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Development of the BaypureTM Product Line

O O O

O N H ONa O
BaypureTM DS100 (Polyaspartic acid sodium salt)

Maleic acid anhydride

O NaO NaO O N H

O ONa ONa O

BaypureTM CX100 (Iminodisuccinic acid sodium salt)

Ecotoxicological effects of BaypureTM DS100


Toxicology
Acute toxicity/rats Toxicity to fish (zebra barbel) Toxicity to daphnia EC0 >2,500 mg/l LD50 oral >2,000 mg/kg LC0 >3,160 mg/kg

Biodegradability
Screening test, modified according to OECD 301 E DOC* after 28 days: 50 to 75 % Sturm test, modified according to OECD 301 B** production of carbon dioxide after 28 days (see glucose with 62 %): 60 to 67 % SCAS test according to OECD 302 A DOC* after 28 days: 70 to 83 % Zahn-Wellens test according to OECD 302 B: > 70 %

Toxicity to bacteria EC0 >6,500 mg/l (OECD 209 / ISO 8192)

* DOC: Elimination of organically bound carbon ** with adaption of the innoculum Chemical oxygen demand: approx. 700 mg/g (100%)

Algae growth

NOEC 125 mg/l LOEC 395 mg/l EC50 1,070 mg/l

Classification by the German Water Act (WGK): 1

Ecotoxicological Effects of Polyaspartic Acid


Degradation curve according to the modified Sturm test (OECD 301 B) Comparison of Polyaspartic acid to polyacrylate. Glucose used as a standard.

Production of CO2 [%]

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Days 20 25 30 Polyacrylate Glucose Polyaspartic acid

Detergent Formulations
- anionic - nonionic - amphoteric - cationic
- alkaline

Percentage (%) 11 to 25

Surfactants

Builders

Detergent Raw materials


Bleaching Agents

- ion exchange resins - dispersants (PASP) - complexing agents (IDS) - threshold inhibitors (PASP) - bleaching agents - activators - stabilizers - optical brighteners

28 to 60

10 to 35
(IDS)

Auxiliaries

- enzymes - anti graying inhibitors - anti-redeposition agents(PASP) - antifoaming agents - corrosion inhibitors - colorants and/or perfumes

4 to 28

Primary washing performance with different builder systems


85 80 % Remission 75 70 65 60 55 50 A Red Wine B Tea Coffee C

Secondary washing performance with different builder systems

Formulation
Builder System

Zeolite Zeolite Zeolite Polycarboxylat BaypureTM DS100 BaypureTM DS100 e Phosphonate BaypureTM CX100 Phosphonate

Inorganic Incrustation % ash

0.5

0.5

0.5

Bleaching Agent Stabilizing Effect


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

% Content

15 A

30

15 B

30

15 C

30

% percarbonate

% TAED

Storage time in days

Washing Performance

Test conditions
Temperature: 60 C Water hardness: Load: 300 mg/l, as CaCO3 3.5 kg of clothing, normally soiled Reflection [%]

Results
Efficiency to remove soilings Grease/Pigments Bleachable (average) (average) 72 73 0.5 38 38 0.5 Cosmetics (avarage) 53 52.5 0.5

Standard polymer Polyaspartic acid

Quantity of detergent: 50 g

LSD (lowest significant difference)

Cobuilder content of detergent:

Degree of coloration (gray) in different fibres


(25 washing cycles)

BaypureTM DS100 or copolymer of acrylic and maleic acid with 5.6 %

Standard polymer BaypureTM DS100

WFK/CO11A 4.5 3.9

CO-terry 5.9 5.2

PES/CO 5.0 5.2

Standard polymer BaypureTM DS100

Increase of ash content (%) average 0.9 0.7

Development of the BaypureTM Product Line


O O O

O N H ONa O
BaypureTM DS100 (Polyaspartic acid sodium salt)

Maleic acid anhydride

O NaO NaO O N H

O ONa ONa O

BaypureTM CX100 (Iminodisuccinic acid sodium salt)

Ecotoxicological effects of BaypureTM CX100


Acute toxicity/rats Dermal toxicity/rats LD50 oral > 2,000 mg/kg LD50 > 2,000 mg/kg Screening test, modified according to OECD 301 E DOC* after 28 days: 79 % Zahn-Wellens test according to OECD 302 B DOC* after 28 days: 89 % *DOC: Elimination of organically bound carbon

Toxicity to fish (96 h) LC0 82.6 mg/kg Toxicity to daphnia Toxicity to bacteria (inhibition) (OECD 209/ISO 8192) Algae growth (inhibition) EC50 91.5 mg/l EC0 84 mg/l EC0 10,000 mg/l

Readily biodegradable
Chemical oxygen demand: approx. 510 mg/g (solid, 100 %) Biological oxygen demand: approx. 278 mg/g after 7 days

no evidence of mutagenic (Ames test) or clastogenic(micro nucleus test)

Classification by the German Water Act (WGK): 1

Biodegradation of BaypureTM CX100


100

Biodegradation [%]

80 60 40 20 0 0 7 14 21 28

BaypureTM CX100 is readily biodegradable

Days
OECD 301 E OECD 302 B

Basic Propeties of Chelating agents

Octohedrical complex of [Ca(EDTA)]2-

Complex Stability Constants


Ba 2+ Ag+ Sr2+ Ca 2+ Mg2+ Mn2+ Fe 2+ Cd2+ Cr3+ Co2+ Zn2+ Pb2+ Ni 2+ Cu2+ Al 3+ Hg2+ Fe 3+ 3,4 3,9 4,1 5,2 6,1 7,7 8,2 8,4 9,6 10,5 10,8 11,0 12,2 13,1 14,1 14,9 15,2

Iminodisuccinic acid iron(III) complex

BaypureTM CX100 is a medium strong chelating agent

Use of BaypureTM CX100 in Cotton Bleach


Whiteness grade [%] 80 60 40 20 0 "Long liquor" process Raw cotton Bleach+standard stabilizer Cold pad batch process Pad steam process

Bleach no stabilizer Bleach + BaypureTM CX100

BaypureTM CX100 is a effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in various bleaching processes

BaypureTM CX100 stability in an alkaline solution


100 90
Stability %

80 70 60 50 0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Time in weeks
23C 50C

Guide Formulations - Laundry


Components
Formulations are % by weight

Phosphate w/Zeolite reduced 9 4 1 20 -18 (18) 1 10 -5 1 16 (16) 5.5 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 9 4 0.8 -26 5 (5)1 11 5 5. 5 1 16 (16) 5.5 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 100% 9 4 1

w/out Zeolite B 9 4 1 ---30 10 7 5. 5 2 16 (16) 5.5 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.2

Surfactants C9-C13-NaLAS C12-C18 fatty alcohol sulphate C12-C18 fatty acid sodium salt Builders Sodium tripolyphosphate Zeolite A Layer silicates Amorphous silicates Sodium Carbonate Sodium Citrate BaypureTM DS100 BaypureTM CX100 Bleaching Perborate monohydrate Sodium percarbonate 2 TAED Enzymes Protease/amylase Others Carboxymethylcellulose Antifoaming agents Optical brighteners Water+
1) can be substituted by amorphous silicate

--30 -10 7 5. 5 2 16 (16) 5.5 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.2

2) Perborate can be replaced by percarbonate

Guide Formulations - Dishwashing


Component Surfactant Block Alkylpolyglykolether Builder Block Zeolite A Layered silicate SKS 6 Amorphous silicate Britesil Sodium carbonate Trisodium citrate BaypureTM DS100 BaypureTM CX100 Bleach Perborate monhydrate or Percarbonate TAED granules Enzymes Proteases/amylases/lipases Other Corrosion protection benzotriazol Water + Formulation % by weight A B C D 2 -30 -15 25 7.5 -12 5.5 2 0.3 2 26 -5 12 25 7.5 5 11 5.5 2 2 --38 -32 7.5 -12 5.5 2 2 -28 -5 25 5 15 12 5.5 2 0.3

0.3 0.3 100%

Primary washing performance

In summary: BaypureTM DS100 and BaypureTM CX100 when optimized in a laundry detergent formulation can provide enhanced cleaning efficiency and bleaching stability replacing existing materials that may be less than favorable to the environment