Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian”? Author(s): William Berg Reviewed work(s): Source: Numen, Vol. 21, Fasc. 2 (Aug., 1974), pp.
128-140 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3269561 . Accessed: 28/07/2012 19:27
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com.
BRILL is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Numen.
Les cultes indigenes en Carie (Paris 1958) 422.
. W. 3) E. Sittig. her exalted
rank and functionhere are unmatchedin cults of Hecate else-
I) Pylos Xa lo2 and Xb 1419.A. 2) The most recent comprehensivesurvey of Mycenaean religion in the light of the tablets: M.
HECATE: GREEK OR "ANATOLIAN" ?
BERG U. occur primarily Caria duringthe fifth and fourthcenturiesB.Inc2nabula graeca 29 (Rome 1968). WILLIAM olf With the decipherment Linear B came the surprising discovery that the nomenclature many important deities of classical Greece of couldbe tracedback intothe Bronze Age. Laumonier. 3). C. De Graecorum nominibustheophoris(Diss. 2) There is a templeof Hecate at Lagina in Caria wherethe goddess
was worshipped as sateira. The argument based on two obserorigin vations: I) Personal names formedfrom hekat-.Numen. from the fact of historicaloppositionto his cult in Greece"1). Halle 20. L.Vol. K. The Greeks and their Gods (Boston 1950) 172.like that of Hekataios the geographeror that of Hekatomnus. New evidenceand the hold new surprisesin store2). Zgusta. G&rard-Rousseau. The appearanceof Dionysus' name. The weightof scholarly opinionnow favorsan "Anatolian" (Carian) is for the cult of Hecate.who gave his name to the in dynastyof Maussolus. Woodside. XXI.the goddess Hecate.on tabletsfromPylos helps to confirmGuthrie's suggestionthat belief in a late "intrusion"of Dionysiac ritual "was in probablyinherent the ritual and comes into the mythsprimarily if from that source and only secondarily. and epiphanestate. This progressof researchundoubtedly thatanotherdeityof supposed non-Greek paper proposes origins. for example. may actuallyhave as muchrightto an Hellenic pedigree as the otherOlympians. Fasc. megiste. A. at all. Guthrie.S. "Les mentions religieuses dans les tablettes myceniennes". 1912) 60-67. California.C. Kleinasiatische Personennamen (Prague 1964) 159.
Hekate (Heidelberg i96o) 41-54. Like the Hesiodic Hecate. e. her saly) transforming the recipient into the Hecate we know from later traditions. Anatolian origin for Hecate.169-72. and mediatespropitiation gods and blessings conferred of So runs the argument Kraus and otherswho supportthe notion of a non-Greek. Cf. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. however. Laumonier (above note) 406-25. L. the long passage in the Theogony (411-52)
which is presumed
upon men 6).12 scholia. contamination her erodedand infernalized Olympianstature. cf. M. 6) For the present state of the controversyon the authenticityof Theogony 411-52. sea. Plutus 594 & scholia. I hope to show here is a of through re-examination the Carian evidencethatthe argument evidencefor not convincing. cf. Fuhrmann (ed. NUMEN XXI 9
cult. in Thesarchaicperiod. The west frieze of mighty. GGR 12 722-25. to in her original"Carian" formin the earliestliterary monument her to to be the work of one of her proselytesfrom Asia Minor. Alexandra 77. Theocritus 2. On Hecate's infernal aspects. Aristophanes fr.). U. Lycophron. Her cult statue.Hecate: Greekor "Anatolian". Terror und Spiel: Probleme der Mythenrezeption (Munich I97I) III-I8.it is safe to assume that Since children hekat-referto a major deityfree Carian theophoric names involving and to witchcraft fromthe dark and unsavoryties to the underworld Hecate of classical Athens. West. Der Glaube der Hellenen (Berlin 193i) 1. 204 Kock (FCG 1. with bibliography. are not called after spooks. Pax 276 scholia. It is argued that her Carian held by the cult was introduced the Greek mainlandfrom Asia Minor in the to withwitchesand demons (e. and honored above all Titans by Zeus. M. Theogony (Oxford 1966) 276-80 and most recently J. of and sky. Bollack. Hesiod.443).represented coins of Stratoniceiaand on on the northfrieze of her templein Lagina. Nilsson. "Mythische Deutung und Deutung des Mythos" in M.?
where. 5) Kraus (above note) 57-94. the of her templedepictsthe Titanomachy.
. finally of table scraps and canine blood. other Titans whom Zeus favored: she has a portion of land.g. and will concludeby presenting possible the existenceof her cultin MycenaeanGreece. perhaps of Hesiod himself Her praises in the Theogonyexceed those of 5).g. was not trimorphic the but exhibited "original"formof thegoddessas a singlebody4). She is thought appear. decisivetriumph Zeus over
4) Epigraphical and archaeological evidence collected in Theodor Kraus. the goddess of Lagina was benevolent.
21. in fact. C. 51. 2.attestto the factthatthe goddess was indeed great .I33f. are distinctionsmade among Moirai.32.and the kouros is Zeus himself too.so great. 208 Osann) claimed that they represented three phases of the moon. Charites. almostall of Roman imperial date .11. Eumenides. then. Kraus (above. for of in Games were held quinquennially her honor10).Seldom in this period is she represented withoutthe threebodies which had been hers since for thesculptor Alcamenescreatedhis Hecate epipyrgidia theAthenian she had appeared as a singlebody in the sixth acropolis12). sea. Schober. Inscriptions. and the triple herm also have underworld ties and a triple aspect. As on Aegina and of about whichnothing Samothrace. note 4) 43. Eusebius.30. and pl. evang. and that Alcamenes humanized and idealized this configuration. pl. Pergamum The birthof Zeus is shown on the east frieze. and Proserpina.. suggests that trimorphosisgoes back to an early Greek problem in representing all the attributes of a goddess on one body. 8) Ibid. Servius ad Aen. Kraus (above. 3.C.though together her participation here is not as active as it is on the famous altar at 7).in the last two centuries any rate. from the temple precinct8). Luna.was far moreStygianthanOlympian. Kraus (above. suggested that the triple form represented Hecate's dominion over earth. It is not only the exalted grandeurof Hecate at Lagina that seems strange for a goddess whose characterelsewhere. As in Theogony 450-52. and sky.Only in a later period. Cornutus (p. or the three goddesses who require the "judgment" of Paris. at prechristan Her form at Lagina is equally surprising.OGIS 44I. io) Dittenberger. 9) Laumonier (above.
von Lagina (Istanbuler Der Fries des Hekateions Forschungen 7) A.where Hecate appears handingover the stone to Kronos. Modern scholars seek the answer in her function as guardian of the crossing of three ways.
is known 11).
. Vienna 1933) 70ff. 4.He points out that Cerberus. II) Ibid. note 3) 367. note 4) 46f. Though Hecate coexisted and fifthcenturies B. together with the notion that an idol's power is tripled when the idol is trimorphic. she is here the kourotrophos par excellence.130
darkness and brutality. note 4) 43. and thougha monomorphic
2.. that the priesthoodof Zeus himselfwas a prerequisite the priesthood Hecate at Lagina 9). Horai. taking a differentapproach. note 4) 107-12 suggests that the original Hekataia were three apotropaic Gorgon-likemasks hung from a pillar. a Titan striving with youngergods for the new order.2. Kraus (above. 12) Pausanias 2. Christou.Hecate stands in a prominentposition.511 believed that the bodies were those of Diana. Praep. Geryoneus.Potnia Theron (Thessalonica 1968) 36-41. mysteries Hecate were conducted.
note 676. 97-1ol dated to the Roman imperial period: cf. esp. ARV 1o38/I Ferrara (marriage procession of Peleus and Thetis). 17 # 14 (Laodiceia in Phrygia): "Hecate". pl. for in Caria Hecate in seemsto have beenworshipped her familiar tripleform. 30 and H.C. Harrison. and reproduces the statue of Kore (wrongly called "Demeter" in the Catalogue) which appears on the Cyzicene coins BMC Mysia 49 # 225 and # 228. = IG 12 836) and on three Attic red-figurevases: Beazley..The cult statuedepictedon the coinage.
. in whose outskirts the sacred precinctof Lagina was situated. is one of the more prominentvictims of this confusion (Hellenica 12. Oppermann. pp. the goddess of Pherae. Babelon (ed. in the third century B.to be sure. goddess of Cyzicus. As for the later periods. 265. Louis Robert. Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture (The Athenian Agora ii.). pp. c) BMC Lydia 28 # 20.witha torch in the left hand and a phiale in the right. and to those listed in Kraus p. the triple statue in the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron.C. 115. who puts the earliest extant Hekataion. From the firstcentury the Stratoniceians the Lastruckcoins commemorating monomorphic ginetangoddess. veryfew singlebodied goddesses can convincingly identifiedwith Hecate therebe after13). To his list of goddesses falsely identifiedas Hecate. ARV Io12/I New York (return of Persephone).Stratoniceia. Zeitung 40. 4 # 3 (Attaleia) : "Hecate".: cf. notes that there is no archaeological or epigraphical evidence for the cult of Hecate in Lydia. 1882. pl..Hecate: Greekor "Anatolian"?
withthe tripleformfor a timein the fourth century. Hellenica Io p. note 4. though admitting that the Hekataion in the British School probably reflects the Alcamenian archetype. This must be Artemis phosphoros. I would add the following: a) BMC Mysia io6 # Io6 (Parium): "Diana Lucifera". 113-17. exceptionto the rule. Zeus Panamaros (Giessen 1924) 9of. Ennodia. Kraus I63f. Evelyn B. warns against calling a goddess Hecate simply because a torch or a dog appears among her attributes.C. This is Artemis. 588ff. Hecate never wears a short chiton.There are few if any identifiable representationsof Hecate in the fourth century B.). Louis Robert in Hellenica Io.is close even in detail of posture and draperyto the figureof Hecate as she appears on the
13) A monomorphicHecate is identified by inscription on an archaic seated figurine from Attica (Arch. Inventaire
1897) # 6292.
de sommaire la collection Waddington(Paris b) E. The trimorphic Hekataia from the British School in Athens and from the Athenian Agora which Kraus assigns to the late and 119-28) are now fifth and early fourth centuries (above. Princeton 1965) 86-107. Note triple Hecate on coin from Laodiceia to right. Can the unusual appearance of Hecate at Lagina be attributed to the steadfastness a Carian tradition of which preservedthe goddess' original form despite the universal popularityof her triple image? The theory breaks down withthe word "Carian".is an B. This coin depicts Kore Soteira. onward.. ARV 1191/3 London (sending of Triptolemus).
. Furthermore. 16) Ibid. it seems unlikelythat she would be worshiped trimorphic underbothsingleand tripleformsin one and thesame city(fig. Chamonard in BCH I9 (1895) 260-62 and L. the theme it proclaims is to and loyaltyof an Asian city. For the importance of the polos among several Anatolian deities.C. for a date late in the second century B. Elsewhere in Caria. 20 # 9. cf. K. pl. after Caria had been unitedto the kingdomof Pergamum under Roman authority.C. 18) BMC Caria 22 # 49. What remains is not so to mucha monument a great Anatolian goddess as it is a monument to Roman imperialpolicy in Asia. Kleinasiatische Miinzen (Vienna I9oi-o2) 127 # I. bearing the image of the triple Hecate exclusively that Hecate's "original". suggest that the temple was erected soon after Sulla's conquest of Mithridates in the first century B. the eternalfriendship
14) Schober (above. inscribed on the temple wall (OGIS 441). It is likely. 4) 16). Miiller. Hecate. pl. the temple would exemplify the religious renewal and neoclassicism spreading through the Greek East during this period.thoughit seems odd thatthe tall headdress (polos or of a kalathos). Laumonier (above. But the only coin of a to Carian city outside Stratoniceiawhich can be said with certainty the Laginetan goddess is a Trajanic issue of Euhippe (a represent town of unknownlocation) which shows Hecate as she is seen on Stratoniceian coinage (fig.the altar of Menophilos (see below). 4) in placing Mastaura and Tralles in Caria rather than in Lydia. note 3) 351-58 argues. Whetheror not the templewas erected before the Mithridaticwars 19). Der Polos. 4 # 6. its Roman orientationis an outstanding characteristic. pl. 2.pl. Whatever the date of the temple. Berlin 1915) 62. The erection of the temple is not mentioned. Robert. lrtudes anatoliennes (Paris 1937) 427 n. on the extant portions of Sulla's letter or the Senatus consultum of 81 B.C. Robert (Hellenica Io p. 37 # 9. 17 # 6. 19) J. 115 n. V. BMC Lydia 355 # 171. pl. Fig.ordinarily key to the identification Hecate. 17) BMC Lydia 159 # 18.however. to commemorate the loyalty of Stratoniceia to Rome. note 7) 72. 522 # I.. I and 2) 14). 5 # 21. 15) F. Imhoof-Blumer."Carian" formwas housed only in her then.C. as do Schober and Kraus.132
northfriezeof her temple(figs. Stratoniceia. die griechische Gbtterkrone (Diss. the cities of Antiocheiaand Tralles struckcoins 18).. 2 from American Numismatic Society Collection (Caracalla & Geta). material ruinsand epigraphical Amongtheextensive onlyone object. 5) 17). templeat Lagina. can be said with to certainty antedatethe firstcenturyB. I follow L. Mastaurancoins may also bear her Laginetanform. foundat Lagina. is omitted other coins of Mastaura show the usual (fig.
. F RAO 15
C. Cf. Roman Documents from the Greek East (Baltimore 1969) 105-11I (with bibliographyon OGIS 441). The Titanomachy the west frieze and the of the youngZeus may be subtleallusions to the missionof triumph Rome in the Greek East duringthe last two prechristian centuries. Kraus (above. through gustushad morethanone occasionto acknowledge of the the granting and confirming asylia and similarbenefits. Laumonier (above. If she was a "great" and military goddess. Laumonier (above. and an inscribedaltar fromthe second prechristian atteststo century the worship of Hecate duringthe period of Rhodian dominion 24). in Yet therehad been some formof religiousactivity Lagina before the firstcenturyB. Julius Caesar. 22) OGIS 44I. II).or perhapseven a paradeigm. note 19). Sherk. and Parthian incursions. Schober pl. One wonderswhether Laginetan Hecate would have achievedany notoriety all if it had not been for the political at eventsof the firstcenturyB.
. Boysal in Anadolu 12 (1968) 81-93.62. her incidents whichare variously and precinct. In view of inscribedreferencesto of the many interventions the goddess on behalf of her people.to her associationin cultas soteiraepiphaneswiththe goddess the Roma herself 22). Robert (above. her
20) L. Robert (above note) 517-20. Laumonier (above.The Roman Senate. Mithridatic invasion of Labienus. Robert (above. I (= note 4) 46. in fact.C. loyalty of this citizenry theirLaginetangoddess. The altar was dedicatedby one Menophilos.it is temptingto for reasons more suppose that Hecate has her epithetepiphanestatf than religious. 24) Foucart in BCH 14 (i890) 365 # 4.
"the Roman masters" (kyrioiRomaioi). Annales 3. note 3) 359-61.133f.then. 23) Y. the thought includethe revoltof Aristonicus. Tentative explorationof a nearby necropolis has yieldedpotsherdsdatingas far back as the geometric period23). note 3) 358f.One inscription and testifies.a priestof Hecate who had been "restoredby the Council to the priesthoodof Helios and Rhodos".it was Rome thatmade her so. the"Roman masters" during to the wars. R.thatHecate's later associationwiththe in goddessRoma had had a parallel. and Aupolitical and reward. note 3) 351. figures symbolizing Rome and Asia respectively 21). Tacitus. cf. note 19) 516-23.Hecate:Greek or
"Anatolian". It would seem. The northfriezeis moredirect:thereHecate presidesover the gesture of alliance between a warrior and an Amazon. to quote froman inscription of on the templeitself 20). 21) Fig. K.
association in cult with the deities who personifiedRhodes25). 26) Cf.is no later than the archaic period27). 26). Her associationwith Apollo at Miletus brings up the question of the theophoric names in hekat-. When the cult of the Roman emperor is introducedat Lagina (Diehl-Cousin in BCH II. It is natural to suppose that a goddess had been nothing worshippedthere from time immemorial. in the names do not involveHecate at all.or before in B. 27) Cf.C. but I the assumption that the goddess' name had always been dispute "Hecate". names in general are rare in Caria. Das Delphinion in Milet (Berlin 1914) 153 fig.some sort of sanctuary musthave existedat Lagina long beforethe firstcentury B.
. and has no connection gods. note 4) 84-94.. Rehm.Their absence on the Greekmainland does not prove that the goddess was less important there than in In the fifthcentury. unless Aristophanesexaggerates. B. Significant this connection is Strabo's remarkthata small group of islands betweenLesbos and the Asian mainlandare called the HekatonnesoiafterApollo Hekatos
25) On the divinized personificationof free cities in this period as a response to ruler cults.moreover. HTR 30 (1937) 216-27. Of of religionat Lagina beforethe introduction Rhodian cults. RE Ser. and. GGR 112 I44f. "The Egyptian Cults in Athens". 1887.but the goddessis not in a of with the fatherof the sanctuary her own. to be sure.and especiallyfromAttica. cf. I would suggest. Ruge s.. the Macedonianfounding Stratoniceia the thirdcentury of is known. as she has at Lagina.v. the HecateCaesar-Roma configurationseems exactly parallel to the earlier Hecate-HeliosRhodos triad. van Groningen. There are numerousreferences Hecate in Attic to drama28). 28) Collected in Kraus (above.C.a Hekataion stood beforeeveryhouse in Athens (Wasps 804). In Asia Minor.C. Hesiod's "Hymn to Hecate". A. even if it did not formpart of the originalTheogony. La composition litterairc archaique grecque (Amsterdam 1958) 267-75. In the firstplace.as Dow has pointedout30). theophoric that Attica.only one can be associated with Hecate before the second century monument an archaic altar in the precinctof Apollo Delphinius in MileB. Stratonikeia. 30) S.C. tus 29). Nilsson. 4A col. 322-24. That cityis "Carian". Hecate must have been a Greek goddess. almost all the archaeologicaland literaryevidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland. Dow. Kawerau & A. from earliest times down to the second century B. 155 # 61).41. 29) G.
Alcman. Betrachtungen grossen Giottin in Gottheiten (Religion & Kulturder alten Mittelmeerwelt Parallelforschungen 1971.in the archaic period. Hekatos would seem perfectly To returnto the Laginetan goddess: I submitthat her name has nothing especially "Carian" about it. Helck.and can standalone to signify god.then the if Miletus in "Caria" was an important of Ionian boys. 19.the name "Hecate" is an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. (Ziirich 1951) 40.71 and 295. 950 b). Usener.2. Prellwitz.note4) 13-17to see in hekatosthe name of an erstwhile of a great Anatoliangoddess "Hekate" puts the cart before the horse. Amongauthorsbeforethe Hellenisticage. on the contrary. In Pisidia a grave-goddesswith torches and serpents who had been called "Edb?bV" came to be known in the Hellenistic era as "Mother could occur as late as the third or Leto" 34). was named "Artemis"only because she would have been a more appropriate inhabited wild places.and was probablyassigned by Rhodians who saw in the Greek Hecate traits at similarto those of the goddess theyencountered Lagina. Simonides.pp.but it was too early for her cult to be knownthrough Phoenicians. AlcmanPMG 46. 34) 0. Such transformations even the second century. Hesychius hekatoio: makrobolou.Hecate: Greekor "Anatolian"?
hekatos (13. corroborate the
. Munich/Vienna not erotic overtones ordinarily Anatolian who exhibit likeother western goddesses associatedwith the sister of Apollo. in Homer.. theory. suggeststhat the Ephesian goddess.83. H.coastal and insular."willing". and centerfor his cult.5). is proposedforHecate's name as well 32). Like her.Jahreshefte 6sterr. und den ihr verbundenen zur 33) W. 203 & 247.
1961. The attempt (cp. 32) Cf. or even of Hellenized Carians. At Ephesus the local deity had been called interpretatio of "Artemis"fromthe beginning the historical period33). connects both withhekon. the epithet the is appliedto Apollo. In any etymology sometimes event. and this traditional the Greeks usually understood"far-shooting". after Apollo naming natural. What I believe happened to the Laginetan goddess in this period is analogous to the change undergoneby the
PMG 573 31) Iliad 1.385.arch. Institutes (1926) 308-14. Glotta17 (1929) 145ff. Aphrodite/Astarte the choice.
78). 2). of (Bonn 1896) 37f. K. Kerenyi. most indigenousAnatolian goddesses underwentsooner or later an Graeca. and Simonides31). The meaning of hekatos is not clear. Cf. aus des "Ein Weiherelief Pisidien". The and of relationship Hecate to Apollo at Miletusis a local construction does not.if hekatos was. Fiebiger. G6tternamen consort Kraus (above. 2'3
as Nilsson notes in his review of Kraus (AJA 65. a popular epithetfor this god among Ionian Greeks. as it appears.7.Similarly for both hekatos and der Die Mythologie Griechen Hecate.
Pergaean issues of the early second century B.136
goddess of Perge in Pamphylia.wearing by in an inscription the dialect and epichoricalphabet of Pamphylia: HANA'FAC PPEIIAC (= koine ANASSAS PERGAIAS) (fig. almostuniversalin Anatolia. to 7) 36). he must mean Artemis and not log)Perses and the childof in need Artemin hekatan not involve Hecate at all. V. of 6) 35). and identified goddess. Revue archeologique 1969.
. (Hadrian). a change vividly documentedon coins. Cf. B.g. upon beholding the Argive army. Her "Titanic" character. The epithet hekate ("far-shooting". where the epithet hekatos was sometimes applied to the sister of Apollo. 38) Keil & Premerstein. Akademie der Wissenschaft 53 (Vienna 1910) 2.82.C. Seeds of the subsequent confusion of the two goddesses are already sown in classical Athens. 233-72 (esp. 676. or however the Athenians understoodit) was as applicable to Artemis as hekatos was to her brother. Inevitably. 36) Ibid. # 178. Gualandi. Historia Numorum 702. "Artemis Soteira a Delos". This happened on Delos and on Rhodes itselfwith the grave-goddess (Artemis-) 2) Attributesof the Laginetan goddess (e. When Euripides makes Antigone exclaim E 7rcb6vL~ Aocro5c r kxo'toc (Phoen. the name of Hecate and the I) By the end of the thirdcentury epithetof Artemis. Aeschylus. Denkschr.had been confused often enough to a permit single-bodied goddessto be called "Hecate".). This type is subsequently replacedby a representation the same goddess with the inscription ARTEMIDOS PERGAIAS (fig."Bericht fiber eine Reise in Lydien und der siidlichen Aiolis". show the city a shortchitonand holdinga torch. B.togetherwith the relationshipof the 3)
Head.192-4). 37) G. Evidentlythe Pergaeans had been content call theirtorchin a relatively late period to goddess simplywanassa. yieldingonly theimpulse.phial/?) must have resembled thoseof the GreekHecate. nor does Artemidos hekatis in the treasury inventory of 429/8 (IG 12 31O.to identify withArtemis.C.).hekate.C.
Suppl. "Artemis-Hekate". BCH go90(1966) 455-59. The dog who sometimes coins recalls not only appears beside the goddess on Stratoniceian the mainlandHecate but also an indigenousLydian dog-goddess name "Neninin?" withthe improbable 38). der kais. the integrityof a goddess with a name identical with Artemis' epithet would suffer. pp. her The choice of the name "Hecate" for the goddess of Lagina was circumstances: probablyinfluenced the following by B. "hitting the mark".
35) AmericanNumismatic Society Collection(second cent. 265ff. Siebert.
Hecate 37). torch. G.
914 (metrical dedication by priestess of "Soteira" to "Phosphoros Enodia"). so of a key which is mentioned often pompi. Hatzfeld. Cf. the ritual carrying linkwiththeinfernal. 4o) References in Kraus (above.grace a la fondation de Stratonic&e (vers 265).
. Rhodes: IG 12. mayhintat another at a Kraus and otherssee in the kleidophoria sign of guardianship or over terrestrial celestialgates and doors40). thatthe goddess Hecate may This paper began withthe suggestion be as old and as Hellenic as otherdeitieswhose originscan be traced back to the Mycenaean age. BCH 44 (1920) 86 n. I suggestthatthe have opened up the nether regions. if the traditionis right. 41) Numerous instances on coins and monuments of Phrygia: cf. Hecate was sometimesinvoked as Soteira on Rhodes and Kos. A Greek parallel key may froma statueof Pluto at Olympia: he was shown may be inferred holdinga key. Nuova Silloge Epigrafica di Rodi e Cos (Florence 1925) # 676. It may be worth noticingthat
16 39) Schwabl's review of Kraus in Anzeiger fiir die Altertumswissenschaft (1963) 23f.3). Maiuri. If her mystiria were in any way analogous to what we know of such rites elseis The kleidos where.1.some concernwiththe underworld indicated. recevoir directement des influences helleniques". Greek traditionascribes her praises to Hesiod. 207 and 167f. The "Hesioof dic" character the templefriezescan be comparedwith that of on the Titanomachy the earlierPergameneAltar. note 4) 48-50. and because the effects of are manifest at Lagina. takes Kraus to task for the assumption that there was nothing monstrous about the Laginetan (or Hesiodic) Hecate. Kraus (above. note 4) n. 4) The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernalcharacter than scholars have been willing to assume39). Rhodian religious interpretation
5. I believe those "influences" to be Rhodian because the city fell under Rhodian control within a decade or two of its foundation. that 'the Laginetan goddess could not have been assimilated to Hecate "avant que cette partie peu accessible de la Carie pfit. in inscriptions Lagina.the Theogony offers our oldest documentpertainingto the goddess. note 37) 457f. Kos: A. for "they say that what is called Hades has been therefrom" lockedup by Pluto. and in Phrygiato the east 41).20. I.and thatnobodyreturns (Pausanias 5) Like the goddess of Lagina. I hope the arguments advanced in this paper corroborate the opinion expressed briefly in a footnote by J.Hecate: Greekor "Anatolian" ?
Laginetangoddessto the Carian Zeus Panamaros (or Chrysaoreus) the musthave reminded Rhodiansof Hesiod's Hecate. Delos and other islands: Siebert (above. note 25 above.
The goddesses of in this side of Tn 316. Palmer in Minos 4 (1956) 132. Zeus.theyseem to have been worshipped a a triad. joins those who seek in Pere82 an earlyformof Persephone'sname: "We mightspeculateon identifying /Preswa/ withPers. and Drimios also appear to constitute separate on category the same document. 46) J. Linear B tablet (Tn 316) records One side of a much-discussed ritualofferings Pylos to a numberof personages. and Diuja. these deities lend valuable assistanceto men who live by harvesting the sea or by pasturingherds of cattle. Persephone (Oxford 1971) 75-83 considers the Greek pair Demeter-Kore
Dove") 43).*Presgwa>Presba. while emphasizingabove all the honor she receives from Zeus.138
Hesiod. note 2) 22f. cf. Zuntz. Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici 13 (1971) 140-42. Minos 9 (1968) 65. and two other male deities can be identified:Hermes. Gerard-Rousseau (above. Since the value of the syllable*82 is not yet clear. 44) M. Since Poseidon. and a "son of Zeus". 43) L. brings Hecate into a close relationshipwith two other gods specifically. Ventris & J. G. Drimios. who propose the value swa for *82. and Hermes are preciselythe gods to with whom Hecate is linked in the Theogony. mology(cf. de Venuto in Atti e memoriedel primo congresso di micenologia (Rome I968) 2. are Pere82. Her ties withthese venerableHellenic deitiesin the Theogonymay give some clue to her originalstandingamong the Greeks. Chadwick. Zeus. Pherrephatta)"
42) M. and "Les sacrifices a Pylos". Presba ("the Elder") 44).goats. titles of Dionysus) 45). Like her. and Brissa (a conjecture from
. Ipemedeja.Poseidon and Hermes (Theogony 440-47). thoughperhaps deformedby popular ety46). D.most of whom at are taken to be divine42). Chadwick. Zeus.it is tempting seek her on the tablet under some feminineepiklisis.. note 2) 173f. Documents in Mycenaean Greek # 172. Guesses include Peleia ("the Brisagenes and Brrssaios. Poseidon heads the list. judging from their as close groupingon the tablet. R. Like Nilsson (GGR 12 474-77).in the firstpart of the name Persephoni. Hera.which is presumably non-Greek. "The Group sw in Mycenaean". and sheep.582: Perekwa .the name of the first goddess cannot be ascertained. Gerard-Rousseau (above. Mnmoires de philologie mycenienne (Paris 1958) 243: Peresa = *Presza>Presba. Pugliese Carratelli in Atti e Memorie dell'Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere "La Colombaria" 21 (1956) 5. Chadwick. 45) G. aside fromHera who receivestribute company with Zeus. Lejeune.
L. 47) Gerard-Rousseau (above.whose name does of Demeter's not appear on Mycenaean tablets 50). Since this epithet was properly applied to Hecate as guardianof crossroads. B. but initialipe. the frequentconfusionof Artemiswith Hecate undoubtedly for helped to confirmthis identification all time48). Merkelbach & M.SonderschriftI5. The description
originally separate from the chthonic and probably prehellenic Persephone.43. gives.the name of Agamemnon's According daughter. On the other the possibilityshould not be overlookedthat the poet of the hand. words in not Indoeuropean languagessignifying only"deity". Die grossen GiittinnenArkadiens (Oesterreichisches archaologisches Institut. 49) G6rard-Rousseau (above. If "Iphimedeia" is the later Greek form of this goddess' name. actually In spite of her name. she may correspond the Greek Demeter.r.was made an immortal the goddess and is worshippedunder her name.thathe knew. Stesichorus.Stesichorusand others with assumed that Hesiod meant to identifyIphigeneia/Iphimedeia Hecate. con(with alternative spellingDiziija on An 607) has etymological with nections. or riches49). Monique Gerard-Rousseau. \Vebsterfor directing my attention to the Hesiodic fragment. Catalogue did really mean einodia to signifythe traditionalgoddess which of crossroads.an old tradition identified Iphimedeiawith Hecate. PMG 215. L. West.Hecate: Greekor "Anatolian"?
Ipemedeja seems at firstsight to be the Greek name Iphimedeia. note 2) 53f. to sense (actual and potential richesentrusted and harvestedfromthe to earth). "in the road".butalso "radiance" to and "wealth".17-26. Stiglitz.Diuja is not likelyto have directconnections with his with Zeus. G&rard-Rousseau (above.makes the identification difficult 47)."Iphimed?". guardswealth.Iphimedeia (or Iphimed&) was an early possibilities variantof Iphigeneia. 1967).with the epithetein(h)odia. suggests that her functionhas something do with If Diuja is a "bright"goddess who possesses. 50) Cf.afterher rescueby Artemisfromthe sacrificial attendant of altar. 48) R. note 2) 69f. 23. to the Hesiodic Catalogueof Women. in Hesiodic and if "wealth"be understood an immediate. Artemis. note 2) 117. Pausanias I.ratherthanwipi. I am grateful to T. Cf. the becomeexciting. R. who appears on this tabletin a separatecategory out thather name who points wife Hera. Many scholars (not including Webster or Gerard-Rousseau) believe Mycenaean wanasoi refers to the
.throughthe theme *dei-w-/*dy-ew-/*di-w-. and 240-42. Fragmenta Hesiodea (Oxford 1967) fr.in otherwords.
Hecate. Her name remainsa puzzle.to the population. 52) V. indicatesthatthe worshipof Hecate was limitedto the Ionian and Aeolian poleis and their colonies on in eitherside of the Aegean .and epigraphicalevidence down to the end of the fourthcentury B.
. are no more obscure than those of but its meaningand etymology the other Olympians. note 13. solemn reverend and goddesses.who gives wealthto mortals. archaeological. otherwords.) on whicheach of thethreegoddesses(one wearing a polos) brandishes diminutive a torch52). however. for Olympus the othergods' assembly. Prosperous humans thosegoddesses whom (meg' olbios)is theone amongearthly cherish. associatedin the Hymn to Demeter.I40
functions (in company with Persephone and Hecate) at the end of her Homeric Hymn may be relevant here (483-89): Then. in and has been plausiblyidentified an archaicmetopefromSelinunte (sixthcentury B. do straightway theysend as a guest to his great house Plutus. The triadappearson Atticred-figure vases withEleusinianthemes 51). While Hesiodic influence may have co-operated to make Hecate great at Lagina. the assimilaand "twoqueens" Demeter Kore.In the TheogonyHecate is a Greek goddess.which blood ties with the fallen Mycenaean rulers.C. the influencenever imperialpolicy for Hecate's "Anatolian" origin travelledthe otherway.
In suggestingthat the triad of goddesses who receive tributeat Pylos are early forms of Persephone. when (Demeter) the bright goddess(dia thedan)had taught they all.
where Hecate is made a constant companion of Persephone (440). Literary. The fact that she is also a in her earlierstanding the Mycenaean great goddesstheremay reflect pantheon. I am painfullyaware of the conjecturalnature of the evidence adduced. Arguments are not in accordwiththe evidence. The fact that claimed Hecate enjoyed special favor among these groups may indicatethat her cult was knownin the Bronze Age. Archeologia classica 21 (1969) 153-71.but her greatnessin the Theogony remains a local interpretation. butif Tn 316antedates complete
herself to tionof Persephone the GreekKore. The threegoddessesare.C.
51) Above.with the sole exception of Zeus himself. thenthe earth-mother may have See had separatestanding. to There theydwell beside departed Zeus whosejoy is thethunderbolt. note46 above. and Demeter.Equally "local" is her greatnessin Caria during a much withRoman laterera. Tusa.