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# BACK TO BASICS: PIPE INSULATION

INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION CONSORTIUM RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY FORUM MAY 2-3, 2012

## Todd Jekel, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Director, IRC

Overview
1 2 3 4
Basics of insulation & insulation systems Industry insulation recommendations Annual energy simulation Conclusions

INSULATION BASICS

## Why do we insulate piping?

Preserve the refrigerant state by limiting heat loss or gain Limit temperatures of jacketing to
protect personnel (high temperature) protect product/space/system (low temperature) from free water (condensation) or weight (ice formation)

Protect the underlying piping from corrosion by keeping the piping cold & dry (vapor retarder)

## How Insulation Works

Uses low thermal conductivity materials Material manufactured with trapped bubbles of low thermal conductivity blowing agents Reduction of surface temperature relative to ambient further reduces convection & radiation and inhibits condensation & ice growth

Heat Transfer

TS,1 k

d2 d1

TS,2

One-dimensional, steady-state, conduction heat transfer in cylindrical coordinates 2 ,1 ,2 = ln 2 1 is a property of the insulation chosen 2 = 1 + 2 is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt

## Heat Transfer, continued

Convection = 2 ,2
k

TS,2

is a property of the orientation, diameter, velocity, and temperatures 2 = 1 + 2 is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt

## Heat Transfer, continued

Radiation = 2 ,2 4 4
is a heat rate, i.e. units of Btu/hr, tons, kWt is the surface emittance is the Stefan Boltzmann constant 2 = 1 + 2

## Heat Transfer, cont.

Increasing the insulation thickness
increases the conduction resistance, reducing heat transfer & surface temperature relative to surroundings increases the area over which convection & radiation acts, increasing relative heat transfer Does an optimum exist?

## Energy Balance on jacket surface

= +

Design Analysis
Assumptions:
Ambient conditions: quiescent, 95F, outdoors Pipe at uniform temperature Insulation = 0.0195 Btu/hr-ft2-F Aluminum jacket (weathered) = 0.3
,2 ,1 1

## Analysis (Surface Temperature)

Analysis

Observations
Used NAIMAs 3EPlus (v. 4) to verify the analysis with good agreement For the range of insulation thicknesses in our industry, an optimum insulation thickness doesnt occur

INDUSTRY RECOMMENDATIONS

Industry Recommendations
Outdoor horizontal piping
100F dry bulb, 90% relative humidity, wind velocity 7.5 mph, metal jacket

## Indoor horizontal piping

90F dry bulb, 80% relative humidity, wind velocity 0 mph, PVC jacket, or 40F dry bulb, 90% relative humidity, wind velocity 0 mph, PVC jacket

## IIAR Recommended Thickness

Table 7-3 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on outdoor piping Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 3.5 3.5 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 5.5 5.5 -20 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4.5 4.5 5 5 0 3 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 +20 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 3.5 +40 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3

## IIAR Recommended Thickness

Table 7-4 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on indoor piping (90F) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 -20 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 0 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 +20 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 +40 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

## IIAR Recommended Thickness

Table 7-5 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook Extruded Polystyrene insulation on indoor piping (40F) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 2 2- 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Service Temperature (F) -40 4 4 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 -20 3 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4.5 0 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3 3 +10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5

SIMULATION

Energy Analysis
Previous analysis was for design conditions, but what about the energy impact over the year? To estimate that, will need
Weather data, including wind & solar Model that accounts for the solar gain Refrigeration system efficiency

Weather Values
Data excerpt for Madison, WI TMY2 data
Month 1 1 1 1 1 1 Day 1 1 1 1 1 1 Hour 6 7 8 9 10 11 GHR Btu/hr-ft2 0.00 0.00 2.54 12.05 26.31 43.11 DB F 34.0 33.6 33.4 33.1 33.4 33.6 DP F 28.9 29.7 30.2 30.0 30.9 31.5 WS mph 13.87 13.20 12.30 11.63 10.74 10.07

Descriptions
GHR = Global Horizontal Radiation (solar), Btu/hr-ft2-F DB = Dry bulb temperature, deg F DP = Dewpoint temperature, deg F WS = Wind speed, mph

Model Description
Split insulation in half
Upper half is exposed to solar radiation Lower half is not Both halves get the same convection coefficient
Horizontal cylinder in cross-flow or natural convection depending on wind speed

Hourly calculation to determine the total load on the piping due to heat gain through insulation

Model
, ,

WS

,1 1

## Results for Piping @ -40F

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 3 4.5 3 3.5 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,014 1,456 707 907 562 610 \$180 \$260 \$125 \$160 \$100 \$110 8 8 4 4 2 2

## Assumptions Madison, WI 2.4 HP/ton \$0.10/kWh

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 3,730 \$670
Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

## Results for Piping @ +20F

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 3 2.5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 540 224 165 \$36 \$22 \$16 8 4 2

## Assumptions Madison, WI 0.9 HP/ton \$0.10/kWh

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,826 \$120
Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

## Results for Piping @ -40F

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 3 4.5 3 3.5 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,340 1,920 935 1,200 740 805 \$240 \$340 \$170 \$215 \$135 \$145 8 8 4 4 2 2

## Assumptions Tampa, FL 2.4 HP/ton \$0.10/kWh

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 4,900 \$880
Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

## Results for Piping @ +20F

Properly Maintained Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 3 2.5 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 1,010 625 465 \$68 \$42 \$31 8 4 2

## Assumptions Tampa, FL 0.9 HP/ton \$0.10/kWh

Failed Insulation Estimate Pipe Size [in] Insulation Thickness [in] 3 Annual Heat Annual Cost Gain [ton-hrs per 100 ft per 100 ft] 3,460 \$230
Factor of 2 loss of insulation thermal conductivity on top, factor of 6 on the bottom

Conclusions
IF insulation system is properly maintained the parasitic load is relatively low Failed insulation systems NOT ONLY effect the heat load, BUT ALSO put the underlying piping at increased risk for corrosion

Resources
IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook, Chapter 7 ASHRAE 2010 Refrigeration Handbook, Chapter 10 NAIMA 3EPlus (http://www.pipeinsulation.org/)

QUESTIONS?