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Table of Contents
Section 1: Introduction.......................................................................................................................5 Intro........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Ways to Cut Your Electric Bills Today...................................................................................................... 10 Section 2- Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor ..................................................................................17 Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition........................................................................................... 17 "Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor" ....................................................................................................... 19 The Permanent Magnet Motor............................................................................................................... 39 Notes for those building Howards Magnetic Motor............................................................................... 65 Blueprints ................................................................................................................................................ 69 Parts you’ll need ..................................................................................................................................... 78 Notes on Parts......................................................................................................................................... 83 Dimension of Parts.................................................................................................................................. 85 Using Howard’s Designs to Build Your Own: Tips and Suggestions ........................................................ 89 Cautions .................................................................................................................................................. 92 Operation of the Motor .......................................................................................................................... 93 Howard Johnson’s Patents...................................................................................................................... 96 US Patent # 4,151,431............................................................................................................................ 96 United States Patent 4,877,983 ........................................................................................................... 120 US Patent # 5,402,021........................................................................................................................... 135 Section 3: Modern/Simplified Motor .............................................................................................. 148 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 148 Terms/Theories ..................................................................................................................................... 150 Preface .................................................................................................................................................. 151 Materials List......................................................................................................................................... 152 Tools Needed ........................................................................................................................................ 177 Recommended Instrumentation........................................................................................................... 178 Schematic .............................................................................................................................................. 182 Schematic Drawing ............................................................................................................................... 184 Schematic Diagram ............................................................................................................................... 185 Analogous Circuit Drawing:................................................................................................................... 186

Simplified Schematic ............................................................................................................................. 189 Assembly ............................................................................................................................................... 190 Building the Frame ................................................................................................................................ 190 Fastening Magnets to Wheel ................................................................................................................ 190 Winding the Coils .................................................................................................................................. 191 Filling Core ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Soldering the Circuit.............................................................................................................................. 193 Battery Tips ........................................................................................................................................... 193 Connecting the Batteries ...................................................................................................................... 194 Adjusting Resistance ............................................................................................................................. 194 Cautions ................................................................................................................................................ 196 Simplified Motor Designs:..................................................................................................................... 197 Transistor and Arrangement Diagram .................................................................................................. 198 Dual Battery Motor Diagram ................................................................................................................ 199 Operation Instructions .......................................................................................................................... 200 Procedures ............................................................................................................................................ 200 Turning the Motor On ........................................................................................................................... 200 Characterizing the Window of Operation ............................................................................................. 200 One Input, Four Output, Rotate One .................................................................................................... 201 *Note On How to Rotate the Batteries without Disconnecting the Circuit.......................................... 201 What Will You Do Now?........................................................................................................................ 204

the technology to produce free energy on a household to household basis already exists! And the device that makes this all possible is called a magnetic motor. However.Section 1: Introduction Intro An energy revolution is coming. In the case of magnetic motors. But luckily. The world will one day be able to produce free energy from just magnets for every household and every person. But while the world tries to cope with this and it learns how to implement this technology on a large scale…you can be ahead of this revolution and start producing your own free energy in your home with a HoJo Motor…today! However. the world’s energy companies and governments have been suppressing this technology for many years. the energy companies and government run utility companies wouldn’t turn much of a profit if everyone could make their own energy. Why? Well. progress in the world is always delayed by those that oppose progress or by those that have self interest as their priority. many brilliant people through the years have seen the potential of these devices and have dedicated their lives to building and creating their own magnetic motors. .

So this man knew what he was doing! And this is why we are fascinated with his work…and why many others are too. we didn’t know enough until now… . Many have tried…and some have succeeded…but one thing that we known is that Howard’s magnetic motor did work! He was required by the “United States Patent and Trademark Office” to have 3 working units to get his patents (you’ll see them in this report)! And not just that. he is known as the “Father of Spintronics” (meaning spin transport electronics or magnetoelectronics. In fact. which exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment. in addition to its fundamental electronic charge.Howard Johnson created the model that has and will revolutionize the world in our opinion. in solid-state devices). Because of Howard’s verified working magnetic motor and because he was a genius when it came to his work with magnets…we have always wanted to build a magnetic motor after his design. not enough detail was known about how Howard Johnson built his device so only experienced electrical engineers could replicate his design. However. Howard Johnson was a revolutionary when it came to his work with magnets. And up until we released this report.

blueprints.…But just recently we got our hands on Howard’s exclusive magnetic motor plans. Some of Howard’s designs were quite extravagant (and pricey). blueprints. so we wanted to give you a very fast way to recoup the initial cost of this guide with these tips! 2. Section 2 is Howard Johnson’s plans. with Howard’s original plans. modern tools. and building supplies and now have enough detail to piece together all of this information so we and anybody else can build a magnetic motor just like Howard did. Section 1 is a quick guide to help you save energy (and money) starting today! Even before you build your magnetic motor. and new theories about energy and electrical engineering…we were able to create a magnetic motor that is both pretty easy to build and not very expensive. and our instructions for building his motor. Some of this section may seem confusing at first but read through the entire section before you start building and with each . however. We don’t want you to be without any information however…so we wrote this guide in three main sections: 1. articles. articles. We know a lot of you wanted the HoJo Motor guide to save money on your electric bills.

advice. and articles and we will add our commentary. However. and suggestions where we feel it is appropriate to help you follow his design and build your own. Whatever you choose…we encourage you to not just read this guide but implement what you learn because with the energy you will produce and the money you will save on your electric bills. This section will simplify things and show you how to build a motor for cheap! We included this section because we want to assure you’ll have a motor built by the end of this guide! Some of our readers build several simplified versions instead of the full version and just use them together to produce their desired energy needs. others use the simplified motor as practice before they build the larger scale model in Section 2. instructions.additional piece of information you read. Section 3 shows how to build a modern. simplified version. We hope that the HoJo Motor guide is truly life changing for you! . plans. you will understand more and more! 3. we know it can provide life changing results! Throughout this report we will guide you through Howard’s blueprints.

you can lower your bills and energy consumption by 50% Continue to the next page to learn how! . blueprints. plans.By the end of this guide you will know how to produce free energy and how to live a green lifestyle. and our modern HoJo Motor…we know many of you want to learn how to save on your electric bills immediately… …So we wanted to start this report off with some very practical and easy to follow tips to lower your electricity bills by 50% starting today! Even before you build your magnetic generator. Good luck to you…and enjoy this exclusive and life changing information! *Before we get into the meat of this report and show you Howard’s designs.

figure 1). This way you can start experiencing major energy savings today! *if you only want to learn how to build a magnetic motor…skip ahead. I’d like to give you some tips and tricks that will help you conserve energy and potentially eliminate about half of your electric bill each month. Also don’t forget to turn of the light when it’s not needed!  . and lasts for 100. however. An LED light bulb is 12 times as energy efficient as a tungsten bulb.Ways to Cut Your Electric Bills Today Even if you haven’t built your magnetic motor yet. you can conserve energy in major ways.000 hours. And if for some reason you cannot find these types of light bulbs in your area. you can use fluorescent light bulbs which are also more efficient compared to the regular light bulbs. here are some quick tips that are easy to implement…but can save you a lot right away: • Change your regular light bulbs with LED light bulbs (Lightemitting diode bulb . I recommend you read this section! It will save you money starting today! So with that said.

. This is obvious. but so few people pay attention to this. Also make sure the windows and doors in your home are well sealed so no cold or warm air escapes or enters. it most likely comprises a big chunk of your energy bill. …and the warmer you make it when you’re heating…the more energy you’ll use. if the AC is used regularly in your home. the colder you want the inside to be the more energy you use. Keep your home at a comfortable level and don’t overuse it. And if you want the house air-conditioned or heated during certain parts of the day and not others (like when at work or when sleeping)…get a programmable thermostat (these can save you huge amounts of money)! Otherwise.• Use your AC responsibly.

since the dryer is an “energy vampire. it saves money to cook things in bulk and freeze them for later (so you don’t have to use the oven twice). and you'll reap the savings.• Consider air drying clothes as much as you can. *You can save even more money by not preheating your oven and just let the food bake a little longer. don't heat the huge oven…just use the toaster oven. Save heating that big space for something that won't fit in the toaster oven. If all you're doing is heating up some fish sticks. • Use appliances that are efficient and no larger than what you need to do a job. consider washing dishes by hand instead of using the dishwasher…this way you save energy and water. A 25 or 40 watt CFL can provide ambient light in the room. • Use task lighting instead of area lighting. For many cooking tasks. you don't need to have the entire room brightly lit. a microwave oven will do what you want and save a lot of energy doing it. Also. .” Also. If you're doing something at a fixed location. such as your desk or workbench. Use an LED task light or some similar small fixture to put light only where you need it.

 Full refrigerators run more efficiently than ones that are only partially full. So buy more food and save some and if you have two refrigerators. • Refrigerators use more power than any other appliance in the home and deserve special attention. decide if the extra expense is really worth it.• Try occupancy sensors that shut on or off automatically if a person enters or leaves a room. newer and more energy efficient model. consider dimmer switches and three-way lamps. Get as much food in as you can get into your main refrigerator or consider getting rid of any older refrigerator by replacing them with one larger. or an additional freezer.  Move the refrigerator away from the wall and vacuum its condenser coils yearly unless you have a no-clean condenser model. so more electricity is used up. Refrigerators will run for shorter periods with clean coils as dirty coils make them work harder. it is important to know that new models are more efficient and use as little as half the electricity of older units. These provide low light levels when bright lights are not necessary.  Maintain a consistent temperature in the refrigerator and freezer. Also. Although rushing out to buy a new refrigerator may not be in your budget. Recommended temperatures are 37 to 40F for the .

• In order to eliminate energy consumption for devices you are not using. since it comprises from 10% to 15% of your power bill. That way you can switch everything to zero with one action. Standby power consumption should be taken very seriously. it should be kept at 0F. So if you just start implementing some of the tips I talked about.fresh food compartment of the refrigerator and 5F for the freezer section. PC. you can save roughly 50% of the energy you use! And with a magnetic motor you can easily eliminate the other 50% of your power bills! *You can even start thinking about producing energy and selling it back to the power company because you are producing excess of what you need. • When you turn off your TV. If you have a separate freezer for longterm storage. standby power use is roughly responsible for 1% of global CO2 emissions. Also. you can either unplug the appliance or use a switchable power strip for clusters of computer or video products. . it still consumes energy (just because they are in standby mode does not mean it they don’t consume energy). or DVD.

The steps above are easy to follow so we recommend you start implementing them today! Just changing your regular light bulbs with LED or Fluorescent light bulbs will lower the amount of energy you consume from lighting by as much as 12 times. and the same goes for the AC. And finally eliminating the stand by energy consumption will reduce your power bill by another 10% at least. Using the heating thermostat responsibly will save you as much as 50% of the energy spent on heating.Besides the economical benefits of the said advice. Even though your magnetic motor will not take that long to make…you can start saving now with these tips! . don’t forget that you are saving the environment also. Using the dish/cloth washer and dryer will drastically lower you energy consumption.

We wanted to include all of this information so both someone interested in the theory behind the motor and also the person who just wants to build the motor will have everything they need to do so (there just may be a little extra information for the person just interested in building the motor… but we’d rather give you too much information then too little)   So read the whole section (and also section 3) and everything will tie together.Now that you know how to lower your electric bill and energy consumption with those practical tips… Let’s take a look at how Howard Johnson built his Magnetic Motor in Section 2 of this Guide… *Note: we’re going throw a lot of information at you in this section so read through the whole section to make sense of it all. It may seem confusing at first but it’s actually not necessary to understand all of the information in the next section to successfully build your motor. So with that said. the first thing we’ll look at is his “Science and Mechanics article from 1980… .

However. Just try to read this section and get as much as you can from it but if you don’t understand something don’t worry because you’ll know everything you need to know by the end of this guide.Section 2. Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition . We included this section because it provides very valuable information regarding the motor. Do not worry if you do not understand it all. our instructions and diagrams later in this guide will extract everything you need from this section to build your own motor.Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor *note: much of this section may seem very technical.

Spring 1980 *Below is the transcribed content from the “Science and Mechanics” Magazine about the Howard Johnson Magnetic Motor… .*source of images: Science and Mechanics Magazine.

Johnson has discovered how to build motors that run without an input of electricity or any other kind of external energy! The monumental nature of the invention is obvious.000-watt electric power generator already in the building. inventor Howard Johnson is not the sort of man to be intimidated by such seemingly authoritative pronouncements. His second and perhaps more difficult major challenge: persuade a host of skeptics that his ideas are indeed practical. he can demonstrate . Yet inventor Johnson is not rushing to peddle his creation as the end-all solution to world. That's right. Patent Office. escalating energy shortage.S. as in a motor. can be very persuasive in a face-to-face encounter because he cannot do more than merely theorize. "It won't work because it violates the law of Conservation of Energy. First. using only the energy contained in the atoms of permanent magnets. But because.S.431 which describes how it is possible to generate motive power.151." said one physicist after another. Johnson. 4." said the examiners at the U. He has more important work to do. especially in a world facing an alarming.wide energy problems. there's the need to refine his laboratory prototypes into workable practical devices -in particular a 5."Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor" "We don't grant patents on perpetual motion machines. who has been coping with disbelievers for decades. Patent No. he now owns U.

If a particular law gets in the way. Johnson demurs. that they have to get to the pass to head us off!" The critics say Johnson offers a "free lunch" solution to energy problems. He also points gut that no one talks about a "free lunch" when discussing extraction of enormous amounts of atomic power by means of . so doing the unthinkable and succeeding is second nature to him. Within two days. he went there as an "open-minded skeptic" and as a former research Scientist determined not to be fooled. he sees no harm in going around it for a while to see if there's something on the other side. reminding repeatedly that he has never suggested that his invention provides something for nothing. Johnson explains the persistent opposition he experiences from the established scientific community this way: "Physics is a measurement science and physicists are especially determined to protect the ‘Law’ of Conservation of Energy. In this case they don't even know what the game is.working models that unquestionably create motion using only permanent magnets. Doing the Unthinkable Howard Johnson refuses to view the "laws" of science as somehow sacred. Here's why. Virginia. When this writer was urged by the editor of Science & Mechanics to make a thousand mile pilgrimage to Blacksburg. to meet with the inventor. and that there can be no such thing. this former skeptic had become a believer. But they are so scared that I and my associates are going to violate some of these laws. Thus the physicists become game wardens who tell us what laws' we can't violate.

a few converted scientists. be it a "particle" or some other as yet unsuspected characteristic of atomic structure. ." On the other hand. including some who are associated with large and prestigious research laboratories. the inventor's credentials appear to be impeccable.nuclear reactors and atom bombs. in fairness to the inventor." How do other physicists react to Johnson's suggestion that there may be an atomic particle so far overlooked by nuclear physicists? Says Johnson: "I guess it’s fair to say that most of them are revolted. are intrigued enough to suggest that there should be a hunt for the answer. Johnson is the first to admit he doesn't actually know where the power be has tapped derives. or merely a "garage mechanic" mad inventor? As the following brief summary suggests. In his mind. The main question to be answered here and now is this: Does Johnson permanent magnet motor work? Before providing the answer. it's much the same thing. we might all view his claims with open minds. This article is prefaced with the foregoing brief summary of the ongoing controversy so that. But he postulates that the energy may be associated with spinning electrons. we need to face up to another question that undoubtedly nags in the minds of many readers: Is Johnson a bona fide researcher. even if it means temporary setting aside of cherished scientific concepts until more complete explanations are forthcoming. perhaps in the form of a "presently unnamed atomic particle.

His contributions to the motor industry include: a hysteresis brake. that last item reduced the cost to one-eighth of the cost of an earlier design by utilizing metal-filled plastics for the armature and field. a super charger. He has participated in the development of medical electrical products. Johnson is connected with more than 30 patents in the fields of chemistry and physics. He has also worked on silencers for small motors.skid application. including injection devices. this has been in production for the past 18 years. and served as scientific consultant to Lukens Steel. For the military he invented a ceramic muffler that makes a portable motor generator silent at 50 feet.Following seven years of college and university training. non-locking brake materials for anti. . did magnetics research for Burroughs company. and a method of dissolving asbestos fibers. In all. Johnson worked on atomic energy projects at Oak Ridge. and has perfected a 92-pole no-brush generator to go in the wheel of Lincoln automobiles as a skid control. new methods of curing brake linings.

Figures 2, 3 & 4: Magnet Motor Models ~ pictured here are three of the inventor's early models. Top left is a linear motor which propels a magnetic vehicle at high speeds through a series of rings. Top right is rotary motor upon which the prototype will be built. The 8-ounce magnet, hand held to the large ring weighing 40 pounds, provides enough force to spin the entire assembly. In the third assembly above, the vehicle is propelled, in either direction, by the force of the large magnets arranged below tracks.

Sticky Tape Scientist Despite his impressive credentials, this amiable and unpretentious inventor likes to characterize himself as a "Sticky tape" scientist. He sees no virtue in wasting time building fancy; elaborate equipment when more simple assemblies serve as well to test new ideas. The prototype devices shown in the photographs in this article were assembled with sticky tape and aluminum foil, the later material being used mainly to keep individual, permanent magnets packaged together so that they do not fly apart.

Perhaps the best way to describe what these three gadgets do is by reciting this writer's personal experiences during the interview demonstration. That way I will not merely be telling what the inventor says they do, but I will reveal what happened when I tried the experiments myself. When we start talking about how and why the things work as they do, well have to rely on the inventor’s explanations. The first item consists of more than a dozen foil-wrapped magnets assembled to form a broad arc. Each magnet is extended upward slightly at each end to form a low U-shape, the better to concentrate magnetic fields where they are needed. The overall curvature of the mass of magnets apparently has no particular significance except to show that the distance between these stator magnets and the moving vehicle is not critical. A transparent plastic sheet atop this magnet assembly supports a length of plastic model railroad track. The vehicle, basically a model railroad flatcar, supports a foil-wrapped pair of curved magnets, plus some sort of weight, in some cases merely a rock. The weight is needed to keep the vehicle down on the track, against the powerful magnetic forces that would otherwise push it askew. That 'is all there is to the construction of this representation of a "linear motor." I was prepared to develop eye strain in an effort to detect some sort of motion in the vehicle. I need not have been concerned. The moment the inventor let go of the vehicle be carefully placed at one end of the track, it accelerated and literally zipped from one end to the other and flew onto the floor! Wow!

I tried the experiment myself, and could feel the powerful magnetic forces at work as I placed the vehicle on the track. I gently eased the vehicle to the critical starting point, taking great care not to exert any kind of forward push, even inadvertently. I let go, Zip! It was on the floor again, at the other end of the track. Knowing that I would be asked if the track might have had a slant, I reversed the vehicle and started it from the opposite end of the track. It worked just as effectively in the reverse direction. In fact, the vehicle can even navigate a respectable upgrade. In light of these tests, and considering the remarkable speed of the vehicle, you can discount any notion that this was a simple "coasting" effect. Incidentally, the photograph shows the vehicle about half ways along the track. It was "frozen" there by the electronic flash used to make the picture; there is no way of "posing" the vehicle in that position short of tying it down. The second device has the U-shaped magnets standing on end in a rough circular arrangement oddly reminiscent of England's Stonehenge. This assembly is mounted on a transparent plastic sheet supported on a plywood panel pivoted, underneath, on a free turning wheel obtained from a skateboard. As instructed, I eased the 8-ounce focusing magnet into the ring of larger magnets, keeping it at least four inches away from the ring. The 40 pound magnet assembly immediately began to turn and accelerated to a very respectable rotating speed which it maintained for as long as the focusing magnet was held in the magnetic field. When the focusing magnet was reversed, the large assembly turned in the opposite direction.

Since this assembly is clearly a crude sort of motor, there's no doubt that it is indeed possible to construct a motor powered solely by permanent magnets. The third assembly, which looks like the bones of some prehistoric sea creature, consists of a tunnel constructed of rubber magnet material that can be easily bent to form rings. This was one of the demonstration models Johnson took to the U.S. Patent Office during his appeal proceedings. Normally the patent examiners spend only a few minutes with each patent applicant, but played with Johnson’s devices for the better part of an hour. As the inventor was leaving, he overheard one sideline observer remark: "How would you like to follow that act?!" It took Johnson about six years of legal hassling to finally obtain his patent, and he has been congratulated for his ultimate victory over patent office bureaucracy as well as for his inventiveness. One sign that he left the patent office more than a little shaken by the experience was the inclusion of diagrammatic material in the printed patent that does not belong there. So if you look up the patent, pay no attention to the "ferrite" graph on the first page; it belongs in some other patent! The tunnel device of course worked very well in the inventor's office during my visit although Johnson observed that the rubber magnets are perhaps a thousand times weaker than the cobalt samarium magnets used the other assemblies. There's just one big problem with the more powerful magnets: they

cost too much. According to the inventor, the magnets used to construct the Stonehenge rotating model are collectively worth more than one thousand dollars. But there's no need to depend solely on mass-production economies to bring the cost down to competitive levels. Johnson and U.S. Magnets and Alloy Co. are in the process of developing alternative, relatively low cost magnetic materials that perform very well. How do they work? The drawing that shows a curved "arcuate" armature magnet in three successive positions over a line of fixed stator magnets provides at least highly simplified insights into the theory of permanent magnet motive power generation. Johnson says curved magnets with sharp leading and trailing edges are important because they focus and concentrate the magnetic energy much more effectively than do blunt-end magnets. These arcuate magnets are made slightly longer than the lengths of two stator magnets plus the intervening space, in Johnson's setups about 3-1/8 inches long.

Note that the stator magnets all have their North faces upward, and that they are resting on a high magnetic permeability support plate that helps concentrate the force fields. The best gap between the end poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets appears to be about 3/8 inch. As the armature north pole passes over a magnet, it is repelled by the stator north pole; and there's an attraction when the

north pole is passing over a space between the stator magnets. The exact opposite is of course true with respect to the armature South pole. It is attracted when passing over a stator magnet, repelled when passing over a space. The various magnetic forces that come into play are extremely complex, but the drawing shows some of the fundamental relationships. Solid lines represent attraction forces, dashed lines represent repulsion forces, and double lines in each case indicate the more dominant forces. As the top drawing indicates, the leading (N) pole of the armature is repelled by the north poles of the two adjacent magnets. But, at the indicated position of the armature magnet, these two repulsive forces (which obviously work against each other), are not identical; the stronger of the two forces (double dashed line) overpowers the other force and tends to move the armature to the left. This left movement is enhanced by the attraction force between the armature north pole and the stator south pole at the bottom of the space between the stator magnets. But that's not all! Let's see what is happening simultaneously at the other end (S) of the armature magnet. The length of this magnet (about 3-1/8 inches) is chosen, in relation to the pairs of stator in magnets plus the space between them, so that once again the attraction/repulsion forces work to move the armature magnet to the left. In this case the armature pole (S) is attracted by the north surfaces of the adjacent stator magnets but, because of the critical armature dimensioning,

move from left to right. and at this time it is impossible to develop a mathematical model of what actually occurs. It overpowers the lesser "drag" effect of the stator magnet to the right. However. computer analysis of the system. The importance of correct dimensioning of the armature magnet cannot be over-emphasized.more strongly by the magnet (double solid line) that tends to "pull" the armature to the left. in this case. in this example. conducted by Professor William Harrison and his associates at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Blacksburg. but always' in the same direction as the armature magnet moves along the row of stator magnets. it could achieve an undesirable equilibrium condition that would stall movement. Also note that once the armature is in motion. it has momentum that helps carry it into the sphere of influence of the next pair of magnets where it gets another push and pull. Here also there is the added advantage of. it would behave in exactly the same manner except that it would. However. Complex Forces Some very complex magnetic forces are obviously at play in this deceptively simple magnetic system. if the armature is rotated 180 degrees and started at the opposite end of the track. The objective is to optimize all force conditions to develop the greatest possible off-balance condition. VA). and additional momentum. If it is either too long or too short. repulsion force between the south pole of the armature and the south pole in the space between the stator magnets. provide vital feedback .

fast dynamic measurements are made to see whether the expected results have actually been achieved. All these interrelated factors must be optimized. As Professor Harrison points out. and on. We shall call this the "Zero" level although there is a very tiny gap between the probe and the tops of the stator magnets. As changes are made in the physical design. which is why computer analysis in this refinement stage is vital. the stator magnets. It's a kind of information feedback system. That very different magnetic conditions exist at the two ends of the armature is shown by the actual experimental data displayed in the table and associated graph. Magnet distances and their strengths vary despite best efforts of manufacturers to exercise quality controls. And so on. In the assembly of the working model. many other interactions are in play. The 'new computer data is then used to develop new changes in the design of the experimental model. To obtain this information. the researchers first passed the probe of an instrument used to measure magnetic field strengths over the stator magnets and the intervening spaces. . in addition to the obvious interaction between the two poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets. These measurements in effect indicate what each pole of the armature magnet "sees" below as it passes over. The stator magnets affect each other and the support plate.information that greatly helps in the effort to optimize these complex forces to achieve the most efficient possible operating design. there are inevitable differences between horizontal and vertical air spaces.

you would be very much in error! . The procedure is repeated with the probe positioned just beneath the other armature pole. that the flux measurements at the top and bottom of the air gap will differ.Next the probe is moved to a position just beneath one of the armature poles. But if "instinct" also suggests that these differences are pretty much the same at the two armature pole positions. and correctly so. Now "Instinct" might suggest. at the top of the 3/8-inch armature-to-stator air gap. Another set of magnetic flux measurements is made.

700 Gauss (the unit of magnetic strength) when the probe was held at the "Zero" level under the north pole of the magnet. and a total of 28.000 Gauss.First study the two tables that show actual flux density measurements. . The difference between these total 'measurements is 2.700 Gauss when the probe was moved to the top of the 3/8-inch air gap. Note that in this particular experiment the total magnetic flux amounted to 30.

In this case there's an average 11. but perhaps not so obvious. the "Zero" level readings made over the stator magnets and over the intervening air spaces. the magnetic force conditions are far from identical at the two ends of the armature magnet. The middle five pairs of figures from each table hive been plotted in graphic form to make these differences more obvious.Similar readings made at the air gap between the south pole of the armature and the stator magnets indicates a total flux at "Zero" level of 33. and 24.725 Gauss. This time the difference is a much larger 9.025 Gauss. The second graph shows that the changes are much less dramatic at the north pole of the armature. or four and one half times greater than for the north pole! Clearly. Points along the solid line indicate comparable readings made with the probe just beneath the armature south pole.7% decrease of attraction over the spaces. is the fact that there is an average 36% increase of repulsion when the south pole of the armature passes over the spaces between the stator magnets.4% increase. and a 2. The percentage increase only seems smaller because it applies to a much smaller "Zero" level value. Equally true.700 Gauss at the top of the air gap. of repulsion when the armature north pole passes over the stator magnets. It is easy to see that there is an average 43% reduction of the attraction between the armature and stator magnets created by the air gap. . In the top "South Pole" graph the dashed line connects.

The armature is supported on ball bearings on a shaft that either screws or slides into the stator unit. When the south pole passes over a magnet. the stator/base unit would contain a ring of spaced magnets backed by a high magnetic permeability sleeve. by simply using two or more staggered armature magnets as shown in another drawing. The conditions are exactly the opposite for the south pole of the armature magnet. What’s Ahead? . As shown in the diagrams developed from Johnson’s patent literature. be sure to note that the columns are labeled differently. there is repulsion. The movement can be smoothed. the stator magnet areas repulse the armature north pole while the spaces between the stator magnets attract. In the case of the north pole data. There is a noticeable pulsing action in the simple prototype units that may be undesirable in a practical motor.As you study the data. The Ultimate Motor A motor based on Johnson's findings would be of extremely simple design compared to conventional motors. Speed control and start/stop action would be achieved by the simple means of moving the armature toward and away from the stator section. there is strong attraction. the inventor believes. when it passes over a space. Three arcuate armature magnets would be mounted in the armature which has a belt groove for power transmission.

For inventor Howard Johnson and his permanent magnet power source there's bound to be plenty of controversy. And for those who pooh. Johnson has an answer: "You come along with a magnet and pick up a piece of iron. But you moved a mass through a distance. mainly because he just wants time to perfect his ideas and. then some physicist says you didn't do any work because you used that magnet. The physicist will argue that because it . as he puts it: "It’s too emotional – we’d get smashed into the earth!" The inventor is equally reluctant to make predictions about other applications as well.pooh the idea that permanent magnets do work. Johnson argues that the magnetic forces in a permanent magnet represent superconductance that is akin to phenomena normally associated only with extremely cold superconducting systems. but also progress. He argues that a magnet is a room temperature superconducting system because the electron flow does not cease. Or you can hold one magnet in the air indefinitely by positioning it over another magnet with like poles facing. hopefully. For example. A 5000 watt electric generator powered by a permanent magnet motor is already on the way. and Johnson has firm licensing agreements with at least four companies at this writing. Right? That's work that requires energy. Will we see permanent magnet motors in automobiles in the near future? Johnson wants nothing to do with Detroit at this time because. and because this electron flow can be made to do work. certainly. get the scientific establishment to at least consider his unorthodox ideas with a more open mind.

" Johnson still has many practical problems to solve to perfect his invention. The dilemma facing Johnson is not really his dilemma but rather that of other scientists who have observed his prototypes. But does that imply that the electron spins and associated phenomena that he thinks provide this power will eventually be used up? Johnson makes no pretense of knowing the answer: I didn't start the electron spins.do you? They may eventually stop. but that is not my problem. Yet if you support the same object with air. And all that Johnson is really saying to the scientific community is this: here is a phenomenon which seems to contradict some of our traditional beliefs.involves magnetic repulsion. . But the textbooks say it shouldn’t work. For all our sakes let’s not dismiss it outright but take the time to understand the complex forces at work here. and I don't know any way to stop them . But his greater challenge may be to win general acceptance of his ideas by an obviously nervous scientific community in which many physicists remain compulsive about defending the law of Conservation of Energy without ever wondering whether that "law" really needs defending. no work is done. they will agree in a minute that work is done!" There's no doubt in Johnson's mind that he has succeeded in extracting usable energy from the atoms of permanent magnets. The devices obviously do work.

…Now let’s take a look at Howard’s exclusive writings about “The Permanent Magnetic Motor” .

our instructions and diagrams later in this guide will extract everything you need from this section to build your own motor. So. We were somewhat satisfied and convinced that we had the main sources of energy in view. Introductory remarks (by Mr. but this was not necessarily so in 1942. It took faith to spend money on it. (1979 paper by Johnson) I. Just try to read this section and get as much as you can from it but if you don’t understand something don’t worry because you’ll know everything you need to know by the end of this guide. So it took a pure act of faith to try to develop a new un-named source. Johnson) Today when energy is so expensive.The Permanent Magnet Motor *note: much of this section may seem very technical. Do not worry if you do not understand it all. However. and knowing that unpaired electron spins created a permanent magnet dipole. And it took faith to consider facing the opposition later when I made my work known and faced all the status quopeople. It took faith to spend time on it. in 1942 using the Bohr model of the atom. We included this section because it provides very valuable information regarding the motor. I kept wondering why we couldn't use these fields to drive . it is not hard to drum up interest for most any avenue that offers a breath of hope or a way of escape.

for I didn't share my plans with my associates. My self-imposed security would not permit it. It was a quiet. The U. but the internal coercive forces were so great that this strong magnet would fall apart if not encased in glass. materials that could be opposed with strong magnetic fields and not be demagnetized enough to damage them. Navy later made such a compound using bismuth and good magnetic materials. I had no knowledge of electron spins stopping and knew no method that I could exert to stop them. sometimes lonely job over the years. It was also expensive. they would not give the thrust that I desired. as ceramic magnets became better and harder. and long-field metal magnets appeared on the scene. Not only that. I thought it would be nice to use the best magnetic materials I could find in combination with an interstitial material that was highly diamagnetic to force the electron spin to stay in place.S. At the same time there were no good hard magnetic materials that I knew of. and I knew of few people who would be interested anyway. In the fifties. I was sure that the magnetic effect of the spins was similar enough to the field of a current in a wire to do the same thing.something. so I decided to try to work out a method to use them. Having a chemical background. I began to . So I kept checking magnetic materials while I worked on designs that I thought should be implemented.

"Maybe so" and ask me if I knew that snowflakes were mentioned in the Bible as being important. He had found that snowflakes have gas pockets oriented on 60° angles and that the gas has a higher percentage of oxygen than air. That's one reason why snow water rusts so well. I didn't know that. He has spend many years making these studies. etc. against the day of battle and war. It was about this time that I mentioned the fact that just as I believed electron spins made permanent magnets. and he had learned a lot. This higher concentration of oxygen also interested me because oxygen is more attracted to a magnetic field than other gases. as well as turning out one of the world's most beautiful books." So I went ahead and worked on it another ten years. "No. The dean of the school where I was teaching said. "Well. I found a wonderful book there by Dr. ." but I looked it up. I told him. It said: "Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow? Or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail? Which I have reserved against the time of trouble. Bentley of New Hampshire." My comment was. the sixsided spokes. I went to the Library of Congress and looked up snowflakes. I also believed that they were responsible for the 60° angles in the structure of snowflakes giving the six-spoked wheel.freeze some designs and to have magnets custom made to fit them. maybe this is more important than I thought.

and once again you have that little matter of faith. faith that you can resist being smashed into dust by industrial giants and/or being robbed by others who know only how to steal. They even begged me to content myself with half an order. despite all the hazards. faith to try to implement a new theory. faith to believe that your work is good and that someday. faith to buck the recognized authorities and manufacturers in the field. They wanted to make horseshoe magnets. using the best ceramic magnets I could find and the best metal magnets. but they were sure it was a bad design.Finally. I worked out a scheme for a linear motor. faith to spend your own limited funds when you have a a family and other financial responsibilities staring you in the face. and finally. They didn't know what it was for. my first motor assembly showed about two pounds of thrust. The little toy car on which I fastened the armature magnets for support ran in both directions over the stator. Believe it or not. you will apply for and receive patent rights in your own country and perhaps throughout the rest of the world. I did not agree --. and an order was placed for these shapes. The stator would be laid out as if it were unwound from around a motor. The parts of the armature would ride just above the stator and have the same beveled angular orientations I have just mentioned. showing that the focusing and timing of the interactions was not too bad. Dies were made for the curved armature magnets. despite the objections of magnet manufacturers who said it was a bad design. .

We were correct. In fact.This was the first light at the end of a rather dark tunnel I had been traveling for many years. After much testing of linear and circular designs. faith saved the day as we battled for many years to gain a rather complete victory. faith to continue the research to replace scarce materials in the magnets. Michigan. the belief that it violates the conservation of . For a number of reasons. The attorney built some models himself to check certain parameters. This work of his largely influenced the thinking of Clerk Maxwell and others who followed. It took some time to prepare the patent. and faith that this work will continue to progress and that it will eventually fulfill its goal. Finally. We got it. we entered the case in the patent office expecting a lot of opposition. I breathed a real sign of relief as my young son played with this "new toy. Today." and was able to operate it as easily as I could. I was led to Dunkan Beaman of Beaman & Beamon in Jackson. and looking for an attorney for years suited to securing a patent on the new theoretical work. But again. the permanent magnet motor has not received much consideration. first. nothing too radical has been done since Faraday took some very crude materials and showed the world that it was possible to make a motor. the two greatest obstacles to using a permanent magnet motor are. Now the work requires different kinds of faith: faith in those who have taken cut licenses and who will license.

The elements of all electric and permanent magnet motors are similar. This has been shown for many years in the rating of magnets as high or low energy sources for many applications over long usage. Yet. The focusing is controlled by the shape of . brushes and contact rings give the timing. the fields must be focused and timed. many hesitate to apply the same principles to motors and extend them even further by using permanent magnets for both the stator and armature. In our permanent magnet motors the timing is built into the motors by the size. In the wound motor. that the magnetic fields of attraction and repulsion decrease according to the inverse square law then the air gap is increased. despite examples of this type. In fact. shape. the size and shape of the wound fields and poles gives the focusing. secondly. and spacing of the magnets in the stator and armature. both contentions are quite wrong because they are based on wrong considerations. and the motor case and kind of iron used help to limit the leakage. A loudspeaker composed entirely of electromagnets would be unreal in size and energy consumption. A field imbalance must be created. and.energy law. The permanent magnet is a long time energy source. and magnetic leakage must be controlled.

There is a large decrease in the reading at south pole of the armature and an increase in the reading at the north pole. I believe that super conductors are simply large wound magnets. in order to determine how much current may be flowing in the super conductor coil. Usually when a magnetic air gap is increased. is a rare phenomenon. a Hall-effect sensing probe will give a higher gauss reading at the north pole and a decreasing count at the south pole. while the repulsion of the crescent magnet is great enough to generate a thrust vector component that will drive the armature. we measure its magnetic field. through which magnets oppose and attract each other. Then. and the width of the air gap. a curious but definite change takes place. No longer do these lines flow at right angles to the . When the air gap of the permanent magnet motor is increased. pole length. This appears to be something like going out the door and coming back in the window. but is instead actually induced into existence by a magnetic field. the field decreases inversely as the square. In fact. Thus. I believe that the permanent magnet is the first room temperature super conductor. As I tried to explain in the patent. The current in a super conductor is not initiated by a strong emf. such as a battery. This air gap. This helps explain why the thrust is better with a larger air gap than a smaller one. Another rather unique feature of super conductors is the fact that their magnetic lines of force experience a change in direction. The attracting field is minimized and will not produce a locking force.the magnets.

Jr. Theoretical Analysis (presented by William P. but they now exist parallel to the conductor. the complex interactions of the fields alone place it in a class with other quite sophisticated motive systems. . 1979) may appear conceptually simple (see Fig. 1).) 1. Isn't it interesting that the finer the wire the less the resistance until eventually there is no resistance at all? II.conductor. the heavy conductor currents exist in the fine filaments of niobium within each small wire of niobium tin from which such super conductors are made. Theoretically. Harrison. Introduction Despite the fact that the linear version of the permanent magnet motor (Johnson.

Mathematical models for both the linear and circular versions of Mr. Johnson's motors are presently under development. and include such controllable parameters as stator-to-armature air gap. armature pole length. stator element air gap spacing.Figure 1: Partial Front and Plan Views of a Linear Model of the Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor Many parameters play an important part in making possible the successful design of a permanent magnet motor. stator magnet dimensions. A number of these variables relate directly to the geometry of the system and its components. magnet .

and multiple armature couplings. negative if south). magnetic permeability and geometry of backing metals. and f [ f with line over top] is the vector of force (see Fig. Also. 2) acting at each pole (positive in magnitude for repulsion and negative for attraction). it is our intention to share with you some of those early analytical investigations and findings. Even though Coulomb's Law. to mention only a few. it nevertheless provides an exceedingly simple yet viable form upon which to base an elementary model of the linear version of the permanent magnet motor. Therefore. considerable insight into the mechanisms that might prove predominant was gained. u [mu] is the permeability of the medium in which the poles are located. Coulomb's Law in vector form is recalled as (1) where M and M' are the pole strengths (positive if north.material variations. embodying the inverse square relationship as it does. However. Describing the interaction between two magnetic monopoles. may yet prove suspect. much of the early work involved quit simple mathematical investigations. r is the straight-line separation distance between the two poles. Figure 2: Coulomb's Law . as often is true with simple models. and even at this level some remarkable revelations resulted.

The vector nature of Eq. at least in the case of the linear model we are considering here. We will use the superposition property of Eq. 2. its superposition properties when applied to multiple poles. restricted to the vertical x-y plane. However. (1). the fact that f's line of action is colinear with the straight-line distance r between poles. (1) will first be resolved into scalar components so that analytical expressions can be more easily developed. each having an aspect ratio (length-to-thickness ratio) of 16.R. Thus there is some justification for a two-dimensional analysis. It should be noted that the horizontal stator "track" of H. This high value contributes to the two-dimensional nature of the model and helps to minimize and effects in the z direction. Eq. (1). Our analysis will be two-dimensional and coplanar. Johnson's linear model comprises a plurality of flat magnets. rectangular in cross section. Figure 3: Positional Locations of Two Opposing North monopoles in X-Y Space ~ . and its restriction to static systems fixes in space are all well known conditions on Eq. (1) to extend its application to a spatial domain containing many more poles than the two shown in Fig.

located on the x-axis at (x. 3. when resolved into its horizontal and vertical components yields.0). Force f.As shown in Fig. n [nu]) with a second north pole of strength M'. The Attractive Sheet . acting on the monopole at (E. (2) and (3) 2.n). we consider first a north pole of strength M located at coordinates (E [epsilon]. respectively.

The southpole face will be oriented up. of finite length L. the simple example of a magnetic sheet lying along the x-axis will be considered first (see Fig. Underside effects will be ignored as though the sheet represented a continuous distribution of only south monopoles along the x-axis. To incorporate such distributions into Eq. (1) we replace M’ with the differential dM’ and introduce the function B(x) so that (4) dM’ = B(x) dx Then the magnitude of the total force vector. 4). Magnetized Sheet having high aspect ratio and with S side face up To illustrate some of the assumptions and extensions of Coulomb’s Law that will be made. becomes (5) . is a permanent magnet magnetized across its y-direction thickness and having a high aspect ratio (to eliminate z-direction edge effects). F. acting on an isolated north monopole of strength M situated somewhere within the upper half of the x-y plane.Figure 4: Spatial Orientation of Thin. with north facing downward on the underside of the sheet. The sheet.

where x is the ratio x/L. Figure 5: North Monopole Positioned Symmetrically above the center of a magnetized. and neglecting end effects at x = 0 and x = L. Assuming that the magnetic density along the sheet can be represented by the southern constant B. Eq (5) reduces to (6) where (7) the strength parameter M’ having been determined by integrating Eq (4) over the sheet length L. and p is the ratio r/L. attracting sheet Figure 6: Force Imbalance Acting on a North Monopole above a magnetized sheet tending to restore the pole to sheet .

as shown in Fig. 5. n). Note that a shift of the north monopole to the left results in a force imbalance which tends to pull the pole back to the right.center If the north monopole is placed directly above the center of the sheet. at coordinates (E. So considering now only the x-component of F. similar to Eq (2) we write (8) where X and Y are the dimensionless ratios (9) . the symmetrical distribution of incremental force vectors acting at (E. with E = L/2 and the vertical air-gap separation distance n taken as arbitrary. 6.n) will appear as shown in Fig.

Eq (8) can be integrated to give (11) Figure 7: X-Direction Distribution of the X-Component of attractive force exerted on a north monopole by a thin.Y) of the north monopole in the upper half plane. The Y = 1 curve represents the field influence on the north monopole situated .and (10) For any fixed position (X. magnetized sheet This ratio is shown in Fig (7) as a continuous function of X locations with Y treated parametrically.

1 the monopole is located much closer to the x axis. we now observe that the y-component of force F will be (12) This function is shown in Fig (8) with a Y value of 0. whereas at Y = 0. Reversal of the force component through its zero value at mid-sheet (X = ½) is clearly shown.at a constant air-gap separation (n = L) quite some vertical distance above the sheet. In order to trace some trajectories through this field.20 Figure 8: [Missing] In dimensionless form the equations of motion for trajectory paths of the monopole above the sheet in planar X-Y space become (13) and (14) where .

regardless of the initial drop-point location.9. The function (ry)mag from Eq (12) is equally persuasive in pulling the monopole down towards the sheet itself. g is the gravitational acceleration constant and W is the downward weight force of the moving monopole above the sheet. They all exhibit the expected behavior. the function (rx)mag given by Eq (11) has a stable point of equilibrium at X = ½ and therefore drives the free-falling monopole towards the sheet center. the computer integration procedure will not carry the monopole all the way to surface contact with the sheet at Y = 0 . L is the length of the sheet. and manifests that attraction quite pervasively throughout the integration of Eq (14). respectively.(15) (16) and (17) In these expression t is real time and T is simply a time constant chosen arbitrarily. 7. As already implied in the discussion of Fig. As previously noted. even when the G term may be omitted (as it was in the trajectories of Fig. Actually. Several of the trajectories resulting from the integration of Eq (13) and Eq (14) are shown in Fig. 9). For magnetic force terms (rx)mag and (ry)mag we substitute directly Eq (11) and Eq (12). whereas.

confirms that the energy integral for this function will vanish without any appropriate limit pairs of X. The Repulsive Sheet By substituting +B instead of -B for B in Eq (4). the sheet of length L lying along the x-axis becomes repulsive. Thus. Figure 9: Trajectories of a North Monopole in an attractive field generated by the thin. magnetized sheet lying in the Xinterval 0-1 As we would anticipate in working with this type of central field. the field is conservative with curl of F vanishing. 7. with its . the reverse symmetry of (rx)mag about X = ½. as seen in Fig. 3.because of the infinite condition which exists there as reflected by Eq (12). Also. tailings of these trajectories (Fig 9) have been completed by manually overriding the plotter. where B in Eq (4) is a simple constant.

but now it is destabilizing. as illustrated in Fig. Several paths are shown in Fig 11 with different values used for the W/J trajectory in Eq (17). 10.9. magnetized sheet acting on a moving north monopole Figure 11: Trajectories of a North Monopole in a repulsive field generated by a thin.northern face directed upward. As a consequence. resulting trajectories for the north monopole are much more interesting in this case than they were with the attractive sheet. Figure 10: X-Direction Distributions of (rx)mag and (ry)mag for the repulsive field of a thin. Again (rx)mag will have an equilibrium point at X = ½. 0.2) with zero initial velocity. opposing the north monopole above it at location (E. magnetized sheet lying in the X- . Of course the sign in Eq (6) becomes positive and the functions (rx)mag and (ry)mag reverse their behavior accordingly. and in each example the trajectories commenced at (0.n). Parameter G was included.

as a cosine function of linear displacement distance. of Jamaica. NY. Figure 12: Pole Strength Influence Factor. x . such as those sold by the Permag Corp. It may also be interesting to note that with slight modifications this first simple analytical sheet model can be used to gain some insight into operation of the so-called "magnetic Wankel" reported on by Scott (1979). M'.interval 0-1 The attractive and repulsive sheet results are easily demonstrated since rubberized flexible sheet magnets are commercially available.

to any mathematical analysis of the permanent magnet motor adopted a cosine function (Fig 12) to simulate the distribution of influence parameter M’ generated by the flat stator track of Mr Johnson’s linear model. along a linear model of the Johnson permanent magnet motor 4.Figure 13: Experimentally Determined Magnetic Flux Density. 1979) relating. Ordinate values on the graph are magnetic flux density in gauss measured relative to a predetermined background value. B. The Sinusoidal Model The first paper (Harrison. An experimentally determined distribution. was obtained by moving a Halleffect probe over the stator track of one of Mr Johnson’s early linear models having seven flat ceramic magnet elements. indirectly. These direct-reading experimental results suggest that the function (18) . shown in Fig 13. The figure shown was produced by a plotter connected directly to the monitor computer controlling positioning of the Hall probe and processing its output signal.

the total force magnitude expression Eq (5) becomes (19) where a total track length distance of L has been used to form the dimensionless ratios p = r/L.substituted into Eq (4) should prove interesting to pursue as a more challenging test of what might be gleaned from this simple Coulomb model we have been discussing. then in that expression one must substitute the product BL for M’. So we need consider only the X-component of F from Eq (19) which yields (20) Figure 14: Oscillatory Path of a North Monopole restrained to x-direction motion over a three-element linear stator . Now we plan to hold Y constant while investigating linear motion of the monopole along this track in the X-direction only. x = x/L. Using Eq (18). It should be noted that one of the important differences between the function (18) and that shown in Fig 12 is that in Eq (18) the period length parameter xp is double that shown in Figure 12. if Eq (7) is used for J in Eq (19). Also. and xp = xp/L.

As Mr Johnson has brought out.assembly With this expression substituted into Eq (13). integration becomes straightforward and yields the typical oscillatory type of trajectory path shown in Fig 14. it becomes easy to follow the behavior of dimensionless velocity. in Fig 11. So. Also. by simply rotating the figure clockwise through 90 degrees. in Fig. we are showing the X-direction motion from right to left instead of from left to right as in our previous examples. . the focusing armature magnet of his linear model will start at either end of the stator track simply by insuring that the north end of this bipoled crescent is leading the south (see Fig. Vx. 14. since Vx is defined as (21) It will be noted in Fig 14 that the north monopole has been allowed to self-start its motion at the origin with Vx initially zero. 1).

line 39) states that the horizontal air-gap spacing between the magnet elements which the stator track comprises should vary slightly from normal in order to smooth out movement of the armature.We now discuss out final adjustment which proved to be an exciting revelation at the time it was first investigated several months ago. Johnson (1979. The results are shown in Fig 15.e. It should by now be apparent that only a nonconservative model has any chance at all of even partially explaining the phenomena of the permanent magnet motor. Figure 15: Continuus Path of a North Monopole restrained to x-direction motion shown traversing a linear stator assembly . sufficient control over the moving pole could be exercised to carry it over the full length of the stator and beyond. col. Introducing this type of variation into a two-dimensional model. would certainly transform the field from conservative to nonconservative. during the motion). as the monopole advanced along its trajectory path from one X position to another. provided the charge is nonuniform.. 5. an attempt was made to drive the armature monopole of Fig 14 on to the second stator magnet and beyond by varying the horizontal gap parameter xp during the integration process (i. With these thoughts in mind. It was found that through small variations in xp in Eq (20).

151.431 (April 24.. . Virginia Academy of Science. May 8-11. Richmond VA. "Permanent Magnet Motor".comprised of seven permanent magnet elements III. paper presented to the Engineering Section. Scott. 1979).: "A Solution for the Optimal Gap of a Monopole Element Moving in a Sinusoidally Distributed Magnetic Field". Johnson. 57th Annual Meeting. p. June 1979. 80. Wankel’ for Electric Cars". William P. David. 1979. Howard R: US Patent # 4. "Magnetic. Popular Science. References Harrison. Jr.

etc.e. some of which are probably obvious to the more experienced builders: 1) The most critical element is the precise machining of the magnets. including patenting various magnetic gates. whom I very much admire. cutting his own magnets by hand has little chance of succeeding in shaping the magnets to the aerospace-critical specs that are the minimum necessary. each magnetic flux line is envisioned as having a particle traveling . Howard has continued to work quietly and patiently upon his patented permanent magnet motor.Notes for those building Howards Magnetic Motor There are a few critical things that anyone who wants to successfully build a working HoJo Permanent Magnetic Motor needs to know. One slight misalignment and the motor will not run continuously.. much less duplicating that feat several times for each necessary part. 2) Alignment of the parts is highly important too. From The Archives: An Excerpt by Tom Bearden Howard Johnson is also a respected colleague. Someone with a diamond saw. i. that are necessary to make such a motor work in a rotary configuration. Howard employs a two-particle theory of magnetism.

the component lines are now curls. Johnson splits the flux lines themselves. Further. and also a particle traveling from the south pole to the north pole. Tom’s Notes: . he can make a north pole attract a north pole. so their paths curve. one day when the new theory is done. When so separated. into two different pieces. Johnson is thus able to employ a deeper kind of magnetism than the textbooks presently contain. Make no mistake. the forward-time particle spins in one direction. a predominance of one form of curl particle gives a "time-forward" aspect. We will also explain how and why the physicists missed that antiparticle in the magnetic field's flux lines. We will give you further insight into Johnson's two-particle theory in a future article. Howard then slightly separates the two particle flows. and thereby failed to advance the theory of magnetism to a deeper level. He demonstrates that a "spin-altered" magnetic assembly exhibiting (to a compass or other such detector) a north polarity can attract another unaltered magnetic assembly exhibiting a north polarity.from the north pole to the south pole. Johnson may well be awarded a Nobel Prize for his epochal discovery of a deeper structure of magnetism. and the antiparticle spins in the other direction. In short. while a predominance of the other form of curl particle gives a "timereversed" aspect. In other words. The particles are spinning. one curls in one direction and the other curls in the opposite direction. The paths of the two "curl particles" are different.

I personally saw and closely examined one demonstration rotary Johnson permanent magnet motor some years ago, and toyed with it for about one hour. It would definitely self- rotate as long as you wished to permit it to turn. As I have pointed out repeatedly in the past, photons also carry time, not just energy. We have previously shown the process and the photon interaction mechanism that creates the flow of time itself; we will discuss this mechanism in the future. So when Johnson separates the particles and antiparticles, not only does he partially separate them according to spin, but he also alters the local character of time flow during which the resulting magnetic field forces must appear. In other words, he accomplishes a partial separation of time-forward and timereversed polar interactions. A south pole is just a timereversed magnetic north pole, in the first place! So a north pole of a bar magnet that is slightly time reversed on one side will partially act on that side just like a south pole. On the other side it will continue to act like a normal north pole. By partially timereversing (phase conjugating) one side of the north magnetic pole piece, Johnson makes that side look and act like a south pole. that way Howard is able to create two north poles, one on a stator and the other on a rotor, and time-reverse part of one face of the stator's north magnetic pole-piece. Therefore when the proper sides of the stator and rotor north poles are facing, they attract each other, contrary to the conventional textbook. The two poles then repel each other normally as soon as the north rotor poles passes the north stator pole. Hence Johnson can make a surrounding north pole stator assembly "draw in"

an approaching north pole rotor assembly, and then kick it on out the other side, because he has broken the local magnetic symmetry. In short, Johnson's magnetic gate can provide a legitimate component of unidirectional magnetic thrust, which means that he can indeed make a rotary permanent motor. Simply put, this "partially separating the spin particles," and thereby partially phase conjugating one face of a magnet, is what Johnson calls a "gate," and this is the patented secret by which his magnet assemblies can be made self-powering. The entire process is still very meticulous, and assembly and adjustments are extremely critical. With Johnson's blessings we hope to shed more light on this subject in coming articles.

Blueprints Below you will see blueprints for the magnetic motor. You will first see the originals then modern renderings below the originals (we’ve also included links to enlarged modern renderings so you can see all of the details in these diagrams).

Modern Rendering Below:

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Modern Rendering Below: .

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Parts you’ll need Quick Overview: Motor Chassis .

Endplate Magnet Motor Rotor and Magnet Rotors .

Shield Rotor Magnet Stator Stator Rotor .

We can assure you that every part you need in this motor can be found online but we want to be careful to not recommend any particular retailer because prices are constantly changing and we want you to find the current lowest prices on the internet for each part to keep the cost of your motor low (instead of us just recommending a retailer that may not be the cheapest for you). Moreover.Rotor Magnet Spacing Tool *We will talk more about the parts in the motor and where to get the parts later in this guide but we typically recommend that people try to find as many of the parts as you can on Amazon and Ebay. if you are having trouble finding magnets. it is also wise to try to get them used. . look to one of the magnet retailers on the internet that solely sells magnets (just do a Google search for “magnet retailer”). As long as the parts are in decent condition.

Because we used this method while we searched for parts.When we built our motor we first tried to get everything we needed used on Amazon or Ebay but if we couldn’t find it there we would search for an individual retailers online that specialized in whatever we were looking for. we built our motor for a very low price! *many of the parts in the motor can also be found at your local hardware store so check there as well. **Click Here To Search For Cheap Parts On Amazon .

. Magnet Ratios One of the crucial aspects is the relationship between the size of the rotor magnets and the size of the stator magnets. For best results. it will lose power if it is stored improperly (poles repelling each other). because it has a low resistance to demagnetization. A suggested ratio is: R + R + S = T. where: (R) is the width of the stator magnet (as viewed from the top. or with a steel keeper.Notes on Parts *Parts and assembly will depend on how you want to build your Magnetic Motor Magnets in general *note: Care should be taken when handling alnico material (HS811N) since it is brittle and can chip or break if dropped on a hard surface. Also. parallel to the stator bar (S) is the small gap between the two stator magnets (~1/2 the width of the rotor magnet) (T) is the length of the rotor magnet. store magnetized alnico so that pieces are attracting each other.

physically a magnetic field south pole. with the polarity through the thickness. if the "N"-pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. these are “block” magnets. the one attracted to the Earth's North Magnetic Pole). (Wikipedia) Hence. based on the early use of magnets in compasses they were named the "north pole" (or more explicitly "northseeking pole"). the Earth's South Magnetic Pole is physically a magnetic field north pole. and to have some left over in case some are damaged or have the rounded edge along the length.Rotor Magnets We recommend that you get around 60 magnets to give you flexibility in your design. then you know that pole is "N". Keep in mind. In principle these poles could be labeled in any way. However. 60 magnets will give you the option to fully populate (minus one spot) the rotor disc. Conversely. Because opposite poles attract. by this definition. as "+" and "-". all magnets have two poles that are distinguished by the direction of the magnetic flux. the Earth's North Magnetic Pole is therefore. "N". then you know that pole is "S". . and the "south pole" (or "south-seeking pole"). with the north pole being the pole that pointed north (i. or "A" and "B".e. Note on Magnet Polarity In physics. And if the "S"pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. "S". for example.

Bearing Assembly  Polycarbonate disc 9.  Another identical Poly disc is drilled to receive the shaft. (Hobby town)  Poly plate holding the shaft is bolted to the base.5mm ID 3.  Shaft is 6. These are the most common grades and are available anywhere.2mm thick.  Thickness.5mm x 127mm dia. 2 Flange ball bearing. 12. (Local hardware store)  Bearings.4mm OD 6.4mm ID A bearing is inserted in each end of sleeve. we suggest these dimensions if you decide to try to build Howard’s original motor (and not our simplified motor in section 3)… Aluminum Disc  Diameter. However.Dimension of Parts *the dimension you use will be dependent on how you decide to build your magnetic motor. 3. Drilled to receive a Nylon sleeve (Cut from a 12 inch square sheet of 9.5mm polycarbonate from US Plastic)  Nylon sleeve. 9. (Home Depot) . 28mm long.6mm OD. (Hobby town) Polycarbonate plate holding the bearings is bolteds to Aluminum Disc. 9.5mm brass rod. 452mm (Cut from a 18 x 18 aluminum plate from the local sheet metal shop).  A dozen 1/4 inch nylon or aluminum bolts.2mm  Grade suggested is 1100 or 3003.

. We suggest the gap between the two stator magnets should be greater than the largest gap between adjoining rotor magnets at the perimeter of the disc. (Cut off the head of the top bolts to allow the bar to be attached. Stator Assembly  Two inch x 2 feet aluminum bar drilled on each end to allow a 1/4 inch bolt to slip into it. (Home Depot)  Vertically adjustable Stator Mechanism was built to slide along the bar using trimmings from the aluminum rotor. as well as the gap between the magnets perpendicular to tangent.)  Two 1/4 inch wing nuts. cast acrylic rod. but this should be most everything… Magnet Adjustment You will need some way to adjust the stator magnet spacing both relative to the circumference of the rotor.  1. Bolted to the base.375 Dia. (US Plastic) drilled and threaded on both ends to receive 2 inch by 1/4 inch threaded Nylon or aluminum bolt. There needs to be a space between these.Base A slab of anything large enough to accommodate the rotor with a little extra to hold the stator supports. There is more to building this than just having the parts.

The N-S orientation of the two stator magnets will be the same. Razor Blades .  Crazy Glue for gluing the magnets to the aluminum.There can also be an overlap between the two stator magnets as relative to the circumference of the rotor disc. position the trailing lip of one so it’s ahead of the trailing lip of the other. Screws All screws in the assembly should be non-magnetic.  Super Glue for gluing the rubber feet to the bearing base and the stator assembly feet. One direction will yield rotation in direction. You will need 3 to fasten bearing assembly to rotor disc. So. and 4-10 to fasten stator assembly. Swapping them 180-degrees will yield rotation in the opposite direction. Glue It’s an important principle that the magnets should touch the aluminum if possible. Hence the use of hot glue is probably not a good idea as it creates too much of an insulating factor between the magnets and the aluminum. relative to the circumference of the rotor disc.

You will need something like a razor blade to scrape off the Crazy Glue when you remove magnets to adjust them. or when they fall off for some reason. .

 You can experiment with a set of 6 magnets or more (some successful simplified versions of Johnson’s motor use two sets of 18 magnets).Using Howard’s Designs to Build Your Own: Tips and Suggestions If you want to build the Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor but want to simplify his design try these recommendations:  Use an aluminum rotor disc lined around the circumference with bar magnets arranged like railroad ties.  Use magnets all the way around except for one spot. not the length.  The rotor magnets are nominally evenly spaced. and N is up. which are suspended by an aluminum stator assembly. which can be necessary for the flux effect to work. but stay away from exact measurements.  The polarity of these magnets is through the thickness.  The second key ingredient for this motor is a set of two offset stator (stationary) magnets. *Think chaos theory and the variance of nature. . These are polarized N-S across the two legs.

whether from banging into something. with one polarity leading and the other trailing. . and S on the other side. or from the centripetal force of high rotation speeds.  The horizontal width of the two offset stator magnets. including the gap between them (positioned pointing down at the rotor bar magnets) is approximately the same as the horizontal length of the rotor bar magnets  Some have also successfully used the bottom of the stator magnet and positioned it level with the bottom of the top lip of the rotor magnet.  Your magnets must be secure but when you are building and testing you can use his Crazy Glue to attach them. or from being pulled into the stator magnet.  The polarity of the two off-set stator magnets have N on the same side. and that they are not N-S. to make it easy to adjust things in the process of finding an optimal arrangement. you’ll need to build your assembly more sturdy. They will come unglued fairly easy. If you are going to use stronger magnets. The stator magnets are arranged such that they point down to the rotor magnets. S-N in their relationship.  The speed of operation is apparently in proportional to the magnet strength and perhaps to the distance between the stator and the rotor magnets (though the latter may be more a matter of going in/out of sync).

. The higher elevation apparently works better from tests. While others nearly put it level with the rotor magnet.

 The methods for removing magnets and glue can be hazardous: razor blades. it will be fairly easy to accidentally cause the rotating rotor magnets to collide with the stationary stator magnet. . you will need to guard/protect against rotor magnets becoming detached and flying off. If you modify this design and end up with a device that has higher rotation speed. causing things to come unglued and to bunch together.  If you chose stronger magnets. one should always wear safety goggles when using strong magnets. be aware of the likelihood of pinching your skin with the magnets. acetone.Cautions  Generally speaking. etc.  Because the stator and rotor assembly are positioned by hand in this set-up.

where the effect is repeated. you are ready to operate the motor! Position the rotor assembly on a nominally flat surface with at least 6 inches of free space around it. with enough flywheel and small enough cog to make it to the next set of magnets. Turn the rotor so it is at the beginning of a row of magnets. gradually accelerating until an equilibrium speed is reached. If your generator doesn’t work for some reason:  Try changing the distance between individual magnets. Give yourself plenty of room. . The stator should pull the rotor magnets by. Make sure there are not any magnetic objects in the vicinity.  Try changing the numbers of magnets per set. Bring the stator assembly into place so that the stator magnets are situated directly over the center of a rotor magnet length. Make sure you have some non-symmetry there.Operation of the Motor Once you have completed the assembly steps.

but changing it will require finding the proper spacing of magnets to work with the different circumference.Moreover. . the disc diameter is probably not a highly crucial component. Stronger magnets will require better engineering to prevent detachment of the rotor magnets. You should try to go with weaker magnets for this replication. You could try tighter circumferences just by scribing a line on your rotating disc as a reference point. non-symmetry is a key here. *Remember. You do not want to seek uniformly magnetized magnets for the rotor magnet.

you want to try building a more simplified magnetic motor. They are pretty technical but they may clarify certain ideas. theories. and aspects of the motor plans. take a look at our next section (Section 3) because that is where the cheaper and simplified magnetic motor plans are….…Note: To help clarify theories and the instructions further we have included Howard Johnson’s patents in the next section. . If after reading the patents section.

The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by permanent magnets to produce a motor is accomplished with the proper geometrical relationship of these components. Johnson Abstract --.151. 1979 ) Howard R.431 Permanent Magnet Motor ( April 24. In the practice of the invention the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilized to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a permanent magnet and the magnetic flux created by the magnets are controlled and concentrated to orient the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to do useful continuous work.The invention is directed to the method of utilizing the unpaired electron spins in ferro magnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors. and to permanent magnet motors for utilizing this method to produce a power source. such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator.Howard Johnson’s Patents US Patent # 4. .

Hope Rd.124.130 A.119 A. 9 415/DIG. 416/3.131 A. (3300 Mt. Electric motors operate on the principle that when a conductor is located in a magnetic field which carries current a magnetic force is exerted upon it. No. . 310/12.120 A.136 B. 1973 Current U. H02N 011/00 Field of Search: 24/DIG. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotative or linear motion. Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention pertains to the field of permanent magnet motor devices solely using the magnetic fields created thereby to product motive power. MI 49240) Appl.121 A. 310/152.135 A. 2 46/236 ..S. 1978) Baker.153 (Feb. 415/10.074. 505/877 Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00. Patent Documents 4.125 A. 415/916.137 AE.122 A. et al. Howard R. Class: 310/12.138 A 273/118 A. 126 A. Grass Lake.134 A.: 422306 ~ Filed: December 6.S.123 A.Inventors: Johnson..131 AD References Cited: U.

to impose a force upon the armature to cause rotation. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge and to be located at right angles to the moving electron. or stator. in a conventional electric motor. but in the art heretofore known the use of permanent magnets in either the stator or armature require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the field produced by the permanent magnets. or both types of magnetic forces. and switching means are employed to control the energization of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields. the rotor. or to cause the armature to be displaced in a linear path. or both. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the lossless current flow of Amperian currents in permanent magnets. unless they have unpaired electrons .Normally. repulsion. are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnetics may employ attraction. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. to produce the motive power. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components. It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognized or utilized because of incomplete information and theory with respect to the atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. in their various states as well as their known compounds. and the particle would be very small as to penetrate all known elements.

wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance. In niobium superconductors at a critical state. and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation . their magnetic fields would cancel out. If they were paired. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor. In a superconducting metal. and the fact that very powerful electromagnets that can be formed with superconductors illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow. However. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue. the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins have been oriented in one direction.which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass therethrough. Ferro electrons differ from those of most elements in that they are unpaired. and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating one themselves. the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields.

of the magnetized material results in the spins permitting them to continue and for the flux to flow parallel to the metal. commutators. alternating current. at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning. the reverse occurs. In a sense.. switching is accomplished by the use of brushes. The best method to accomplish this is to use the superconductor of magnetic flux and concentrate it to the place where it will be the most effective. when critical. i. this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. or other known means. a permanent magnet may be considered the only room temperature superconductor. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places.e. In a conventional electric motor. the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles. In a superconductor. It is a superconductor because the electron flow does not cease. Previously. Timing and switching can be . and this electron flow can be made to do work because of the magnetic field it supplies. later. In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor. These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal.

previous work done with permanent magnets. and motive devices utilizing permanent magnets. geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the force generated by unpaired electron spins existing in permanent magnets to power a . motors of either linear or rotative types may be produced.achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields generated by the electron spins. geometry and magnetic concentration. it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio. To my knowledge. greater than 100 to 1. have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept. By the proper combination of materials. In the practice of the inventive concepts. geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilized as a motive force. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to utilize the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferro magnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner as to permit a motor to be driven solely by magnetic forces as occurring within permanent magnets. It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials. and it is with the proper combination of materials. capable of producing a continuous motive force.

motor. in each instance the "stator" may consist of a plurality of permanent magnets fixed relative to each other in space relationship to define a track. and circular in form in the rotary embodiment. This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings. both attraction and repulsion forces act upon the armature magnet to produce the relative displacement between the armature and stator magnets. The continuing motive force producing displacement between the armature and stator magnets results from the relationship of the length of the armature magnet in the direction of its path of movement as related to the dimension of the stator magnets. and the length of the armature magnet is disposed relative to the track defined by the stator magnets in the direction of the path of movement of the armature magnet as displaced by the magnetic forces. linear in form in the linear embodiment. or a rotary embodiment. Whether the motor constitutes a linear embodiment. and the spacing therebetween. and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets. in the direction of the path of armature magnet movement. An armature magnet is located in spaced relationship to such track defined by the stator magnets wherein an air gap exists therebetween. The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of like polarity are disposed toward the armature magnet and as the armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity. will produce a .

a plurality of armature magnets are used which are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of armature magnet movement. The disclosed magnetic field concentrating means comprise a plate of high magnetic field permeability disposed adjacent one side of the stator magnets in substantial engagement therewith. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother . and the magnetic field may further be concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends. In the practice of the invention movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attraction and repulsion forces existing between the stator and armature magnets. The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet. By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified. and in the disclosed embodiments such magnetic field concentration means are disclosed. Preferably. This high permeability material is thus disposed adjacent poles of like polarity of the stator magnets.resultant force upon the armature magnet which displaces the armature magnet across the stator magnet along its path of movement.

and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets.application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component. and thereby regulate the magnitude of the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature magnets. . In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle. In this manner the speed of rotation of the rotary embodiment may be regulated. Means are disclosed for producing relative axial displacement between the stator and armature magnets to adjust the axial alignment thereof. 1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The aforementioned objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein: FIG.

FIG. . FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins. 3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement therethrough.

and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet. .FIG. FIG. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of FIG. 3.

and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location. 8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets. FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon. 5 and 6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left.FIG. 5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. . FIG. 7 is a further elevational view similar to FIGS.

10. . elevational.FIG. 9 is a diametrical. 10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along section X--X of FIG. and FIG. 9. sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX--IX of FIG.

It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass there through. the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conducting material 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3. In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. 1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2. reference is made to FIGS.DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept. In FIG. 1 through 4. .

geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction. the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. are utilized to produce motor force. FIG. A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease. 4. in the practice of the invention. The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in FIG. and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are . it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials. and superconductors have been utilized to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets. and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material. 3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux there through is indicated by arrows 5. It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilizing the concepts of the invention may take many forms. and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which. By utilizing the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons. thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work.The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognized. FIG. 2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3. and is without resistance.

as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from FIGS. at any given time. the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in FIGS.illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles. Thus. and position the stator magnets with respect to each other. 5 through 8. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. 5 through 8. . Preferably. and so magnetized that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets. and preferably in direct engagement therewith. the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends. 8. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration. which is preferably of a metal material having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by the Perfection Mica Company of Chicago. although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20. FIG. Thus. the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12. and thus results in a smoother movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. Illinois.

while in FIG. The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a nonmagnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet.In FIGS. 5. and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from FIG. In like manner the magnetic fields of the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines. guide or track located above the stator magnets. To clarify the illustration. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide. FIG. and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. 8 a pair of armature magnets are shown. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28. The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right. 5. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in FIGS. For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by beveled surfaces 30 to minimize the cross-sectional area at the magnet ends at 32. and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of . 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed. 5 through 7.

5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet. 5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left. displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in FIG. and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets. 6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIG. 5. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line. . and the north pole field of the sector magnets.invention. and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left. While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets. or moving closer thereto. the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces. FIG. 5. In FIG. but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets. tend to move the armature magnet further to the left. It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing there between. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of FIG.

but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement. The use of several armature magnets tends to "smooth out" the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets. Of . 5. the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. 5 and 6. 6. Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in FIG. 7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of FIG. In FIG. and the theory of movement is identical to that described above.. resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. 8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44.FIG. and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of FIG. 5.e. and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIGS. and the south pole is positioned at the left. i. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right. and the stator magnet will continue to move to the left.

and an axially extending portion 64. The armature 62 is formed of a nonmagnetic material. 9 and 10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion.course. The armature 62. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above. or the like. such as synthetic plastic. but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis. aluminum. 10. and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power . In FIGS. and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in FIG. The stator member 48 is made of a nonmagnetic material. in the illustrated embodiment. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis. rather than a linear movement being achieved. any number of armature magnets may be interconnected. In FIGS. and a convex outer pole surface 60. 9 and 10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48. limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22. the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56. Preferably.

The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not disposed as 120. As will be noted from FIGS. effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64. Rather. and such axial displacement will vary the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature. Circumferential relationships to each other. The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by antifriction bearings 72. and may be rotated by the knob 74. a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to "smooth out" the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. an air gap exists between the armature magnet or magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing. axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58. If the distance between the armature magents. or other power consuming device. and shaft 70.degree. and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of FIGS. 5 through 7. 4-7 and 9 and 10. and . The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in FIG. In this manner rotation of the knob 74. 8.from the armature to a generator. and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52.

it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means. the most effective spacing between the armature magnets. As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention. minimized by using a plurality of armature magnets. Thus. and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes. the decreasing of the spacing between the armature and stator magnets creates a "pulsation" in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable. Thus. The increasing of the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet. However.the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased. In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets. the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement. but also reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. to some extent. but can be. While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities. the movement of the armature magnet or magnets . with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation. and the resultant force vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases.

the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype: The length of armature magnet 24 is 31/8". By way of example. produce the desired result and motion. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing there between. the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field. The inventive concepts may be practiced even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 11/2" and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately 1/2" inch. In effect. with respect to FIGS. the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track. 1/4" thick and 4" long and grain oriented.results from the described relationship of components. It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component. the stator magnets 12 are 1" wide. and other variations of . 4-7. combined.

the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof. As used herein the term "track" is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets. and the "direction" or "length" of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement. .

(Cl. Main. Inventors: Johnson.153 (Feb..151. Price. 1979) Johnson (Cl. 1985 Current U..: 799618 ~ Filed: November 19. Class: 310/12. et al.983 Magnetic Force Generating Method & Apparatus Howard R.A permanent magnet armature is magnetically propelled along a guided path by interaction with the field within a flux zone limited on either side of the path by an arrangement of permanent stator magnets. R.074. VA 24060) Appl.46 References Cited: U.877.S. Blacksburg.431 (Apr. Howard R. 310/152 ~ Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/152.12. 314 N. 310/12). No. Cohn. Primary Examiner: Skudy. Patent Documents USP # 4.United States Patent 4. 1978) Baker. 1989 ) Abstract --. 310/12). Johnson ( October 31. Holman & Stern Claims . (Box 199.S. USP # 4. Jacobson. Agent or Firm: Fleit. ~ Attorney.

and magnetic means connected to said interconnected bar magnets exposing one of the flux emitting surfaces of said one polarity perpendicular to said parallel planes for magnetic interaction of the stationary magnetic fields. each of said gate assemblies including a plurality of interconnected bar magnets substantially bordering said limited flux zone exposing pole faces of opposite polarity in parallel spaced planes intersected by said path.What is claimed as new is as follows: 1. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. said magnetic stator means including a plurality of magnetic gate assemblies fixedly spaced from each other along said path and respectively establishing stationary magnetic fields. In combination with a movable armature. .

The combination of claim 1 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles faces thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of . said armature magnet being curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located.2. In combination with a movable armature. 3. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. In combination with a movable armature. 4.

opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in a plane parallel to said path. said magnetic stator means including a pair of permanent magnet assemblies having continuous. the improvement comprising a plurality of . each of said assemblies having means for varying magnetic field intensity in the flux zone along said path. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet mounted on the armature having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path. and a second armature magnet connected to the first mentioned armature magnet in mirror image relation thereto. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone. confronting pole faces of said one polarity bordering said limited zone. The combination of claim 4 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. In combination with a movable armature. 5. 6.

No. Pat. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity . respectively. 4. Description BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to the use of permanent magnets to generate unidirectional propelling forces. by way of example. The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U.431.215.permanent magnet gate assemblies mounted in spaced relation to each other along said path establishing interacting stationary magnetic fields along said path. 4.330 to Johnson and Hartmen. said magnetic means being an annular magnet having a radially inner pole surface of one polarity enclosing a magnetic flux zone through which said path extends. According to applicant's own prior Pat.S.151.431 and 4. Nos. each of said assemblies including stator magnets interconnected in surrounding relation to said path and having pole faces of opposite polarity aligned with parallel planes intersected by said path and magnetic means fixed to the pole faces aligned with one of the parallel planes for interaction of the armature magnet with said stationary magnetic fields for unidirectional propulsion of the armature along said path.151.

. According to one embodiment. the armature magnet is guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention. the flux zone is formed between continuous confronting pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field of varying intensity along the armature path.facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement. with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. According to another embodiment. the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity. It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide certain improved stator arrangements of permanent magnets interacting with a permanent magnet armature for unidirectional propulsion thereof in a novel manner believed to be more efficient.

1 is a somewhat schematic side elevational view showing an installation of the present invention in accordance with one embodiment. . BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1. at least two curved bar magnets are interconnected to form the armature with two pairs of pole faces spaced along the armature path. These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed. with parts broken away and shown in section. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 2--2 in FIG. wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout. reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof. FIG.In yet another embodiment.

1.FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 3--3 in FIG. .

FIG. . 4 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.

5. FIG. . 6 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG.FIG. 4.

5 and 6 with the armature bar magnet positioned therein. 7 is a simplified side view through the flux zone shown in FIGS. FIG. . FIG. 9 is an enlarged partial sectional view through a plane indicated by section line 9--9 in FIG. 8 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with yet another embodiment.FIG. 4. 8.

The armature 10 in the illustrated example includes a wheeled vehicle mount 24 to which the armature magnet 22 is fixedly secured with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the guiding track 12. such as triangular wooden blocks as . includes four bar magnets 30 interconnected at corners by nonmagnetic elements 32. Each of the stator gate assemblies 28 as shown in FIGS. 1-3. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the invention in which a magnetic armature generally referred to by reference numeral 10 is unidirectionally propelled along a predetermined path established by a motion guiding track 12 fixed to a frame or support 14.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings in detail. The pole faces 18 and 20 are furthermore orientated so that the magnetic field extending between pole faces 18 and 20 is movable therewith within a flux zone 26 limited in surrounding relation to the guided path at spaced locations by stator gate assemblies 28 formed by permanent magnets fixed to the frame support 14. The path is represented by a line 16 extending through pole faces 18 and 20 of opposite polarity at the longitudinal ends of a curved armature bar magnet 22. FIG.

FIGS. to the exclusion of the radially outer pole surface 44. The ring magnet 38 has a radially inner pole surface 42 of the same polarity (north) as that of the pole faces 34 to interact with the other pole faces 36 as aforementioned. 3. 4-7 illustrate another embodiment of the invention utilizing the same type of movable armature 10 guided along a . Such magnetic interaction is obviously influenced by the pole face 36 of opposite polarity (south) abutting and fixed to an annular or circular ring magnet 38 magnets 30. The pole face 34 of one polarity (north) is effective through its magnetic field to magnetically interact with the magnetic field of the armature magnet 22 causing unidirectional propulsion of the armature 10 as actually observed during tests. The interconnected and 38 may be held in assembled relation by an outer skin or sheathing 40 as shown in FIG. Such assemblies 28 are spaced apart distance dependent on the magnetic field intensity or strength of the permanent magnets 30 and 38 which dictate the effective axial extent of the aforementioned magnetic fields associated with the assemblies 28 and the armature magnet 22. The obvious effect of said arrangement is to exert a net magnetic force on the armature magnet 22 causing the observed continuous.more clearly seen in FIG. 3. Pole faces 34 and 36 between which a stationary magnetic field extends are formed on the bar magnets substantially aligned with parallel spaced planes in perpendicular intersecting relation to the path line 16. to form a rectangular enclosure in surrounding relation to the track 12. unidirectional propulsion thereof through the gate assemblies 28.

1-3. The bodies 54 have transversely extending flange portions 60 at the abutting ends so as to mount the layer sections sections 58 laterally outwardly of layer sections 56 as more clearly seen in FIGS. and carried on the ceramic bodies 54. Each assembly 50 is a mirror image of the other so as to expose continuous confronting pole surfaces formed by a magnetic layer material 52 such as Neodynium.predetermined path by a frame mounted track 12 extending through a flux zone 46 established by another type of permanent magnet stator arrangement. However. for example. generally referred to by reference numeral 48. 4 and 6 to thereby vary the magnetic field intensity along the guided armature path within the limited flux zone 46 in which the magnetic fields of the stator assembly 48 interact with the magnetic field of bar magnet 22. The confronting pole surfaces of the magnetic layers 52 are of like polarity (north). 7. The curved armature magnet 22 is orientated within the flux zone 46 between the confronting pole surfaces on 52 as depicted in FIG. opposite to the polarity of the pole surface of magnetic layer sections 56 and 58 made of Samarium Cobalt. mounted on interconnected ceramic bodies 54. it was found that maximum propelling thrust is produced by optimum location of the path line 16 through the pole faces 18 and 20 a distance 62 closer to the . The stator 48 includes a pair of permanent magnet assemblies 50 extending in parallel spaced relation to each other on opposite sides of the armature path established by the track 12. with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the track 12 as previously described in connection with FIGS.

Further. 8 and 9 illustrate yet another embodiment of the invention involving the same type of permanent magnet stator arrangement 50 as described with respect to FIGS.upper edge of surface layer 52 than the lower edge on the frame support 14. falling within the scope of the invention. are aligned with a plane in parallel spaced relation between the path line 16 and the pole surface on 52. a higher and more efficient propelling thrust may be achieved. and accordingly. including two curved armature magnets 64 that are mirror images of each other with respect to an intermediate abutting portion 66. . 8 and 9. With the number of pole faces thereby doubled for the armature. The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. FIGS. since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art. all suitable modifications and equivalents may be restorted to. it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described. 4-7. The magnets 64 are interconnected at the abutting portion 66 in alignment with a plane containing the path line 16 centrally between the confronting pole surfaces on 52. a modified form of armature 10' is featured in FIGS. The end pole faces 68 and 70 for each magnet 64.

the walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. 1995 ) Abstract --.A magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets.US Patent # 5.402. Johnson ( March 28. The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets. for example. each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel. The propulsion system further includes two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets. A first wall. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets. Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet. except that the . Preferably.021 Magnetic Propulsion System Howard R. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets.

1993 Current U..877. Applications of Magnetism.151. (1440 Harding Rd.. 90-97. Jan.S.. Class: 310/12. Inventors: Johnson. In addition. the propulsion system includes several spin accelerators. 310/12).152. 44-57 date unknown. 1979 ~ Johnson (Cl. Patent Documents: 4.S.431 ~ Aug. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. Scientific American.215.: 064930 ~ Filed: May 24. 1989.330 ~ Jun. H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/12. 129-135 date unknown.805 References Cited [Referenced By] U. 310/152 Intern'l Class: B65G 035/06. pp. 1980 ~ Hartman (335/306).983 ~ Oct. 4. Howard R. 1989 ~ Johnson (310/12).. 42-47 date unknown.46 198/619. Blacksburg. 4. VA 24060) Appl. pp.North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. pp. 198/619. No. pp. Other References: Advances in Permanent Magnetism. Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION .

S. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement. 4.215.877. Pat. According to one embodiment of the second patent.330 to Hartmen. by way of example. and U. According to applicant's first patent (U. Pat.S. 4. Pat. Pat.983 to Johnson.431 and 4. 4. with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned .877.The present invention relates to a magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets.S. No. the armature magnet is mounted on a vehicle and guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets.S. According to the applicants second patent (U. the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity. Nos.151. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U. No.431).151. 4. No.983).

Several other embodiments are illustrated including variations in the armature structure and in the stator structure. the present invention comprises two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path.field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. however. . includes a series of generally rectangular magnets. for example. The walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. each magnet arranged with a North-toSouth axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets. In order to achieve this and other objects. A first wall. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved magnetic propulsion system having a plurality of permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet. wherein the permanent magnets need not encircle the path of the magnetic vehicle. all of the embodiments teach use of an annular stator assembly.

The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets. Accordingly. The spin accelerators project laterally outward from each of the walls at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall. the propulsion system of the present invention includes several spin accelerators for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls. a gap on the inside surface of the wall is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet. In addition.The pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets. . except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-toSouth axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. Each spin accelerator further includes a shorter magnet having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet and a wedge separating the generally rectangular magnet of the spin accelerator from the shorter magnet. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators. Each spin accelerator comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet which is preferably identical to that of the first and second walls.

Each curved magnet is arranged on the vehicle such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets. In particular. the angle of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet in the spin accelerator and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall. The vehicle itself is preferably a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track. the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets in each wall. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall. it is understood . The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator and the thinner magnet in the wall. In particular. but here. The shorter magnet in the spin accelerator is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet in the wall. an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet is established by the wedge. however. Accordingly. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets.The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet is facing outwardly.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. The magnets which constitute the walls and spin accelerators are preferably made of neodymium and ceramic material. Although the present invention has been described with regard to generally rectangular magnets. In operation. The thinner magnets are preferably made of rubber or plastic. and each can comprise a plurality of magnetic rubber or plastic layers. the magnetic fields created by the two walls exert a propelling force on the armature of the vehicle in the desired direction of travel. Since the armature of the vehicle is rigidly attached to the vehicle.that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls of the propulsion system. . Preferably. including but not limited to generally cylindrical shapes. it is understood that other permanent magnet shapes will suffice. except for the thinner magnets. the curved magnets of the vehicle armature are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets. 1 is a schematic plan view of a magnetic propulsion system in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. the vehicle itself begins to accelerate and is hence set in motion by the propulsion system.

The two walls 12.14 which are stationary. a preferred embodiment of the inventive magnetic propulsion system and vehicle propelled thereby will now be described.14 are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall 12 are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall 14. FIG.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT With reference to FIG. includes a series of generally . The desired direction of vehicle travel is indicated by an arrow A in FIG.14 are formed from several permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. A first wall 12. for example. 1. The two parallel walls 12. 1 schematically illustrates a propulsion system 10 comprising two parallel magnetic walls 12. and an armature 16 rigidly attached to a vehicle 18. 1.

Also. there is a pole shading effect on the magnets 20 of the walls 12. a gap 24 on the inside surface of the wall 12 is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet 22.22. each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet 20 by a thinner magnet 22. Consequently. Each of the magnets 20 preferably comprises a ceramic magnet with a neodymium north pole. The thinner magnets 22 are arranged with their North-to-South axes pointing laterally toward the opposite wall 14 and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets 20. In addition. .14. each magnet arranged with a Northto-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel (indicated by arrow A).rectangular magnets 20. Each thinner magnet 22 is preferably made from rubber or plastic permanently magnetic material. while the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 point away from the first wall 12. except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 points in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel. By arranging the thinner magnets 22 between the generally rectangular magnets 20 in the foregoing manner. the pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet 22 is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets 20. The opposite (or second) wall 14 includes the same general arrangement of magnets 20.

According to the preferred embodiment.14.14. the propulsion system 10 of the preferred embodiment includes several spin accelerators 26 for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls 12.14. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators.In addition.14 at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall 12. The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet 22 is facing outwardly.14 at every other thinner magnet 22 (as is shown in the middle of FIG. The spin accelerators 26 project laterally outward from each of the walls 12. The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 and the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12.14. the spin accelerators 26 are positioned along the walls 12. Each spin accelerator 26 further includes a shorter magnet 30 having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet 28 and a wedge 32 separating the generally rectangular magnet 28 of the spin accelerator 26 from the shorter magnet 30. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 points in the same direction as the . 1). Accordingly. Each spin accelerator 26 comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet 28 which is preferably identical or very similar to that of the first and second walls 12.

The shorter magnet 30 in the spin accelerator 26 is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. the angle . however. the magnetic fields created by the two walls 12. when the vehicle 18 is positioned as is shown in FIG.14 of the propulsion system 10.14 exert a propelling force on the armature 16 of the vehicle 18 in the desired direction of travel (arrow A). according to the preferred embodiment.North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. is a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track 36. an acute angular tilt away from the North-toSouth axis of the thinner magnet 22 is established by the wedge 32. Since the armature 16 is . The vehicle 18 itself. In particular. In particular.14. 1. but here. The magnetic vehicle 18 which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system 10 includes a rigidly attached armature 16 comprising several curved magnets 34. the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets 34 point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 in each wall 12. The shorter magnet 30 preferably consists of neodymium.alpha. It is understood. that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls 12. of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet 30 and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12.14. Each curved magnet 34 is arranged on the vehicle 18 such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets 34.14. In operation.14.

height. height. of 45 to 90 degrees.75 to 4. and 1.alpha.sub. 3.75 inches to 4.75 inches.14 are 1 inch to 1. Preferably.rigidly attached to the vehicle 18.20 of the generally rectangular magnets. In the spin accelerators 26.75 inches to 1. 3. Reversing of the spin accelerators 26 can be accomplished by rotating the spin accelerators 26 so that the shorter magnets 30 tilt away from the intended direction of vehicle travel. the vehicle 18 itself begins to accelerate and hence is set in motion by the propulsion system 10. rather than in the direction of travel as is the case for the illustrated embodiment.20 of the generally rectangular magnets 20 in each wall 12. the acceleration of the vehicle is enhanced as the vehicle passes these predetermined positions. since the spin accelerators 26 serve to crowd and thereby intensify the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the walls 12.22. . The width w. and pole-to-pole length 1.25 inches to 1.sub.25 inches. and pole-to-pole length 1.5 inches. respectively. Furthermore.20.sub.25 inches. respectively.13 are 0. and no more than one half the width w.sub.22 of the thinner magnets 22 in the walls 12. the curved magnets 34 of the vehicle armature 16 are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets.14. while the wedges 32 comprise wood or similar material and an angle .sub.25 inches. The width w. The spin accelerators 26 can be reversed in order to lessen their effectiveness at crowding the magnetic fields.

sub.25 inches away from the tips of the armature magnets 34. Preferably.the width w.75 inch to 1. both walls 12. and pole-to-pole length 1.14 being equidistant from the tips of the armature 16. the distance separating the walls 12.625 inch apart from one another. .5 inch to 1. 3.375 inch to 0. height.sub. respectively.32 of the shorter magnets 30 are 0. Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment. respectively.25 inches.375 inches.28. and pole-to-pole length 1. the curved magnets 34 of the armature 16 are preferably 0. Also.28 of the generally rectangular magnets 28 are 1.125 inch to 0. height. and 0. it is understood that various modifications to this embodiment will become subsequently apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art.sub. and 0. while the width w. the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims appended hereto.125 to 1. and not by the illustrated embodiment. is such that each wall 12.14.625 inches. Testing of the foregoing prototype propulsion system resulted in the vehicle moving 2 feet in one second.75 inches to 4.75 to 4.375 inch.14 is 0. 3.25 inches.32. In this regard.875 inches to 1.sub.25 inches.

The choice is yours though! All of our readers are different and have different energy needs so we wanted to give you this option. Many people who have gotten this guide have chosen to build numerous simplified versions instead of the full motor to provide their energy needs. So if you get the building process down.Section 3: Modern/Simplified Motor Overview In this section you will learn how to build a simplified (cheaper and easier to build) magnetic motor. We wanted to include this section to ensure that absolutely everyone would be able to build a magnetic motor who read this guide. you may want to just keep building more of these simplified motors instead of the full HoJo Motor. Another reason we included this section is because by building and understanding how this more simplified motor works…it will clarify how the more advanced Howard Johnson Motor . And while 1 simplified motor will not provide enough power to significantly lower your bills …building several of these may! There is no limit to how many of these you can build.

works as well. So we recommend you try to build this motor first and then the Howard Johnson motor. Good luck! .

The coil nominally sees just one polarity. Estimated Cost of Materials Could be as cheap as free.00. is present everywhere. . the components might run around $110. 2) output their energy for a longer period of time. output battery is roughly 1:3 to 1:4. "Monopole" Refers to the fact that the magnets just face one direction (in contrast to being alternate N. S). Batteries conditioned with the methods we show (by the charging array we present) 1) last longer. Measured electrical output is about 30% of input. Purchased new. depending on how many parts can be rummaged from junk or spare parts. Input / Output Electrical output is not the product of gain here. 4) are refurbished.Terms/Theories Radiant Energy …is free. 3) do not heat upon charging. However. the input battery performance v. and is an inexhaustible fuel source.

radio. Preface Ramifications for Practical Electricity Generation Once you have successfully built this simple motor and understand the principle behind the technology. has been called the "inventor of the 20th century. These times will vary widely. Estimated Time of Assembly Building the frame from scratch. ranging from cell phone charging to municipal power generation -.Sourcing Materials Components are ubiquitous. the logical next step will be to build a scaled version for practical applications. Affixing magnets takes between 1-2 hours. radar and X-ray.C. Yet he hardly gets a footnote in our children's textbooks. depending on the person's skills and resources." because his inventions have been so integral to the infrastructure of modern society. Winding coil may take about an hour. who invented A. and inexhaustible fuel source. But hopefully that will turn around soon and Tesla will become known as the "Father of Free Energy" in the 21st century. everywhere present. Telsa. Most everything can be obtained from here. . depending on skill and adequacy of tools). to hold the wheel in position is the most time-consuming part of the project (roughly 2-8 hours. Soldering the circuit may take 1-2 hours.with radiant energy as the free. power.

Parts. YOU WILL PROBABLY NEED IT.Materials List The following is the list of materials required to build the circuit and motor we will show you. NOBODY'S PERFECT! …continued on next page  . listed alphabetically. *BE SURE TO GET EXTRA OF EVERYTHING.

hooking up output batteries in parallel). A dozen recommended for experimental variations (e.g. with the above minimums in mind. Tolerance Wide range. Sourcing Click here to search for Alligator Clips on Amazon Estimated price less than $7.00 for set of five. . especially the wire and clip ratings.Alligator Clips Purpose To connect batteries to circuit. clips need to be rated for at least 5 Amps. Specifications Wires need to be larger than #20. at least 12" recommended. Quantity At least four.

one for receiving charge. Rechargeable Purpose Running the circuit-motor. Tolerance . An identical battery to the input battery should be obtained for a control -. to graphically demonstrate more output than input). Quantity At least two: one for input. closed loop will not work).g. (1) Control. This is the widest and most crucial variable in the system. gel cell recommended. Plan ahead the experiment you want to run before purchasing. 12-volt lead acid.to test the discharge parameters of a battery independent of the circuit under the same discharge parameters being put to the input battery for characterization. Specifications 6 to 24-volt batteries. (2) Additional batteries of the same voltage and impedance can be added to the output in parallel (e.Batteries. and receiving a charge from the circuit (input and output need to be from/to different batteries. More recommended for experimental options.

you will want to use new batteries so that bad batteries will not be a possible reasons for malfunction of the circuit. Lead acid recommended. connected in parallel. Sourcing For Good Prices on Batteries we recommend… Click Here For Low Priced Batteries Estimated Cost $5 (or even free if you rummage) to $75 USD each.The voltage of the batteries is not crucial. However. of a matched voltage and impedance (size) of the input battery. For your first replication of this . depending on make/source/size. and can be somewhere in the range of 6 to 24 volts for this particular circuit/motor. There can be more than one battery on the receiving end. Battery Care It will be important for you to know your batteries' optimal operating parameters form their manufacturer or other . the input and output batteries need to be matched in their voltage and impedance (size). Not all rechargeables are suitable for receiving charge from this set-up.

you will not need to worry about speed or level of charging. you will need to know your batteries' charging parameters. . But if you use another apparatus to charge your battery. As long as you are using the circuit we show you to charge your batteries. If your input and output batteries are matched in voltage rating and impedance (size) the circuit inherently balances the charging rate to a level that is not only safe but even beneficial to the receiving battery. than if you let a few days pass between uses. Overcharge is not nearly the concern with the circuit as it is with other chargers. Batteries actually perform better under frequent use with circuit we will show you.competent rating service so that you do not damage them by charging or discharging too fast or too high/low.

etc. Also. Make sure the rim is non-magnetic.10 inches in the diameter (not crucial at all). Bearings should be in good shape. yard sale. Source & Price Free (should be able to rummage one from junk.Bicycle Wheel Rim -.Or Other Rotor Device *get a non-magnetic wheel rim Purpose To cycle the magnets past the coil in repeated motion. you will need to adjust the number of magnets accordingly so that the spacing is approximately the same distance as on the 24-inch specified plans. if you want to have your shaft coming from the wheel to convey the torque of the wheel. If you go smaller or large than this. Tolerance + / . These plans are for a 24-inch rim. thrift store. Any non-magnetic rotating wheel of similar size and weight should work. You might want to source your wheel before purchasing magnets so you know how many magnets to get. you will need to configure an alternative bearing system. . Doesn't have to be bicycle wheel. bike repair shop. Specifications 24-inch diameter would be fine.) Take a magnet of some kind with you to make sure the rim is non-magnetic. Rotation should be fairly straight.

target board. .Child's bike wheel (plastic). Aluminum alloy hub has 1/2in. Note.CD ROM drive mechanism.. ball bearing bore to fit 1/2 in. . Use your imagination .Or… If you buy one…popular specs for tires used in our design are as follows: 20 inch wheel with 5 spokes and rim of rugged.at a good price: click here Variants Other rotor devices used successfully: .. this wheel might not have the same smooth bearings that can be found in a mountain bike wheel. impactresistant white polypropylene. For a good wheel. axle.

by 3 inches long. ~$3. Material needs to be non-metallic. Quantity one Tolerance opening needs to be +/. Length of spool can be +/40%.20%.Coil Spool Purpose To wind the parallel lengths of magnetic wire around to (1) create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel and (2) receive pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery. Remove wire from spool. Sourcing Radio Shack spool for speaker or soldering wire will work. with 3/4 inch center opening. Specifications plastic. 3 inch diam.00 for spool with speaker wire. non-magnetic. Or Click Here To Get Coil Spool . and adequately sturdy.

50 each .Diode Specifications Recommended: 1N4001. fast silicon diode Estimated cost Less than $0. low power. 1 A. 50 V (some models have used the 1N914) Parameters 50-300 volt range.

50 each . Specifications 1N4007 (1000 Volt. 1000 Volt Purpose Assure one-way flow of energy from circuit to receiving battery.Diode. 1 Amp) [A sister component to resistor 1N4001] Tolerances High volt rating very important. a lower Amp rating may work. Quantity One Estimated cost Less than $0.

. and is about of the dimensions above. approx. Estimated Price free.Heat Sink Purpose Dissipate heat from transistor.99. (Ratings of transistor should be adequate for circuit. Sourcing local recycler or junk yard. $4. and should work just fine. and no heating result.) Specifications 4" x 4" x 1/16" aluminum plate Quantity One Tolerance Size not crucial. NAPA part number BK 735-4369 is a fuel pump block-off plate made of aluminum. probably shouldn't be too much smaller than the above dimensions. This is a precautionary measure. or nominal.

Try also an auto parts store. Sourcing Available at your local welding supply store (such as Oxyarc) or hardware store (such as True Value or Ace). 0. 3 foot lengths. (around 10 rods of 3 feet each). We ld in g Rod s Are A lso Availab le He re … Estimated Price . Specifications Welding rod. (will be cut to length of the coil spool Quantity Get 3-5 lbs. Diameter not crucial. could be smaller by 50% or larger by 100%.Magnet Core (Welding Rod) Purpose Electromagnet core material to propel magnets along as it is pulsed by the circuit.042" inch diameter copper coated steel rod. Tolerances Rough cut okay.

$0. the harder it is to cut. . Consideration The thicker the rod. You're going to be cutting a lot to fill the spool hole.60 per rod.

Can't have splices. Specifications #20 wire. The purpose of the #20 gauge is to pass current from the input battery into the coil to create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel. coated.Magnet Wire for Coil Winding Purpose Is wound parallel to the #23 magnet wire. or more than 100% larger. Don't go smaller than #20.) Sourcing Our favorite place to buy this is at Amazon – Click Here . Quantity one length (900 turns is about 350 feet. Tolerance #20 gauge or larger (smaller number).

#20 gauge will work fine. or more than 100% larger. Quantity One length (900 turns is about 350 feet.) Sourcing Click H e re To Fin d Lowe st Deals… . Specifications #23 wire.Magnet Wire for Trigger Coil Winding Purpose Is wound parallel to the #20 magnet wire. Can't have splices. Don't go smaller than #23. Copper with high voltage coating. Tolerance #23 gauge or larger. The #23 gauge magnet wire receives pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery. coated.

Number of magnets is not essential. Tolerance Must be ceramic (strontium ferrite).Magnets Purpose Affixed to wheel to pass by the coil to both (1) receive a magnetic pulse from the input battery to propel it along and (2) infuse a pulse into the receiving winding to pass energy into the receiving battery.875 x . Get some extra in case of breakage. to measure Gauss before and after experimental runs. Quantity 16 for a 24-inch wheel. Source We typically use standard dimensions: 1.875 x . Specifications Ceramic 5.387 inches Radio shack has these but the lowest price we found here . though an even number and even spacing will be necessary if you wish to try and add more coil/circuits later. You also might consider one or two for a control. dimensions: 1" x 2" x 3/8" inches.

uk About *CERAMIC GRADES 5. light weight. & 1 have become the most widely specified magnetic materials. a relatively high energy product. . and good resistance to demagnetization account for the widespread use of ceramic magnets. for International shipping try here: http://magnetsales.Also. 8. Low cost.co.

Neon Lamps

Purpose The lamp provides a path for the output energy in case the receiving battery is disconnected while the motor is running. This prevents burn-out of the transistor. The light should not go on unless the output battery is disconnected. Specifications Chicago Miniature Neon Base Wire Terminal T-2 65VAC .6mA NE-2 (??) 90 Volt DC neon bulb (??) Quantity One Make & Model A1A by Chicago Miniature (definite) See also Lumex P/N GT-NE3S1025T

Estimated Price $0.38 USD each.

Resistor

Purpose Varying the resistance is the "volume/speed" control for this device. Specifications 680 Ohms should work well for this particular arrangement. Tolerance 47 ohms to 20k ohms; 1/2 W to 2 W. Quantity One, for bare minimum, but if you want to be able to tune your device, you should get one 47 ohms resistor and one 10k ohms potentiometer to connect in series. Sourcing Radio Shack has a wide range of resistors and potentiometers. Also, a large selection can be found here  Click Here

Estimated Price $0.23 USD each. Usually come packaged in 5 or 10. Potentiometers run around $3.00.

Super Glue

Purposes (1) for attaching the transistor to the aluminum heat sink; (2) for securing the welding rods inside the spool to serve as a core. Specifications standard super glue Quantity will need quite a bit to secure all the welding rods (e.g. four tubes of 3 gm) Tolerance Any adequate glue will do. Tape can be used in some placed. Sourcing Most hardware stores and grocery stores should have it.

Tape Purpose For second level of adhesion of magnets to wheel (beyond just glue). Sourcing Most stores carry tape. Quantity Enough for the circumference of your wheel plus a little for overlap and do-over. preferably electric tape or duct tape. Also to maintain wires to prevent snagging. Tolerances Any tape that is adequately sticky and non-magnetic. . Specifications One-sided.

fully metal Tolerance Don't monkey with this one. for the circuit. Quantity One.10 USD each . Sourcing Click Here To See If It’s Stil l Availab le At Amaz on Estimated Cost $2. Get the exact component called. Several extra in case you burn one up. 100V. TO-3 case.Transistor Specifications 2N3055 Transistor.

Estimated Price . try lumber yard or hardware store.Wood (Stand) Purpose to hold the wheel steady. Specifications Plywood or solid wood Quantity one sheet approximately 3' x 2' feet square by ~3/4" inch thick (to be cut into three pieces -. or junk yard. and to fasten the circuit and hold the coil.two for uprights and one for base) two lengths of 2" x 6" or larger of about 6 inches long (to hold coil and stabilize uprights) Tolerance any non-magnetic material of size and thickness adequate to hold the wheel Sourcing available anywhere. Last resort. try any construction site or do-ityourself friend's garage.

many of the parts can be found at your local hardware store. . We recommend you search Ebay and Amazon for cheap (possibly used) parts to keep your costs low.00 for new 4' x 8' sheet of particle board.free. so you can check there first for convenience. when we built our motor we typically found the lowest prices online (namely at Amazon and Ebay). $3. **Note about parts described above: All the parts you need for your motor can be found online. However. if you cannot find some of the parts you need on Amazon and Ebay we encourage you to search for individual retailers online that specialize in selling the part you are looking for. or $17. However.00 for new six-foot 2" x 4". Also. from scrap pile (any construction site).

. to apply paint or sealant to wood. (e. Drill. Metal drill to put hole in aluminum heat sink to fasten circuit to device.g.Tools Needed          Wire cutter. to wind wires on coil. Screw driver and 2-4 screws to screw heat sink to stand. Something to fabricate the stand for the wheel. Skill Saw. to cut boards. Soldering gun and solder. Something to cut the welding rods to length (may want to use cutter available where you purchased the rods). jig saw to cut wood). Paintbrush and paint or sealant.

local auto mechanic's shop.4) Multimeter For measurement of voltage and amperage.44. Ancor mini lamp #1142. Possible source: auto parts store. Amps: 1. The purpose to quantify the discharging of a charged battery. Be sure that the discharge rate is within the battery's factoryspecified recommended rate (not discharing faster than recommended). Watts: 18.g. (e. Volts: 12. Click Here To Get a Multimeter Online .Recommended Instrumentation 10-40 Watt Light Bulb Wattage needs to be accurate.

This can help identify batteries. Other makes and models will be fine though Click here to see if the same “Battery Capacity Analyzer” We Used is still available at Amazon . Whatever model you get make sure it measures the storage capacity of 12V Lead Acid Batteries and displays the batteries capacity as a percentage. Model 600…but other models will work too. Our model pulls just over 5 amps for less than a second. Nontest load. for digital display is 100 mA. which may be defective or deteriorated.Battery Capacity Analyzer We used the “BK Precision Battery Capacity Analyzer.

a safe maximum discharge current and recommends a minimum safe cutoff voltage Plug-and-play USB interface to the computer. May be printed on a color or black and white printer. Software. is easy and intuitive Graphically displays and charts voltage versus time Constant current load is controlled both with software and electronically. supplied with the CBA.Computerized Battery Analyzer          Software provides automatic sensing of the battery cell count. *Click Here to See The Model We Used and Highly Recommend . may be compared or overlaid. or multiple batteries. CBA will even measure the temperature of a battery using the optional external temperature probe. Graphs may be displayed. saved and printed. Multiple graphs of the same battery.

… Click Here To Get Your Gauss Meter . etc. multimeter option.Odometer Tools for measuring rpm (revolutions per minute) of a rotating device . Compass To be able to detect the North pole of the magnets. makeshift oscilloscope. Need a compass? You can get yours here Gauss Meter Would be good for documenting that any effect is not coming as a result of the degaussing of the magnets.optical tach.

Schematic Now we will go over the schematics of the design. if you are interested in buying a working magnetic motor (based on these designs). or want to commercially sell working units based on these plans…be sure to contact the owner of the patented designs. have other business inquiries based on these plans. So. We will use diagrams and have explanations… *note/disclaimer: We do not manufacture and sell units based on these simplified designs because they are based on designs that are patented. You however can build your own unit for personal use and we are able to show you how to do it! So here’s how… .

*Instructions are not totally accurate about tweeking with the bulb but useful. Try and get 10 new or used Interstate 6v golf cart batteries. twist the two wires like litz wires. Instead of winding two wires in parallel. You can charge the batteries in parallel or otherwise. Build as below but add the small bulb (LP1) and 1K pot (R1) in series with the resistor (R2 which is now a 100 Ohm resistor or you can use 10 Ohm). D1 can be 1N914. The neon bulb (NE-2) is simply one neon bulb. Do not worry about paralleling the diodes. One additional update is on the coil (T1). You can use two #18 size wire at 150 feet instead. For these smaller size wires you can have 6 or more twists per inch. Cut 150 to 350 feet of each wire (same length). just make D2 3W 1000V 1N5408. Just don't twist too much or they will .

Then wind it as you would have the other wires.break. Schematic Drawing . Use the parts listed below and on this site.

Schematic Diagram .

Analogous Circuit Drawing: .

3. 3 Resistor 680 Ohms. 4 Solder junction joining (a) diode {19} (1N4007) and (b) wire to battery receiving charge.KEY 1 Solder junction (insulated base [same for 2. 5 Insulated wire coming from (+) battery "in" 6 #20 magnetic wire from (+) battery "in" to coil and then to collector 7 Insulated wire coming from (-) battery "in" 8 #23 magnet wire coming from emitter to coil to resistor.4]) joining (a) wire coming from (+) battery "in" and (b) #20 magnetic wire to coil and then to collector 2 Solder junction joining (a) wire coming from (-) battery "in" and (b) emitter and (c) Diode 1N4001 and (e) #23 magnetic wire going to coil then resistor then base. connected to junction {2} 12 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to (a) base and (b) resistor {3}. between (a) Base/Diode1N4001 and (b) #23 magnet wire going to coil then emitter. 9 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to junction {2} 10 Transistor emitter. 13 Transistor base: connected to resistor and diode 1N4001 .

(not shown in picture. . 15 from resistor to #23 magnet wire to coil to emitter 16 #20 magnet wire from transistor's "collector" lead 17 connection of transistor's "collector" lead to wire to Diode 19 and to #20 magnet wire 16 to coil to input battery's positive lead 18 wire from transistor's "collector" lead to Diode 19 19 1N4007 Diode 1000V 20 Insulated wire to positive terminal of battery receiving charge 21 Transistor (Different one in this photo than is called in these plans) 22 Aluminum plate heat sink 23 Neon bulb. and that is where it is situated on the motor). nor schematic. but that is where it goes. between collector and emitter.14 Resistor connected to #23 magnet wire going to coil then to emitter.

resistor. and neon bulb in a line for easy access and soldering. *source: Public Domain .Simplified Schematic *Note: While this schematic is functional. we have since learned to make the connections as short as possible. especially the diode between the base and the emitter of the transistor. *source: Public Domain Lay out the diodes.

toward the coil. and needs to be made of non-magnetic material. but can be at 90 degrees as well. Label your magnets. but some metal can be present. . Plan for ~1/8 inch gap or less between the coil spool and the wheel with magnets glued and taped. Direction of rotation does not have to be perpendicular to coil. Fastening Magnets to Wheel    Use a compass to determine "N" the north end of your magnets. Frame material should be non-magnetic.Assembly Building the Frame       Stand needs to have stability front-back. Rotor shouldn't have much resistance in its turning. All magnets face the same direction (north out). You may want to be able to increase or decrease the distance between the wheel and the spool. so the "north" end of your compass will be attracted to the "south" end of your magnet. for experimental variable purposes. The Earth's North Pole is magnetically south. left-right. North faces out -.

" Approximately 900 turns. Spacing between magnets should not be less than 1.5 . Symmetry is not required.    Wind the two wires on the coil together. adjust the number of magnets accordingly to be within the same range of spacing between magnets.2 widths apart.2 magnet widths (whichever way you have them oriented).. but if you want to later add more coils (each with a separate circuit). If you wish to use more than one coil. There is no pattern required. Winding the Coils "Fill the spool. so the magnet spacing will need to be uniform. This is not crucial to proper operation with one coil. All coils will need to fire in unison. Use super glue and/or tape (or rubber bands.    Magnet spacing does not need to be uniform unless you are going to attempt more than one coil. It is very important that the two wires be next to each other the entire distance of the winding. Think fishing .) to affix the magnets. If your wheel diameter is more or less than the ~24 inches called in these plans. each coil will need its own complete circuit. You don't want to get your magnets much closer than 1.5 . Arrangement of the winding is not crucial.. Determine an equal spacing for the magnets about the perimeter of the wheel and mark where they should go. or . symmetrical spacing will be important for symmetrical firing.

The window of tolerance is quite wide here. A cordless drill generally can turn slower. However. The window of tolerance is very wide here. You might drill a 1" inch hole in your base around 1/2 inch deep for the other side of the core to protrude into. This will hit your hand as the spool turns. Use an audible trigger in winding (e. . The Exact number of turns on the coil is not crucial. making it easier to count turns and to make sure the two wires are wound parallel the whole distance. you might affix tape to both ends of spool.g. helping you to count turns. Close is adequate. and you'll be fine. You might use a drill to spin the spool. an exact count will be necessary for scientific rigor in documenting and reproducing. protruding outward around 1/2 inch.   spool or kite spool. Filling Core   Be sure to have the side that will be facing the magnets flush with the top of the spool so you can spin your magnets close to the spool without hitting a rod in the core. Tips Counting visually is nerve-wracking and prone to error. a clacker on the spool). so you don't have to cut your rods short. Keep track of input output pairs. Alternatively.

you should not draw power from the same battery that is presently being charged. Tap the last few rods in with some light object until you can't fit any more. and another for discharge. be sure to use a heavy gauge wire when connecting your batteries in parallel or series. The circuit will work with the wires being longer. Soldering the Circuit        Try to keep all wires as short as possible. or transistor when soldering. You should have one bank of batteries under charge. A little 9-V battery can be used to test the circuit. you could use wire nuts or even nuts/bolts to secure your connections. go nearly to the quick when fastening his diodes to the transistor. but it works better when they are short. Also. resistor. Battery Tips  In functional application. Don't overheat your diodes.  Use glue on each rod to keep it from moving. Make sure the circuit works before soldering the connections. Alligator clips can be used to hold things in place until you solidify them. Keep the wires in the circuit as short as possible. and then switch between them. . If you don't know how to solder.

The 5k Ohm potentiometer enables a wide berth of tuning. The 25 Ohm resistors give a fine-tuning capability. you will want to beef up your connections to optimize the effect. Note.Connecting the Batteries Once your system is confirmed running. Depending on how responsive the meter is. the circuit is interrupted for maybe one or two seconds using this method. the 5k ohm potentiometer tends to be unstable in how it holds the resistance. If you wish to lock into a particular resistance. Use a heavy gauge wire and terminal connectors with crimping. The arrangement we used while doing this includes a switch to enable meter readings without extended disconnection of the circuit. you should consider hard wiring the . The bread board enables hard resistor plug-in to the appropriate range desired. Adjusting Resistance Adjust the resistance on the circuit. Use a set-up for rotation of batteries from the back end to the front. allowing for single battery charging (fresh from the front) while that battery comes up the same voltage as the bank of batteries. so they can then be connected in parallel.

no need to stop the circuit when rotating batteries no need to have the bank standing idle discharging while the battery from the input comes up to charge . One 1N4007 to Each Battery in Bank It’s recommend that we set up our 1:4 battery arrangements as follows: Purpose to isolate each of the batteries in the back-end charging bank.hard resistors into the bread board and bypassing the 5K potentiometer. Method in addition to the 1N4007 diode coming from the circuit to the batteries positive terminal. Ramifications    The worst battery in the set does not become the weak link in the chain. branch off to each battery with a 1N4007 diode so that they see the circuit independently.

g. The neon bulb absorbs the excess output energy and serves similar to a shock absorber or fuse (though nothing is "tripped" and has to be reset). but also with wheel rotation and soldering. the battery with the highest charge from the bank (not necessarily the one that has been there the longest). While this design can deliver some good shocks. they are not of a dangerous level. . when the input battery discharges. Be sure you understand the risks and that you take necessary precautions. the transistor is likely to burn out if the device is run without a receptacle for the radiant energy (e. a receiving battery). can be brought to the front end to run the circuit Cautions    Dangers associated with this project are mainly with the batteries. If the neon bulb is not in place.

Simplified Motor Designs: .

Transistor and Arrangement Diagram .

Dual Battery Motor Diagram .

there is more than one stable rate of rotation. while high resistance results in lower rotation speed.Operation Instructions Procedures A list of methods pertinent to the operation of the motor. low resistance produces high rotation speed. connect circuit and give the rotor a spin (by hand or some other external mechanical input). At some resistances in the circuit. In some cases only one or the other will exist. Higher than a certain resistance you will find that only solid state exists. Turning the Motor On To run the motor. . Characterizing the Window of Operation You will want to modify the resistor of the circuit from low to high to find various idea windows of operation. It will then accelerate or decelerate to a point of equilibrium. In some cases they co-exist. Generally. Also in the higher resistances you will find solid state resonance either with or without rotation.

and disconnect from back end bank. with one on the front end running the circuit. The sequence of rotation should be one of taking turns so that the one on the back side that has been there the longest goes to the front side. . move the wire with clips one battery set down. and physically move it to the front end next to the battery presently there. Rotate One Once the batteries are supercharged. keeping electrical connect with temporary jumper cables while disconnecting and reconnecting one position over on the 4x parallel clips. place four batteries on the back end (charging). Four Output. *Note On How to Rotate the Batteries without Disconnecting the Circuit *if you have four batteries (each "battery" = 2x 6V in series) on the back end. Once that battery has gone down to its 20% from full level. And you constructed clips with short wires between to connect the batteries in parallel on the back side. rotate one of the four batteries on the back end into the front. Bear in mind that your success in achieving this may be determined first by finding the optimal window of performance for your particular set-up. while keeping it connected via jumper cable. Next.One Input. and one on the front. Take a long enough jumper cable with alligator clip and hook the last battery (going to front end).

Now. Now disconnect the alligator clip. it's still electrically isolated. As long as the positive end isn't connected. Then physically move the new input battery into position to hook the hard terminals into place and remove the jumper cables. Next. . physically move the disconnected input battery into the output row and connect the negative lead from the 4x jumper set you can make for this experiment. Remember. which has been providing the direct electrical connection. so the new battery is providing input power (needs to be quick because of the voltage differential between them). You can do this because the arrangement has two ways to connect (Y connection): alligator clip and hard clip. which has the male/female clips fastened to it for insertion.Next. (Probably a detail I need not mention. on the positive end you can use the diode inserted on one of the two Y connections. while disconnecting the hard clip and inserting the diode. Make room for the battery presently on input to be placed last in line on the back side. connect a 1N4007 diode into the (+) wire coming from the circuit to the back end. and then quickly disconnect that battery. Keep the alligator clip in place. and hook it to the new battery coming from input to output.) Now you’re ready to quickly disconnect the battery in queue for input and then quickly connect it in parallel to the battery presently on input.

That's it. We should mention. as well as immediately after merger of the recent input with the back end bank. the 12V is made up of two 6Vs in series. Then repeat the same procedure once the next rotation is called. . In as much as in my set-up. These are two stable times that give a benchmark indication of overall charge level over time. too.Once the previous input battery comes up to the same voltage level as the bank on the back end. we average the two sums obtained by reading individual 6Vs and by measuring the group of batteries. remove the diode insert and hook the connection direct. They are almost never the same total. that we take voltage readings of each individual battery just before rotation. An average is going to provide greater accuracy than going from one or the other reading alone.

And you know the tools and materials you need… …So what will you do with this information? .What Will You Do Now? Congratulations! You have made it through the HoJo Motor guide and you now have all the information you will ever need to produce your own energy! So what will you do now? If you’re feeling confident about building the full HoJo Motor then start right away! Don’t delay!   If you want to try to build the simplified motor first and then try to build the full HoJo Motor we encourage you to do that as well. you can also build numerous simplified motors to provide some of your energy needs while you work on the full motor. You have the information you need. …But one thing you should NOT do is just sit on the information you have learned and do nothing. You even know the theories behind the information. However.

continue to harm the environment. you can help do your part in cleaning up the environment. and continue living the same way you were before this report? …Or will you seize the day and decide you will be one of the pioneers in the new alternative energy era? You can drastically lower your energy bills.99% of all people because you have read this guide. and you can live a “green lifestyle!” Even if you just implement the tips at the beginning of this report (in Section 1) you can start seeing large savings in your energy bills starting today! But why not completely eliminate your energy bills by creating a magnetic motor. Make the decision today! Save your money…and save the environment! …We want to thank you for reading our guide! You now know more about producing free energy than 99. But knowledge alone will not produce free energy… …What you do with that information will! So start implementing what you learned today and join all the other people who have already built their HoJo Motors and are already producing free energy for their homes! .Will you sit and continue to pay the greedy energy companies for energy you can now have for free? Will you waste your money.

if you need further clarification on something. Also.*And remember. you can always go back and re-read the sections you need further information about. here is an exclusive deal for HoJo Motor Readers that you may be interested in: …Want to build a solar panel or wind turbine? Click here and check this out! . you are potentially only days away from building this revolutionary motor! Good luck to you and thank you again for your interest in the HoJo Motor. Just think.