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Examen Suficiencia Ingls

FACULTAD DE AGRONOMA

Universidad Nacional de La Pampa

Corpus Terico

Ao: 2012 Profesores:


Profesor Adjunto a Cargo: Prof. Jos Mara Fernandez Ayudante de Primera: Prof. Ana Claudia Pez

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls AND BUT Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez -/Ana Claudia Pez Addition Contrast Concession Also, besides, However, while, though moreover whereas, yet, although furthermore, in still, on the even though addition, as well other hand, in despite as, bothand, contrast, in spite of not onlybut nevertheless also Corpus Terico SO Cause / Effect then as thus since hence because therefore because of consequently due to owing to for

Explanation i.e That is That is to say In other words To put it more (simply)

Exemplification Sequence e.g First/ firstly For example First of all For instance To begin with Such as As Second/ly At the same time next Then later At this stage

Time Before (that) After (that) afterwards As since

Purpose to In order to So as to In order that So that

Condition If Unless Whether Given (that) Provided (that) Providing (that) Supposing (that) Assuming (that) On the condition (that) As long as

thus In particular particularly namely

when then while once

For With the purpose of

Let us (take the case ofs This can be (shown)

Simultaneously Up to (now/ then) In the last As soon as stage Eventually / During finally (before) +ing (after mounting) (having/ once) + -ed (once completed)

Ejemplos: Although the density of a fluid depends on temperature and pressure, the variant of density with changes in these variables may be large or small.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez In a battery, chemical forces cause a separation of positive and negative charges in spite of the mutual attraction between charges of opposite sign. Once formed, thermosetting plastics cannot be reformed by heat and pressure. Partly because of their ductility, metals are subjects to fatigue. Despite later modification of detail, the essentials of Bohrs description of the motion of the electrons in the atom remain as our picture of atomic structure up to the present. For historical reasons, a helium nucleus is called an alpha particle even though we now know that it is a composite of other particles. A moving charge or, equivalently, an electric current, creates a magnetic field. Therefore, a magnet placed near a current will experience a force. For most materials, as long as the load does not exceed the elastic limit, the deformation is proportional to the load. Since the flow in the nozzle is adiabatic and reversible, it is isentropic, that is, the entropy is constant. In astronomical observation, the size of the image is much less than the size of the object (a galaxy, let us say, might have an image 1mm in diameter), yet the angular magnification may be quite large. In order to understand what hybrid orbitals are, let us see why they are needed. The mercury atom has a valence-electron configuration of 6s, and thus its maximum number of half filled atomic orbitals in two. When two normal sources of light are used, e.g light bulbs, and their light is superimposed, then no interference can be observed, because this light is incoherent. This is due to the way light is radiated by the incandescent body, in this case the filament in the bulb. Since prehistoric times, when carves were used as living space, man has utilized and created spaces of diverse structural forms. ...As better materials and technology were Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez developed, there appeared such structural forms as the rigid frame, the arch, the dome, etc ...Notable advances in the scale of large span structures, however, were slow in coming. ... it was not until the 1960s that truly modern technologies for largespan structures were established. The pace of progress then quickened as large-span structures of novel types emerged through developments both in materials and in structural technologies. Corpus Terico

MODIFICACIN DE SUSTANTIVOS Castellano 1 ESTRUCTURA- La modificacin de un sustantivo en castellano puede darse de diferentes maneras: Posmodificacin: N (sustantivo) + A (adjetivo) recursos energticos Premodificacin: A+ N nuevos recursos Pre- y posmidificacin: A + N + preposicin + N nuevas fuentes de energa 1. SIGNIFICADO Existen adjetivos que pueden colocarse delante o detrs del sustantivo al que califican, sin que se modifique el significado: sistemas nuevos nuevos sistemas Otras veces la ubicacin del adjetivo si modifica el significado de la frase: frmulas ciertas ciertas frmulas Por ltimo cabe aclarar que un gran nmero de adjetivos slo permiten la posmodificacin, es decir, la premodificacin es agramatical: tendido elctrico - *elctrico tendido accidente areo - *areo accidente

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3 La frase nominal

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez El sustantivo es el ncleo de la frase nominal. Puede aparecer solo o acompaado por pre- y/o posmodificadores. Veamos algunos ejemplos: un sistema un nuevo sistema Corpus Terico

un sistema

elctrico

un sistema

de medicin

un sistema

que registra datos en lnea

un sistema

desarrollado por este equipo de investigacin

un sistema

totalmente robotizado

todos los anteriores

sistemas

empleados

Un nuevo sistema elctrico de medicin totalmente robotizado que registra datos en lnea (ha sido presentado en el mercado) PREMODIFICACION 1 Por un adjetivo 1.1 A + N > N +A Old system Fast reaction Effective method Improbable results Sistema viejo / antiguo Reaccin rpida Mtodo efectivo Resultados improbables

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Microscopic holes Agujeros /huecos microscpicos Corpus Terico

1.2 Comparativo (A-er) + N > N+ ms+ A (+ que otro) A faster reaction A smaller engine Una reaccin ms rpida (que otra) Un motor ms pequeo (que otro)

1.3 Superlativo (A est) + N > artculo + N + ms +A (de todos/as) The fastest reaction The smallest engine La reaccin ms rpida (que otra) El motor ms pequeo (de todos)

Por un sustantivo: N + N > N+ preposicin + N / N +A world problems gas reservoir data Banks a chain reaction storage device problemas mundiales reservorio gasfero bancos de datos una reaccin en cadena dispositivo para / de almacenaje/ almacenamiento

Por una forma ing: -ing + N > N+A (-nte; -or /a )/ N + prep.+ N interesting results conducting material propelling force neighbouring molecules operating conditions welding techniques resultados interesantes material conductor fuerza propulsora molculas vecinas condiciones de operacin tcncas de soldadura

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Por una forma ed (regular) : -ed + N > N+ -ado/ - ido (regular)

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez electrified particles advanced levels molten state written report partculas electrificadas niveles avanzados estado fundido informe escrito Corpus Terico

Nota: Diferencia de significado entre las formas ing y ed *- ing implica una accin, un proceso; as el modificador describe lo que hace el sustantivo al que califica Welding material material soldante (lo que el material hace es soldar) Working fluid- fluido de trabajo (para realizar trabajo) Finishing process- proceso de terminacin / acabado Measuring instrument- instrumento de medicin (para medir/ que mide) Controlling variable- variable de control (que sirve o se usa para controlar) Developing countries- pases en desarrollo (que estn en proceso de desarrollo)

-ed implica un estado final o resultado Welded metal- metal soldado (alguien en algn momento realiz la accin de soldar y por lo tanto el metal ya est soldado) Finished process- proceso terminado (est/ ha sido terminado) Measured load- carga medida Controlled variable- variable controlada Developed countries- pases desarrollados

POSMODIFICACION 1 Por una predisposicin (la predisposicin no necesariamente coincide con su equivalente en castellano) The nucleus (of the atom)

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The relation (between heat and other forms (of energy))

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez The basis (or the distinction (between the two main classes (of plastics))) Corpus Terico

2 Introducida por los pronombres that / which

QUE

A control which regulates the temperature Energy sources that are unlimited 3 Por una forma ing > N+ que + V (es decir, igual a la traduccin en 2) Una corriente que fluye (a travs de) Un dispositivo que consiste (en un) Dispositivos elctricos que usan (30 volts)

A current flowing (through a conductor) A device consisting (of a solenoid) Electrical devices using (30 volts)

Por una forma ed (regular) > N + -ado/ -ido (regular) The pressure measured (at the discharge) The pressure exerted (by the atmosphere) A deviced used (to control the flow of fluids) A mineral found (in this area) A wire wound (around a core) A structure made (of concrete) Un dispositivo usado (para controlar) Un mineral encontrado (.) Un cable arrollado (alrededor del ncleo) Una estructura hecha (de hormign) La presin medida (en la descarga)

PRE Y POSMIDIFICACION Al considerar la frase nominal, el sustantivo, que es el ncleo de esa frase, deber ser siempre el punto de partida del anlisis. El mismo puede aparecer Sin modificadores A device

Con modificadores hacia la izquierda (premodificacin) A new device

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

An electrical

device

A controlling

device

A new electrical controlling

device

A fully automatic

device

Con modificadores hacia la derecha (posmodificacin) A device with wide range

device

that registers mnimum variations

device

developed at this university

Una combinacin de pre- y pos-modificacin devices used in air-conditioning

All the previous

A new fully automatic electrical controlling registers minimum variations

device

, developed at this university, that

Un poco ms de premodificacin
Si el lector no est familiarizado con la jerga especfica de un tema determinado, las frases nominales extensas y complejas suelen presentar problemas de comprensin. Una frase como Pennsylvania state highway department public relations director que contiene 7 palabras, tiene 132 estructuras lgicamente posibles. Una primera aproximacin al anlisis de estas frases consiste en establecer una analoga del tipo:

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(1+2).3

1+ (2.3)

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez (Steel bar) prices ((1 2 ) 3) computer (technology development) ( 1 ( 2 3)) Corpus Terico

De esta manera, la interpretacin de expresiones complejas puede computarse de forma composicional, combinando las interpretaciones de partes mas simples. As para el primer ejemplo ((Pennsylvania(state(highway department)) (public relations) director)) Sin perder de vista el hecho de que el contexto y el conocimiento del tema son siempre los que tienen la ltima palabra en lo relativo a la interpretacin, otra pauta a tener en cuenta es que la cadena de premodificadores delante del sustantivo ncleo de la frase nominal, es en realidad una versin abreviada de alguno de los tipos de posmodificacin o combinaciones de estos: Momentum transfer experiments= experiment of the transfer of momentum A fluid bed reactor= a reactor containing a fluid bed An air pressure device= a device which signals the pressure of air A self-contained automatic controller device= a device which controls (something)

and which is automatic and self-contained

Utilice la anterior explicacin para analizar las frases: Metal wielding shop Portabledisplay devices Conventional fabrication methods Hybrid organic films Joining technology engineer Maximum energy conversion Polymer concrete wear surfice Appropriate electrical resistive elements

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Laser assisted molecular beam deposition

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Lead-antimony alloy cable sheath 283 series benchtop laser micrometer Si-water-based monolithic integrated circuits Heterogeneous graphite moderated natural uranium fueled nuclear reactor Corpus Terico

Las dificultades que surgen en la lectura de textos tcnicos tienen que ver tambin con la generacin de nuevos vocablos mediante Formacin de compuestos: database Utilizacin de la guionizacin: on-line database

Muchos de estos nuevos vocablos han sufrido un proceso: originalmente se escriben como palabras separadas (book keeper); a travs del tiempo y debido a la frecuencia de uso, se guionizan (book-keeper); y finalmente, cuando se vuelven muy familiares, pueden llegar a formar un compuesto (bookkepeer). Ya sea que funcionen como una sola palabra o no, evidentemente funcionan como un solo concepto y, aunque la guinizacin es una cuestin bastante irregular, su aparicin facilita la comprensin. Algunas de las palabras guionizadas responden simplemente al estilo del autor o a la ndole del tema en cuestin, pero existen iertos patrones de formacin de este tipo de compuestos Dos o ms sustantivos: lead-antimony alloy Sustantivo + adjetivo: ice-cold wter, maintenance-free respirators, world famous scientist Sustantivo + -ing /-ed: record-breaking performance, meta-finishing process, labour saving procedure,air conditioned room, U-shape pipe, menu-driven analysis Adjetivo +sustantivo: one-waytraffic, five-year plan, second-rate company, long term objectives, full scale representation Adverbio+ adejtivo: above-mentioned phenomena, clear-cut distinctions, well-known techniques

COGNADOS
1 Idnticos: Digital, idea, integral, nuclear, plan, radio

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2 Con cambio ortogrfico:

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez 1.1 Afijos similares: Detector, disconnetrc, effective, flexible, fracture, interaction, irregular, metallic, position, special, superconductor 1.2 case, company, curve, important, magnitude, perimeter, philosophy,telephone, vehicle FALSOS COGNADOS Actual/actually= real/reality Billion= 109 Carbon: element found in a pure form as diamonds, graphite, r inan impure form as coal, petrol Current: 1(n) the flow of electricity; 2. (adj.) the present time;currently (adv.) at present designed-diseado Eventual/ eventually= final/ finally Exacting: (adj.) = demanding (exigent) Facility: 1. Facilidad; 2. Element, dispositivo, equipo; 3. Instalacin, recursos, medios, servicios Figure: 1. Form, illustration, diagram; 2. Symbol for a number (cifr, nmero) Fresh water: different from sea water (agua dulce) Gas: 1. Air-like substance (gas); 2. (America)= gasoline Large= big Petrol (Britain) = American gasoline Prevent = stop (impeder, evitar) Remove- retirar, quitar, sacar Revolve (v)= rotate, move in a circle Succeed (v) triunfar, tener xito; success (n) xito, successful (adj.)- exitoso Ultimate (adj.): 1 last; 2: fundamental; 3. Greatest Unique= singular, extraordinary, exceptional Corpus Terico

Ejemplos:

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Protons and neutrons are not elementary particles, they are composed of other particles called quarks. Acids which contain the element carbon are called organic acids. The submicroscopic domain, inhabited by elementary particles, is probably the most fundamental frontier of physics. The company will market its new coupling to the entire chemical processing industry, but it is now focusing on facilities that process paint. The new liquid acts as a seal which prevents the asbestos fibres from floating into the atmosphere. Metalert is a new maintenance unit designed to detect the presence of metal wear particles. Corpus Terico

FAMILIA DE PALABRAS Los adjetivos, sustantivos y verbos de la tabla son algunas de las palabras con alta frecuencia en textos tcnicos. Adjetivo Broad Dark Hard High Less Light Long Loose Narrow Sharp Short Soft Sustantivo -ness/ -th broadness darkness hardness hight _________________ lightness length __________________ Narrowness Sharpness Shortness/shortage Softeness Verbo en Broaden Darken Harden Highten Lessen Lighten Lengthen Loosen Narrow Sharpen Shorten Soften

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Straight Strong Thick Tight Weak Wide straightness Strength Thickness Tightnesss Weakness Width Straighten Strenghten Thicken Tighten Weaken widen Corpus Terico

Ejemplos: Kinematics is the description of motion using only the concepts of length and time. Diffraction can be defined as any deviation of wave motion away from straight-line propagation. Engenieering materials may be classified into six broad classes: metals, polymers, elastomers, ceramics, glasses and composites. Ceramics are stiff and hard; they retain their strength to high temperature, and they are corrosion-resistant. Polymers and elastomers have moduli which are low, approximately fifty times less than those of metals, but they are strong. Composites are light, stiff and strong, but they cannot be used above 250 C because the polymer matrix softens. Thermoplastics can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened on cooling and hence can be welded by application of heat.

FORMACION DE PALABRAS Los afijos son grupos de letras que se usan, tanto en ingls como en castellano, para: 1. cambiar la funcin gramatical de una palabra: estudi-ar (v) peligr-o (n) estudi-ante (n.pers.) peligr-oso (adj.) a-grand-ar (v) study (v) danger (n) large (adj.) stude-ent (n. pers) danger-ous (adj.) en-large (v)

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grande (adj.)

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

2. cambiar el significado de una palabra Cerrar (v) Operar (v) Estimar (v) En-cerrar (v) Co-operar (v) Sub-estimar (v) Close (v) Operate (v) Estmate (v) En-close (v) Co-operate (v) Under-estimate (v)

Tal como se desprende de los ejemplos mencionados, los afijos se dividen en prefijos (al comienzo de la palabra) y sufijos (al final de la palabra) Es importante tener presente el cambio en significado implcito en el afijo para evitar posibles confusiones de comprensin. Ej: Physics is a scince (science (n)) Einstein is a famous scientist (scientist (n, pers.)) A scientific study (scientific (adj.))

FORMACIN DE PALABRAS
1 Prefijos 1.1 La mayora de los prefijos son iguales que en castellano:

superstructure, substandard, cooperate, reconstruct, monochrome, semicircle, prototype

1.1.1

en- para formar verbos: Enlarge, enclose, encourage, enable, ensure

1.2

Prefijos diferenes del castellano: over (por encima, en demasia): overestimate, oversimplify, overexpose, overburden

*overlook= neglect, ignore Under (sub): underestimate, underground, underline, underemployed *undergo= experience (v), understand =understake = accept, agree, promise (emprender, comprometerse)

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Self (auto): self-service, self-control, self-evident, self sufficient Corpus Terico

1.3

Negativos

Asymmetric, decelerate, disconnect, illogical, impossible, inactive, irrelevant, malformed, misunderstanding, non-conductor, unusual

Sufijos que forman sustantivos:

age: amperaje, drainage, leakage, al: disposal, refusal, renewal, (eliminacin, denegacin, revnovacin) an: technician,electrician ance/ ence: resistance. Ant/ent: assistant, consultant Er/or: manufacturer, Ics: electronics, physics, mathematics, Ist: specialist Ity: acidity, extremity ment: movement ness: effectiveness, usefulness sion/ tion: conversion, production th: length, strength, production ure: mixture

3: Sufijos que forman adjetivos Able/ible: negligible,reliable, Al: digital Er: larger

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Est: largest

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Ful: useful Ic:electronic Ive: productive, effective Less: useless, careless, endless motionless, Y: dirty, worthy 4: Sufijos que forman verbos ate: estimate, approximat, differentiate en: lengthen, strengthen, widen ify:simplify, identify, electrify ize/ise: characterize, devise, exercise PLURALES El sustantivo es la nica palabra que vara en gnero y nmero (el adjetivo es invariable). La regla general es la misma que para el castellano: N + -s /-es 1 Regulares Singulares Temperatura Insulator Loss Plural Temperaturas Insulators Losses Corpus Terico

Algunos terminados en y: y--------------> i + es Plural Possibilities Utilities Sustantivos de origen latino o griego siguen la regla de pluralizacin de esos idiomas: Singular nucleus Plural Nuclei

Singular Possibility Utility 3

Terminacin

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-us- -i

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez radius -a -ae antenna Formula -um -a Mdium Memorndum -is -es analysis hypothesis thesis -on -a criterion phenomenon -ex/-ix appendix matrix 4 Irregulares Plural Men Workmen Feet Teeth Radii Antennae formulae Media Memoranda Analyses Hypotheses Theses Criteria Phenomena Appendices matrices Corpus Terico

Singular Man Workman Foot Tooth

Unidades de sentido (chunks)


1. Las siguientes son palabras cognado queaparecen en las 6 oraciones que componen el texto. La mayor parte de stas son sustantivos. Los parntesis marcanverbos; los corchetes, adjetivos. 1. Hydrogen-energy-vector-focus-attention -(recent)- interest- (possible)- useshydrogen 2. Origin-interest-hydrogen-energy-vector-reasons

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3. Property-hydrogen-(produces)- combustion-product

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez 4. Carbon-dioxide-carbon-monoxide- oxides- sulphur- combustion-carbon (produced) 5. Convenience-compatibilityrespects 6. (associated)-hydrogen-use (appropriate)- (technical)-solutions 2. Partiendo de algunos de los sustantivos transparentes, aplicamos una lectura hacia la izquierda y hacia la derecha An energy vector The most striking property The use of appropriate technical solutions The possible uses of hydrogen 3. habiendo comprendido el significado de las frases anteriores, tratamos de expandirlas; de esta manera abarcamos cada vez ms palabras y podemos comprender el significado de varias frases a la vez The focus /of increasing attention/ in recent years A growing interest/ in the possible uses/ of hydrogen/ as a fuel The origin/ of interest / in hydrogen/ as an energy vector Corpus Terico

4. Utilice el analisis anterior a fin de infereir palabras / frases desconocidas de manera que se comprenda el significado del texto Hydrogen as an energy vector has been the focus of increasing attention in recent years, and there is a growing interest in the possible uses of hydrogen as a fuel. The origin of the interest in hydrogen as an energy vector has many reasons. Perhaps the most striking property of hydrogen is that is produces water as a combustion product. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulphur and other by-products of the combustion of oil and of carbon are not produced. Other advantages are convenience of storage and environmental compatibility in other respects. The hazards associated with the handling of hydrogen can be overcome by the use of appropriate technical solutions.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

PRONOMBRES Sujeto Singular 1a pers. 2a pers. 3a pers. f. n. Plural 1a pers. 2a pers. 3a pers. We You They Us You Them Our your their Ourselves Yourselves themselves I You He She It Me You Him Her It my Your His her its Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Objeto Posesin Reflejo

Marie Curie was a French physicist. She and her husband discovered a new element which they called radium. The potential energy of a body is the energy it possesses due to its position and is equal to the work done in raising it from some level. Because ceramics have no ductility, they have a low tolerance for stress concentrations. Liquids are easily recognized by their fluidity and solids by their rigidity. Salts vary in color. Many of them are white, but others are pink, blue or green. DEMOSTRATIVOS This That Este/a, esto Ese/a, aqul/la

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez These Those Estos/as Esos/as, aquellos/as Corpus Terico

1 Como determinantes This solution is a mixture of chlorine and sodium. The liquid in those bottles is dangerous.

2 Como pronombres Certain properties of a composite material are superior to those of the individual components. An electric current can separate a chemical compound into its components. This is called electrolysis. Some plastics are subject to damage by ultraviolet radiation but this can be counteracted by addition of an ultraviolet absorber. When aqueous solutions of an acid and a base are combined, a neutralization reaction occurs. This reaction is characteristically very rapid and generally produces water and a salt. By definition, two systems in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature. Under these conditions, we say that the temperature of one system is equal to the temperature of the other. RELATIVOS That Which Whose que que, el/la cual, los/las cuales cuyo/a, cuyos/as

An internal force is one whose source and whose action (or whose cause and effect) are both within the system being considered. Absolute zero is the temperature at which no further energy can be removed from a system.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Acids which contain the element carbon are called organic acids. Prisms are devices that disperse light into its component wavelenths. Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez COMPARACIONES 1. Equivalencia Estructura as + adj. / adv. + as as many / much .....as (tan... como) Vocabulario Relacionado Conectivos Corpus Terico

the same (as) similarly equal to, equal / ly likewise similar/ly in the same way alike compared to /with resemble all, both, each, either This system contains as many parts as that one. (twice as many parts as/ less than twice parts as many parts as)

2 Comparacin de dos cosas (no-equivalencia) 2.1 Estructura adj. / adv. + -er. Than more / less + adj./ adv. than (ms/ menos que ) Vocabulario Relacionado Different dissimilar unlike Conectivos Ver ficha Conectivos but,etc.

Neither an object nor any form of energy can be accelerated to a speed faster than the speed of light in vacuum.

2.2 La repeticin del Comparativo + and indica continuo cambio Computers are used more and more because of theireffectiveness.

Incremento paralelo: the + comparativo the+ comparative (cuanto ms tanto ms..mayor menor) The bigger the compuer, the more complex the operations it can do.

Comparacin de ms de dos cosas (superlativo) (el/la ms/menos) Estructura The + adj. / adv. -est The +most/least + adj. /adv. Computer technology is the fastest growing technology in the world.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Formas Irregulares Adjectives /adverb good well bad badly many much few little late far Comparative Better Worse More Fewer/less Later Farther/ further Superlative Best Worst Most Fewest/ least Last/latest Farthest/furthest Corpus Terico

Certain high-strengh alloys have ductilities as low as 2%. Polymers and elastomers are nearly as strong as metals. Of all the classes of material, metals are the least resistant to corrosion. . Ceramic and glasses have high moduli, but, unlike metals, they are brittle. Ceramics are not as easy to design with as metals. Polymers and elastomers have moduli which are roughly fifty times less than those of metals. Hot-rolling is the lowest-cost and most common hot-working process in the production of wrought steels. Medium-carbon steels are stronger than low-carbon steels and can be further strengthened by heat treatment. A metal subjected to a repetitive of fluctuating stress will fail at a stress much lower than that required to cause facture on a single application of load. In general, the higher the creep strength of a material, the higher its high-temperature fatigue strength. Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other, whereas all gravitational masses attract each other. The science of thermodynamics began with an analysis, by the great engineer Carnot, of the problem of how to build the best and most efficient engine. One cubic centimeter of U generates about as much energy as a cube of coal that is 1.000 m There are two significant differences between tension and compression members Whereas tensile loads tend to hold a member straight, compressive loads tend to bend them out of the plane of the loads The longer a column becomes for the same cross section the greater becomes its tendency to buckle and the smaller becomes the load it will support.

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BLOQUE VERBAL

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez La palabra clave o ncleo de un Bloque Verbal es un verbo, el que puede estar conjugado (es decir, expresando tiempo, numero y persona) o no conjugado (4). Puede presentarse solo o acompaado de otras palabras. Corpus Terico

Cmo se identifica un verbo?


Existen dos vas de identificacin A. Va morfolgica B. Va sintctica A: Va morfolgica: Es posible identificar un verbo reconociendo las terminaciones que le son propias. Por ejemplo: -s (-es, -ies) terminacin de verbo en Presente Indefinido 3 persona singular. Por ejemplo:

/The report/ El informa -ed -

presents presenta

/ important results. / resultados importantes.

verbo conjugado

--- terminacin para el Pasado Indefinido y el Participio pasado de verbos regulares. Por ejemplo: verbo conjugado

/They presented/ the results./ (pasado indefinido) Presentaron los resultados.

/They have presented / the results./ (participio pasado) Han presentado los resultados

verbo conjugado

/The results/ are presented here/ (participio pasado) Los resultados son presentados aqu. /when consumed,/ alcohol/ goes directly/ to the blood./ Cuando se consume, el alcohol va directamente a la sangre. -ing --- terminacin del Participio Presente de todos los verbos. / the results./

verbo conjugado

verbo NO conjugado

/ They/ are presenting

verbo conjugado

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Estn presentando los resultados / This graph / is useful/ for presenting /the results/. Este grfico es til para presentar los resultados. -ify, -en, ate, -ize/-ise, etc - son terminaciones tpicas de verbos verbo NO conjugado Corpus Terico

classify clasificar widen ensanchar evaporate evaporar emphasize enfatizar NOTA: Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado a travs de una modificacin de la palabra ed), por lo tanto no es posible identificarlos por su terminacin. Por ejemplo: They found interesting results. Encontraron resultados interesantes. They have found interesting results. Han encontrado resultados interesantes. FOUND es la forma del pasado indefinido y participio del pasado del verbo FIND. Al encontrar en un texto un verbo irregular usted puede CONSULTAR EL ANEXO IV LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES- a fin de identificar la forma del infinitivo y buscar la palabra en el diccionario. VIA SINTACTICA: Tambin es posible identificar un verbo a travs de las palabras que lo acompaan. Presentamos a continuacin un cuadro que incorpora los elementos que pueden participar en la formacin de un bloque verbal de acuerdo con el orden sintctico correspondiente, y en el que se han ubicado los bloques verbales de los siguientes textos. A study/of man/ in this society/ would (1) be incomplete / without (2) focusing/ some attention/ on the nature/ of man himself,/ since (3) he certainly is/ one / of many living objects./ we (4) must also consider/ the evolution/ of man, / and (5) it is necessary/ to (6) note/ the various divisions/ of mankind/ in our modern world./ Un estudio del hombre en su sociedad estara incompleto sin concentrar la atencin en la naturaleza del hombre mismo, ya que (l) es ciertamente una de las muchas cosas vivas.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Debemos tambin considerar la evolucin del hombre, y es necesario distinguir las varias divisiones de la humanidad en nuestro mundo moderno. VII El verbo Es la palabra que expresa accin, estado o existencia. El verbo afirma que la persona o cosa nombrada por el sujeto ES..He IS a student(El) es un estudiante HACE (agente)We STUDY(Nosotros) estudiamos RECIBE (paciente)Data ARE COMPAREDLos datos se comparan (son comparados) 2. Estudio morfolgico de los verbos La mayora de los verbos en ingls tienen cuatro FORMAS fundamentales. A partir de estas formas bsicas se arman todos los tiempos verbales que al igual que en castellano pueden expresar tiempo pasado, presente o futuro. Corpus Terico

2.1 verbos regulares e irregulares son verbos regulares aquellos que en pasado simple o en la forma de participio pasado aparecen con la flexin ed (-d, -ied) agregada a la forma base del verbo (infinitivo sin to). Veamos un ejemplo:

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START- STARTED- STARTED

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

INFINITIVO(to) START PRESENTE.Classes START at six

COMENZAR Las clases comienzan a las 6.

PASADO INDEFINIDO Classes STARTED on Monday Las clases comenzaron el lunes. PRESENTE PERFECTO.Classes HAVE STARTED Las clases han comenzado

Por otro lado, son verbos IRREGULARES aquellos que cuando estn en su forma pasada o de participio pasado sufren diferentes tipos de cambios morfolgicos o directamente ninguno con respecto a su forma de infinitivo. Ejemplos:

WRITE-WROTE-WRITTEN INFINITIVO ESCRIBIR PRESENTE INDEFINIDO PASADO INDEFINIDO PRESENTE PERFECTO (to) WRITE

The students WRITE essays in class The students WROTE essays in class

Los alumnos escriben ensayos en clase escribieron

The students HAVE WRITTEN essays in class han escrito

PUT PUT -PUT

2.2

Verbos compuestos Los verbos en ingles pueden formar compuestos de dos maneras diferentes:

A)

Anteponiendo un adjetivo, o un sustantivo, por ejemplo: Safeguard salvaguardar, proteger Baby-sit.cuidar nios

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez B) Seguidos de partculas adverbiales o preposiciones. Cuando esto sucede el significado original del verbo desaparece y la totalidad del compuesto adquiere una acepcin diferente. Por ejemplo: (to) give: dar (to) give up: abandonar, dejar de (to) give off: emanar El tratamiento de estos verbos slo requiere una cuidadosa bsqueda en el diccionario ya que el significado de los mismos parece a continuacin del verbo original. Sin embargo, se debe tener en cuenta que en algunas ocasiones la partcula slo da nfasis al verbo y por lo tanto no tiene traduccin. Por ejemplo: (to) slow down disminuir la velocidad, retardar 2 Modo del verbo A los efectos de la comprensin del texto es importante distinguir el modo en que est expresado un mensaje a travs del verbo. El modo expresa la significacin del verbo de acuerdo con la actitud del hablante. MODO INDICATIVO Expresa la significacin del verbo como real. He SPEAKS English. Habla ingls. Corpus Terico

MODO IMPERATIVO Expresa rdenes, instrucciones, pedidos, sugerencias ANSWER the questions. Responda las preguntas.

MODO SUBJUNTIVO Expresa un deseo, propuesta o suposicin, nunca una realidad. If I WERE you, I would go. Si fuese Ud., ira.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez 2.1 Modo Indicativo Los tiempos verbales del modo indicativo son los INDEFINIDOS, CONTINUOS y PERFCTOS (y sus combinaciones), cada uno de ellos pudiendo ser expresados en Presente, Pasado y Futuro. Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

Tiempos verbales PRESENTE SIMPLE works/ gives work / give CONTINUO is working / giving are working / giving PERFECTO has worked/ given have worked /given

PASADO SIMPLE worked / gave CONTINUO was working /giving Were working /giving PERFECTO had worked /given

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

FUTURE SIMPLE Will work CONTINUO Will be working PERFECTO Will have worked /given

Los tiempos verbales como una forma de ubicar hechos: En Presente: (Present Continuos) Activa: Pasiva: Nuclear power stations are being built to produce electricity. Countries are building nuclear power stations to produce electricity.

En Pasado (Simple Past) Activa: Pasiva: Radio waves were produced and measured in 1887 (by Hertz) Hertz produced and measured radio waves in 1887.

Pasado y Presente Relacionado (Present Perfect) Activa: Pasiva: Atomic energy has been used in war and peace. Man has used atomic energy in war and peace.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Eventos atemporales (Simple Present) Activa: Pasiva: Energy is released (as a consequence of fission) Fission releases energy. Corpus Terico

VOZ PASIVA En el lenguaje tcnico-cientfico es muy frecuente el uso de la voz pasiva. Se utiliza cada vez que queremos destacar lo que se hace (la accin) y no quien la lleva a cabo, como tambin cuando desconocemos el agente o causa de esa accin. La pasiva en ingl, al igual que en el castellano, seconstruyecon alguna de lasformas del verbo be ms el participio del verbo principal. PRESENTE SIMPLE is analyzed are are is being analyzed have CONTINUO has been analyzed PERFECTO

PASADO SIMPLE was analyzed were were CONTINUO was being analyzed had been analyzed PERFECTO

FUTURO SIMPLE PERFECTO will have been analyzed

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will be analyzed

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

MODALES SIMPLE would can / could may /might +be analyzed should must PERFECTO would can /could may / might + have been analyzed should must

Pasivas que expresan el agente, causa o medio de la accin Activa: Volt discovered electric current. Pasiva: Electric current was discovered by Volta.

Pasivas que no expresan el agente, causa o medio de la accin Activa: We heated the mixture. Pasiva: The mixture was heated.

Posibles traducciones Stress is a measure of force in relation the area over which it is applied. The thermodynamics is concerned with how atoms and molecules are arranged. At frequencies above 20 MH, the signal range of a transmitter is reduced to line of sight. A loss of energy in any one form is always accompanied by an equivalent increase in another form. es aplicada /se aplica

Se ocupa / estn dispuestos.

Se reduce / est reducido = queda reducido

Est (va) acompaada Es ajustada/ se ajusta

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez If the external pressure is continuously adjusted so that it is kept equal to the pressure of the gas within the cylinder, the system is always at equilibrium. Diamond was mainly used as a jewel for its optical brilliance and for its hardness. In the 1950s methods were developed to fabricate synthetic diamonds commercially. Like heat and temperature, entropy was first given a macroscopic definition and then later a molecular definition. Probably the first attempt to use the intense heat of the carbon arc for welding was made in 1881. .. (Bernardoss) application (for a patent) described a process in which the work was connected to a negative, and the carbon rod was fastened to the positive pole of a docircuit. ..Slavianoff, announced a process in which the carbon rod was replaced by a metal rod. After an arc was struck, the rod gradually melted and added fused metal to the weld.Coffin (..) was granted a United States patent on a similar metal-arc welding process. Se mantenga Corpus Terico

Fue utilizado Se desarrollaron

(a la entropa primero) se le dio

Se hizo Estaba conectado Estaba ligada/unida Era reemplazada Se formaba (a Coffin) se le otorg (una patente)

Construccin compleja (se obligatorio) Hay verbos en ingls que aparecen en la frase verbal junto a un infinitivo y requieren una pasiva con se en castellano. Algunos de ellos, agrupados por significado, son: allow, enable, permit think, consider, presume, asume, suppose, know, believe, understand expect

cause, make ask, request, require say, tell

find see order

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The results of the experiment were expected to confirm the theory.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Incorrecto: Los resultados del experimento eran esperados para confirmar la teora. Correcto: Se esperaba que los resultados del experimento confirmaran la teora. Construccin en ingls: verbo principal en pasiva + infinitivo Construccin en castellano: se + verbo principal + que Corpus Terico

The people who handle radioactive materials are required to submit to a set of safety rules. In an ideal transformer no current is required to magnetize the core. (no se require que una corriente magnetice el ncleo) Water is assumed to have a specific gravity of 1.000. In a cathode ray tube, electrons are made to strike a screen. (se hace que los electrons golpeen en una pantalla) At the laboratory, you will be asked to sign for the radioactive source. (se le pedir que firme) Liquids are considered to be incompressible and gases compressible. By 1700, white light was known to consist of a mixture of colors. it was known to travel/ in straight lines in a uniform medium to experience a slight deflection in passing an obstacle. (se saba que consiste/viaja) As a general rule, the radiated frequency of an atom or any other system is expected to be of the same order of magnitude as the oscillation frequency of the charged particles in the system. Materials capable of sustaining large amounts of plastic deformation are said to behave in a ductile manner. (Se dice que los materialesse comportan)

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez The electron, as soon as it was identified, was strongly suspected to be a particle contained within an atom. (se sospech que era) Corpus Terico

More than a century elapsed between Newtons discovery of the law of gravitational forc and Coulombs determination of the law of electric force. (..) it is not difficult to find some reasons for the lag of electricity behind mechanics. Mechanics was concerned with the grand sweep of the cosmos and linked earthly laws with universal laws. Electricity, thought at first to be an attribute of only certain substances, seemed to be less general and less important () This is not to say that electricity had been completely ignored by men of science. By about 1750, a date roughly marking the beginning of electricity and magnetism as serious branches of science, a certain amount of rudimentary knowledge about electricity had been accumulated. That a mineral called amber could be electrified or, in modern terminology, charged- had been known to the Greeks. Since electrification was for many centuries believed to be a property exclusively of this one substance the Greek word for amber, elekton, has furnished the root of our electricity.

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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Facultad Agronoma- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa Asignatura: Ingls Profesores: Jos Mara Fernndez - Ana Claudia Pez Corpus Terico

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