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Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

5.1 DEFINITION OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION


Wizards Note An exponential function is a function in which the independent variable x is the exponent in which b is a positive real number and not equal to 1. Its general form is f(x) = abx where a is a constant b > 0 and b 1.
The table of values of a function defines an exponential function if equal differences in x produce equal ratios in corresponding values of y .

Example 1

Determine which of the following describes an exponential function 1. f(x) = 3x 2. f(x) = x2 b > 0 and b 1. Item 2 , f(x) = x2 is not exponential function because x is a base and this function is a quadratic function. Item 3, f(x) = 3(-2 ) x is not an exponential function also because b = -2 ,b<0 Example 2 Determine if the table below describes an exponential function.
x y 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32

3. f(x) = ( ) x 4. f(x) = 3(-2 ) x

Item 1 and 3 are exponential function because x is an exponent,

ratio:

2 = 4

1 2

4 1 = 8 2

8 1 = 16 2

16 1 = 32 2

Notice that the equal differences in x produce equal ratios in y, therefore the table describes an exponential function.

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

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Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1 A. Identify which of the following are exponential functions. __________1.f(x) = 3x __________2.f(x) =
2 3

__________6.f(x) = 1x+2
x

__________7.f(x) = 0.05x __________8.f(x) = 2 - 3x __________9.f(x) = (-5)x __________10.f(x) = 3-x

__________3.f(x) = x2 __________4.f(x) = x __________5.f(x) = 3x 1

B. Identify which table of values describe an exponential function. 1. _____________________ x Y -3


1 8

-2
1 4

-1
1 2

0 1

1 2

2. _____________________ x Y 1 2 2 5 3 7 4 9 5 11

3. _____________________ x y 0 1 1 3 2 9 3 27 4 81

4. ______________________ x 1 2 3 4 5

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

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Chapter 5
2 3 2 9 2 27

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

2 81

2 243

5.2 EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS


Wizards Note Exponential Equation Exponential equation is an equation in which the unknown variable is the exponent.
Equality of Exponents Theorem Let b> 0, b1, and x and y are real numbers. If b = by, then x = y.

Example 1 Solve the following exponential equations . 1. 4-1 =


1 16

2. 125x+2= (

1 ) 25

Solution: 4-1 =

1 16

125x+2 = (

1 2x ) 25

4-1 = 4 -2 x 1 = -2 x = -2 + 1 x = -1
solution set is { -1 }

(5 3)x+2 = ( 5 -2) 2x (5) 3(x+2) = ( 5) -2( 2x ) 3(x + 2) = -2(2x) 3x + 6 = -4x 7x = 6 x=


6 7
Page 93

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

solution set is {

6 } 7

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.2 A. Solve the following exponential equations. ________1. 2x = 16 ________2. ( )x = 64 ________3. 2(6x) = 72 ________4. 92x= 27 ________5. ( 2 )x = 4
3 9

________6. 5x = 625 ________7. 4x 1 = 15 ________8. 3x + 1= 9 ________9. 5x =


1 25

________10. 43x 1= 2x + 3

B. Solve for the value of x in the following exponential equations. Choose the letter of the correct answer in the box below and put it in the answer box to reveal the answer. What animal can live without head for nine days?

1. (

1 x 1 ) = 3 9

2. 8x = 64
1 4. = 81 3
x

3. 25x 3 = 2

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

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Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

5. 32x=

1 27

6. 5(4x) = 80 8. 4x + 1= 8

7. 25x = 125 9. 6x =
1 36

M -

K -4

A
3 2

R -3
2

O 2

H -2

I -1

E 1

S 3

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.
High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Page 95

Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM

Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Page 96

Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Page 97

Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

5.1 RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM


Wizards Note The Cartesian coordinate system uses two axes that are usually drown horizontally and vertically which are referred to as the x axis and y axis, respectively. The position of a point in the plane is determined by the ordered pair (x,y). The first element of the ordered pair, x, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the y axis and is called its abscissa. The second element, y, is the perpendicular distance of the point from the x axis and is called its ordinate. Together, x and y are called its coordinates.

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Page 98

Chapter 5

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Name : _____________________________________ Score : _________ Rating : ___________ Year and Section : ____________________________ Date : _________ Remarks: __________

Exercise 5.1

High School Advanced Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics

Page 99