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MANUFACTURED OF SULPHURIC ACID - Sulphuric acid is manufactured by contact process in the industry - The raw materials used in the

contact process are sulphur, air and water - The contact process involves three stages : Sulphur Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur Trioxide Sulphuric Acid Stage 1 Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO by burning of sulphur with air S + O SO Stage 2 Conversation of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide, SO in the following conditions : a) The presence of vanadium(V) oxide, V O as catalyst b) A temperature of between 450 C 550 C c) A pressure of one atmosphere 2SO + O 2SO Stage 3 Two process are involved here : a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to produce oleum, H S O , a viscous liquid SO + H SO H S O b) Oleum is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid H S O + H O 2H SO

THE USES OF SULPHURIC ACID - The fertilizer ammonium sulphate prepared from reaction between sulphuric acid and aqueous ammonia H SO + 2NH (NH ) SO

- The fertilizer potassium sulphate prepared from reaction between sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide H SO + 2KOH K SO + 2H O

- The other uses : a) b) c) d) e) Manufacture detergent Manufacture synthetic fibres ( a type of polymer ) Manufacture paint pigment As an electrolyte in lead acid accumulators To remove the metal oxide from metal surfaces before electroplating


- Sulphur dioxide is a poisonous and acidic gas that can cause environmental pollution. Inhaling sulphur dioxide can cause lung diseases - The main source of sulphur dioxide is from the burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum. Most of the fossil fuels contain some sulphur - Sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in atmospheric water to produce sulphurous acid, H SO and sulphuric acid H SO . The presence of these acids in rain water causes acid rain - The effects of acid rain are as follows a) b) c) d) Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure Destroys trees and plants in forest Makes the soil acidic and hence unsuitable for growth of plants Makes the water in lakes and rivers acidic and may destroy aquatic life

- Natural rainwater has a pH of about 5.4 Acid rains occurs when pH of the rain is between 2.4 and 5.0 This is due to the reaction of sulphur dioxide, SO with rainwater 2SO (g) + O (g) + 2H O(1) 2H SO (aq)

MANUFACTURED OF AMMONIA - Ammonia gas is prepared from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas in the Haber Process - Nitrogen gas used is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air - Hydrogen gas used is obtained from the reaction between steam and heated coke or natural gas - In the Haber Process, one mole of nitrogen gas and three moles of hydrogen gas react to produce ammonia gas in the following conditions : a) The presence of powdered iron as catalyst b) A temperature of between 450 C 550 C c) A pressure of 200 500 atmospheres N + 3H 2NH

THE USES OF AMMONIA - Ammonium sulphate is formed from the reaction between ammonia and sulphuric acid. This is known as a neutralization reaction 2NH + H SO (NH ) SO - Ammonium nitrate is formed from the reaction between ammonia and nitric acid NH + HNO NH NO - The uses : a) b) c) d) As a cooling agent in refrigerators To make nitric acid ( in the Ostwald process ) To make explosives ( from nitric acid ) To prevent ammonium chloride which is used as the electrolyte in dry cells

THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA - Ammonia is a colourless and pungent gas. It is less dense than air - Ammonia is an alkaline gas that changes damp red litmus paper to blue - Ammonia dissolves in water to produce a weak alkaline NH + H O NH + OH - Ammonia gas reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to form white fumes of ammonium chloride ( this is used as a test for ammonia gas ) NH + HCl NH Cl - Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in neutralization to produce salts. For example : 2NH + H SO (NH ) SO NH + HNO NH NO - Aqueous solutions of ammonia react with metal ions ( except Na ion, K ion and Ca ion ) to produce precipitate of metal hydroxides

THE MEANING OF ALLOY - An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal - Pure metals are weak and soft. This is because : a) A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement

b) The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. This makes the metals ductile ( metals can be drawn to form long wires )

c) There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. When hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets )

- In the process of alloying, foreign elements are added to molten metal. When hardened, these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms - In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure

- Hence the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily - This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less ductile and less malleable than pure metals - There are three aims of alloying a pure metal : a) To increase the hardness and strength of a metal b) To prevent corrosion or rusting c) To improve the appearance of the metal surface, with a better finish and luster

THE COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES AND USES OF SOME COMMON ALLOYS Alloy Carbon Steel Composition Iron added with carbon Properties Hard and strong Uses Frameworks of buildings and bridges, tools, heavy machinery and bodies of vehicles To make cutlery and kitchenware, machines parts and surigal instruments To make kitchenware, shipss propellers, decorative ornaments, statues and art crafts To make electrical connections musical instruments, kitchenware and decorative ornaments To make aircraft body frames and racing cars tyres rims To make bodies of aircrafts, racing bicycles, fan blades and light electrical cables To make candlesticks, decorative ornaments and souvenirs

Stainless steel

Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Copper added with zinc

Shiny, strong and resists rusting Hard, strong and shiny Hard and shiny



Magnalium Duralumin

Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper magnesium Tin added with copper antimony

Light, hard and strong Light, hard and strong


Lustre, shiny and strong


- Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. These small molecules are called monomers - Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as a polymer - A polymer is a macromolecule ( a very big molecule ) Hence the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large - The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers - Polymers can be devided into two types : a) Naturally occurring polymers ; examples are protein, carbohydrates and natural rubber b) Synthetic polymers ; examples are plastics and synthetic rubber - Many of the raw materials fir the synthetic polymers are obtained form petroleum - There are two types of polymerization processes : a) Addition polymerization b) Condesation polymerization - Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerization, whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerization. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibres used for making clothing - Some examples of synthetic addition polymers, their monomers and uses: Synthetic polymer Polyethylene ( PE ), IUPAC name: Polythene Polypropylene ( PP ), IUPAC name: Polypropene Polyvinylchloride ( PVC ), UIPAC name: Polychloroethene Polystyrene ( PS ) Monomer Ethene Propene Chloroethene Phenylethene Uses Plastic bags, shopping bags, plastic containers, plastic toys, plastic cups and plates Plastic bottles, bottle crates, plastic tables and chairs, car battery cases and ropes Water pipes, shoes, bags, raincoats, artificial leather and wire casing Packaging materials, heat insulators, toys, disposable cups and plates


- Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: a) b) c) d) e) Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed

- The use of synthetic polymer, however, results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: a) Most polymers are non-biodegradable ( cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms ) b) Plastic items block drains and rivers, causing flash floods c) Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes d) Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death e) Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution - Petroleum, the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource - Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are : a) Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers b) Make biodegradable polymers

The production of concentrated sulphuric acid in industry

The manufacturing of ammonia gas by haber process


- The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO - Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties : a) Hard but brittle b) Inert towards chemicals c) Poor conductors of heat and electricity - The uses of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: a) Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque b) Ceramic has higher melting point than glass - The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below : Type of glass Fused glass Properties Very high melting point, hence highly heat resistant Transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light Does not crack when temperature changes Low melting point Cracks easily with sudden temperature change High melting point, thus is heat-resistant Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change High refractive index Reflects light rays and appears shiny Chemical composition Silicon dioxide, SiO Examples of uses Telescope mirrors, lenses, optical fibres and laboratory glasswares

Soda lime glass

Borosilicate glass

Silicon dioxide, sodium oxide and calcium oxide Silicon dioxide and boron oxide

Bottles, window panes, light bulbs and mirrors Laboratory apparatus and cooking utensils

Lead glass

Silicon dioxide and lead(II)oxide

Decorative items, crystal glassware, lens and prisms

- Ceramics are made from clay, sand and feldspar. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. An example of clay is kaolinite - Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below : Examples Bricks, tiles and cement Porcelain Insulators in toasters and irons, spark plugs in car engines Microchips Uses As building materials Materials for vases, plates , bowls and cooking utensils To make insulting parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers, radios and televisions

THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS 1. Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass 2. Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks 3. Photochromic glass a) Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases b) Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride, AgCl or silver bromide, AgBr is added to normal glass c) When exposed to ultraviolet light, AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. For example : AgBr Ag + 1/2Br d) When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases, silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide 4. Conducting glass a) Conducting glass is a type of glass that can conduct electricity b) Conducting glass is produced by an embendding a thin layer of conducting material in glass 5. Superconductor a) Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy b) Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets, electrical generators and electric motors 6. Ceramic car engine block a) Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature b) At a higher temperature, the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient, producing more energy and less pollution

COMPOSITE MATERIAL - A composite material is a structural material formed by combining two or more materials with different physical properties, producing a complex mixture - A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material - Composite materials are harder, stronger and lighter, more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components. Composite materials are also made for specific purpose - Table below compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their original components, as well as the uses of these composite materials Composite material Reinforced concrete Component Concrete Properties of component Hard but brittle, with low tensile strength Properties of composite Stronger, higher tensile strength, not so brittle, does not corrode, can withstand forces and loads, relatively cheaper Uses of composite Construction of framework for highways, bridges and high-rise buildings



Copper(II)oxide, yttrium oxide and barium oxide

Hard with high tensile strength but expensive and can corrode Insulators of electricity

Conducts electricity without resistance when cooled by liquid nitrogen

To make more efficient generators, transformers, electric cables, amplifier, computer parts, stronger and

lighter electromagnets

Fibre optic

Glass of low refractive index

Transparent, does not reflects light rays

Reflect light rays and allow light rays to travel along the fibre Light, strong, tough, resilient and flexible, with high tensile strength, not flammable

Transmit data voice and images in the form of light in telecommunication


Glass of higher refractive index Glass

Heavy, strong but brittle and non-flexible

Water and food storage containers, boats, swimming pool linings, fishing rods, car bodies and roofing

Polyester plastic



Light, flexible, elastic but weak and inflammable Transparent and not sensitive to light

Sensitive to light: darkens when light intensity is high, becomes clear when light intensity is low

Photochromic optical lens, camera lens, car windshields, optical switches, information display panels and light intensity meters

Silver chloride or silver bromide

Sensitive to light