy Analysis

Previous analysis was for design conditions, but what about the energy impact over the year? To estimate that, will need

Weather data, including wind & solar Model that accounts for the solar gain Refrigeration system efficiency

Weather Values

Data excerpt for Madison, WI TMY2 data

Month 1 1 1 1 1 1 Day 1 1 1 1 1 1 Hour 6 7 8 9 10 11 GHR Btu/hr-ft2 0.00 0.00 2.54 12.05 26.31 43.11 DB F 34.0 33.6 33.4 33.1 33.4 33.6 DP F 28.9 29.7 30.2 30.0 30.9 31.5 WS mph 13.87 13.20 12.30 11.63 10.74 10.07

Descriptions

GHR = Global Horizontal Radiation (solar), Btu/hr-ft2-F DB = Dry bulb temperature, deg F DP = Dewpoint temperature, deg F WS = Wind speed, mph

Model Description

Split insulation in half

Upper half is exposed to solar radiation Lower half is not Both halves get the same convection coefficient

Horizontal cylinder in cross-flow or natural convection depending on wind speed

Hourly calculation to determine the total load on the piping due to heat gain through insulation

Model

, ,

WS

,1 1

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 3 4.5 3 3.5 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,014 1,456 707 907 562 610 $180 $260 $125 $160 $100 $110 8 8 4 4 2 2

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 3,730 $670

Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 3 2.5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 540 224 165 $36 $22 $16 8 4 2

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,826 $120

Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 3 4.5 3 3.5 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,340 1,920 935 1,200 740 805 $240 $340 $170 $215 $135 $145 8 8 4 4 2 2

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 4,900 $880

Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 3 2.5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,010 625 465 $68 $42 $31 8 4 2

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 3,460 $230

Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

Conclusions

IF insulation system is properly maintained the parasitic load is relatively low Failed insulation systems NOT ONLY effect the heat load, BUT ALSO put the underlying piping at increased risk for corrosion

Resources

IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook, Chapter 7 ASHRAE 2010 Refrigeration Handbook, Chapter 10 NAIMA 3EPlus (http://www.pipeinsulation.org/)

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