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1 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Notion of a Set A set is a well-defined collection of objects, either real or imagined.

A collection (of objects) is well-defined if it is possible to determine whether a given object belongs to that set or not. examples: the collection of: all male students of MATH11-E 1st Sem 2012-2013 all non-negative integers less than 10 all dinosaur specie living as of today not examples: all gorgeous UPLB students the collection of large positive integers all towns near Metro Manila Note: Generally, we use capital letters to denote a set. The objects that make up a set are called elements. If we want to say that object is an element of , we write . In case the object does not belong to the set , we write . How to describe a set: a set can be described in two ways: roster method sets are described by enumerating the elements which will be separated by commas, all enclosed in a pair of braces sometimes called enumeration method rule method a variable is used to represent the elements, followed by a bar, and then a rule describing a property common to all the sets Additional Properties of a Set (for roster method) each unique object must be uniquely represented the order of representing the objects is immaterial Special Types of Sets empty set a set that has no elements; denoted by { } or universal set a set of elements under consideration in a given situation

Set Relations Given that there are two sets and , if every element of is also an element of , we say that is a subset of , denoted by . Similarly, X is a superset of Y. If there is at least one element in set which is not in , we say that is not a subset of , written as . If a given set has elements, then the number of its subsets is 2 .

2 MATH11 Notes by F5XS The power set of a given set , written as (), is the set that contains all the subsets of . Set Equality if one set is a subset of the other and vice versa, then the two sets are said to be equal two sets and are said to be equal if and only if and two sets are equal if they have the same elements Given two sets and , if but then is a proper subset of , written as . Set Equivalence two sets and are equivalent if it is possible to make a 1 to 1 correspondence from the elements of to the elements of , written as ~ if two sets have the same cardinality (number of elements), then they are equivalent.

Set Operations

A Venn Diagram uses a closed region in a plane to represent sets (example at left). Union = {| or } Intersection = {| and } Complement = = {| but } Difference = {| but } Cross Product = {(, )| and }

Venn Diagram Example



Subset of the Set of Real Numbers Numbers rule the Universe Pythagoras The Real Number System evolved over time by expanding the notion of what we mean by the word, number at first, number meant something you could count



All natural numbers are truly natural. We find them in B A nature. The set of natural numbers (also called counting numbers) is denoted by = {1, 2, 3, }. Difference Subsets of Natural Numbers is the set of even natural numbers = {| = 2, for some natural number } is the set of odd natural numbers = | = 2 1, for some natural number } P is the set of prime numbers (divisible only by 1 and itself) C is the set of composite numbers, numbers that have more than two factors

3 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Whole Numbers = 0, 1, 2, = {0} Negative Integers natural numbers with the negative sign opposites of the natural numbers when a positive number and its negative are added, the result is 0 these pairs of numbers are called additive inverses/opposites Integers combines the negative numbers with the already existing whole numbers = { , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, } Main Subsets of the Set of Integers Negative Integers Set containing 0 {0} Natural Numbers = + Rational Numbers are numbers that can be expressed as a ratio or quotient of two integers and where 0. The set of rational numbers is denoted as = , , 0 . Forms of Rational Numbers fractions proper fractions improper fractions integers decimals terminating non-terminating but repeating Irrational Numbers are those real numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers denote the set of irrational numbers as (complement of ) can also be described as decimal numbers that neither repeat nor terminate Set of Real Numbers, , is the union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers.


Real Number Line one-dimensional coordinate system one-to-one correspondence between the set of points on a line and the set of real numbers

4 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Fundamental Operations of Real Numbers addition denoted by + the result is called a sum multiplication denoted by or the result is called a product Properties of Real Numbers 0] Closure Property Note: To state the validity of the a set is closed (under an property of a set under an operation, operation) if and only if the use this template: operation on two elements of the set produces another element of <SET> is [not] <PROPERTY> under the set the <OPERATION> operation. 1] Commutative Property a] addition: for all real numbers and , + = + ; we can add numbers in any order b] multiplication: for all real numbers and , = ; we can multiply numbers in any order 2] Associative Property a] addition: for all real numbers , and , + + = + + ; we can group numbers in a sum in any way we want and still get the same answer b] multiplication: for all real numbers , and , = ; we can group numbers in a product in any way we want and still get the same answer 3] Distributive Property of multiplication over addition for any real numbers , and , + = + and + = + 4] Identity Property a] addition: there exists a real number 0 such that for every real , + 0 = ; zero added to any number is the number itself; 0 is called the additive identity b] multiplication: there exists a real number 1 such that for every real , 0 = ; zero added to any number is the number itself; 1 is called the multiplicative identity 5] Inverse Property a] additive inverse (opposite): for every real number , there exists a real number, denoted by such that + = 0 b] multiplicative inverse (reciprocal): for every real number except 0, there 1 1 exists a real number, denoted by such that = 1

Symbols: Types a variable is a symbol representing a quantity but whose value is not known at the moment; usually latter letters of the English alphabet are used as variables a constant is a symbol that represents a specific value An algebraic expression is a combination of variables and constants which use any operations on numbers.

5 MATH11 Notes by F5XS An integer exponent is a shortcut for writing repeated products; copies of , written as , provided is a positive integer.

Operations on Polynomials Polynomials are algebraic expressions involving non-negative integral powers of one or more variables containing no variable in the denominator A polynomial is a constant or a product of a constant and a non-negative integral power(s) of variable(s); terms are separated by addition. The degree of a term of a polynomial is the sum of all the powers of the variables in the term. The degree of a polynomial is the degree of the term with the highest degree in that polynomial. A term is composed of two types of coefficients, the numerical coefficient (constant) and the literal coefficient (variable). Similar terms are terms with the same literal coefficient. Multiplication of Polynomials Rule: 2 + = 2 + 2 Division of Polynomials + Rule: = + , 0

In dividing a polynomial by another polynomial, arrange the dividend and divisor in decreasing order of powers insert zeros in the missing terms of the dividend perform the operation Synthetic Division a special method of dividing polynomials applicable only when the divisor is in the form of 1] arrange the terms of the dividend in decreasing order of powers 2] insert zeros on the missing terms 3] write the numerical coefficients in a row and a to the left of the coefficients 4] perform the synthetic division

Simplified Rational Expressions are rational expressions that have the same denominator. Complex Fractions are ratios of two or more rational expressions.

6 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Rational Exponents and Radicals a radical is an algebraic expression involving non-integral rational exponents

= if and only if = wherein is the th root of , is the radicand and is the index.

Principal th root = such that > 0 if is odd and < 0, < 0 Radical Theorem: if and are nonnegative real numbers and is an integer, then: 1] 2] 3]

= =
1 1

, 0

= , > 0

Simplifying Radicals: a radical is simplified if the following are held true: there is no power in the radicand higher than or equal to the index the index and the exponents in the radicand must have no common factor there is no denominator in the radicand Rationalizing the Denominator to rationalize the denominator means to get rid of radicals in the denominator multiply the numerator and denominator by a rationalizing factor Addition (and Subtraction) of Radicals radicals are similar if they have the same index and radicands when simplified we can only add (or subtract) similar radicals to do that, add (or subtract) their coefficients and affix the common radical Multiplying Radicals: For multiplying radicals with similar indices, = Dividing Radicals: For dividing radicals with similar indices, = , 0