Syllogisms Below are 20 logic puzzles known as syllogisms. Each syllogism is made up of two premises followed by a conclusion.

For each syllogism please indicate whether the conclusion follows logically from the two premises by placing a tick in the appropriate circle. Then indicate how certain you are of your answer by placing a tick in the appropriate circle for either 'certain' or 'uncertain'. Please spend no longer than 15 minutes completing this part of the test. (Answers can be found on the last page) Example : Premise 1: All cats are mammals Premise 2: All mammals are animals Conclusion:Therefore all cats are animals 1 All of the purple cravats have blue polkadots Some of the ties are purple cravats Therefore some of the ties have blue polkadots All neurosurgeons are highly intelligent Some neurosurgeons are not gentlemen Therefore no gentlemen are highly intelligent

2

3

Some computers are not laptops Some laptops are not Macbooks Therefore some computers are Macbooks

4

No people tell lies Some psychology students tell lies Therefore some psychology students are not people

5

Some daily newspapers are tabloids No textbooks are daily newspapers Therefore no tabloids are textbooks

6

Some green things are not plants All green things are trees Therefore some trees are not plants

7

All rats in London have contagious diseases Some rodents have contagious diseases Therefore some rodents are rats in London

8 Some types of bird are kept as pets All things kept as pets are goldfish Therefore some goldfish are types of bird 9 Some woolen cardigans are not trousers Some trousers are not shirts Therefore all shirts are woolen cardigans 10 No fish are rainbow trout All rainbow trout are salmon Therefore some salmon are not fish 11 All habitual failures are life's losers None of life's losers are unhappy people Therefore some unhappy people are habitual failures 12 No shiny red apples contain deady poison Some types of fruit contain deadly poison Therefore some types of fruit are not shiny red apples 13 All large boulders are alive Some root vegetables are large boulders Therefore some root vegetables are alive 14 Some peoples' homes are giant mansions All giant mansions are houses Therefore some houses are peoples homes 15 Some real ale does not contain any liquid All real ale is water Therefore some water does not contain any liquid All vehicles on the road are buses Some vehicles on the road are not cars Therefore no cars are buses 16 17 All sailboats are boyant in water Some house bricks are boyant in water Therefore some house bricks are sailboats .

18 Some old men work as fishermen No young girls are old men Therefore no young girls work as fishermen 19 All mountain goats are mammals No mammals are invertabrates Therefore some invertabrates are mountain goats No naughty children do well in school All those who do well in school are well behaved Therefore some of those who are well behaved are not naughty children 20 END ANSWERS TO FOLLOW: Answers to Syllogisms: Validity Valid Invalid Invalid Valid Invalid Valid Invalid Valid Invalid Valid Invalid Valid Valid Valid Valid Invalid Invalid Invalid Invalid Valid Believability Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Unbelievable Unbelievable Believable Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Believable Unbelievable Believable Belief Bias 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .

NB: The belief bias is liable to occur in situations where the logic and experience conflict (eg. an invalid but believable or valid but unbelievable syllogism) .

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