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Khaled AboulAzm ,2011


The purpose of the present lecture is to describe normal occlusion in adult subjects. In the present lecture, the following topics will be discussed. A. Prevalence of normal occlusion in Egypt. B. Static occlusion "Larry Andrews' six keys to normal occlusion". C. Functional occlusion " Ronald Roth' concepts". Physiologically speaking, the word "normal" designates a range rather than a single point. Literally, the word "occlusion" means closing up (oc=up, and clusion = closing). The description of normal occlusion at different ages was previously lectured (i.e., normal growth and development of the dental arches and occlusion).

A. Prevalence of Normal Occlusion in Egypt Published research has shown that the prevalence of normal occlusion among adult Egyptian is 34.3%. It is significantly more common in females (36.7%) than males (31.6%). The prevalence of normal occlusion among Egyptians is lower than that of the Indians. However, it is higher than that of the Americans, Swedish,

1 Normal Oclusion

crown inclination. The mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary permanent first molar was seated in the central fossa of the mandibular permanent first molar. Following his study. Key 1.2011 Larry Andrews' Six keys to normal occlusion Lawrence F.Khaled AboulAzm . tight contacts. The distal surface of the distal marginal ridge of the maxillary permanent first molar made contact and occluded with the mesial surface of the mesial marginal ridge of the mandibular permanent second molar. c. a.B. and a cusp-fossa relationship lingually. he described six dynamically-interrelated characteristics of normal occlusion designed bynature without any orthodontic intervention. Static Occlusion : Dr. crown angulation. and occlusal plane. He called these characteristics the "six keys". Molar Relationship 2 Normal Oclusion . The tips of the maxillary canines The maxillary first permanent molar displayed a solid three. b. Andrews studied dental casts of 120 nonorthodontic subjects having normal occlusion. The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary permanent fist molar fell within the buccal groove located between the mesial and middle cusps of the mandibular permanent first molar. indicated by Angle . These keys are: molar relationship. (The molars and premolars enjoyed a cusp-embrasure relationship buccally.point contact with opposing teeth.

Key II.Khaled AboulAzm . the crown angulation is the mesiodistal tip of the long axis of the crown. the crown angulation was positive for all the teeth.Dr. Crown Angulation (Mesiodistal Tip) Key III. 3. By definition.2011 were slightly mesial to the mandibular canine-premolar embrasure. D: distal. A: crown angulation. It is the angle formed between the long axis of the crown (as Fig. Crown Inclination (Faciolingual Torque) Fig. 4. In normal occlusion. M: mesial. viewed from a facial perspective) and a perpendicular line erected from the occlusal plane . By definition. Crown inclination (faciolingual torque). OP: occlusal plane. and vice versa. It is positive when the gingival portion of the long axis of the crown is distal to the incisal portion .which is consistent with the canine-rise concept). the crown inclination is the faciolingual torque of the long axis of the crown. Crown angluation (mesiodistal tip). It is the angle formed between the facial long axis of the 3 Normal Oclusion . P: perpendicular to the occlusal plane.

Furthermore. Rotations Fig. the lingual crown inclination was similar for the maxillary canines through the maxillary second premolars. the dentition should be free from undesirable rotation . and vice versa In normal occlusion. 4 Normal Oclusion . Rotation In normal occlusion. The reverse is true for the anterior teeth. the lingual crown inclination progressively increased from the mandibular canines through the mandibular second molars. it would occupy more space than normal within the dental arch . the crown inclination was negative for all theteeth except the maxillary central and lateral incisors. Further.Dr.2011 crown (as viewed from a proximal perspective) and a perpendicular line erected from the occlusal plane . If a molar is rotated. Key IV. It is positive when the gingival portion of the long aixs of the crown is lingual to the incisal portion. 5.Khaled AboulAzm . and was slightly more pronounced in the maxillary molars.

By definition. the occlusal plane should be flat or nearly flat (Fig. Occlusal Plane results in a more confined area for the maxillary teeth. (It is indeed a curved compound surface which is commonly approximated by a planestraight lines on lateral views-based on specific reference points within the dental arches). Fig. if the curve of Spee is not relatively flat teeth in one arch will tend to be crowded while those in the other will be spaced . a reverse curve of Spee results in excessive room for the maxillary teeth . A deep curve of Spee 5 Normal Oclusion . creating spillage of the maxillary teeth mesially and distally .Khaled AboulAzm . 6. the occlusal plane is the imaginary plane on which the teeth meet in occlusion. Occlusal plane and curve of spec.Dr. In normal occlusion. On the other hand. 6). In other words.2011 Key VI.

a thin mylar strip will not be held by the anterior teeth. Roth described the mutually-protective occlusal scheme in which maximum dental interdigitation occurs when the mandible is in its rearmost. The anterior teeth are not in positive contact but may elicit a mark with an articulating paper.2011 C. Fig. when the posterior teeth are in occlusion. and uppermost position. the maxillary anterior teeth articulate 6 Normal Oclusion . Mutually – protective occlusal scheme INCISAL GUIDANCE Protrusive movement In protrusive movements.7.Dr. However. midmost. The occlusal stops are equally distributed among the posterior teeth on their centric cusps. Functional Occlusion Ronald Roth's Concepts Ronald Roth applied gnathological concepts to orthodontics.Khaled AboulAzm . He has shown that functional occlusion can be orthodontically achieved even after therapeutic extractions.

Khaled AboulAzm . .2011 equally and evenly with the mandibular anterior teeth and the first premolars (or the second premolars in first premolars extract ion cases) to gently disclude the posterior teeth.Dr. The canines serve as the main guiding inclines. The rate of caninerise is very gentle and harmonious with the lateral excursions 7 Normal Oclusion . the maxillary anterior teeth articulate with the same mandibular teeth to on any movement out of centric. In lateral movements .