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Pro-Kollel Sources Find Someone With Source Sheet B Have A Chavrutoh With Them Debate and En o! T"eves Beis #edrash Chavrusohfest #osheves Ha#edinoh Second Session $%&$
All Com'laints And Accusations of Heres! Should Be Directed To A(iva Weisin)er
What is Kollel*
A kollel is an institute for full-time, advanced study of the Talmud and rabbinic literature. Like a yeshiva, a kollel features shiurim (lectures) and learning sedarim (learning sessions); unlike a yeshiva, the student body of a kollel are all married men. Kollels generally ay a regular monthly sti end to their members. The first !kollel! in the "e#ish dias ora #as the Kovno Kollel, the modern sense of the term, the !Kollel $erushim! founded in Kovno in %&''. (t #as founded by )abbi *israel +alanter, and directed by )abbi (saac ,laser. The ten students #ere re-uired to se arate from their families, e.ce t for the +abbath, and devote themselves to studying for the )abbinate. There #as a four year limit on one/s membershi in the kollel. T#o eo le can be considered to have s earheaded the kollel hiloso hy and outgro#th in today/s #orld )abbi Aharon Kotler, the founder of ,eth 0edrash 1ovoha, America/s largest yeshiva located in Lake#ood, 2e# "ersey, and )abbi 3la4ar +hach, one of the most rominent leaders of the "e#ish community in (srael until his death in 566%. The community kollel movement #as also fostered by Torah 7mesorah, the 2ational +ociety for 8ebre# 9ay +chools. :urrently, the term is a lied in America to any sti end given for yeshiva study and is no# a general term for the yeshivah a roach to life. 3ven those engaged in outreach #ork, teaching, or administration can be said to be !in kollel! as long as they are financially de endent on a yeshivah. The uni-ue hiloso hy of the kollel, in #hich members are subsisting entirely on su ort from others, is art of an overall hiloso hy of ;rthodo. "udaism, that 1od meant "e#s to rimarily occu y themselves in this #orld #ith the study of Torah, and gave certain "e#s more of a ro ensity to #ork #ith the intention that they should su ort the /learners/. (n orthodo. "udaism this has become kno#n as the /(ssachar-<ebulun/ artnershi , after the first recorded relationshi of this sort in the ,ible, #here "acob on his deathbed instructs a more businessinclined brother to su ort his studious sibling (ssachar. The re#ard of the su orter is seen to be ro ortionate, for e.am le in an ideal artnershi (=6>=6 division of the money) the business artner is considered to have an e-ual ortion in the learner/s ?orld-To-:ome earned by his studying.
Torah She+Ba+al Peh Sources
&,-ashi. Bereishis /01&2
.>49LA 345 6< @9K> 94?; =9=9 A4=4 .I64H8J GC<6H ACD@; .@EF 4;48@>B 345 ,4?@A =9=> :9;9 345 6< - :9;9 3456 789 .=@4>H :9DF4< :=4 @BMM9 NHM6 O4G; A9?;;4 .A9N;D@EH DF4< O64HG =9=M .A9N;D@E :M >4A9H; >49LAM .6;L= :4D;H :96=AH =@4>H DF4< @BMM94 A9N;D@EH A?49 O64HG .Q96=AH @BMM94 Q>A?H O64HG 5;M 759 86 :9@HKP =M; @;AM A4=1 R,Because shi's brin) merchandise. and Sevulun en)a)ed in commerce. and Tould 'rocure food for the Tribe of Uissachar. Tho Tould be en)a)ed in Torah. Thich is That #oshe said. VSevulun re oice in !our leavin)s and Uissachar in !our tentsW. Sevulun leaves for commerce and Uissachar involves himself in Torah in tents, What (ind of 'artnershi' is this* Xs it similar to the Kollel s!stem* $, Shabbos &&/a - 969; 9L=4 .:9;M 9?E5H DF4<4 4?E5 59L;M =G - 4>BA6; 46 >4M<6 O944?; 4@9< 9LHM :B5 K9;6> 4=G9A 1OL549 9H@ @;A4 =9>E9@H 5@N9;6,
Who are Torah scholars. such that the 'eo'le of their cit! must 'erform their Tor(* An! Tho leave their affairs and involve themselves in the needs of Heaven, What is the 'ractical a''lication of this* To Tor( to 'rovide bread for him
2, Uoma Y$b
9LHM :B5 K9;6>6 OAB; - :9NM 9?< O4@A 4M<4 A=B >4;MA H9>B4 ,Z< O4@A Q6 >9M<4 A9 :9@HKA H9>B @9;@ OL549 9H@ 4>BA6; 46 >4M<6 O944?; 4@9< -[ Uochanan as(ed1 Xt is Tritten. \And you shall ma(e an ar( of Tood for !ourself.[ and. \And they shall ma(e an ar( of shittim Tood][ This teaches that the 'eo'le of a Torah scholar[s cit! must 'erform his melachah, What is the relationshi' betTeen Torah scholars and the 'eo'le of the cit!*
/, Kiddushin ^$a
=H O9AM >4L;4A O9AM ,46M :9FBL=4 @M4<=M 9;6 66E>94 ,=6D4 =9DL >4L;4A 4LH >A :KA K;69 :64<6 @@;4A @9A; 9H@ >9A@ @@;4A @G<6A OH O4<;M 9H@ .4>4BG 9E6 6B= A6A ,>4L;4A= O; >4@9M< A64 >4L;4A= O; >49L< A6M ,>4@9M<4 >49L< - 9L4D >A M;M6 9>A@HL 9LA4 ,9LM;M6 A6A 4A@HL A6 A6=4 ,@<?H A6M O9FL@E>; O=4 B>4L;4A :=6 M9M 34<4 =95 Q9;9; @A9@48 AHA :4M; @;4A O99K? M9A O99@48 AHA .9>FL@E >A 9>5ED4 ,9M<; 9><@4=M A6A C@<?H A6M FL@E>AM O9K 4L9A 6B 9LA 59L; @@;4A 9A@4=L 9H@ .....:9NF96 >4L;4A O>4L;4AM ,9L4L54 =<4@ ,OEF ,@KD ,6;8 ,@;5 4LH >A :KA K;69 A6 6B @AM4 @AH= :64<6 46 >;99D O@D=4 =G= :64<H =@BM; 6B4A :KAM ,=@4> A6A 9LH >A K;6; 9L9A4 :64<HM >4L;4A 6HA ,H<@H >; A4= 9@= - 4>BA6;H D4F<6 64B9 4L9A4 O9@4F9 9K96 4A =LDG 9K96 4A 9645 9K96 AH :KAMB ,OB OL9A >4L;4A 4>4LDGH =4D>4 >9@5A 46 >L>4L4 ,4>4@<LH <@ 6B; 4>@;M; A6A ,OB =L9A =@4>= -abbi #eir sa!s1 C_ne should alTa!s teach his son a clean and eas! trade. and he should 'ra! to He to Whom all Tealth and 'ossessions belon). because there is no trade that does not include indi)ence and Tealth, For 'overt! is not the result of a trade. nor is Tealth the result of a trade` rather. all is in accordance Tith one+s merit,C -abbi Shimon Ben Ela"ar sa!s Did !ou ever see a Tild beast or bird Tith a trade* X have never in all m! life seen a deer dr!in) fruits in the field. a lion carr!in) heav! burdens. or a foa Tho (e't a sho'. and !et none of them die of hun)er, boT. if these. Tho have been created to serve m! needs are able to su''ort themselves Tithout trouble. hoT much more reasonable is it to ea'ect that X. Tho have been created to serve m! #aster IThe cordJ. should be able to su''ort m!self easil!. Tithout trouble, HoTever. m! deeds Tere evil and X have therefore ruined m! livelihood,,,,-abbi behorai sa!s1 CX 'ut aside ever! trade in the Torld and X teach m! son onl! Torah. for a man benefits from its reTard in this Torld. and the 'rinci'al remains for him in the World to Come,C But all other trades are not li(e this. for Then a 'erson becomes sic( or old or afflicted and cannot Tor(. he dies in hun)er. but Torah is not li(e this. but rather he dies of hun)er, But Torah is not li(e this. rather it )uards him from evil in his !outh. and )ives him ho'e in his old a)e, &, $, 2, What ma(es Torah learnin) better than other obs* What does livelihood de'end on* Xs it so clear this source is 'ro-(ollel* Discuss Tith !our chavrusoh,
Source d$ _n Sheet B
&, $, What does the eemara vieT as the hi)hest 'riorit!* Does the eemara necessaril! thin( -abbi Shimon Bar Uochai is Tron)* Wh! or Th! not*
f, -ambam Hilchos Shemitoh g+Uovel &21&2
4>@M6 /= 9LE6 K4;<6 6KH9=6 4<K; 4L9H=4 4>4A 454@ =HKL @MA :64<= 9AH 6B; M9A4 M9A 6B A6A ,KH6H 946 NHM A64 9@=--:KA= 9LH 4MD9H @MA :9H@= >4L4HM5= 64< 4@A44? 6<; D@E4 ,:9=46A= 4=M<M 4;B @M9 Q6=4 ,/= >A =<K6 4KH4<64 =B9GM 4;B ,46 D9EF;= @HK =G= :64<H 46 =BG94 ;:9;64< 9;64<64 :64<6 4>65L4 4D65 /= =9=94 ,:9MK4D MK4D MKD>L =G =,GN :969=>) !96@48 Q9;4> ,=>A--9F4B4 9D65 >L; ,/=! @;4A K94K 9@= .:994664 :9L=4B6 VAnd not onl! the tribe of cevi. but ever! sin)le man out of all the Torld[s 'eo'le. Tho has come to desire and understand Th! he should se'arate himself from others to stand before Hashem. to serve and Torshi' Him and to (noT Him. and. folloTin) the strai)ht 'ath as e-d created him. he casts off from his shoulders the burden of the countless rec(onin)s that men 'ursue h that man is the holiest of holies. and Hashem Till be his 'rovider in this Torld and for all eternit!. and he Till merit to receive in this Torld his 'rovisions ust as the! are )ranted to the Kohanim and the ceviim merit,W &, What does this sa! about the nature of sustenance to a ri)hteous 'erson*
$, What does the com'arison to the shevet of cevi come to im'l!* Thin( about That role shevet cevi has in Bnei Uisroel*
i, VThe beT -ambam ScholarsW #ish'acha #a)a"ine. bovember $/. $%&%
Those of us Tho Tor( Tith com'uters are familiar Tith the Vco'! and 'asteW function. Thich enables us to select a 'assa)e of teat from a document. co'! that 'assa)e. and sim'l! clic( the co'ied teat into another file, boT. the Vco'! and 'asteW method has found a social a''lication. and it[s bein) used in a smear cam'ai)n a)ainst the Torah-learnin) communit!, Xt be)an this Ta!1 a re'orter coverin) the universit! students[ riots 7claimin) inejualit! because married (ollel students Tith three children are )ranted an eatra k2%% a monthP 'ic(ed u' feT lines from the -ambam[s Yad Chazakah Thich suited his a)enda, The 'assa)e is familiar to ever! student of Torah1 VWhoever decides that he Till en)a)e in Torah stud! and do no Tor(. but Till live on tzedakah. is desecratin) the name of Hashem. 'uttin) the Torah to shame. snuffin) out the li)ht of reli)ious observance. causin) evil to himself. and reducin) life in the World to ComeRW 7Hilchos Talmud TorahP, What a find for the enemies of Torah stud!. a heaven-sent )em] IX first heard the citation used in this Ta! b! a s'ea(er on a 'anel that Te shared, Xt Tas 'ainful to hear this man. a reli)ious felloT. s'ea( Tith such animosit! about Torah scholars Tho. accordin) to his understandin) of the -ambam. are desecratin) the name of Hashem,J
From there. the Vco'! and 'aste&W technijue started rollin), These lines from the -ambam suddenl! became 'o'ular amon) ever! deni"en of the street. amon) 'eo'le Tho aren[t even familiar Tith halachah or Tith the -ambam[s Tor(s. and Tho. in fact. are barel! familiar Tith his name` at most. the! ma! associate it Tith a hos'ital in Haifa or beT Uor(, 7This is no o(e. b! the Ta!, For)ive me for stra!in) from the to'ic. but Then the )overnment decided to mint a she(el coin bearin) the -ambam[s ima)e. a ournalist Tent out to the streets of Tel Aviv to as( 'assersb! if the! (neT Tho the -ambam Tas, Here are a feT of the ansTers he received1 a Toman from -amat ean said. VHe lived in the fourteenth centur!. he had a doctrine about natural foods. and m! father li(es him a lot,W Another 'asserb! said. VX (noT he )ave a name to thin)s here in Xsrael, There are streets named after him. and a hos'ital. so he must have been someone im'ortant, But he Tas a reli)ious man. X thin(. so Th! did the! name a hos'ital after him*WP Since the u'roar of the VAvreichim caT.W b! Thich a small monthl! sti'end from the 'ublic coffers is 'rovided to a minorit! of jualif!in) (ollel families in Xsrael. this ar)ument has a''eared in nearl! ever! article Tritten a)ainst full-time learners, Suddenl!. these secular ournalists have become -ambam scholars. and no doubt Then the! co'! the 'assa)e. each one from a felloT ournalist. and 'aste it into their oTn diatribes. the! feel 'roud that the! have struc( out at the Torah scholars Tith their oTn ammunition h the halachah, Do the neT V-ambamistsW reall! thin( that Torah scholars never heard of this halachah until some ournalist came alon) and revealed it to them* Xf so. then Th! don[t the! folloT this teachin). and Th! haven[t the! folloTed it in an! )eneration. includin) the -ambam[s oTn )eneration* What did the -ambam mean* Could it be that these Torah scholars. Tho 'ore over the -ambam[s Tor(s and carr! out his rulin)s Tithin the frameTor( of halachah. are suddenl! Tillin) in this one case to i)nore his rulin) for a 'ittance of &.%/% she(els 'er month. on 'ain of bein) considered mechalelei Hashem in the e!es of the Torah and. in the e!es of the secular communit!. V'arasitesW and VeatortionistsW* For k2%% a month. is it Torth it* Xf the sentence from the -ambam constitutes the halachah. then Th! doesn[t the chareidi communit! com'l! Tith b! it* cet[s eaamine another 'assa)e. also from the -ambam1 VAnd not onl! the tribe of cevi. but ever! sin)le man out of all the Torld[s 'eo'le. Tho has come to desire and understand Th! he should se'arate himself from others to stand before Hashem. to serve and Torshi' Him and to (noT Him. and. folloTin) the strai)ht 'ath as e-d created him. he casts off from his shoulders the burden of the countless rec(onin)s that men 'ursue h that man is the holiest of holies. and Hashem Till be his 'rovider in this Torld and for all eternit!. and he Till merit to receive in this Torld his 'rovisions ust as the! are )ranted to the Kohanim and the ceviim merit,W HoT do those Tho are so ea)er to juote the first -ambam inte)rate this 'assa)e. There the -ambam ejuates all dedicated Torah scholars to the tribe of cevi. Tho lived on )rants and alloTances )ained from the mandator! donations and tithes. )iven b! the rest of the nation as rejuired b! Torah laT* And this enabled the entire leTish bation to have a 'art in the learnin) and teachin) of Torah. the 'rimar! role of the cevites, Here Te have a )larin) contradiction betTeen a statement b! the -ambam that has become a favorite Tea'on in the Tar a)ainst Torah. and another statement b! the -ambam com'arin) the ever! sin)le Torah learner to the tribe of cevi, So. hoT do Te resolve this kushya* This is not the forum for an evaluation of )enerations u'on )enerations of scholarshi' that has dealt Tith this seemin) contradiction m the -ambam is not a neT discover! unearthed b! some maveric( ournalist, IPerha's the first -ambam is tal(in) about a 'erson Tho is 'lannin) on sittin) bac( and assumin) the communit! Till ta(e care of him. Tithout a communal consensus* Xs this the same thin) as a communit! Tho Tishes to su''ort its Torah scholars for their oTn s'iritual benefit and elevation*J
& Editor+s note1 The co'! and 'aste function Tas indeed used in the 're'aration of Source Pac(et B
An!one involved in halachic rulin)s can attest to the folloTin)1 a halachic rulin) for )enerations is not determined b! the -ambam alone, He has 'artners in the creation of the psak and the! are the -if and the -osh 7an! child in our communit! can tell !ou Tho the! areP, Xn fact. the -ambam is refuted b! man! other commentaries. includin) the Beis Uosef in his commentar! Kesef Mishnah. Whatever the resolution. the re'eated use of the first citation time and a)ain b! attac(ers of Torah scholars merel! shoTs their lac( of com'rehension of basic leTish teats and their lac( of jualification to discuss them,
What is his 'oint* What authorities does he juote*
Y, Kesef #ishnoh al Ha-ambam. Hilchos Talmud Torah. 21&% 7-abbi Uosef KaroP
M4@9EH 4L9H@ 9@HKB =B6=M =K4L 9B :84 @4H?= O; :@BM 64N96 :98=4L 49@5A4 4L9H@ O;G :K4D 6A@M9 9;B5 6B 4L9A@4 :9K;6;=4 :9K;46= >FL@E =>9= A6 469AM Q>@4> 4@E= +=6 >4M<6 >< :4M; >4@4K= 9;B5 6B OB 4;9BF=M @MEA =LM;= @9KA94 =@4> 69K894 D4F<6 46B49 =94?; =>49=H4 4C5 >5B>M; =@4>= =>9=4 94A@B =@4>H 54@N6 :964B9 49= A6 =94?;1 And Te see that all the Sa)es of Xsrael 'rior to the time of Ithe -ambamJ and afterTards have been accustomed to acce't a sti'end from the communit!, And even thou)h )enerall! Te rule in accordance Tith the -ambam in his commentar! on the #ishna 7Avot /1fP. 'erha's all the Sa)es of all the )enerations a)reed to this because of 7Tehillim &&01&$iP Cet laasot la-Shem. heferu Torate(haC 7Then it is ur)entl! necessar! to act to stren)then Torah stud! for the sa(e of Hashem. relaa restrictions on Torah stud! - Temura &/bP, For if there Tere no read! livelihood for the students and teachers. the! Tould be unable to 'ro'erl! eaert themselves in Torah stud!. and the Torah Tould be for)otten. eod forbid &, $, What does the Kesef #ishnoh do Tith the -ambam* What is his ustification for doin) so*
^, Tashbet" &1&/$
MC;H =GH :96>L4 :=9;B56 F@E >>6 >4@4K= 6BH 6A@M9 >46=D 6BH 48=LM =; 6< O9;8;8; :KA 9LH =H@= 9>9A@M 9E6 >4;4D;;4 +;8=;4 :9;M= O; 9L4A@9 @MAB O9L<= =GH @4D5A OB 6< 7=C; KCEP >4HA +BF;6 49M4@9EH 6CG :CH;@= O9L<= =GH @HKH @>9= O;?<6 48=LM :9L4MA@ 6M O5BH 54NH 9LA4 =@9H< K4LKL :M M9 4A =H45 4A =4?; 4A >4M@ =G= @HK= :A :9@5A =G= DEF= O9L<H :9@HK= 4LH6>9M4 4@@H>9M4 =B6= @HKH 6MBA A6M =G1 >BA6;; 6NH>=6 4B@N?9 A6M 9KB +>4L;4A :>@4>M :=9L99K64 :=9;B56 K4HB Q@K FL@E6 6A@M9 6B 6< =H45 9B @;4A4 +@4>= O; 4L6 A?49 =G @HK M@4M4 K4HB :=H 48=L9M4 :99L< 9LE; Z@A= 9;< 9LEH 46G6KG9 A6M 9KB4 :>BA6; 69HMH :9;M :9;B5 M@K; EC<, Because X have seen man! 'eo'le hesitate re)ardin) the 'ractice of all leTish communities. in all )enerations. of 'a!in) their sa)es. and in this the! de'end u'on That the -ambam Trote in his commentar! to Avot. therefore X Till eaamine this issue as Heaven )uides me. from )emara and other sources. to see Thether this is 'ermissible. mit"vah or obli)ator!. or Thether it involves some element of sin, X am confident in the stren)th of the earl! authorities Tho customaril! 'ermitted this. so that X Till not stumble in a matter of laT. and all of the relevant issues Till be cleansed and clarified, X sa! that the leTish 'eo'le are obli)ated to su''ort. Tith honor. their sa)es and ud)es Those livelihoods are their Torah. so that the! Till not need to cease their heavenl! Tor( for the sa(e
of melachah. and so the! Till not be dis)raced before amei ha’aretz because of their 'overt!. and so the! Till be treated Tith honor, &, $, What is the Tashbet"+s o'inion on the -ambam* Who does he feel needs to be su''orted* Wh!*
0, -av Aharon Kotler
Kuntres Keter Torah. 2&-2$
VXn this )eneration , , , folloTin) the destruction in Euro'e. Then the Torah centers Tere destro!ed , , the loft! tas( of rebuildin) the ruins falls on the leTs of America and the cand of Xsrael , , , The! must create an atmos'here of dedication to the Torah , , , Tithout involvement in an! eaternal and tan)ential thin)s,W
#ishnat -av Aharon &1&/i-&/0
VA 'erson ma! stud! Torah and not be a Ben Torah Torth! of the name if he has onl! Tea( commitment never to leave the tents of Torah and the involvement in Torah all of his da!s,,,,Te can learn hoT much a 'erson must avoid a dan)erous environment even if he Till stand u' to the trial,,,His Torah and the status of his service Iof eodJ Till inevitabl! dro', Xt is even Torse if he enters Ithe dan)erous environmentJ for material considerations,,,for then ever!thin) that he does Ito stud! TorahJ is su'erficial,,,,A 'erson should not thin( X Till leave for a Thile and then X Till return to Torah. because the leavin) itself causes terrible dama)e and rot in the soulW
&, What reasons does -+ Kotler )ive for the (olel s!stem* Do these reasons ma(e sense Tith an!thin) Te+ve seen 'reviousl!, $, HoT does he vieT material concerns*
Source d^ on Sheet B
Would the #aharsha thin( the -ambam is ri)ht or Tron)* Wh! or Th! not*
En o! Uour cearnin)]
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