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Functional Group: Halogen Nomenclature:

- Remove -ine from halogen + Add -o, and parent hydrocarbon

Halocarbon
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: fluroethane

General Structure:

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L Chlorine halocarbons (organochlorides) most common L Solvents, refrigerants and anesthetics. L Known as CFCs

Functional Group: Hydroxyl (OH) Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -ol

Alcohol
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanol

General Structure:

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L L L L

Ethanol most common Saturated carbon center (single bonds) Solvents, fuels, preservative, antiseptic Weak acid

Functional Group: Carbonyl Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -al

Aldehyde
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanal

General Structure:

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Joy Qin 2012

L L L L

Found in essential oils (produce fragrance) Highly reactive Smaller aldehydes soluble in water Always written as -CHO

Functional Group: Carbonyl

O C Nomenclature: - Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -one (middle of chain)

Ketone
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: propanone

General Structure:

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L General Formula: CnH2nO L Important to industry: Sugars and Acetone L Carbon-Oxygen bond highly polar as electronegativity of oxygen is stronger.

Functional Group: Carboxyl Group Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -oic acid

Carboxylic Acid
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6

General Structure:

Example: ethanoic acid

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L Carboxylic acids are BrnstedLowry theory acids, they are proton (H+) donors. L Most common organic acid. L Polar. L Salts and esters of CAs are carboxylates

Functional Group: Amine Group Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -amine

Amine
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanamine

General Structure:

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L Derivatives of ammonia L Contain basic nitrogen atom with lone pair L H+ can bond with the electronegative Nitrogen in primary and secondary form.

Functional Group: Amide Group Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -amide

Amide
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanamide

General Structure:

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L L L L

Derived from carboxylic acids Contains a -CONH2 group Weak conjugate base of ammonia (amine) Small amides soluble, hydrogen can bond.

Functional Group: Ester Group Nomenclature:

Ester
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: methyl ethanoate

General Structure:

- Remove -ol from alcohol +Add -yl + Carboxylic Acid, -Remove -e + add -oate

Other Facts:

Joy Qin 2012

L Derived from Carboxylic Acid, -COOH. In an Ester, H replaced by hydrocarbon group L Ubiquitous: fats, oils, plastics (polyester) L More polar than ethers, less than alcohols

Functional Group: Acyl Group Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -oyl + halogen

Acyl Halide
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanoyl chloride

General Structure:

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Joy Qin 2012

L Derived from oxoacid by replacing hydroxyl group with halide group L Reactive, often synthesized & used as intermediates in synthesis of organic compounds (+alcohol=ester; +amine=amide +water & hydrolysis = carboxylic acid)
Functional Group: Nitrile Group Nomenclature:

- Remove -e from hydrocarbon + Add -nitrile

General Structure:

Nitrile
Functional Group, Nomenclature, General Structure, Example, y Other Facts. 6
Example: ethanitrile


Joy Qin 2012

Other Facts:

L Strong permanent dipole-dipole attraction/ van der Waals dispersion. L Can be hydrolyzed, reduced or ejected from a molecule as a cyanide ion

YeAH JOY!