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Definitions: HRD is the framework for helping employees develops their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and agilities. 1) National HRD Definition [India] 2) Western HRD Definition 3) Global HRD Definition Concept: HRD =’ Human resource ‘+ ‘Development’ Human Resource-> people with talents and skills available to an organization as potential contribution Development-> A process of active learming from experience leading to systematic and purposeful development of a person as a whole. Process of development human resources: Procure capabilities Improvement of capabilities on a continuous basis. Provide a suitable work place culture. OBJECTIVE OF HRD Equity Employability Adaptability / Competitiveness Goals of Human Resource Development Facilitating Organizational Effectiveness Enhancing Quality and productivity Promoting individual growth and development Integrating people into business
Principles of HRD Principles of development of Organizational Capacity Principle of potential maximation Principle of Autonomy maximization Principle of Maximum delegation Page 1
N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE
C. Slavery on negative incentive system Serfdom on positive incentive system Both were replaced by guild system involving 3 sets of ppl viz master craftsmen [owner]. Tra & d of workers.C. Then came Indus Revolution in 19th century in Great Britan economic principal or doctrine of laissez. PM also reached maturity & become a professional & was given importance.Serf deem-[an agricultural laborer who was tied to working on a particular estate].C – Principle of Divison of Labor.Babylonian codes of Hammurabi 1800 B.C Children’s inventive Wage plans – Incentive wage plans. New Indus Organization were characterized by factory system [change from cottage sysor home centered production system] During WWI  great importance were given to PM functions by business expansion.medieval association of craftsmen or merchants. labors strategies & higher wage rates.guild system.Making Principle of Change management Principle of Periodic review Functions of HRD Development Functions Maintenance function Control function Evolution of HRD from Personnel Management: Concept upon which HRM theory is based dates back to 400 B. Hr ppl out of jobs 1920-22 various literatures came up worldwide dealing the differ areas of personal administration. Prior to Indus Revolution.Span of Mgmt & related concept of organization were well understood by Moses 1200 B. N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 2 .observed sound base for systematic management of HR as early as 4th century B. Great depression of 1920-21. etc.C.Chinese – 1650 B. without interfering. Journeyman [traveling worker] and apprentice. G system marked the beginning for HR planning for selection. an ass of ppl who do the same work. In India Kautilya. A policy of leaving things to take their own course. 1923 like other functions. Principle of Participative Decision.Slavery.faire.
1969. problem solving & increasing awareness of one self & ones impact on others.gives structured experiences with guidelines for training & development.foundation for HRD Profession. interacts with other individuals & groups. including the personal function. Following that in 1972 & 1973 – Publication of handbook for group facilitators enhanced HRD as a recognized area of professional endeavor.HRD as a separate Discipline: 1947 Kurt Lewin’s studies of behaviour of small groups & setting up of National Training Laboratories.which till late 1940 was the domain of psychiatrists. Participants in T-groups identified problems. nurses & furthered concepts of human relation training & the experiential approach. trained on leadership & its influence handling conflicts expressing feelings. Development Perspective of HRD Competition is global Competencies have gone global Technology and finances have become a relatively lesser issue Speed. counselor. acquired the skills and also actively collaborated in problem solving process. T. became facilitators & focused on how individuals relates to.Groups leaders unlike traditional instructors. Quality and cost give competitive advantage Outsourcing has become global Structures are changing fast Management technologies are easily available Knowledge is being improved Customer expectations are fast growing Brand distinctions are disappearing New business models are emerging Product innovations are on the increase HRD at Macro & Micro Levels: Macro HRD Level: Social level 1) Health 2) Education 3) Employment 4) Actualization N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 3 . psychologists. gives & receives feedback completion & co-operation.Handbook of structured Experience for human relations training. delineating [describing] HRD as a new profession.Published by university Associates.
Collaboration] Ultimate outcome – more competent people to work.HRD at Micro Level: * Organizational behaviour-HRD [in the context of organization & individual self].. long living and enhances Quality of life Organizational context Various categories of outcomes are as falls HRD subsystems [Eg: HRD Depts. * Organizational Behavior-Development of Individual self. Qualities and Competencies of HRD Professional Business skills Leadership skills Consulting skills Technical skills Interpersonal Skills Global mindset Role and Responsibilities of HRD Manager HRD strategic advisor HRD systems designer and developer Organization change consultant Organization design consultant Learning programme specialist Instructor/ Facilitator Individual development and career consultant Performance consultant Researcher N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 4 . appraisal systems] HRD processes [Eg: Role clarity. Outcomes of HRD National Contexts Builds competencies in people Develops a skill base Helps to Participate in productive activities Hence Provides health living.
wide changes HRD is needed to develop a proper development climate in the organization. Theory and Practice of HRD: HRD Concepts Subsystems of HRD Human Resource Planning Steps involved in HRP 1) Collecting Information: Knowing about both internal and external environments This steps is conducted as part of Strategic planning process 2) Demand forecasting Forecasting the demand for employees at various points in future.analysis Major considerations in forecasting Absenteeism Retirement Succession planning Technology upgrading N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 5 .cut promotion policy Existence of mechanism to give feedback to the employee on his potential assessments. Finally the organization must link its potential appraisal system with various other sub-system of HRD. Methods of forecasting Bottom up techniques Delphi techniques Nominal group technique Ratio.Importance of HRD in Present context HRD is needed to develop competencies HRD is needed to mitigate some of the evil consequences of industrialization HRD is needed to bring about system. Forecasting the demand for employees is based on the information about the past and present and in assumption about the future of the organization Goal: To determine how many and what type of employees will be needed in future. The Organization must formulate a clear. Most forecasting methods require certain assumption regarding past trends or productivity ratios.
Performance Appraisal “Performance Appraisal is a process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback upon which performance adjustment can be made” . Appropriate Programmes for recruitment and selection are planned and conducted to fill the manpower gaps. Hunt and Osborn 2004 Objectives of PA: To increase motivation and productivity To enhance transparency To establish meritocracy To retain top talents To develop employees To increase commitment To improve collaboration To ensure accountability and ownership Elements of PA: Goal setting Measures Feed back Performance Rating Performance Pay Performance Appraisal Process: 1) Organization’s mission and objectives 2) Job analysis 3) Determine the purpose 4) Determine and set performance standards 5) Determine measurement methods 6) Determine appraisers and impart training 7) Evaluate measurement system 8) Conduct appraisal activities N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 6 .Schermerhorn.3) Supply Forecasting Internal supply analysis External supply analysis Gap Analysis 4) Planning and conducting needed programmes.
Points will be used to rate[ 5 point scale] Rater rates each employee by putting the score that best describes his/ her performance or trait Finally all assigned values are totaled E. Poor 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Average 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Good 3 Excellent 4 Quality of work Quality of work Job knowledge Dependability Attitude Initiative Co-cooperativeness Leadership Emotional maturity N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 7 .9) Compare Performance and determine deviation 10) Review for errors and appraisal Interview Methods of PA: 1) Rating Methods: Putting employees on certain pre-defined scale to access performance a) Checklist Method: In this method a list consist of statement about worker and his behaviour Each statement is assigned values depending upon the importance The rater places a (+) or (-) sign or YES or NO or ? representing as to whether the employee possesses or does not possess the required characteristics.g. Difficult to construct a good check-list Separate check-list is needed for each job b) Graphic Rating Scale: Printed appraisal form is used in this process Form lists traits [like quality & reliability] and a range of job performance characteristics [from poor to outstanding or excellent] for each trait. Rater can mark as many statements as possible NO restrictions. Final rating taken as the average of scale values of all statements with ‘+’ sign or ‘YES’.
With the help of these scores the employees are ranked. Total no of pairs that the supervisor has to compare are worked out using the following formula: N (N-1) where 2 N. 10 employees [10(10-1) = 10(9) = 90 = 45] 2 2 2 Hence 45 comparisons has to be made.Total no of employees to be evaluated Eg. Supervisor is required to rank all the employees on a 5-point scale from poor to excellent. One trait or characteristic is taken into account and each employee is compared with other employees on one-on –one basis.. No of times a worker is considered better gives or makes his score. c) Grading Method: Different groups of performance are determined in advance like Excellent. Supervisor is given slips containing 2 names & he is asked to tick the one which he considers better. a) Ranking Method: Simplest and oldest method Supervisor evaluates all subordinates under him on an overall basis and then ranks them. Good. E.g. Satisfactory Employees are placed in any of these grades according to their performance Drawback – rater may rate most of the employees on the higher side of their performance. Very Good.2) Comparative methods: Relay on relative comparison and ranking of employee’s performance based on certain characteristics of performance.: Supervisor is forced to spread their employee performance evaluations in a prescribed distribution [Identify & rank employees are to the following %] N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 8 . d) Forced Distribution Method: Evolved to eliminate the central tendency of rating most of the employees at a higher end of the scale. [1 to 10] b) Paired Comparison: Derived form ranking method.
N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 9 . Statements carry scored or weighted [not known by the supervisor] Employees with high score are the better. Difficult to compare 2 essay appraisals relating to one persons. Train supervisors to take notes on critical incidents or outstanding examples of success or failure of the subordinates in meeting the job requirements. b) Essay: Technique used for appraising people for professional position. Rater is asked to write about an individual employees strengths. Drawback. Then group of experts are assign weightage or score these incidents. 3) Narrative Method: Rely on written statement to indicate the performance level of employees a) Critical Incidents Method: Focus the evaluator’s attention on the behaviours that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively & ineffectively. those with low score poorer. potential and so on. weaknesses. in length & content. First a list of good & bad job behaviour is prepared. [‘+’ ve & ‘-‘ve] Supervisor is asked to indicated one least one most. Based on the rating a check-list of good and bad behaviour is prepared Checklist given for evaluating the workers.10 20 40 20 10 + 10% poor 20% Acceptable 30% Average 40% very Good 40% Excellent Supervisor is forced to distribute all employees Automatically employees come under 5 categories Group of individuals are ranked e) Forced Choice Method: Provides a list of behaviour related statement.variability of account.
Personal officer meets small groups of rater from each supervisory unit & goes over each employees rating with them to Identify areas of inter-rater disagreement Help the group arrive at a consensus. define individuals’ major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected & use these measures of guides operating & measuring individual contributions. The employee is not allowed to see or discuss the appraisal 4) Behavioural Method: a) MBO: Subordinate & superior jointly identify objectives. then essay or graphic ratings are often combined with a systematic review process.c) Field Review: If there is reason to suspect rater being bias or when some raters appear to be using higher standards than others. o Effective & ineffective job behaviors are described Steps: Performance measures for effective job performance are identified – clustered into small set of key performance dimensions for a given job Behaviours are identified Critical behaviours identified are reclassified to form the definition of job dimension & best ones are kept for further development N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 10 . Elements of MBO Programmes Goal – setting Performance standards Comparison [actual with the desired] Periodic review Limitations Setting Immeasurable objectives Time consuming Difference of Opinion [between subordinate & superior] Lack of trust b) BARS: Combine elements of Rating scales and critical incidents methods that are related to specific job dimensions. Determine that each rater conceives the standards similarly d) Confidential Report: Manager appraises the performance of the employee based on his observations. judgments & intuitions & reports it confidentially.
problem solving skills. stock trading. Comp & Benefits cost. communication. Role Playing: Method of adopting roles from real life understanding the dynamics of the role. team skills. 360 Degree Method Page 11 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) e) N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE . in the written form from various sources. are given to the employee to access his activity level. team work. interpersonal skills. The common factor is the relatively unstructured nature of interactions among the participants & the variety of actions that can be taken It helps to access various dimensions such as strategic planning. analytical ability. induction & placement cost. critical incidents. planning & organizing skills. etc are extensively used for assessing employees/ participants. t & d. Critical behaviour is assigned numerical scale values [1 to 7] each point indicating level of performance.aptitude. etc o Contributions include the benefits an organization derives from him/ her. Presentations: On vision. This method evaluates human relations places & personal attitude & behaviour in a particular role such as conflict management. ability & personality tests these tests are selected keeping in view Measured objectives Reliability & validity Time required for administration Cost involved Interviews: Structured one are used to know about the background. case studies. Results of arranging various scales for difference dimensions of the job. produces a series of vertical scales [1 for each dimension] measured or anchored by final incidents Each incident is positioned on the scale according to its mean value. team skills. delegation. etc. time management . situational and behavioural event of employees. organizational issues. o Both the cost of & contribution of HR are measured & compared in the method d) Assessment center Technique: o Various experts use various techniques to do assessment of several individuals employees Tools used: 1) Psychometric tests: 3 types tests or questionnaires used. LGD: Small group of employees are given a problem to solve & are instructed to arrive at a group decision within a specified time format. group problem solving. leadership skills. etc. etc is simulated [ imitated] to the entire group of employees. In – Basket Exercise: This represents day to day decision making situation which a manager is likely to face. leadership. etc. c) HR Accounting o Cost of involved in HR includes recruitment & selection cost. Management Games/ Simulation Exercise: A real life situation such as running a manufacturing operation.
The members should measure outcomes and factors which influence those outcomes g) components of BSC: Perspectives Learning & Growth perspectives Business process perspectives Customer perspectives Financial perspectives Potential Appraisal o It is concerned with career enhancement possibilities of employees o Evaluating what a person can perform or do is called potential appraisal or evaluation o Potential refers to the abilities present but not currently utilized or used Objectives: o Promote an employee to higher levels of jobs o Assist the organization to allocate jobs among employees as per their capabilities Evaluation of Employee Potential: The potentials of employee can be evaluated and a good PA system can be et up by the following steps: o Determination of roles and functions o Determination of Mechanism. suppliers. It is a central list of numbers. such as financials. Provides feedback around both the internal business process & external outcomes to continuously improve performance & results. operations. N ARUNAGIRI/ASST PROFESSOR/VT ARTS COLLEGE Page 12 . customers & support systems.f) Balanced scorecard Method: It provides a clear idea as to what companies should measure in order to ‘balance’ the financial perspective. people. It is a management system – helps organizations to clarify their vision and strategy & translate them into action. which show each key part of an organizations success.
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