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SAFETY MANAGEMENT

1. THEORIES OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION
– DOMINO THEORY or Axioms of Industrial Safety  Herbert W. Heinrich – Traveler’s Insurance Company  In the late 1920’s, studying reports of 75,000 workplace accidents, he concluded the following:  88% of accidents are caused by unsafe acts committed by fellow workers, 10% of accidents are caused by unsafe conditions and 2% of accidents are unavoidable  Contemporary research considers domino theory as outdated however today’s more widely accepted theories can be traced back to Heinrich’s study. HUMAN FACTORS THEORY  Attributes accidents to a chain of events ultimately caused by human error.  Consists of three broad factors that lead to human error: – – – – Overload Inappropriate Response Inappropriate Activities

ACCIDENT / INCIDENT THEORY  Extension of human factors theory  Developed by Dan Petersen  New elements: Ergonomic traps, The decision to err and Systems failures  Some of the reasons why systems may fail:  Management does not establish a comprehensive safety policy  Responsibility and authority with regard to safety are not clearly defined  Safety procedures, such as measurement, inspection, correction, and investigation, are ignored or given insufficient attention.  Employees do not receive proper orientation  Employees are not given sufficient safety training

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL THEORY  Epidemiology: Study of causal relationships between environmental factors and disease.  Epidemiological theory holds that the models used for studying and determining these relationships can also be used to study casual relationships between environmental factors and accidents.  Components: Predisposition Characteristics and Situational Characteristics

that's not the case. this is a common disease in the workplace. with every precaution taken to avoid hazards and protect employees from harm. It involves the lungs becoming scarred and can leave sufferers with a severe shortness of breath. The effects can be devastating and.  An accident may occur as a system which is composed of: Person. 2. 3. 1. It can leave people with physical. 4. which covers many vital organs. Injuries can range in seriousness. the risk of an accident is likely to be higher. Brain or head injury .If you drive as part of your job.A serious head injury can be caused by falling objects. 6. Spinal injury .  Example: A worker who temporarily replaces an experienced crane operator increases the probability of an accident. COMBINATION THEORY – Often the cause of an accident cannot be adequately described by one theory. Excessive noise can lead to tinnitus. Industrial deafness . Here are 10 work-related illnesses and injuries that may be worth claiming for. Road traffic accident related injury . but can have long-term effects which can effect your future employment. from physiotherapy to ongoing medical care.This is an illness caused by regular or heavy exposure to asbestos. Machine. Differences between the theory and reality may exist. when an employee trips over something or a number of other workplace hazards. TOP 10 WORK-RELATED ILLNESSES The workplace should be a safe environment. However. It attacks a protective linking in the body. sensory or cognitive problems and medical care may be required. Asbestosis . As such. especially through falling. – BEHAVIORAL THEORY 2. in many situations.Described as the permanent loss of hearing by exposure to industrial noise in a worker's employment. can be injuries to the spine.Another serious injury that can be caused in the workplace. Combination theory helps explain the actual cause of an accident by combining different parts of several theories. Mesothelioma . a permanent illness that involves sounds like ringing or buzzing being heard in the ear without an external source. and Environment  The likelihood of an accident to occur is determined by how these components interact. emotional.Another asbestos-related illness and a rare form of cancer that can take up to three decades to manifest. . the costs can be considerable.– SYSTEMS THEORY  System – a group of regularly interacting and interrelated components that together form a unified whole. then you are on the road far more than other drivers. 5.

as such. which is particularly common when combined with being a regular smoker. Psychological problems . have the potential to lead to psychological effects that may also be eligible for a claim. the worst accidents have resulted in loss of life for many workers. Lung Cancer . KEY ELEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROGRAM – – – – – – Administrative procedure Facility design and operation Exposure control Education and training Occupational health care services Equipment performance . 10.7. they can require many years of physio and counselling. If your loved one has died as the result of a workplace accident.All accidents in the workplace can be traumatic and. Amputations .These injuries are life changing and can have a far reaching impact on your mental and physical health. 9. Often caused through an industrial accident. Fatal accident . then you may be entitled to make a claim.From collisions on the road to spinal and head injuries. 8.A third asbestos exposure related illness is lung cancer.