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CONTENTS 1. 2. a. b. c. d. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. 3. a. b. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. 4. 5.

Introduction First World Poem About the Poet A Little About the poem Theme of the Poem Analysis Dramatic Situation Interpretation Word Choice, Word Order, Diction and Tone Figures of Speech Sounds Imagery Symbolism, Allegory and Irony Poetic Form Critique Third World Poem Interpretation Analysis Word Choice, Word Order, Diction and Tone Imagery Symbol, Allegory and Irony Figures of Speech Sound Poetic Form Critique Comparison References

Introduction This report aims in critically analyzing the commonalities and differences betwe en the First world and the Third World poems. In order to do these two poems tha t fall under the same theme has been randomly chosen where one falls under the F irst World category while the other falls under the Third World category. Each o f the poems has been thoroughly analyzed and then finally a comparison is done t o sum up the idea of this research project. The poems are analyzed whilst taking into consideration all the literary elements, such as Figures of Speech, sounds and Imagery. First World Poem She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways She dwelt among the untrodden ways Beside the springs of Dove, A Maid whom there were none to praise And very few to love. A Violet by a mossy stone Half-hidden from the Eye! ---Fair, as a star, when only one Is shining in the sky! She lived unknown, and few could know When Lucy ceased to be; But she is in her Grave, and, Oh! The difference to me. About the Poet William Wordsworth was born on 7 April 1770 in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the L ake District. William Wordsworth, can perhaps be considered as the most accompli shed and influential of all the romantic poets. His style and theories in poetry

writing created a new tradition in poetry. He was born in 1770 and educated at St. Johns College and later, in the University of Cambridge. In his young age he visited places noted for their scenic beauty, this he did because he developed a keen love towards nature in his young age itself. Wordsworth began his career of poetry writing while he was still a school boy, b ut sadly his early poetry received little notice. He spent his earlier life with his sister Dorothy. They spent two years in Germany. There, Wordsworth wrote seve ral of his finest lyric verses, the Lucy poems. In 1799 He and his sister returned to England and settled in Dove Cottage, which i s the loveliest spot in the English Lake District. There in 1802 he married Mary Hutchinson his childhood friend. Wordsworth wrote most of his finest romantic p oetry while he stayed in Dove. He loved solitude and never felt lonely in the pr esence of nature. He loved his valleys and lakes. Unfortunately as Wordsworth advanced in age his poetic visions and inspirations were impaired and dulled. His later poetic creations such as White Doe or Rylston e, Peter Bell etc were more rhetorical and moralistic. These cannot be compared wit h the lyrics of his youth. In his early life William Wordsworth was involved in revolutionary politics but later he completely retired from that field and devoted his life for poetry as h e spent his solitary life along the Lake District. He loved solitude and he love d nature. He felt a real and hidden spirit in the properties of nature. In this poem, She dwelt among the Untrodden ways too he promotes his enormous concern and love towards Mother Nature. In 1843 he succeeded Robert Southey as Englands poet laureate. Later in April 23, 1850 Wordsworth died. (Everett, 2000) A little about the Poem In this short poem, the poet presents the plight of Lucy, her untimely death. Th e poet solely highlights her character in the whole incident so that the reader too approaches towards her with more affection and sympathy. The image of the gi rl is presented in a simple way yet it reveals a complex image. On the other han d by creating such an image the poet also creates an emotional attachment which touches the inner hearts of the readers. In the first stanza the poet stresses on the fact that the girl was insignifican t and he worries over the reality that she was little noticed. The girls identific ation is anonymous and she dwelt among the Untrodden ways. The special word elicit s a sense of remoteness and solitariness. It can also suggest the purity or virg inity of the character. The Dove spoken of in the poem is a place where Wordsworth had some life experienc es and that is the place where he wrote most of his famous poems. It also promot es loneliness and solitude because Wordsworth spent his latter life in Dove in s olitude and with nature. In this whole poem the poet has made a continuous effor t to establish and confirm this loneliness. (Everett, 2000) Theme of the Poem There are many themes that can be taken into consideration as you read this poem . For example themes like, 1. Loneliness 2. Death 3. Love 4. Nature -are some of the important themes that revolve around poems such as this. Yet, t his poems major theme is Nature and Industrialization. This is because most of t he Lucy poems are entangled with industrialization and acts as a means to show a n opinion towards urbanization. Seeing that Wordsworth himself was one of the ke y persons regarding news about industrialization and also he was a nature lover, it is evident that the theme opting this is surrounding Nature. Analysis

Dramatic Situation This poem is set in Northern England in Cumbria Countys Lake District. This is ne ar the village Grasmere where William Wordsworth maintained a cottage and lived in solitude. (Cummings)The poet is the persona in this poem and he speaks of a l ovely maid who lives unnoticed. The audience in this poem is a bit ambiguous, ye t the audience can be considered as the people who ignored Lucys existence. The p oet is in love or has a deep connection towards Lucy, but unfortunately Lucy fac es an untimely death and the poet regrets this lot. He talks about the differenc es that Lucys demise has brought upon him. Interpretation In this poem She dwelt among the Untrodden ways Wordsworth descries the loss of a young girl with the dimensions of the loss incurred. In the first stanza the poet introduces the girl. She lived in remote place wher e there were not much people. She lived in a lonely place in untrodden ways (Whe re people do not go about). She lived by the side of the springs of river Dove. Wordsworth says that she is a young maid. But he brings out the pathetic situati on of this unknown damsel. There were only very few who knew her and there were very few to love her. Even those who knew her didnt praise this young girl. Dove here suggests the purity and innocence of the young girl although Dove is a name of the palace. (Ekanayake, 2007) The word untrodden gives a sense of being unspotted. The poet stresses the fact that the maid lived far from the crowd unnoticed giving her exceptional qualities. She dwelt among the Untrodden ways besides the springs of Dove (Wordsworth, 1798). Another meaning for Dove is a bird. It is a white bird and white is a symbol of purity and peacefulness. This purity when associated with nature brightens the image of the maid. In the second stanza she is compared to a violet flower. This little known maid is found living a lonely life. The violet flower and the stone image highlight t he girls qualities. Violet is beautiful, small wild flower. The violet is a small wild plant with purple or white flowers which appears in spring. This maid was like a small beautiful wild flower yet sadly half hidden because of a mossy ston e. Moss is a very small green plant that spread over rocks and trees etc. The be auty of the violet flower is enhanced because it is behind a small green plant w ithout any flowers. The poet says that she was hidden away from the eyes of the people. Being half hidden for the eye resembles the maid as lonely and modest. ( Ekanayake, 2007) Fair as a star means she is bright as a star when only one star is shining in the sky. She is compared to a single star and a violet flower by a mossy stone. She was beautiful but not attractive to others. She did not attract the attention of others like the single star in the sky. The existence of a flower is temporary compared to the life of the star. The girls purity and modesty are being intensif ied when compared to a single star in the sky. (Ekanayake, 2007) In the third stanza the tone of the poem changes to a sad note. She lived withou t fame. This reveals the poets feelings. The repetition of the word Unknown is sign ificant. Only a few came to know about the death of a pretty, modest girl named Lucy. Wordsworth says how sad he is as she is no more. The maids name is mentione d in the last stanza highlighting Lucys lonely dwelling place, her rare qualities , her purity and her beauty. The poets sad feelings inclined towards Lucys rare qu alities and grieving over her sudden death, just like the disappearance of a sin gle star in the sky, are brought out by the lines: She lived unknown, and few could know when Lucy ceased to be The last line of the last stanza ends with an exclamation mark which highlights the poets feelings regarding Lucys demise. And, oh, the difference to me! It also brings out his emotional poignancy. He says how sad he is and what a big change it makes to him. He feels terribly sorry because though he loved her he couldnt express his love to her. Her death made a big change in him. She lived wi thout any popularity when she was alive. Nobody knew about her. Even the poet re alizes her value after her death. The Rhythm, Rhyme and elegant wording woven in to a sad note of music brings out eh pathetic situation created by Lucys loss. Wo

rdsworth indirectly brings out his opinion towards the attitudes of people subje cted to industrialization. He is caught in a trance like state where he is trapp ed by the beauty of a flower unseen and isolated. (Ekanayake, 2007) Word Choice, Word Order, Diction and Tone As common to most Wordsworth poems that have Middle Diction this poem is no exception. This poem has a Middle Diction and the simple words are used thro ughout the poem. May be this is done to reflect the simplicity of Lucy and her l ife along with the flow of the poem. The words are simple and familiar and mainl y consist of one syllable, but he uses one awkward phrase to point out the unspo ilt nature: Untrodden Ways. There is a mysterious tone throughout the poem startin g with the first stanza. The words she and maid provide a sense of mystery. Then as we move to second stanza we find the tone changing towards an appreciative one. This stanza plays the role of describing Lucys beauty with an inclination towards nature. (She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways) The tone of the final stanza is mournful. As Wordsworth understands about the ma ids death he mourns and grieves and the final stanza brings out the sad tone. Wor dsworth expresses his feelings in a gentle tone throughout the poem. The word or der and the flow of this beautiful poem also convey the story from the past to p resent. The mourning tone is conveyed by the author who propitiously ends the po em by saying Oh, The difference to me! The use of an exclamation can also suggest the poets disbelief in Lucys demise. There are connotations used in this poem such as the word Dove which although refers to the place where Wordsworth spent his la tter life, it can also mean purity, innocence and peacefulness. The single star th at he compares Lucys with may also be Venus which is usually seen alone after sun set. Venus represents God of love and beauty in Greek mythology and various othe r myths. (She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways) Figures of speech The following are examples of figures of speech in the poem: Metaphor: It is the comparison of unlikely things without the use of Like, Than or As. A Violet by a Mossy Stone Here he compares Lucy to a violet and the place where she lives to a mossy stone and this is done implicitly. Simile: It is the comparison of unlikely things using Like, Than, or As. Fair as a Star Here he compares Lucys beauty to a star, yet he uses the word as here which makes t his a simile. (Cummings) Sounds Besides Metaphors and Similes there are other literary techniques that can be us ed to emphasize the poetic theme. Yet, the diction plays a huge role in such cas es. Here the lack of sparse diction reduces the abundance of such elements. Alli teration is one of the techniques used in the lines of this poem, such as Half-Hi dden. On the other hand sibilance is used throughout the poem in places such as as a star and sky. Note the s sounds throughout the poem. They help to create the soft, mysterious and lonely atmosphere that Lucy dwells. The sibilance also serves to reflect the remoteness of the subject and the poem itself. Assonance is used in almost of all the lines of this poem, Dove, now, and Love are some examples and there are many more in the poem. The use of such assonance gives a musical quality to the poem and it is in a form where it can be sung as a rhyme. (Moore, 2008) Images Typical to all Wordsworth poems he uses nature imagery and he describes scenes f rom the nature so there is a helping visual element in the poem. The nature scenes are:

She dwelt among the untrodden ways Beside the springs of Dove Imageries are also used here to describe Lucys beauty and her uniqueness. Imageri es such as: A violet by a mossy stone.................... .................. ...Half hidden from the eye! Fair as a star, when only one ...Is shining in the sky. These images emphasize what a secluded and unnoticed life Lucy led. He also uses imageries to bring out the grievances when he describes he death. H e says: But she is in her grave, and, oh, the difference to me! He is very sad and he describes his sadness in a dramatic way, he does this by e mploying the use of the word Oh and the use of the exclamation mark. This actually dramatizes the scene into slow falling. Symbolism, Allegory and Irony This poem consists of symbolism that help to bring out Wordsworth intended theme . Symbolisms here help when Wordsworth compares Lucy to a Violet and a Star (Mos t probably Venus). These symbolisms portray Lucys solitary life, and how she was unnoticed by everyone but the poet. Symbolism: Dove: May symbolize a place where Wordsworth lived his latter life, which connec ts him to nature just like it does for Lucy. Star: This star can be Venus who is considered as the Goddess of beauty and love . This usually is seen alone immediately after twilight. The star symbolizes bea uty and uniqueness. Violet: Symbolizes her loneliness and solitude. Violet is a wild flower. Here it symbolizes how Lucy is untouched and unknown. It symbolizes purity. Also this s ymbolism connects her to Mother Nature very closely. Poetic Form This poem follows a fixed form of poetry. It is a quatrain. The poem is made up of a three stanzas lyric of four lines where every second line of the poem rhyme s. This repeated rhyme gives the poem a nursery rhyme quality. The rhyme scheme is abab, cdcd, and efef. It is noteworthy that in each of the end rhyme only the final syllable rhymes. (Cummings) Critique In many ways this poem can be a beautiful elegy and as well as a ballad. I tell this because Wordsworth tells us a story in this too. But, considering the other poems about Lucy I would say that this poem is a more of an elegy than a ballad . William Wordsworth has shown the reader through Middle Diction and simplicity his love for this neglected woman and how much she meant to him. The use of imag eries creates a stage for the scene and makes the reader feel the poets feelings. The simple words explain how the maids beauty and dignity were overlooked by eve ryone but he poet. May be Lucy in this poem is an image of nature itself. As Woo ding says, "If all elegies are mitigations of death, the Lucy poems are also med itations on simple beauty, by distance made more sweet and by death preserved in distance". (Woodring, 1968) ------------------------ Abdul Basith Third world Poem Gaia s Plan Please, dont sweep the leaves away Their essence gives to lifes decay.

Never hack the flowers down Their colors bless the laughing clown. Now why the mowing of the lawn? The severed grass will lie forlorn. Let our flora live undressed, Or under Man, will toil repressed! I, the tree of standing still Erect and proud, and stout of will, Aglow with motley bark of earth Advance my roots for all theyre worth, Internalizing Natures bowels To snag the devil, tweak his jowls And pull his hairs from whence they grow! Ill destroy his pagan show Of Homo sapiens disrespect! The humble ape must reconnect With Gaias plan! INTERPRETATION The first two lines of the poem asks the audience (us humans) to not sweep the f allen leaves away because they help in the process of natural decay (the sweepin g also refers to the burning of the leaves) The following two lines of the poem talk about the beauty of the colors of the f lowers. Since clowns are vibrant in color, the persona says that destroying flow ers will leave the clown in shades of grey for the colors of the clown comes fro m the beautiful colors of the flowers and that of the earth. The next two lines talks about the grass that has been cut down due to mowing of the lawn and how the grass lies on the ground lonely and sad and lifeless all b ecause of man. The two lines that follow threaten man saying that if we don t let them be, they will battle back. The line "Or under Man, will toil repressed!" is actually inc omplete. If that particular line was to be completed it will likely be something like "Or under Man, will toil repressed be unleashed!" or something similar. The three lines that follow talk about the tree itself. It shows how magnificent the tree is and how proud it is of itself. The six lines that come right after the three lines of the poem stated above add up to one single meaning. It tells us how the tree will borrow its roots so dee p into the earth to catch the devil and break his jaw and pull on his hair. Why is the tree doing this? It s because the tree believes the humans are destroying the earth of its beauty due to the evil influence of the devil himself. The last two lines tell that the "humble ape" which is us humans needs to "recon nect With Gaia s plan." Which in other words mean that we should stop the destru ction of earth and join Gaia in her plan to save the world from being wasteland and go green? The whole poem is about nature and how the persona cares deeply about the earth. The persona is sad to see the earth getting destroyed by humans who are being i nfluenced by the devil which causes the persona to address the devil in an angry tone of voice. ANALYSIS Word choice, Word order and Diction Word choice This poem consists of couplets. In this poem the poet s choice of words is of mi ddle diction and simple words are used throughout the poem with very few excepti

ons. It is characteristic of speech. It is a dramatic monologue for the persona addresses a silent audience. Denotations Most of the words in this poem denote its literal meaning. The leaves, flowers, flora, tree, roots, devil, Homo sapiens and Gaia all refer to their literal mean ing as indicated in the poem. Connotations "The laughing clown" is a connotation for colors giving life to objects and this world. "Nature s bowels" is a connotation for the core of the earth. The connotations of this poem are limited due to the poem being very straightfor ward in expression. For the same reason it is not ambiguous as well. Word order and syntax The poet uses an interesting arrangement of words in the stanzas to make the mes sage that the persona is trying to give come out beautifully. Couplets are seen throughout the poem. But only the first four couplets are isolated from each oth er and it gives out the feelings of the persona very clearly and in a nice manne r. Even though the fifth stanza consists of nine lines, they are couplets that a re condensed into one stanza to give the reader the collective meaning/feeling t hat the persona is trying to give. This is its hatred towards the devil and how th e persona is going to snag him and tweak his jowls?" The poet arranges the poem in a way that the persona gives the feelings of sadne ss and sorrow at the beginning stages of the poem and it slowly dissolves into h ate and anger towards the actions of the humans which destroy the earth. The final stanza is not a couplet though. The very last line just says "With Gai a s plan" which makes the reader gets the feeling that there is a natural order to life in the world which is portrayed as Gaia s plan and we humans are interfe ring with it. Tone His tone consists of sorrow and anger towards us humans and its given by means of the persona the "talking tree". Anger is actually expressed with the line "Or u nder Man, will toil repressed!" This poem starts out as a plea to stop the destr uction of the earth, but eventually turns out to anger during mid-poem. This is where the persona blames the devil for all the wrong that the humans are doing. The Persona The persona is a tree which speaks on behalf nature and addresses the reader and gives the message which shows how much nature hates the actions of humans that destroy the earth of its beauty. Imagery Sight: not much imagery is given to the reader with sight in this poem. One ins tance where he mentions sight is in the second stanza where he talks about h ow the colors of nature bless a clown. This gives us the image of how vibrant th e colors are on a clown and how those colors are also present in nature. Anothe r instance where the poet takes sight into action is in the fifth stanza. "Aglow with motley bark of earth" makes the reader feel that the bark of the tree is g lowing which makes it look divine and mighty. Movement: this poem portrays an abundance of movement. In the first stanza, the "sweep"-ing of the leaves gives the image of a person sweeping/raking out the fa llen leaves. And "Their essence gives to life s decay" gives the reader the imag e that the spirit of the leaves helping ("gives") to the natural decaying of org anic material. The second stanza gives two more movements. One is "hack" which gives the reader the impression that the flowers are cut down without any mercy. The other is "bless" which gives the feeling that the colors are of such import ance that they are able to bless the clown. The third stanza again gives two more movements. The first is mowing which stand s up with its literal meaning of the mowing of grass with the use of a lawn mowe r or a power tool. The second movement is "lie". The word lie refers to lying do wn, and the word that follows it, forlorn, gives the impression that the grass t

hat has been cut down now lies on the ground sad and helpless. The couplet that follows again gives two more movements; the first one being "undressed" which literally refers to the removal of someth ing telling us that they don t like to be removed from the earth. The other move ment is "repressed which shows that toil is sustained with great force. The follo wing stanza gives a lot of movements. "Standing", "aglow" and "advance" all give s the literal meaning as it appears in the poem. The movement "Advance" means mo ving forward, in this case it means that the roots dig deeper down into the eart h. "Internalizing" means going internally into the earth. The movements "snag", "tweak", "pull" and "destroy" further enhances the anger that the persona has to wards the "devil". The last stanza gives one last movement which is "reconnect" which is ta ken in its literal sense. This tells us that we should join Gaia in her plan for a better and brighter future and we should join the cause by not destroying the earth of its beauty. This poem does not make use of most of the senses, but it still works with sight and movement to create an image to the reader.

Symbol, Allegory and Irony There is an extensive amount of symbolism used in the poem Flowers: they actually represent all of nature. Flowers may also represe nt the beauty of the earth. The laughing clown: he is a representation for the entire human race and his laughing represents the happiness and joy in the people. So for as long as the beauty of the nature remains as it is, humans are at joy in their hearts. Grass: it is another representation for nature. It may also represent th e fertility of the earth. It can be said the greener the grass the better the so il. The tree: it is again a representation for nature where it speaks to us on behalf of all nature. Nature s bowels: it represents the deep and core areas of the earth such as underwater caves, trenches and also the depths of volcanoes. Devil: the devil is a symbol for all of the evil that falls on the face of the earth. Humble ape: the humble ape symbolizes us humans for we are of ape origin according to Darwin s theory of evolution. Gaia: Gaia is again a representation for all of nature for she is the Ti tan of the Earth in Greek mythology. No allegories or Irony present in this poem for it m which conveys a very strong message. Figures of speech Metaphors: Flowers are implicitly compared to a clown use of like, than or as. "Never hack the flowers down Their colors bless the laughing clown." Synecdoche: The tree is a synecdoche for all of nature out against being destroyed. The tree can also it is also a part of nature.

Personification: "Nature s bowels" is a personification for it gives nature human attributes by t he word bowels which in other words are human intestines. Let our flora live undressed" is also a personification because it gives human at tributes to flowers with the word undressed. Because the meaning of "to undress"

is a very straightforward poe

via their colors without the

which is seen to be speaking be considered a metonymy for

is to remove something from its place. Mostly used to express the removal of cl othes only humans wear clothes so it gives the "flora" a human attribute. The severed grass will lie forlorn." This is a personification for the grass. For lorn means being sad or being hurt and helpless. And the poet personifies the gr ass to bring out the harmful effects that can bring due to the cutting or the re moval of grass. Their colors bless the laughing clown." Color is personified in this line. It say s that the colors bless a clown. Color cannot bless so it is given a human attri bute so that the poet can let the reader feel the importance of color by making it bless a clown with color. No similes are present in the poem. SOUND This poem can be considered to be a ballad for it has an -AA- BB- CC- rhyme sche me to it but it is not a literary ballad for it is not elaborate and complex. There are no alliterations in this poem as well. This poem is pleasant to the ear for every two lines rhyme with each other excep t for the very last line. There are no repetitions.

Poetic form This poem consists of 19 lines making it a villanelle. But the use of two lined rhyme schemes at the beginning gives it a slight attribute to a couplet. But nev ertheless it is taken to be a villanelle due to the fact that it consists of 19 lines. Post-colonial Perspective There is no post-colonial perspective to this poem. Critique This poem is a beautiful, yet simple piece of art that makes it easy to read and understand. It is beautifully written to express the feelings of the persona vi vidly. The poem however takes into account two religious views and beliefs. That is from Greek mythology and that of Catholic beliefs. The reason as to why I am noting it down is that in Gaia is considered to be "mother earth" of Greek myth ology. But the mentioning of the devil in the fifth stanza takes its views into the catholic world of beliefs because there is no devil present in Greek mytholo gy. It is Hades. Not the devil. Disregarding that fact, I think that this poem i s beautifully written and is simple enough for anybody to read and understand it without any problem. This also gives out a very strong message to the audience about the destruction of the nature. I highly recommend this poem to anybody for it is beautifully written and it is very easy to understand. --------------------------------------- Vajira Thilakarathne

Comparison Although both poems are thematically about nature, the way the message is brough t out is varied. For instance in the First World Poem Wordsworth uses simple wor ds and elegant use of the language helps to bring out the scene. There are very less talk about nature itself, yet the message is brought out by comparisons and imageries. The poem is simple structured and does not use sparse diction. The s tory line is simple and it has a ballad kind of writing in it itself. On the oth er hand the Third World poem has a different way of bringing its meaning out. Th e use of Mythical beliefs and religious views itself brings out the Third World ideologies. The simple commonalities between these two poems are that there are figures of s peech employed to harness the power of words and also imageries are highly used

in both of the poems to bring out their themes. Although the poets were worlds a part they bring out their opinion of destroying Mother Nature through these poem s. The use of sparse diction here gives rise to a lot of literary elements that the First World poem lacked. Movement, touch and high amount of symbolisms are empl oyed to bring out the message. However just as there were many similarities ther e were a considerable amount of differences between the poems as well. The Firs t World poem uses simple diction to bring out a complex message whilst the Third World poem employs a lot more than simple diction to bring out the same theme. Both poems elicit the message in a very efficient way in their own styles. References Cummings. (n.d.). A Study Guide. Retrieved July 27, 2012, from cummingsstudyguid Ekanayake, C. (2007, October 21). English Literature Made Easy. Retrieved July 3 0, 2012, from 05.asp Everett, G. (2000, July). William Wordsworth: Biography . Retrieved July 23, 201 2, from www.victorianweb.or: l Moore, J. (2008, July 25). Explication-william-wordsworths-she-dwelt-among. Retr ieved July 27, 2012, from cation-william-wordsworths-she-dwelt-among-1703149.html?cat=38 She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2012, from Woodring, C. (1968). Wordsworth. Harvard University Press.

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