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Nestie Bryal C.

Villaviray MD 2Y1-5

August 6, 2012 Ms. Bricci Mendoza

For generations diamond and graphite were considered to be the only pure forms of carbon. In 1985, a group of discoverers) found a third form, C60 which was named Buckminsterfullerene owing to the structural similarity of C60 to geodesic domes designed by Buckminster Fuller. C60 is the exact structure of a soccer ball, having both pentagonal and hexagonal rings arranged in an alternating fashion. This 5/6-ring cage provides remarkable stability. In fact, C60 is the smallest fullerene for which all pentagons are isolated. It is also the most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can often be found in soot. This is the first natural example of carbon in the "Bucky Ball" configuration of C-60 carbon atoms. It is called "shungite" - which is the Russian name for this type of graphite. It came from the Shunga River, in Karelia, Russia. Shungite is a rare Precambrian carbonaceous rock. This black rock contains small veins of stacked spheres that are precisely buckminsterfullerene in their configuration. Discovery of Buckminsterfullerene Bucky did not discover, claim to discover or even predict C60, the remarkable carbon molecule that bears his name, but he did have an indirect hand in its recognition. A number of researchers had encountered the unusual, 60-atom carbon molecule in the early 1970s. A few suggested that it might have the soccerball pattern but none recognized the significance of what they had discovered. A decade later, Harry Kroto and Richard Smalley independently found C60 while looking for other molecules, and did recognize what they had. Both had visited the Montreal Expo Dome (Fig. 8-21). (BuckyWorks: Buckminster Fuller's Ideas for Today, J. Baldwin, p-74)

-developed methods for synthesizing long chainpolyynes, whose vibrationrotation dynamics were studied by microwave spectroscopy. -used these observations for molecular radio astronomy.

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they studied the longchained polyynylcyanides, . HC5N, HC7N and HC9N.

-these molecules were detected in the cloud material of the interstellar medium by radio astronomy. These molecules turned out to be produced by red giant stars. In the 1980's -Richard Smalley and Bob Curl at . . Rice University, Texas -developed a technique. -used laser vaporization of a suitable target to produce clusters of atoms. Kroto realized that by using a graphite target, that the cluster apparatus would be ideal to probe the formation of carbon chains, and so planned collaboration between his group at Sussex and the one at Rice. September 1985 - The Sussex/Rice experiment took place -the technique probed the carbon plasma produced by the laser vaporization by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. -the experiments confirmed that large carbon chain/clusters were being formed. -during the experiments it was noted that the peak for the C60 molecule (and to a lesser extent C70) behaved unusually and formed under all conditions as well as exhibiting great stability.

Early 1970's - Harry Kroto and David Walton of . . University of Sussex -studied the chemistry of unsaturated carbon configurations

Kroto mentioned Fuller's geodesic dome structures, which contained pentagons as well as hexagons. The idea was quickly rationalized as the basis of icosohedral symmetry closed cage structure. The geodesic and electronic bonding factors in the structure accounted for the stability of the molecule, and it was named after Buckminster Fuller.

a carbon atom at the corners of each hexagon and a bond along each edge. 3. Properties of Bucky ball: Arranged in pentagons and hexagons A one atom thick separation of two spaces; inside the ball and outside Highest tensile strength of any known 2D structure or element, including crosssection of diamonds which have the highest tensile strength of all known 3D structures (which is also a formation of carbon atoms) Also has the highest packing density of all known structures (including diamonds) Impenetrable to all elements under normal circumstances, even a helium atom with an energy of 5eV (electron Volt) Even though each carbon atom is only bonded with three other carbons (they are most happy with four bonds) in a fullerene, dangling a single carbon atom next to the structure will not affect the structure, i.e. the bond made with the dangling carbon is not strong enough to break the structure of the fullerene No other element has such wonderful properties as carbon which allows costs to be relatively cheap; after all its just carbon and carbon is everywhere The diameter of a C60 molecule is about 1 nanometer (nm). 4. Buckminsterfullerene uses:

Due to their extremely resilient and sturdy nature Bucky balls are debated for use in combat armor Bucky balls have been shown to be impervious to lasers, allowing for defenses from future warfare Bucky balls have also been shown to be useful at fighting the HIV virus that leads to AIDS Researchers Kenyan and Wudl found that water soluble derivates of C60 inhibit the HIV-1 protease, the enzyme responsible for the development of the virus Elements can be bonded with the Bucky ball to create more diverse materials including superconductors and insulators Can be used to fashion nanotubes als2004.ppt als2004.ppt

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is a third elemental form of carbon. Buckminsterfullerene is completely conjugated, but it is not aromatic since it is not planar. It undergoes addition reactions with electrophiles in much the same way as ordinary alkenes. mistry17.ppt The structure of C60 is a truncated T=3 icosahedron, which resembles a soccer ball of the type made of hexagons and pentagons, with