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Perception- the process of organizing and enterpreting sensory data Is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their

sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Perception basis for behaviour Affect- observable mood. Beauty Pageant Syndrome Mask Context-judgement. Magna in a pool of Suma. Gestait Psychology our brains inform patterns there are none. But people do- when we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations of why they behave in certain ways. Attribution theory-proposed to develop explanations of the ways in which we judge people differently,depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviors. We attempt to develop explanations of why they behave incertain ways. We attempt to determine whether as persons behaviour is internal or external.

Three factors distinctiveness,consensus,consistency

Internally- caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. Externally- caused behaviours is seen as resulting outside causes. Is seen as having been forced into the behaviour by the situation. ex. Attributing someones lateness due to traffic Distinctiveness whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. Ex. If a person lost his cellphone. Hes known as a paranoid and is always taking good care of things. So external which could mean that he got robbed is the first perception of people rather than being clumsy or whatever term for burara. If his behaviour in a certain way is unusual and is not known for that behaviour then it would probably be judged as external rather than internal.

External high Internal low Consensus- if everybody is experiencing the same difficulties. Such as going to work late due to road works or traffic at a certain place or an accident.

External High Internal Low Consistency Does this person respond the same way over time. If hes late. Is it a routine or an unusual before for someone who hasnt been late in over a year now. Internal high External Low FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR *Attribute poor performance to laziness more rather than to the lame product that was being sold. -tendancy to put success on internal factors while putting the blame for failure on external factors. Such as badluck or unproductive employees. This is called the self serving bias.

Cultural differences those not go with exactly the same with countries. Such as Korean has high collectivist tradition so when one fails he contribute it to himself not being good enough.

FREQUENTLY USED SHORTCUTS IN JUDGING OTHERS. Selective perception Dearborn and Simon performed a perceptual study We take in bits and pieces. Selective perception base according to our interest,background,experience and attidudes. Allows us to spead read others.drawing an inaccurate picture. Because we see what we want to see, we can draw unwarranted conclusions from ambigious situations.

Halo Effect

Allowing a single trait to influence their overall impression of the person being judged. A person was charactherist as wise,practical,skillful industrious and warm.. he was perceived as someone humorous,popular an imaginative but when warm was substituted to cold a complete different perception was made.

Contrast Effect Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.

If youre a Magnacumlaude in a room full of suma.

Projection Assuming other are similar to us. You are honest and trushworthy, so you take it for granted for that other people are happy also.

Strereotyping. Generalisation, Simplifying a complex world.

Performance Management- We tend to overestimate the performance and underestimate the performance of below average performance.

DECISION MAKING Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem One persons problem is another persons satisfactory state of affair.s Every decision requires the interpretation and evaluation of information

The optimizing decision maker is rational. Steps in rational decision making 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the problem Identify the decision criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop alternatives Evaluate the alternatives Select the best Alternstives

Go to page 48 and 49. Three components model of creativity This model proposes that an individual creativity requires: Expertise,creative thinking skills and intrinsic task motivation Expertise- is the foundation for all creative work

Intrinsic motivation- the desire to do something because its interesting,exciting,satisfying.

BOUNDED RATIONALITY. Herbert Simmon Individuals can never make decisions on a truly rational basic as they have limited information processing capabilities. Dunning et al(2003) ask students to predict their performances All but the top 25 overestimated their ranking The top 25 underestimate their ranking People are usually content to find an acceptable or reasonable solution to their problem. They construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. good enough the final solution finds a satisfying choice rather than an optimal one.Decision makers use simple and limited models, they typically begin by identifyingalternatives that are obvious, ones which they are very familiar

Decision making are base on data in the form of perceptions Intuitive decision making is an unconscious process created out of distilled experience. See page 53 eight conditions have been indentified when using intuitive desiscion making.

HEURITICS judgemental shortucts.

Availability HEuretics- tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is readily available to them.

Representative Heuretics- tend to assist the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a pre existing theory

Escalation of commitment Refers to staying with a deciion even when there is clear that it is wrong. In order not to admit to make a mistake. People try to apper consistent in what they day and do.


Compliance Implies External- We do something because someone tells us to. -involves some assessment of the consequences of not complying -the result of a stimulus, order or instruction -usually rules,law

Comformity Implies Internal- may be voluntary or involuntary Social facilitation- youre doing it because everybodys doing it . * peer pressure The Asch Conformity(1963) Irrational Exuberance mob behaviour(Supply and demand) Stanford Experiment Blue eyes/Brown Eyes conducted by Jane Elliot Conformity vs Values Conformity vs Compliance? Social Pressure can lead us to behave -occassions when personal values may be in conflict

Values In terms of their intensity(how strongly we hold them) Milton Rokeach Terminal refers to goals that a person would like to achieve -ex. Happiness,world at peace,mature, love Instrumental values in order to have terminal values we have to be cheerful,clean,courageous

Cohort born in different eras have different values Veterans, Baby boomers, Gen-xers and nexters

Hofstedes Culture Managers and employees vary on five value dimension of national culture Power distance- The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organisations Individualism versus collectivismp-the degree of people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than members of groups Quantity of Life vs Quality of life. Money versus relationship Uncertaintty avoidancehow you handle stree Long term vs short term orientation.

Attitudes Evaluative statements-either favourable or unfavourable concerning objects,pople or events. They reflect how one feels about something. When I say I like my job im expressing my attitude at work Three components: Cognitive,Affect, Behaviour The belief that discrimination is wrong Is a value statement. Cognitive component of attitude..It sets the stage for the Affective component. Is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.and reflected in the statement I dont like John because he discrimatees Behaviour component which is choosing to avoid jon.


Three job attitudes Job Satisafaction as an attitude. Refers to an individuals attitude towards his or her job. A person who has high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards his job, whila a person who is dissatisfied holds a negative attitudes. Include Job content,pay,promotion

Influenced by a range of values Job involvement-epmloyees with high level of job involvement have been found to be related to fewer absences and lower resignstionr ates Organzational commitment is defined as a state in which an employee indentifies with a prticular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintainmembership in the organization

Attitudes and consistency- individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes to align their attidues and behaviour so that they apper rational and consistent.

Leon Festinger-cognitive dissonance. Cognitive Dissonance Dissonance-inconsistency. Mrs wong believes that no company should pollute the ocean. But her company dumps sewage water in local river. Ms Wong is experiencing a high degree of cognitive dissonance. 8she can change her behaviour(stop polluting) or reduce dissonance(im doing this to make a living) Self perception theory- attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.

THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Satisfaction and productivity. Happy Employeees arent necessarily productive eomployees. Ex. Government officials It might be true that happy organisations are more productive. Satisfaction and abesentism Example, if your leaves off arent use you can cash it. Some really have to use their leave in the office so they tend to not work or ditch work.

Satisfaction and turnover How emplyoees can express dissatisfaction Voice(communication and add suggestion improvements),Exit(resign),Loyalty(passively but optimistically hoping for

hope),Neglect(allowing conditions to worsen, Lazinees,reduce effort, increase eoor rate)

Job Dissatisfaction Exit,Voice,Loyalty,Neglect Values and Culture Share values,Attitudes, and Behaviour then we can begin to divide them into groups Demographic Grouping- age, gender, level of education, occupation.

IMPORTANCE OF NATIONAL CULTURE Edward Hall Culture Provides the rules that govern the way we interact with each other.

High context culture- High level of context culture Saves or protects the culture france Low context culture- Futuristic. Germany

Value- Honesty Attitude- you say the truth Behavior- you dont cheat


MOTIVATION Why study motivation? It is a result of the rapid changes that contemporary organzations are undergoing. Stable system of rules,regulations, and procedures that once guided behaviour are being replaced by requirements for flexibility and attention to customers that necessitate high level of initiative. ---depends on motivation. -extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal What is motivation? Motivation- A person who works hard and direct his behaviour towards appropriate outcomes. Basic charactheristics of Motivation Effort-Exerts effort Persistence-Persistnece that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their task Direction-effort and persistent refer mainly to the quantity of work an individual produces. In other words, do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization? Thus, motivation means working smart as well as working hard.

Goals- motivated people act to enhance organizational objectives

*Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic comes from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and is usullay self applied. Extrinsic- work environment*company policies,benefits, examples

Performance can be defined as the extent to which an organizational mebers contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization

Cognitive ability-mental ability Cognitive amd motivation are required for career success.

EI- It involves the ability to perceive and express emotions,assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason about emotions and manage emotions.

A person who is highly motivated can be low while with a weak motivation might perform well because of some luck or chance factor that boost performance.

NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION Maslows hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow was a psychologist , who over the years developed and refined a general theory of human motivation. Accrogin to maslow, humans have five sets of needs that are arranged in hierarchy, beginning with basic to compelling needs

1.Physiological- needs that must be satisfied..water,food,oxygen,shelter, 2. Safety needs- Stability freedom from anxiety or worries. Structured environmentComfortable work environment 3. Belongingness- Needs for acceptances.,companionship. 4. Esteeem needs-Feelings for Adequacy(acceptable), competence, independence strength, and confidence. Recognition and Achievements 5. Self Actualization-desire to develop ones true potential as an individual to the fullest extent. And to express ones skill,talent, and emations in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Clear perceptions of reality,accepthemselves and others, independent, creative,appreciative.

Alderfers ERG Theory

Clayton Alderfer develeloped another need-based theory..caller ERG. Streamlines maslows need classification and makes some different assumptions about the relationship. Alderfers compression of Maslows Five category need system 1. Existence needs- physiological needs of maslow.Safety needs that are satisfied by material conditions rather than interpersonal relations

2. Related needs- Open communication Maslows Belongingness and self esteem that involves feedback from others. However, he stresses that relatedness needs are satisfied by open, accuratem honest interaction rather than uncritical unpleasantness 3. Growth Needs-The full utilization of ones skill and the creative development of new skills and talents.

McClelland Theory needs David Mclleland needs reflect relatively stable personality that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure. He is concerned of specific behavioural consquences of needs N Ach(Achievement) have strong desire to perform challenging tasks well. -Preference situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes do not prefer situations in which outcomes are determined by chance -set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risk. Success with easy goals will privde little sense or achievement -a desire for performance feedback. Modify their goald and attainment strategies to ensure success and signals them when success has been reached.

(n Aff) they want others to like them belongingness

N(pow)Strongly desire to have influence over others.

Proccess Theories

Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom Motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect as a result of their actions on the jobs.

Equity Theory

Individuals are motivated to maintain an equitable exchange relationship

Managerial Implications of Equity Theory. The perceived underpayment will have a variety of negative motivational consequences for the organization., including low quality, theft/or turnover. Attempting to solve with bribery would not be able to solve the problem also. Managers must learn to understand feelings of his employees. Basing paysonly on performance might not be able to attain equitable when employees considers seniority ian important job input. Or earning more than 2,000 out of everybody in the a company. But still considers comparing salary to other companys.

Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory. juggling the numbers Clarity Reward contingencies Setting a rule like Good performance= Promotion.