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# Chapter 1 Charge and Electrical Variable

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Electrical Charge Current and Voltage Independent and dependent sources Basic ideal circuit elements Power and energy

Learning Outcome...
At the end of this topic, students should be able to: Describe to express electrical variables Explain the voltage, current, power and energy in connection with the electric circuit Distinguish between independent and dependent sources

## Extra info on Unit

Standard unit is referred to SI (Le Systeme International dUnites), adopted in 1960. Based on 7 fundamental units:
Quantity Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Luminous intensity Amount of substance Unit Meter Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Candela Mole Symbol m kg s A K cd mol

## Derived Units Electrical Quantities

Quantity Capacitance Charge Conductance Energy (work) Frequency Impedance Inductance Power Reactance Resistance Voltage Symbol SI unit Symbol F C S J Hz H W V

C Q G W f Z L P X R V

Farad Coulomb Siemens Joule Hertz Ohm Henry Watt Ohm Ohm Volt

# Derived units is from combinations of fundamental units. note : 1. important to use the right unit in the calculations 2. do not leave out the unit unless the value is unitless e.g. gain

## Derived Units Magnetic Quantities

Quantity Magnetic field intensity Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Magnetomotive force Permeability Reluctance Symbol SI unit Ampereturns/meter Weber Tesla Ampere-turn Webers/ Ampereturnmeter Ampereturns/Weber Symbol At/m Wb T At Wb/Atm At/Wb

H B Fm R

note : 1. important to use the right unit in the calculations 2. do not leave out the unit unless the value is unitless e.g. gain

## Revision on Metric Prefix

Normally, the quantities are either very large or very small metric prefix
Metric Prefix femto pico nano micro milli kilo mega giga tera peta Symbol f p n m k M G T P Power of Ten 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 103 106 109 1012 1015

Example 1
Express each quantity using a metric prefix: i- 0.000057 F ii- 5 000 000 iii-0.005 A iv-330 x 102 V

ELECTRICAL CHARGE

Atomic Structure
All matter is made of atoms. Each atom has neutrons, protons and electrons.

2-D 3-D N.B. Nucleus consists of protons (+ve charges) and neutron (uncharged particles)

## 1.1 Electrical Charge

Electrical charge (Q, unit coulombs (C)) is an electrical property of matter that exists because of an excess or deficiency of electrons. There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative.
Positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons; 1 positive charge (proton), e = 1.602 x 10-19C negative charge comes from having more electrons than protons 1 negative charge (electron), e = - 1.602 x 10-19C

When an equal amount of electrons and protons exist within an atom, it is said to be electrically balanced (the +ve and ve cancel off each other)

## 1.1 Electrical Charge (cont.)

Like charges repel, unlike charges attract.

## A force acts between charges, known as electric field.

Valence Electrons
Valence Electrons are the electrons located in the valence shell (outermost orbit @ shell) Configuration of valence electrons determines the conductivity of a material.
Electron in the furthest orbit has higher energy due to the weaker force of attraction between unlike charges (-ve and +ve charges) #loosely bound to the atom

## They determine the material's electrical properties

Categories of materials:
1. Conductors
Materials that readily allow current due to the presence of large numbers of free electrons Examples: copper, silver Materials that exhibit both characteristics between those of insulators and those of conductors. Typically have four electrons in the outermost valence ring Examples: silicon, germanium Non-metallic materials that are poor conductors of electric current due to no (or lack of) free electrons Examples: glass, porcelain

2.

Semiconductors

3.

Insulators

## CURRENT AND VOLTAGE

Current
Free electrons, which available in conductors and semiconductors, move randomly within the crystalline structure. A force of attraction exists between a positive and a negative charge. To move the charges a distance apart, certain amount of energy (i.e. VOLTAGE) must be applied. Hence the two ends become inverse polarity of each other, causing a net movement of free electrons (due to repulsive and attractive forces).

## Electron Flow vs Conventional Flow

Electrons drifts from a negative to a positive charge This current is known as electron flow

In 18th-19th centuries, researchers believed wrongly that current was a flow of positive charges. Although proven incorrect many texts still use conventional current flow

Current flow

## Current flow using conventional current flow

Current (cont.)
Electric current is the rate of flow of charge, (measured in Ampere, A).
dQ I= dt (Amperes, A)
where t = time in seconds (s) Q = charge in Coulombs (C)

One ampere (1 A) is the amount of current that exists when one Coulomb of charges move through a given cross-sectional area in one second.

The charge transferred between time to and t is obtained by integrating the current equation.
t

Q = idt
to

A direct current (dc) is a current that remains constant with time. An alternating current (ac) is a sinusoidal current that varies with time.

Two common types of current: (a) direct current (dc), (b) alternating current (ac).

Example 1.1
1. Given:(a) i(t) = (3t2 - t) A. Calculate charge, Q from t=1 to t=2 s. (b) i(t) = e-2t mA . Calculate Q (charge) from t=0 to t=2s ?

Solution 1.1
(a) i(t) = (3t2 - t) A. Calculate charge, Q from t=1 to t=2 s.
Answer: q = idt = (3t2 - t) dt = [t3 - t2/2] 21 = (8-2) (1- 1/2) = 5.5 C

## Solution 1.1 (cont.)

(b) i(t) = e-2t mA . Calculate Q from t=0 to t=2s ? Answer: q = idt = e-2t dt mC = - [1/2 e-2t] 20 = (1- e4) mC = 490 C

Example 1.2
2. How much charge is represented by 4,600 electrons?

Answer: Each electron has -1.602 x 10-19C. Hence 4,600 electrons will have -1.602 x 10-19 C/electron x 4,600 electrons = -7.369 x 10-16 C

Voltage
A force of attraction exists between a positive and a negative charge. To move the charges a distance apart, certain amount of energy must be applied. All opposite charges possess a certain potential energy due to the separation between them. The difference in potential energy per charge is the potential difference or voltage.

Voltage
Voltage (or potential difference) is the energy required to move a unit charge through an element, measured in volts (V) Or, Voltage is energy or work per unit charge. dW where W = energy in Joules (J) (volts, V ) V= dQ Q = charge in Coulombs (C)
One volt is the potential difference (voltage) between two points when one joule of energy is used to move one coulomb of charge from one to another.

As voltage is also the driving force that enable the charges to move, therefore it is also called electromotive force (emf).

Two equivalent representations of the same voltage Vab: (a) point a is 9 V above point b, (b) point b is -9 V above point a.

Voltage (cont.)
Voltage source: provides electrical energy or electromotive force (emf). produced from: chemical energy, light energy and magnetic energy combined with mechanical motion. Battery Fuel Cell Solar Cells DC generator Electronic power supply

## POWER AND ENERGY

Power
Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy, measured in watts (W). We can write this relationship as

v i

## p = dw/dq x dq/dt = dw/dq x dq/dt = dw/dt

dw p= dt

(Eq. 1.4 )

p = iv

(Eq. 1.5)

Power can be delivered or absorbed as defined by the polarity of the voltage and the direction of the current.
Power delivered or supplied by voltage source

= 3A

= - 3A

= 4V

## Figure 1.7 (b) : Element with Supplying power of 12 W p = v ( -i) = 4 x (- 3 ) = -12 W

Energy
To produce an energy conversion of any form, it must be used over a period of time. Energy (W) loss or gained by any system is

W = P dt (wattseconds, Ws or joules, J) = iv dt
Wattseconds is a very small quantity, so we use watthour (Wh) and kWh Energy (Wh ) = power (W ) time (h )
power (W ) time (h ) Energy (kWh ) = 1000

Example
1. A 12V battery is connected to an electric circuit. Determine the power supplied by the battery if 10mA current flows through the circuit. 2. A 4V dc voltage across an electric element used 30J energy within 5 minutes. Find the current passing through the element.

Solution
P = V I = (12) (10 x 10-3) = 0.12W 2. P = W / t = 30 / (5 x 60) = 0.1 W I = P / V = 0.1W / 4V = 0.025A = 25mA

Exercise
1. The current of a device is i(t) = 3e-2t A and the voltage is v(t) = 5di/dt V . Find the charge delivered between t = 0 and t = 2s. Calculate the power absorbed. 2. An electrical element draws the current i(t)=10cos 4t A at a voltage v(t) = 120 cos 4t V. Find the energy absorbed by the element in 2 s.
( Hint: Use trigonometric identity cos 2A = 2 cos2A 1 )

## BASIC IDEAL CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

Circuit Elements
An element is the basic building block of circuit. An electric circuit is simply an interconnection of the elements. Circuit analysis is the process of determining voltages across (or the currents through) the elements of the circuit. There are two types of elements found in electric circuits: passive elements and active elements.

## Active and passive elements

An element is said to be passive if it never delivers a net amount of energy to the outside world. Example: resistor, capacitor, inductor and diode An active element is the element that capable of generating energy. It can be used to amplify the signal. Example: transistor, operational amplifier, voltage source, current source There are two kinds of sources: independent and dependent sources

Independent sources
An ideal independent source is an active element that provides a specified voltage or current that is completely independent of other circuit variables.
Independent voltage source
A two-terminal element that provides a prescribed voltage across the terminals.

## Independent current source

A two-terminal element that provides a prescribed current across the terminals.

Dependent Source
An ideal dependent (or controlled) source is an active element in which the source quantity is controlled by another voltage or current.

Fig 1.10: Symbols for a) dependent voltage sources b) dependent current sources

Dependent sources
A dependent source is an active element that source (controlled) variable depends on some other voltage or current in the network (i.e. the controlling variable). 4 types of dependent sources:
Voltage controlled voltage source (Fig. A) Current controlled voltage source (Fig. B) Voltage controlled current source (Fig. C) Current controlled current source (Fig. D)

Electric circuit
Electric circuit, or electric network: - A collection of electrical elements interconnected in some way

## General two-terminal electrical elements

Fig.1 General two-terminal electrical elements