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KOREAN WAR

BEHIND THE SCENES
By William P. Litynski

Order Out Of Chaos: Skull & Bones and Korean War

The Order of Skull & Bones is a secret society at Yale University. The Order of Skull & Bones is also known as the “Brotherhood of Death.” Skull & Bones initiation rituals allegedly include individuals resting naked in a coffin and revealing their sex life to 14 fellow Bonesmen. (Source: Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power by Alexandra Robbins)

Skull & Bones members, left to right: Prescott S. Bush, Robert A. Taft, W. Averell Harriman, Robert A. Lovett, Harold Stanley, Henry Luce

“In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way.” – Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The Tomb, official headquarters of The Order of Skull & Bones, is located at Yale University on High Street in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

MEMBERS OF SKULL & BONES DURING THE KOREAN WAR
Robert A. Lovett (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Secretary of Defense (1951-1953); Deputy Secretary of Defense (1949-1951) W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Director of Mutual Security Agency (1951-1953) F. Trubee Davison (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Director of CIA for Personnel (1951-1952) Robert A. Taft (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – U.S. Senator (R-Ohio, 1939-1953); Senate Majority Leader (1953) Prescott S. Bush (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – U.S. Senator (R-Connecticut, 1952-1963); Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1972) John Sherman Cooper (B.A. 1923, S&B 1923) – U.S. Senator (R-Kentucky, 1946-1949, 1952-1955, 1956-1973) John Martin Vorys (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – U.S. Congressman (R-Ohio, 1939-1959) Charles M. Spofford (B.A. 1924; S&B 1924) – Chairman of the North Atlantic Council of Deputies and European Coordinating Committee (1950-1952) Harold Stanley (B.A. 1908, S&B 1908) – Partner of Morgan, Stanley & Co. (1941-1955) Knight Woolley (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982) Ray Morris (B.A. 1901, S&B 1901) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956) J. Richardson Dilworth (B.A. 1938, S&B 1938) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1951-1958) Charles Jacob Stewart (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – President of New York Trust Co. (1949-1952) George L. Harrison (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – Chairman of the board of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954) George Herbert Walker Jr. (B.A. 1927, S&B 1927) – General Partner of G.H. Walker & Co. (1929-1974) Morehead Patterson (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Chairman of the board of American Machine & Foundry Co. (1943-1962) Henry John Heinz II (B.A. 1931, S&B 1931) – President of H.J. Heinz Company (1941-1959) Frank Ford Russell (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – President of National Aviation Corp. (1939-1954) Robert Guthrie Page (B.A. 1922, S&B 1922) – President of Phelps Dodge Corporation (1947-1967) H. Neil Mallon (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – President of Dresser Industries, Inc. (1929-1958) Allen T. Klots (B.A. 1909, S&B 1909) – Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts [law firm in New York City] (1921-1965) Henry R. Luce (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964) E. Roland Harriman (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Railroad Co. (1946-1969); President of American Red Cross (1950-1953)

YALE UNIVERSITY & KOREAN WAR

Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

Yale graduates Averell Harriman (left), Secretary of Defense Robert A. Lovett (center), and Secretary of State Dean Acheson meet privately in January 1951. (Photo by Lisa Larsen/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Members of the Yale Corporation on October 7, 1950 Front row, left to right: Wilmarth S. Lewis, Rt. Rev. Henry Knox Sherrill (President of the National Council of Churches USA), F. Trubee Davison, Rev. Arthur Howe Bradford, A. Whitney Griswold (President of Yale University), Robert A. Taft (U.S. Senator), Dean G. Acheson (U.S. Secretary of State), George Van Santvoord, Morris Hadley (lawyer; Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hope & Hadley). Back row, left to right: Jonathan B. Bingham, Lewis H. Weed, Charles D. Dickey, Edwin F. Blair, Rev. Morgan Phelps Noyes, Irving S. Olds (Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corp.), Juan T. Trippe (President of Pan American World Airways, Inc.), Robert T.B. Stevens (Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York). F. Trubee Davison, Rev. Arthur Howe Bradford, Sen. Robert A. Taft, Morris Hadley, Jonathan B. Bingham, and Edwin F. Blair were members of Skull & Bones. Wilmarth S. Lewis, Dean G. Acheson, Lewis H. Weed, and Charles D. Dickey were members of Scroll & Key. A. Whitney Griswold was a member of Wolf’s Head.

Prominent Yale Undergraduates & Korean War/Chinese Civil War Government Officials: *Dean G. Acheson (B.A. 1915, S&K 1915) – Secretary of State (1949-1953); Under Secretary of State (1945-1947) *Robert A. Lovett (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Secretary of Defense (1951-1953); Deputy Secretary of Defense (1949-1951); Under Secretary of State (1947-1949) *W. Stuart Symington (B.A. 1923) – Secretary of the Air Force (1947-1950); Chairman of National Security Resources Board (1950-1951) *Roswell L. Gilpatric (B.A. 1928, LL.B. 1931) – Under Secretary of the Air Force (1951-1953) Robert Ten Broeck Stevens (B.A. 1921) – Secretary of the Army (1953-1955) *Chester Bowles (B.A. 1924) – U.S. Ambassador to India (1951-1953) *Ellsworth Bunker (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Ambassador to Argentina (1951-1952); U.S. Ambassador to Italy (1952-1953) Paul Clement Daniels (B.A. 1924) – U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador (1951-1953) *Charles M. Spofford (B.A. 1924; S&B 1924) – Chairman of the North Atlantic Council of Deputies and European Coordinating Committee (1950-1952) *John H. Ferguson (B.A. 1936) – Deputy Director of Policy Planning Staff at U.S. Department of State (1951-1953) *F. Trubee Davison (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – Director of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for Personnel (1951-1952) *W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Secretary of Commerce (1946-1948); Director of Mutual Security Agency (1951-1953) *T. Keith Glennan (B.S. 1927) – Member of the Atomic Energy Commission (1950-1952) James Pomeroy Hendrick (B.A. 1923) – Assistant to the ECA Administrator (1948-1953) C. Dickerman Williams (B.A. 1922, LL.B. 1924) – General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Commerce (1951-1953) Robert A. Taft (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – U.S. Senator (R-Ohio, 1939-1953); Senate Majority Leader (1953) *William Benton (B.A. 1921) – U.S. Senator (D-Connecticut, 1949-1953) Prescott S. Bush (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – U.S. Senator (R-Connecticut, 1952-1963) *John Sherman Cooper (B.A. 1923, S&B 1923) – U.S. Senator (R-Kentucky, 1946-1949; 1952-1955; 1956-1973); Member of the U.S. Delegation to the United Nations (1949-1951) John Taber (B.A. 1902) – U.S. Congressman (R-New York, 1923-1963) James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (B.A. 1898, S&B 1898) – U.S. Congressman (R-New York, 1933-1951) John Martin Vorys (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – U.S. Congressman (R-Ohio, 1939-1959) John Crain Kunkel (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Congressman (R-Pennsylvania, 1939-1951, 1961-1966) James C. Auchincloss (B.A. 1908, S&K 1908) – U.S. Congressman (R-New Jersey, 1943-1965) Thruston B. Morton (B.A. 1929) – U.S. Congressman (R-Kentucky, 1947-1953) Edward Tylor Miller (B.A. 1916) – U.S. Congressman (R-Maryland, 1947-1959) J. Foster Furcolo (B.A. 1933) – U.S. Congressman (D-Massachusetts, 1949-1952) John Jarman (B.A. 1937) – U.S. Congressman (D-Oklahoma, 1951-1977) Stanley F. Reed (B.A. 1906) – Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1938-1957) Thomas Walter Swan (B.A. 1900) – Chief Judge of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1951-1953) Charles Edward Clark (B.A. 1911) – Judge of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1939-1963) Edward Jordan Dimock (B.A. 1911) – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1951-1961) Carroll Clark Hincks (B.A. 1911) – Chief Judge of U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut (1948-1953) Walter Joseph Cummings (B.A. 1937) – Solicitor General of the United States (1952-1953) Patrick Brett O’Sullivan (B.A. 1908) – Justice of the Supreme Court of Connecticut (1950-1957) J. Quigg Newton Jr. (B.A. 1933, LL.B. 1936, S&B 1933) – Mayor of Denver, Colorado (1947-1955) Bankers: *William McChesney Martin Jr. (B.A. 1928) – Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1951-1970) Robert Ten Broeck Stevens (B.A. 1921) – Chairman of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1948-1953) Walter Seth Logan (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – Vice President and General Counsel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1953) Harold D. Hodgkinson (Ph.B. 1912) – Chairman (1951-1955) and Class C Director (1947-1955) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston *Russell C. Leffingwell (B.A. 1899) – Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1948-1950) James Stillman Rockefeller (B.A. 1924, S&K 1924) – President of National City Bank of New York [Citibank] (1952-1959) Samuel Sloan Colt (B.A. 1914, S&K 1914) – President of Bankers Trust Co. (1931-1957) Charles Jacob Stewart (B.A. 1918, S&B 1918) – President of New York Trust Co. (1949-1952) *Alfred Hayes (B.A. 1930) – Vice President of the New York Trust Co. (1949-1956) Prescott S. Bush (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1972) *E. Roland Harriman (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978) *Knight Woolley (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982) *Ray Morris (B.A. 1901, S&B 1901) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956) Thacher M. Brown (B.A. 1897) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1954) Moreau Delano Brown (B.A. 1926) – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1939-1974) *John M. Schiff (B.A. 1925) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977) *Joseph Richardson Dilworth (B.A. 1938, LL.B. 1942, S&B 1938) – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1951-1958) Joseph Albert Thomas (B.A. 1928, S&K 1928) – Partner of Lehman Brothers (1937-1977) Harold Stanley (B.A. 1908, S&B 1908) – Partner of Morgan, Stanley & Co. (1941-1955) Dean Witter Jr. (B.A. 1944, S&B 1944) – Partner of Dean Witter & Co. (1946-1970) Eliot G. Fitch (B.A. 1918) – President of Marine National Exchange Bank of Milwaukee (1942-1992) Gardner Dominick Stout (B.A. 1926) – Partner of Dominick & Dominick [investment firm in New York City] (1926-1968) Edward Starr, Jr. (B.A. 1922, S&K 1922) – Partner of Drexel & Co. [investment bank in Philadelphia (1937-c.1966) *William Frederick Machold (Ph.B. 1927) – Partner of Drexel & Co. [investment bank in Philadelphia] (1949-1966) Everett Smith (B.A. 1915) – Fiscal agent for Federal Home Loan Banks (1937-1962)

Businessmen: *Irving S. Olds (B.A. 1907) – Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corp. (1940-1952) *E. Roland Harriman (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Railroad Co. (1946-1969) Leroy A. Lincoln (B.A. 1902) – Chairman of the board of Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. (1951-1957) *George L. Harrison (B.A. 1910, S&B 1910) – Chairman of the board of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954) Morgan B. Brainard (B.A. 1900, LL.B. 1903) – President of Aetna Life Insurance Co. [Hartford, Connecticut] (1922-1957) Francis Fitz Randolph (B.A. 1911, S&B 1911) – Senior Partner of J&W Seligman & Co. (1940-1973) George Herbert Walker Jr. (B.A. 1927, S&B 1927) – General Partner of G.H. Walker & Co. (1929-1974) *Morehead Patterson (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Chairman of the board of American Machine & Foundry Co. (1943-1962) *J. Irwin Miller (B.A. 1931) – Chairman of the board of Cummins Engine Co. (1951-1977); President of Cummins Engine Co. (1947-1951) Frederick Glade Wacker Jr. (B.A. 1940) – Chairman of the board and President of Ammco Tools, Inc. [North Chicago, Illinois] (1948-1987) *John E. Bierwirth (B.A. 1917) – President of National Distillers & Chemical Corp. (1949-1958) H. Mansfield Horner (B.S. 1926) – President of United Aircraft Corporation (1943-1956) *Juan Terry Trippe (Ph.B. 1921) – President of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1927-1964) *Henry John Heinz II (B.A. 1931, S&B 1931) – President of H.J. Heinz Company (1941-1959) *Frank Ford Russell (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – President of National Aviation Corp. (1939-1954) *Robert Guthrie Page (B.A. 1922, S&B 1922) – President of Phelps Dodge Corporation (1947-1967) H. Neil Mallon (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – President of Dresser Industries, Inc. (1929-1958) *Walter Hochschild (B.A. 1920) – President of The American Metal Co. Ltd. (1950-1957) *B. Brewster Jennings (B.A. 1920, S&K 1920) – President of Socony-Mobil Oil Co. (1944-1955) *Edmund Fitzgerald (Ph.B. 1916) – President of Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co. (1947-1958) Thomas Eugene Lovejoy Jr. (Ph.B. 1928) – President of Manhattan Life Insurance Co. (1950-1967) *Charles Shipman Payson (B.A. 1921, S&K 1921) – former Chairman of the board of Vitro Corp. of America Louis S. Rothschild (Ph.B. 1920) – President of Rothschild & Sons, Inc. [Kansas City, Missouri] (1942-1955) Tecumseh Sherman Fitch (B.S. 1931) – Chairman of the board of Washington Steel Corp. [Pennsylvania] (1945-1969) Robert Upjohn Redpath Jr. (B.A. 1928) – life underwriter for Lawyers Mortgage Co. [New York City] (1933-1987) Reuben Buck Robertson (B.A. 1900) – Chairman of the board (1950-1960) and President (1946-1950, 1955-1962) of Champion Papers, Inc. Henry Webb Johnstone (B.A. 1916, S&B 1916) – Senior Vice President of Merck & Co., Inc. [pharmaceutical company] (1950-1957) Henry Stuart Harrison (B.A. 1932) – Treasurer of Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. (1945-1952) Howard MacGregor Tuttle (B.A. 1904) – President of National Casket Company, Inc. [Boston] (1943-c.1958) Lawyers: *Allen Wardwell (B.A. 1895, S&K 1895) – Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1909-1953) *Allen T. Klots (B.A. 1909, S&B 1909) – Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts [law firm in New York City] (1921-1965) James William Husted (B.A. 1918) – Partner of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1930-1969) Morris Hadley (B.A. 1916, S&B 1916) – Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1924-1979) *Charles M. Spofford (B.A. 1924, S&B 1924) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1940-1950, 1952-1973) Charles Hastings Willard (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1950-1973) Edward Rogers Wardwell (B.A. 1927, S&B 1927) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1946-c.1972) *Samuel Hazard Gillespie Jr. (B.A. 1932, LL.B. 1936, S&B 1932) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1948-present) Allen Evarts Foster (B.A. 1906) – Partner of Lord, Day & Lord [law firm in New York City] (1919-c.1970) Sherman Baldwin (B.A. 1919, S&B 1919) – Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1929-1969) John Dorsey Garrison (B.A. 1931, LL.B. 1934) – Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1943-1980) Garrard Wood Glenn (B.A. 1933, S&K 1933) – Partner of Lord, Day & Lord (1948-1954, 1958-c.1974) Gerhard A. Gesell (B.A. 1932) – Member of Covington & Burling (1941-1967) Chauncey Brewster Garver (B.A. 1908, S&K 1908) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1917-1973) Merrill Shepard (B.A. 1925) – Partner of Pope, Ballard, Kennedy, Shepard & Fowle [law firm in Chicago] (1936-c.1986) George Alfred Ranney (B.A. 1934, LL.B. 1939, S&B 1934) – Member of Sidley, Austin, Burgess & Smith [law firm in Chicago] (1939-1962) *Harvey H. Bundy (B.A. 1909, S&B 1909) – Member of Choate, Hall & Stewart [law firm in Boston] (1933-1941, 1945-1963) Marcien Jenckes (B.A. 1921, S&B 1921) – Member of Choate, Hall & Stewart [law firm in Boston] (1927-1971) George Frederick Baer Appel (B.A. 1924, S&B 1924) – Partner of Townsend, Elliott & Munson [law firm in Philadelphia] (1938-1970) John Herron More (B.A. 1924) – Partner of Taft, Stettinius &Hollister [law firm in Cincinnati] (1935-1970) Henry Cornick Coke (B.A. 1926, LL.B. 1929, S&B 1926) – Member of Coke & Coke [law firm in Dallas, Texas] (1930-1977) Anthony Lee Michel (B.A. 1926, S&B 1926) – Partner of Gardner, Carton, Douglas, Chilgren & Waud [law firm in Chicago] (1942-1966) Richard Marden Davis (B.A. 1933, S&B 1933) – Partner of Davis, Graham & Stubbs [law firm in Denver] (1937-c.1982) John Caldwell Parsons (B.A. 1922; LL.B. 1926) – Partner of Robinson, Robinson & Cole [law firm in Hartford, Connecticut] (1931-1973)

Media and Organizations: *Eugene Meyer (B.A. 1895) – Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1947-1959) *Whitelaw Reid (B.A. 1936) – President of New York Herald Tribune (1952-1955) *Henry R. Luce (B.A. 1920, S&B 1920) – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964) *Charles Merz (B.A. 1915) – Editor of The New York Times (1938-1961) *August Heckscher (B.A. 1936) – Chief Editorial Writer for New York Herald-Tribune (1952-1956) Charles Latimer Stillman (B.A. 1926) – Treasurer (1930-1960) and Executive Vice President (1949-1959) of Time, Inc. [Time magazine] *Russell C. Leffingwell (B.A. 1899) – Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1946-1953) *Frank Altschul (B.A. 1908) – Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1951-1971) *Percy W. Bidwell (B.A. 1910, Ph.D. 1915) – Director of Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (1937-1953) *W. Averell Harriman (B.A. 1913, S&B 1913) – Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1950-1955) *E. Roland Harriman (B.A. 1917, S&B 1917) – President of American Red Cross (1950-1953) *William Vincent Griffin (B.A. 1912, S&K 1912) – President of English-Speaking Union of the United States (1947-1957) *Alfred Whitney Griswold (B.A. 1929) – President of Yale University (1950-1963) The Rt. Rev. Henry Knox Sherrill (B.A. 1911) – President of the National Council of Churches USA (1950-1952) Horace Jeremiah (Jerry) Voorhis (B.A. 1923) – Executive Director of the Cooperative League of the United States of America (1947-1967) Angus Dun (B.A. 1914) – Protestant Episcopal Bishop for the Episcopal Diocese of Washington, D.C. (1944-1962) Note: *=Member of the Council on Foreign Relations; S&B = Skull & Bones; S&K = Scroll & Key

PROMINENT COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS MEMBERS & YALE GRADUATES

Allen Wardwell, Dean G. Acheson, W. Averell Harriman, E. Roland Harriman, Charles M. Spofford, Roswell L. Gilpatric

Juan Terry Trippe, Eugene Meyer, Russell C. Leffingwell, William McChesney Martin Jr., George L. Harrison, J. Irwin Miller

The Korean War

The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) at Panmunjom. (Photo: National Defense University)

John McCloy (center), the Assistant Secretary of War during World War II, appointed two Rhodes Scholars, Dean Rusk and Charles H. Bonesteel III, to assist him in dividing Korea into two military districts. U.S. Army Colonel Dean Rusk (left), who later served as Secretary of State during the Vietnam War, and U.S. Army Colonel (later General) Charles H. Bonesteel III (right), who served as the Commander of the U.S. 8th Army [Korea] and Commander of United Nations Command Korea from 1966 to 1969, made the decision to divide Korea at the 38th Parallel near the end of World War II on August 10-11, 1945. John McCloy, Dean Rusk, and Charles H. Bonesteel III were members of the Council on Foreign Relations, a private internationalist organization in New York City.

An American Army soldier (right, foreground) is seen guarding the Demilitarized Zone along with South Korean soldiers as a North Korean soldier stands behind the meeting hall. (Photo: United States Army)

The Bridge of No Return near Panmunjom (Photo: Flickr)

The Potsdam Conference in July 1945 brought the Soviet Union’s commitment to entering the war against Japan. The result was a Soviet occupation of northern Korea and Korea’s partition along the 38th parallel. (U.S. Signal Corps photo)

U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur and Dr. Syngman Rhee, the first President of the Republic of Korea, sit together during a celebration marking the birth of the Korean Republic on August 15, 1948. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

American soldiers watch as the Japanese flag is lowered from a flag pole during surrender ceremonies in Seoul, Korea on September 9, 1945. (Taken by a USS San Francisco (CA-38) photographer; Official U.S. Navy Photograph, National Archives)

Surrender of Japanese Forces in Southern Korea on September 9, 1945. U.S. delegates Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid and Lieutenant General John R. Hodge sign the surrender documents during the surrender ceremonies in the Government Building at Keijo (Seoul), Korea on September 9, 1945. U.S. representatives present include (seated along table, left to right): Rear Admiral Francis S. Low; Vice Admiral Daniel E. Barbey; Admiral Kinkaid; Lieutenant General Hodge; Major General A.V. Arnold; Major General G.X. Cheeves, and Brigadier General Joseph T. Ready. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/t-kinkad.htm

Koreans celebrate on Sejongno street in downtown Seoul, Korea [U.S. Army occupation zone] on August 15, 1946, the first anniversary of their independence from Japanese rule.

Korean statesman Syngman Rhee speaks to the Korean people on his return to Korea in October 1945. U.S. Army Lt. Gen. John Hodge is seated at left, wearing sunglasses. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dok1/111087982/)

Soviet Russia’s Commissar Josef Stalin (left) and Red China’s Commissar Mao Tse-tung (center, standing) watch Chou Enlai, Premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China [Red China], sign the Signing Ceremony of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance and related agreements on February 14, 1950. Joe Stalin gave tacit approval to Kim Il Sung’s proposed “liberation” (invasion) of the Republic of Korea [South Korea] and Mao Tse-tung’s proposed “liberation” (invasion) of the island of Taiwan, governed by the Chinese Nationalists, in 1950. (Photo: http://www.idcpc.org.cn/english/album/cornerstone_e/1-1-4.htm)

Chinese Communists carry posters with pictures of Soviet Russia’s Communist leader Joseph Stalin as they celebrate the second anniversary of the establishment of the Communist regime in mainland China on October 1, 1951. (© CORBIS)

Telegram Extract, John Foster Dulles and John Allison to Dean Acheson and Dean Rusk, June 25, 1950. Harry S. Truman Administration, Elsey Papers. (Source: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library)

The United Nations Security Council voted to send military troops to North Korea on June 27, 1950. The United Nations also established the United Nations Command Korea, a unified military command structure. (Photo: Ralph Morse/Time Life)

Task Force Smith arrives at the Taejon rail station. On July 5, 1950, near Osan, this untried force of about half a battalion, mostly teenagers, stood alone against a North Korean division and a large tank force. (Photo: U.S. Department of Defense)

American military forces, including the U.S. Army 24th Infantry Division, prepare to retreat from Taejon [Daejeon], Korea in July 1950 after the North Korean Communist army defeated the American and South Korean army in the Battle of Taejon (July 14-21, 1950). The U.S. Army retreated to areas around Pusan and established the “Pusan Perimeter”.

The mass execution of suspected Korean Communists by the South Korean military and police at Taejon [Daejeon], Korea in July 1950. (Photo: http://www.korea-is-one.org/spip.php?article3105)

Fresh and eager U.S. Marine troops arrive at the vital southern supply port of Pusan, Republic of Korea in August 1950 prior to advancing to the front lines. (Photo: USIA/NARA FILE #: 306-PS-50-11298)

A group of American U.S. Army infantrymen march into the Naktong River region on August 11, 1950, as they pass a line of fleeing Korean refugees. The North Korean army under the command of North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Il Sung invaded South Korea (Republic of Korea) on June 25, 1950 and overran the capital city of Seoul three days later. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Courtney Whitney, U.S. Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur (Commander in Chief of U.N. Forces), and U.S. Army Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond observe the shelling of Inchon from the USS Mt. McKinley on September 15, 1950. (U.S. Army/National Archives)

Pusan Perimeter in August 1950 and September 1950

(Photo: U.S. Navy)

U.S. Marines engage in street fighting during the liberation of Seoul, Korea circa late September 1950. Note M-1 rifles and Browning Automatic Rifles carried by the Marines, dead Koreans in the street, and M-4 "Sherman" tanks in the distance. (U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph)

A marine tank supports South Korean soldiers guarding North Korean Communist prisoners captured in the assault on Seoul on September 26, 1950. (Photo: U.S. Marine Corps/National Archives)

Chaplain Kenny Lynch conducts services north of Hwachon, Korea, for men of the 31st Regiment on August 28, 1951. (Photo: Pvt. Jack D. Johnson/U.S. Army/National Archives/NARA FILE # 111-SC-378917) http://www.flickr.com/photos/imcomkorea/2919537683/in/set-72157607808414225/

Korean women and children search the rubble of Seoul, Korea on November 1, 1950 for anything that can be used or burned as fuel. (Photo by Captain F. L. Scheiber, U.S. Army/National Archives) http://www.flickr.com/photos/pingnews/1861121040/

Four LSTs unload on the beach at Inchon as marines gather equipment to move rapidly inland on September 15, 1950. Landing ships were stuck in the deep mud flats between one high tide and the next. (U.S. Navy photo)

American soldiers of the U.S. Army 1st Cavalry Division fire into a tunnel with their 75-mm rifles after the North Korean army ignore a surrender ultimatum during a battle in northern Korea in October 1950. (Photo: Hank Walker/Time Life)

American army soldiers force surviving soldiers of the North Korean army to surrender during a patrol in northern Korea on November 18, 1950. (Photo: Hank Walker/Time Life)

U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur inspects the wreckage of a Russian-made NKPA tank near the Inchon battlefield in September 1950. (National Archives)

Marines move around North Korean T34 tanks knocked out in Pusan Perimeter battle in the late summer of 1950. A dead North Korean soldier lies on the tank in the foreground. (U.S. Marine Corps photo)

Fighting with the 2nd Infantry Division north of the Chongchon River, Sergeant First Class Major Cleveland (left), weapons squad leader, points out Communist-led North Korean position to his machine gun crew on November 20, 1950. The U.S. Army was desegregated (racially integrated) by the beginning of the Korean War. (Photo: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) http://www.army.mil/-images/2008/07/24/19887/

At the beginning of the Korean War, U.S. Marines cover a wounded North Korean soldier as he hoists himself on to a stretcher, in the Naktong River sector of the Korean front, in 1950. (CORBIS)

United Nations forces withdraw from Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, and recrossed the 38th parallel in 1950. (Photo: USIA/NARA FILE #: 306-FS-259-21)

South Korean army troops shoot political prisoners and suspected Communist agents near Daegu, South Korea during the Korean War. (AP/U.S. Army) http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asia/korea/2008/07/06/164182/Families-recount.htm

American marines of the U.S. 1st Marine Division capture Chinese Communists during fighting on the central Korean front near Hoengsong, Korea on March 2, 1951. (Photo: Pfc. C.T. Wehner/Marine Corps/National Archives)

These are some of the 385 able-bodied survivors of the 2,500 army 7th Division men caught in a series of Chinese ambushes along the eastern shore of the Changjin (Chosin) reservoir in late November 1950. (U.S. Marine Corps photo.)

American army soldiers of the 25th Infantry Division advance in central Korea in late March 1951. (U.S. Army photo)

North Korean prisoners, taken by the U.S. Marines in a foothills fight, march single file across a rice paddy in 1950. (U.S. Marine Corps/NARA FILE #: 127-N-A3242) http://www.flickr.com/photos/imcomkorea/2919554267/in/set-72157607808414225/

U.S. Army soldiers of the U.S. Army’s Second [Infantry] Division move up to the front past a sign warning them to keep on the road as the fields are mined by the Allies in Korea on May 20, 1951. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

As the Korean War went on, American air power methodically demolished virtually everything in North Korea having any military significance whatsoever. Here supply warehouses at the east-coast port of Wonsan (North Korea) are bombed in July 1951. (Photo: http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm)

A Fifth Air Force F-51 Mustang drops napalm jellied gasoline tanks on an industrial target in North Korea in August 1951. (U.S. Air Force photo) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

General Douglas MacArthur (in leather jacket) and an entourage of press and brass examine bodies of North Korean soldiers at advanced marine positions east of Inchon on September 17, 1950. The marine in camouflage helmet holds a Russian-made submachine gun known to Americans as a burp gun. (U.S. Army photo) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

A marine F4U Corsair pulls up from a bombing run on a Chinese-held hill in western Korea in October 1952. (U.S. Navy photo) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

Marine Corsairs have just struck Chinese positions in the Changjin (Chosin) reservoir area of northeast Korea with jellied gasoline napalm. Close air support was a key to the successful retreat to the sea in December, 1950. (U.S. Marine Corps photo) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

An American Army soldier guards a group of North Korean prisoners of war on July 10, 1950 before they are interrogated at the 21st Infantry Regiment’s command post, south of Chonui. (Photo: U.S. Army. Source: National Archives Central Plains Region) http://www.trumanlibrary.org/korea/photos/nr0710_0.htm

A prisoner of war camp in South Korea during the Korean War (U.S. Army photo)

View of F-86 airplanes on the flight line getting ready for combat in Korea in June 1951. (U.S. Air Force/USIA/NARA FILE #: 306-PS-51-9760) http://www.flickr.com/photos/imcomkorea/2919501753/in/set-72157607808414225/

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur greets John Foster Dulles, Consultant to the State Department, at the Haneda Air Force Base in Tokyo, Japan on June 21, 1950. Dulles, on a Far East fact-finding mission, had just left Korea and was in Tokyo when the first reports of the invasion arrived. John Foster Dulles was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photograph: U.S. Army, Corporal Dangel/Source: Truman Library)

Averell Harriman visits U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur (left) in Tokyo, Japan some time after World War II. (Photo: Special Envoy to Churchill and Stalin, 1941-1946 by W. Averell Harriman and Elie Abel)

Averell Harriman visits U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur

General Douglas MacArthur greets Assistant U.S. Secretary of War John McCloy (right) and Lieutenant General Robert L. Eichelberger (center) in Japan in 1945. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

President Harry Truman returns from the Wake Island Conference with General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Radford in October 1950. Left to right: Presidential advisor Averell Harriman; Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall; Secretary of State Dean Acheson; Ambassador at Large Phillip C. Jessup; Secretary of the Treasury John Snyder; Secretary of the Army Frank Pace; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Omar Bradley. Harriman, Acheson, Jessup, and Pace were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo: Harry Truman Presidential Library and Museum)

President Harry S. Truman returned to Washington, D.C. on October 18, 1950 after his Pacific Conference with U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur. Left to right: W. Averell Harriman, Special Assistant to the President; Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall; President Truman; and Secretary of State Dean Acheson. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

“The only reason I told the President to fight in Korea was to validate NATO.” – Dean Acheson

President Harry S. Truman and General Douglas MacArthur meet for the first time on Wake Island on October 14, 1950. (Source: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library)

U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur, former commander of Allied forces, first in World War II and then in Korea, gives his farewell address before the U.S. Senate on April 19, 1951. President Harry S. Truman relieved General MacArthur of his command over differences in opinion on strategy in Korea. (© CORBIS)

“In war there is no substitute for victory. There are some who for varying reasons would appease Red China. They are blind to history's clear lesson, for history teaches with unmistakable emphasis that appeasement but begets new and bloodier war. It points to no single instance where this end has justified that means, where appeasement had led to more than a sham peace. Like blackmail, it lays the basis for new and successively greater demands until, as in blackmail, violence becomes the only alternative.” – U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur, on April 19, 1951 in his farewell address to Congress

Chinese Communist General Lin Piao (left) and U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur (right)

“I never would have made the attack and risked my men and my military reputation if I had not been assured that Washington would restrain General MacArthur from taking adequate retaliatory measures against my lines of supply and communication.” – Gen. Lin Piao

Left to right: General Matthew B. Ridgway (left), General James A. Van Fleet (center), and Major General Lyman L. Lemnitzer (later General) appear in Korea in January 1952. General Lyman L. Lemnitzer was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, an internationalist organization in New York City, from 1946 to 1987; General Matthew B. Ridgway was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations from 1954 to 1973.

Secretary of Defense Robert Lovett (left), Secretary of the Army Frank Pace Jr. (second from right), and Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (NATO) Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (right) listen to President Harry Truman in June 1952. Eisenhower was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations in 1952. (Source: Ike 1890-1990: A Pictorial History (Commemorative Edition) by Douglas Kinnard)

U.S. Ambassador to South Korea Ellis O. Briggs (center) talks with American peace negotiator Arthur H. Dean (center, right) before taking part in the Peace Negotiations at Panmunjom, Korea in October 1953. Both men were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Arthur H. Dean was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations in 1953. (Photo: Joseph Scherschel/Time Life)

Red Chinese (left) and North Korean delegates leave the conference area at Panmunjom, Korea, circa early 1952. These officers appear to be Red Chinese Major General Hsieh Fang and North Korean Major General Lee Sang Cho. Note North Korean Army guards, wearing quilted winter uniforms and armed with Russian M1891 Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifles. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph)

General Nam Il of North Korea appears at the Truce Conference site in Panmunjom, South Korea on April, 1953. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

In the patio of the main conference building at Kaesong, Korea, the United Nations delegation at the cease-fire talks pose for pictures by cameramen and photographers representing friendly and enemy forces on August 13, 1951. Left to right: Major Gen. Henry I. Hodes (8th.Army); Major Gen. L.C. Craigie (USAF); Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy (USN) the chief delegate; Major General Paik Sun Yup of the Republic of Korea Army and Rear Admiral Arleigh A. Burke (USN). (© Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS)

Red Chinese Premier Chou Enlai receives Madame Vijayalakshmi Pandit, with an Indian cultural delegation, and K.M. Panikkar, the Indian ambassador to Peking. (Eastphoto) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

Chinese Communist commander Peng Dehuai signs Korean armistice at Kaesong. (Eastphoto) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

U.S. Army General Mark W. Clark, Far East commander, signs the Korean armistice agreement on July 27, 1953, after two years of negotiation, during which hundreds of thousands of men were killed and wounded in continued hostilities. (U.S. Navy photo) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

North Korea’s Premier Kim Il Sung (left) prepares to sign armistice that is handed to him by General Nam Il, head of the communist delegation at Panmunjom, on July 27, 1953. (Eastphoto) http://www.bevinalexander.com/korea/korean-war-photos.htm

U.S. Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur (left) visits Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (right), President of the Republic of China, in Taipei on July 31, 1950. General Douglas MacArthur and his entourage traveled to Taipei without notifying the Truman administration or the U.S. State Department. General Douglas MacArthur was ordered not to attack the North Korean communist army and the Chinese Communist army that were stationed on the Communist Chinese side of the Yalu River. U.S. President Harry S. Truman deployed the U.S. Seventh Fleet to the Taiwan Straits during the Korean War to keep the “peace” and restrain both the Chinese Nationalists and the Chinese Communists.

Caption: “Fourteen thousand former Communists defied Mao’s brainwashers and chose freedom in Taiwan at the end of the Korean War.”

“POSTWAR” ARMISTICE & MODERN KOREA

Major General Blackshear M. Bryan, U.S. Army (2nd from left), Senior Member of the Military Armistice Commission, United Nations' Command, exchanges credentials with Major General Lee Sang Cho, North Korean Army (3rd from right), Senior Communist delegate, at the Conference Building at Panmunjom, Korea, 28 July 1953. This was the day after the Korean War Armistice went into effect. (Photograph from the Army Signal Corps Collection in the U.S. National Archives) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/s400000/s426684c.htm

Left to right: President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Georges Bidault, and Lord Robert Cecil Salisbury laugh together during the Foreign Ministers Conference in Washington, D.C. in July 1953. Dwight D. Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. The Korean War armistice was established on July 27, 1953 at Panmunjom, Korea (DMZ). Over 33,600 American soldiers died and over 103,200 American soldiers were wounded during the Korean War. (Photo: George Skadding /Time Life)

Against a background of flags of the nations who have troop contingents in Korea, a foursome of Four Star Generals takes the salute at the review of more than 6,000 troops from 15 nations at Ninth-Army-Headquarters in 1953. From left are General Matthew B. Ridgeway, U.S. Army Chief of staff who formerly commanded the 8th Army and later was Supreme UN Commander; General John E. Hull, present Supreme Commander in the far east; General Maxwell Taylor, commander of the 8th Army and General Sun Yup Paik, South Korean Army chief of Staff. General Ridgeway called the United Nations force "incredible progress." General Matthew B. Ridgeway and General Maxwell Taylor were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

The Joint Chiefs of Staff is photographed together at the Pentagon on September 6, 1957 for the first time since Gen. Twining became Chairman. Left to right: Gen. Thomas D. White, Air Force; Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, Army; Gen. Nathan F. Twining, chairman; Adm. Arleigh A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations; and Gen. Randolph McC. Pate, Marine Corps, Commandant. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

During his tour in the United States in 1954, Republic of Korea’s President Syngman Rhee visited Harry Truman's house in Independence, Missouri in 1954 to thank Truman for his role in setting up the Korean government in 1948 and his decision to send American troops to Korea shortly after the invasion by the Soviet-backed North Korean army in 1950. The photo of Syngman Rhee with Truman is from the New York Times (July 20, 1965 edition, the day after Rhee died in Hawaii). (Photo: http://ysfine.com/kobak/kohist.html)

Left photo: North Korea’s despot Kim Il Sung greets Red China’s despot Mao Tse-tung in 1958. Right photo: North Korean Dictator Kim Il Sung visits North Vietnamese Dictator Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi. Kim visited North Vietnam at least twice in secret.

Korean students march with banners reading "Down with Red China" and "Out with Red Inspection Team" in peaceful demonstration in Seoul, South Korea on August 15, 1955, the tenth anniversary of V-J Day, after South Korea’s President Syngman Rhee urged the South Koreans to stage "peaceful" parades aimed at the ouster of Communist Truce Inspection Teams. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

A photo of North Korean commando Kim Shin-jo shortly after his capture in 1968 following the aborted Blue House Raid in Seoul, South Korea. North Korea’s “dear leader” Kim Il Sung ordered his commandos to infiltrate South Korea in January 1968 and murder South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee at his presidential palace, also known as the Blue House, and decapitate his head in the streets of Seoul in an attempt to conquer South Korea and subjugate the Korean people under Communist rule. Kim Shin-jo was the only North Korean commando to be captured alive. The remaining North Korean commandos except for one committed suicide or were eliminated by the South Korean army in firefights near the De-Militarized Zone (DMZ); only one North Korean commando returned to North Korea alive and was later promoted to the rank of a general. Shortly after his capture, Kim Shin-jo confessed: “I came down to cut Park Chung Hee’s throat!” Kim Shin-jo converted to Christianity and serves as a Protestant pastor in South Korea. The North Korean commandos successfully infiltrated the U.S. Army 2nd Infantry Division sector of the DMZ before dawn on January 18, 1968 and marched into Seoul undetected, wearing South Korean army uniforms.

Kim Shin-jo, the only survivor of a 31 man assassination team from North Korea disguised as South Korean soldiers, identifies the bodies of his comrades in 1968. 68 South Koreans and 3 Americans were killed trying to capture them. Two days later, on January 23, the USS Pueblo was captured by North Korea. (Photo: http://koreanhistory.info/park.htm)

Representatives of the United States and North Korean governments meet at Panmunjom, Korea, to sign the agreement for the release of Pueblo's crew, 22 December 1968. Major General Gilbert H. Woodward, U.S. Army, Senior Member, United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission, is in the left foreground, with his back to the camera. USS Pueblo (AGER-2) and her crew had been captured off Wonsan on 23 January 1968. (Official U.S. Navy Photograph) http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-p/ager2-l.htm

American military officers greet USS Pueblo crewmembers upon their repatriation by North Korea on December 23, 1968. The USS Pueblo was captured by North Korea on January 23, 1968, just two days after North Korean commandos attempted to assassinate South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee at the Blue House, South Korea’s presidential residence, in Seoul, South Korea.

Left photo: The photo shows the USS Pueblo in port at Pyongyang, North Korea. Right photo: Kim Jong Il listens to his father and North Korean dictator Kim Il Sung. (Photo: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kim-jong-il.htm)

This is picture 7 of the fight sequence. Again, UNC personnel are wearing white helmets. Compare these numbers to the official North Korean statement. The pictures were taken by U.S. Military personnel, but these are scanned in from "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom". Copied from inside the back page of the booklet "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom": Published by UN Korean War Allies Association, Inc. C.P.O. Box 936 Seoul, Korea Contents of this publication may be reproduced in part or in entirety with or without credit to the publisher. August 21, 1976 The Axe Murder Incident (Korean: 판문점 도끼 살인 사건) was the killing of two United States Army officers by North Korean soldiers on August 18, 1976 in the Joint Security Area (JSA) located in the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) which forms the de facto border between North and South Korea. The killings and the response three days later (Operation Paul Bunyan) heightened tensions between North and South Korea as well as their respective allies, the People's Republic of China [Communist China] and the United States. The incident is also known as the Hatchet Incident and the Poplar Tree Incident because the object of the conflict was a poplar tree standing in the JSA. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axe_Murder_Incident

Left pictures: The first set of pictures (Images 1 and 4) of the incident. The pictures were taken by U.S. Military personnel, but these are scanned in from "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom". Copied from inside the back page of the booklet "Axewielding Murder at Panmunjom": Published by UN Korean War Allies Association, Inc. C.P.O. Box 936 Seoul, Korea Contents of this publication may be reproduced in part or in entirety with or without credit to the publisher. Aug. 21, 1976 Right pictures: Pictures 2 and 5 in the series of six images. In all of the pictures, UNC Personnel are wearing white helmets. The pictures were taken by U.S. Military personnel, but these are scanned in from "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom". Copied from inside the back page of the booklet "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom": Published by UN Korean War Allies Association, Inc. C.P.O. Box 936 Seoul, Korea Contents of this publication may be reproduced in part or in entirety with or without credit to the publisher. Aug. 21, 1976

These are pictures 3 and 6 in the fight sequence. The pictures were taken by U.S. Military personnel, but these are scanned in from "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom". Copied from inside the back page of the booklet "Axe-wielding Murder at Panmunjom": Published by UN Korean War Allies Association, Inc. C.P.O. Box 936 Seoul, Korea Contents of this publication may be reproduced in part or in entirety with or without credit to the publisher. Aug. 21, 1976

North Korean tunnel under the DMZ found near Panmunjom (photo from Panmunjom by Wayne A. Kirkbride) (Photo: http://www.vfwpost7591.org/Chapter-12.html)

In July 1976 Capt Melching and MSgt Forsyth toured the 2nd North Korean DMZ Tunnel, which discovered in March 1975 and was located east of the Chorwon Valley. We flew up there with the United States Forces Korea Tunnel Neutralization Team (USFK/TNT). The photo is of our two Tunnel Team escorts, one ROK and one U.S., at the entrance of the intercept tunnel which leads down several hundred feet to the North Korean tunnel, which was blocked just north of the Military Demarcation Line. MSgt Forsyth is on the right side of this photo taking his own picture, his film was later confiscated after taking a photo at the north end of the tunnel, actually inside North Korea, although our Korean Major said we could take pictures anywhere inside the tunnel. The 548th provided imagery support to the Tunnel Team for the next 14 years, until the operation was taken over by the Korean Army. (Photo courtesy of Howard Melching) http://www.548rtg.org/548th_at_Work.html

South Korean soldiers patrol the Demilitarized Zone.

(L to R) British Group Captain Colin Greaves, Australian Group Captain Ian Petkoff, U.S. Major General James Soligan and South Korea's Brigadier General Lee Jung-Suk arrive for a meeting August 6, 2002 in Panmunjom, on the border between North and South Korea. Representatives from United Nations Command and North Korea's Korean People's Army met to discuss ways to prevent hostilities, such as the June 29 naval clash between the two Koreas along a disputed sea border. (Pool/Getty Images)

South Korean delegate Army Col. Moon Sung-Mook (L) talks with North Korean delegate Army Col. Pak Rim-Su (R) during a military meeting at the North side of the border village of Panmunjom on July 10, 2007 in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea resumed talks after North Korea demanded the re-drawing of a disputed sea border. (Photo: Handout/Getty Images)

Major General Singlaub, senior United Nations Command representative, leads the other representatives leaving a meeting of the Armistice Commission in Panmunjom, Korea. (Photo: http://www.vfwpost7591.org/Chapter-12.html)

A North Korean soldier (left, rear) stands guard as South Korean soldiers keep watch while Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper (not pictured) visits the truce village of Panmunjom in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) on December 7, 2009. (Reuters)

Park Chung-hee, Yushin Constitution, & National Socialism in South Korea

General Park Chung-hee (wearing sunglasses) is seen standing with his soldiers in 1961. General Park Chung-hee (박정희, 朴正熙, September 30, 1917- October 26, 1979), whose was also known as “Masao Takagi” (高木正雄) under colonial Imperial Japanese rule, rose to power in a military coup against President Yun Bo-seon on May 16, 1961. Park Chung-hee normalized diplomatic relations with Japan in 1965, after Japan colonized Korea from 1910 to 1945. Japan’s colonial authorities forced Koreans to speak only Japanese and forced many Korean women into prostitution. Park Chung-hee served as a lieutenant in the Kwangtung Army, a unit in the Imperial Japanese Army, during World War II. Park Chung-hee adopted the “Yushin [Yusin] Constitution” (also known as the Fourth Republic) in 1972 and ruled as a virtual dictator until he was assassinated by Kim Jaegyu, the Director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), on October 26, 1979. The Yushin Constitution was modeled after the Japanese Meiji Restoration [Reformation] Movement (Meiji Yushin [Ishin]; 明治維新).

Korean protesters storm the presidential residence in Seoul, South Korea on April 19, 1960. South Korea’s President Dr. Syngman Rhee resigned as President of South Korea on April 26, 1960 and fled to Hawaii, along with his Austrian-born wife Francesca Donner, in exile two days later with the assistance of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Dr. Syngman Rhee died in exile in Hawaii on July 19, 1965. The Koreans protested in April 1960 after the vice presidential election was rigged; Syngman Rhee’s preferred vice presidential candidate Lee Gibung defeated Chang Myon, a former South Korean Ambassador to the United States, by an abnormally wide margin. (Photo: http://askakorean.blogspot.com/2009_05_01_archive.html)

South Korean army soldiers stand in front of a city hall during the coup d’etat in 1961 that brought Park Chung-hee to power. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

Soldiers keep crowds off street near the National Assembly. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

South Korean army soldiers detain South Korean civilians at a train station in Seoul. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

South Korean army soldiers detain curfew violators in Myeong-dong, South Korea in 1961. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

In 1964, Lee Myung-bak (third from right), the current President of South Korea, was arrested for protesting Seoul-Tokyo talks. (Grand National Party, via Reuters) http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/20/world/asia/20lee.html

Students at SNU called for protests, burned effigies of 'imperialist and nationalist traitors,' and held a protest against the upcoming KoreaJapanese conference on Jongno on March 24, 1964. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

South Korea’s strongman Park Chung-hee declared martial law and ordered the South Korean army to end the protests in Seoul, South Korea on June 3, 1964 during a conference between the governments of South Korea and Japan. Koreans in South Korea protested Park Chunghee’s move to establish diplomatic relations with Japan; Koreans who were raised in Korea under Imperial Japanese colonial rule were treated like slaves by the Imperial Japanese authorities and were forced to speak Japanese while the Korean language was outlawed. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/search/label/Post%201945%20Era)

U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson (front, left) and South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee (center) review the troops in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. in May 1965. South Korea sent an estimated 300,000 troops to Vietnam during the Vietnam War. (Photo: Francis Miller/Time Life)

President Park Chung-hee signs the Korea-Japan Basic Treaty in this file photo taken on June 22, 1965. Following this deal, the Park government could pursue its second five-year economic development plan (1967-1972) with more confidence. (Photo: Korea Times)

President Park Chung Hee (left) of the Republic of Korea walks with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President of the Republic of China, at Sungshan Military Air Base in Taipei, Republic of China on February 16, 1966. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

American politician and former Hollywood actor Ronald Reagan (L), the Governor of California, shakes hands with South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee during Reagan's courtesy call in Seoul, South Korea on October 16, 1971. Reagan, touring Asia as President Nixon's personal emissary, arrived in Seoul from Saigon, South Vietnam. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

American President Gerald Ford speaks with South Korea’s President Park Chung Hee during a state visit in Seoul, South Korea in November 1974. (Photo by Dirck Halstead/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

City Hall in Seoul (서울), South Korea in 1967, with a poster displayed on the city hall welcoming American President Lyndon B. Johnson and South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee. (Photo: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?s=96b6d2296442bc322dcc938a2c8ebf4d&t=611726&page=4)

Seosomun highpass [expressway] in South Korea in 1967. (Photo: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?s=96b6d2296442bc322dcc938a2c8ebf4d&t=611726&page=4)

The Samsung Group is South Korea’s largest chaebol [business conglomerate, or cartel]; Samsung, Hyundai, and Daewoo were three of South Korea’s prominent corporations that benefited from the national socialist economic policies implemented by South Korea’s President Gen. Park Chung-hee. Park Chung-hee’s national socialist economic plan and his First Five-year Economic Development (implemented in 1962) were modeled after the Imperial Japanese government’s economic plan in Manchuria before and during World War II.

Military Day Parade in South Korea in 1966 (Photo: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?s=96b6d2296442bc322dcc938a2c8ebf4d&t=611726&page=4)

South Korean dissident Kim Dae-jung, later President of South Korea, talks to the press after being released from prison in the early 1970s. Park Chung-hee ordered his Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) agents to kidnap and drown Kim Dae-jung in 1973. Kim Dae-jung was a presidential candidate in the South Korean presidential election in 1971; he was “defeated” by Park Chung-hee that year. http://populargusts.blogspot.com/2010/06/park-chung-hees-act-of-terrorism.html

Left photo: South Korean dissident Kim Dae-jung appears in front of a military tribunal. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/2010/06/park-chung-hees-act-of-terrorism.html) Right: Kim Jaegyu, the former Director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, assassinated Park Chung Hee on October 26, 1979. The Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), now called the National Intelligence Service, was originally established by Gen. Park Chung-hee in 1961. (Photo: http://koreanhistory.info/park.htm)

The Kwangju Uprising of 1980 was held in South Korea in May 1980, where South Koreans advocated democratic elections and protested martial law promulgated by Korean Central Intelligence Agency chief Gen. Chun Doo Hwan. Gen. Chun ordered the South Korean army to violently disperse the protestors, and at least 140 Koreans died during the protests.

Student protesters shout and chant during a demonstration in Seoul, Republic of Korea on June 23, 1987. Students and other demonstrators who joined them all over South Korea protested the political and economic situation and eventually brought the regime of President Chun Doo Hwan to an end. In October 1987, the National Assembly ratified a new constitution, which provided for direct presidential elections. (© Patrick Robert/Sygma/CORBIS)

The funeral of South Korea’s strongman Park Chung-hee was held in Seoul, South Korea on November 3, 1979. (Photo: http://populargusts.blogspot.com/2009_08_01_archive.html)

South Korea’s President Gen. Park Chung-hee greets President John F. Kennedy, who was shot to death in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 allegedly by members of the (U.S.) Central Intelligence Agency. Park Chung-hee was shot to death by Kim Jaegyu, the Director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), on October 26, 1979.

NORTH KOREA & INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMACY

North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung (center, smiling) appears with Mao Tse-tung and Chou Enlai (seen standing to the right side of Kim).

North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung visits North Vietnam’s dictator Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi. Kim visited North Vietnam at least twice in secret.

Communist North Korea’s Prime Minister Kim Il Sung (right) and Communist China’s Premier Chou Enlai wave to crowds after arriving in Peking [Beijing], Communist China on a state visit on December 12, 1958. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

Vice-Chaiman and Vice-Premier Teng Hsiao-ping (Deng Xiaoping) (left) have a cordial and friendly conversation with North Korea’s General Secretary and President Kim Il Sung on September 9, 1978. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

North Korea’s Communist despot Kim Il Sung presents an award to Cuba’s communist despot Fidel Castro (left) in 1986. (Photo: http://www.akfa.org/modules.php?name=Page&p=photos_sung)

Cuba’s Communist rebel Che Guevara (left) greets North Korea’s despot Kim Il Sung in 1960.

Argentina-born Cuban Communist terrorist Che Guevara meets with North Korean Secretary-General of the Worker’s Party Kim Il-Sung in Pyongyang, North Korea in 1960. The woman at the right of the picture is the translator. (Photo: University of Miami Libraries. Cuban Heritage Collection) http://merrick.library.miami.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php? CISOROOT=/cubanphotos&CISOPTR=159&CISOBOX=1&REC=1

Yugoslavia’s Commissar Josip Broz Tito stands next to North Korea’s Commissar Kim Il Sung.

North Korea’s despot Kim Il Sung greets Romania’s ruler Nicolae Ceauşescu in North Korea in 1971.

North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il shakes hands with Russia’s President Vladimir Putin during an official visit in Pyongyang, North Korea on July 19, 2000. (© EPA/Corbis)

Russia’s President Vladimir Putin shakes hands with North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il upon Putin's arrival at an airport in Pyongyang, North Korea on July 19, 2000. (© Itar-TASS/EPA/Corbis)

North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il (left) and Russia’s President Vladimir Putin (right) inspect the North Korean army at an airport in Pyongyang, North Korea on July 19, 2000. (© ITAR-TASS/POOL/EPA/Corbis)

Left: Russia’s President Vladimir Putin meeting with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il in Moscow, Russia on August 4, 2001. (Photo: Presidential Press and Information Office) Right: From Russia With Love: North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il kisses Russia’s President Vladimir Putin. (http://media.photobucket.com/image/putin%20kim%20jong%20il/IronCross1985/putin_kim.jpg)

North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il meets with Russia’s President Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (born September 14, 1965) on August 24, 2011. Kim Jong Il died in North Korea on December 17, 2011. (Photo: Presidential Press and Information Office)

North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il meets with Russia’s President Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev on August 24, 2011. (Photo: Presidential Press and Information Office)

North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il (left) greets Communist China’s President Hu Jintao in Pyongyang.

Left: North Korea’s despot Kim Jong Il greets Red China’s Commissar Jiang Zemin. Right: North Korea’s Commissar Kim Jong Il (left) and Communist China’s Commissar Hu Jintao inspect the North Korean army at the airport in Pyongyang, North Korea.

Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi (left) shakes hands with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-il prior to their summit talks at the Paekhwawon state guesthouse in Pyongyang, North Korea on September 17, 2002. Koizumi was in Pyongyang for talks with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-il that Japan hopes will lead to a normalization of diplomatic ties and ease security tensions in the region and the world. Japan does not maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea yet. The North Korean government under Kim Il Sung kidnapped numerous Japanese women and girls in Japan and smuggled them to North Korea during the 1970s, mostly with the assistance of the Japanese Red Army, a Japanese terrorist organization. (Photo: Pool/Getty Images)

Kim Jong Il greets Tanzania’s leader Julius K Nierere.

North Korea's Foreign Minister Pak Ui Chun (left), who previously served as North Korea’s Ambassador to Russia, greets Communist Cuba's Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez in Havana, Cuba on May 4, 2009. (AFP-Yonhap)

Communist Cuba’s President Raul Castro shakes hands with North Korea's Foreign Minister Pak Ui Chun in Havana, Cuba on May 4, 2009. (Reuters)

South Korea’s President Kim Dae Jung (right) greets North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il. (Photo: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kim-jong-il.htm)

South Korea’s President Kim Dae Jung (left) celebrates with North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il. (Photo: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kim-jong-il.htm)

South Korea’s President Roh Moo-hyun, right, and North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il, left, inspect honor guard together in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 2, 2007. (AP Photo)

South Korea’s President Roh Moo-Hyun (L) shares a toast with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-Il during a luncheon hosted by Kim for the two Korea Summit in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 4, 2007. (AFP/Getty Images)

“Sunshine Policy” or appeasement?: South Korea’s President Kim Dae Jung and other South Korean government officials are seen celebrating with North Korea’s communist despot Kim Jong Il. (Photo: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kim-jong-il.htm)

South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun (C), his wife Kwon Yang-Suk (L) and North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-Il toast during a luncheon hosted by Kim for the two Korea Summit in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 4, 2007. (AFP/Getty Images)

Park Geun-Hye (박근혜; 朴槿惠, second from left), the daughter of Park Chung-hee, the former strongman of South Korea, appears with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-Il (center) in Pyongyang, North Korea in May 2002. (Photo: http://terrorpolitics.blogspot.com/)

NORTH KOREAN MILITARY MACHINE

North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung (left) appears with his son Kim Jong Il in an undated photo. (CORBIS SYGMA)

Kim Jong Il and his Communist regime display their military weaponry in a military parade in Pyongyang while the people of North Korea continue to suffer from starvation, malnutrition, and famine.

In this image made from KRT video, and made available for the first time Tuesday April 7, 2009, showing the launch of a missile in Musudan-ni, North Korea on Sunday, April 5, 2009.

North Korea launched a series of missiles in May 2009. (AFP: Korean Central News Agency, file photo)

Right photo: North Korean Communist soldiers armed with rocket-propelled grenade launchers march together. (Kyodo News, via Associated Press)

A missile fired from North Korea would have to travel 4500 miles before it reached the U.S. state of Hawaii. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1193941/North-Korea-plan-missile-launch-Hawaii-Independence-Day.html

Left: North Korea’s Taepodong-2 missile, which has a range of 4000 miles. Hawaii is 4500 miles away from North Korea. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1193941/North-Korea-plan-missile-launch-Hawaii-Independence-Day.html Right: A North Korean political propaganda poster

North Korea — Korean Central News Agency said to restore its previously disabled nuclear facilities after they quitted six-party talks and sent the IAEA inspectors home saying “We will take steps to restore disabled nuclear facilities … and reprocess used fuel rods that came from experimental nuclear reactors,”. (Source: http://newssum.com/2009/04/14/north-korea-to-restore-nuclear-facilities/)

A 2002 satellite image of the Yongbyon nuclear reactor in North Korea.
(Photo: http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/?p=18838)

North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il inspect the command of the 7th Infantry Division of the North Korean People’s Army. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1193941/North-Korea-plan-missile-launch-Hawaii-Independence-Day.html

Mental hygiene in North Korea: Koreans in Communist North Korea are taught to worship their “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il and “Dear Leader” Kim Il Sung and taught the “values” of Communism and Marxism.

Social hygiene in North Korea: North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il and his Communist cadre continue to build their military machine while Korean children in North Korea succumb to starvation and disease.

North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong Il appear at a Communist Party meeting in circa 2009. Kim Jong Il and his Communist cadre continue to promote eugenics and genocide in the name of Communism and “national security”.

Representatives clap their hands during the 12th Supreme People's Assembly of North Korea at the Mansudae assembly hall in Pyongyang, communist-occupied Korea on April 9, 2009, in this picture released by the North's official news agency KCNA on Thursday. Kim Jong-il appeared at his first major event since he was suspected of suffering a stroke last year when parliament re-elected him the country's supreme military leader on Thursday.

North Korea’s despot Kim Jong-il visits a military base at an undisclosed location in North Korea. (Reuters/KCNA) http://www.abc.net.au/news/photos/2008/10/12/2388574.htm

This file handout picture dated 25 April 1992 shows a North Korean communist military unit of missile carriers during a military parade in Pyongyang, North Korea. (AFP/Getty Images)

This file photo from October 2005 shows North Korean People's Army soldiers marching at Kim Il-Sung Square in Pyongyang in a military parade to mark the 60th anniversary of the Workers' Party of Korea. (KCNA via AFP/Getty Images)

North Korean soldiers, carrying a large portrait of late North Korean tyrant Kim Il Sung, march during a grand military parade to celebrate the 75th founding anniversary of the KPA at the Kim Il Sung square in Pyongyang, “North” (Communist occupied) Korea on April 25, 2007. North Korean dictator Kim Jong Il inspected the parade. (AFP/Getty Images)

The North Korean communist army marches in a parade in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 10, 2005. (AFP/Getty Images)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Mohamed El Baradei (L) talks with South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun during their meeting in Seoul, South Korea on July 11, 2007. U.N. nuclear inspectors are expected to arrive in North Korea on July 14, 2007 to verify a promised shutdown of the country’s nuclear reactor and source of arms-grade plutonium, the head of the IAEA said. (Photo: Pool/Getty Images)

ElBaradei: N. Korea has nuke weapons
Published: April 24, 2009 at 10:29 AM

BEIJING, April 24 (UPI) -- North Korea has nuclear weapons and the ability to deliver them, says International Atomic Energy Agency chief Mohamed ElBaradei. Speaking in Beijing, Elbaradei told reporters, “North Korea has nuclear weapons, which is a matter of fact. I don't like to accept any country as a nuclear weapon state but we have to face reality,” The Times of London reported Friday. ElBaradei said the addition of North Korea as a "fully fledged nuclear power" makes nine countries in the world that have the capability of launching a nuclear missile. They include the United States, Russia, Britain, France, China, India, Pakistan and Israel. His comments came as Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov warned after meeting with North Korean Foreign Minister Pak Ui-chun that there would be no easy road to persuading Pyongyang to return to negotiations aimed at brokering a nuclear disarmament. "We do not foresee any breakthroughs," Lavrov told Russia's Interfax news agency. "This is a complicated process and we must not give in to emotions." North Korea has said it would end all negotiations and would restart its nuclear weapons program after it was censured by the U.N. Security Council for testing a missile earlier this month. Source: http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache:7A-mOYobrXgJ:www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/04/24/ElBaradei-N-Korea-hasnuke-weapons/UPI-78191240583386/+elbaradei+north+korea&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

From left to right: Russia's Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, South Korea's Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, China's Foreign Minister Yang Jeichi, North Korean Foreign Minister Pak Ui Chun and Japan's Foreign Minister Masahiko Komura pose for a group photo before a meeting between foreign ministers of the six party nations and Rice on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN, Regional Forum in Singapore Wednesday, July 23, 2008. (AP Photo/Vivek Prakash, Pool)

Hyundai Group chairwoman Hyun Jung-eun, third from left, poses for the camera with North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-il, fourth from left, during her visit to the North Korean port city of Wonsan, Saturday. From left are Hyundai Asan executive Yuk Jai-hee; Lim Dong-ok, an official of the North’s Communist Party; Hyun; Kim; Hyundai Asan vice chairman Kim Yoon-kyu; and Hyun’s daughter Chung Ji-hee. (Yonhap)

North Korea’s despot Kim Jong-il met with Hyun Jeong-eun, the Chairwoman of the board of Hyundai Group, in North Korea in August 2009. yun traveled to North Korea’s capital to seek the release of the Hyundai worker as well as discuss joint projects the business group has pursued in the North that have stalled amid sharply higher inter-Korean tensions. (KCNA, via Reuters) http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/17/world/asia/17iht-hyundaiweb.html

North Korea’s “Dear Leader” Kim Jong-Il (left) appears with Hyundai executives in 1998.

Left to right: U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Christopher Hill, North Korean envoy Kim Kye Gwan, Russian envoy Alexei Borodavkin, Red Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Wu Dawei, South Korean envoy Kim Sook, and Japanese envoy Akitaka Saiki join hands during Six Party Talks on the North Korean nuclear issue in Beijing, Red China on July 10, 2008. The United States, North Korea, South Korea, Red China, Japan and Russia participated in the talks. North Korea has declared it has produced approximately 40 kilograms of enriched plutonium since 1986 and has begun dismantling its nuclear production facilities. (Photo by Greg Baker/Getty Images AsiaPac)

U.S. Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg (L) watches as Red China's Vice Foreign Minister and chief Red Chinese envoy for North Korea Wu Dawei (C) shakes hands with U.S. special envoy for North Korea Stephen Bosworth during their meeting at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Beijing, Red China on June 5, 2009. James Steinberg and Stephen Bosworth are members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Reuters)

Korean War and Special Interest: Council on Foreign Relations

Harold Pratt House, the headquarters of the Council on Foreign Relations, is located on southwest corner of Park Avenue and 68th Street in the Manhattan borough of New York City.

Left to right: Secretary of State Dean Acheson, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Secretary of Defense Robert Lovett, and Averell Harriman stand together in 1952. All four men in that photo were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Acheson, Eisenhower, and Harriman were members of the Council on Foreign Relations at the time this photo was taken in 1952.

Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations during the Korean War (1950-1953)

W. Averell Harriman, Allen W. Dulles, John W. Davis, Russell C. Leffingwell, Joseph E. Johnson, Philip D. Reed

Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Lewis W. Douglas, Thomas K. Finletter, Devereux C. Josephs, Henry M. Wriston, David Rockefeller

Frank Altschul, Grayson L. Kirk, Walter H. Mallory, Whitney H. Shepardson, Myron C. Taylor Name John W. Davis Whitney H. Shepardson Allen W. Dulles Russell C. Leffingwell George O. May Hamilton Fish Armstrong Frank Altschul John H. Williams Lewis W. Douglas Clarence E. Hunter Myron C. Taylor Henry M. Wriston Thomas K. Finletter William A.M. Burden Walter H. Mallory Philip D. Reed David Rockefeller W. Averell Harriman Joseph E. Johnson Grayson L. Kirk Devereux C. Josephs Director (Year) 1921-1955 1921-1966 1927-1969 1927-1960 1927-1953 1928-1972 1934-1972 1937-1964 1940-1964 1942-1953 1943-1959 1943-1967 1944-1967 1945-1974 1945-1968 1945-1969 1949-1985 1950-1955 1950-1974 1950-1973 1951-1958 Occupation (1950-1953) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1921-1955) Director of British Dominions and Colonies Fund at Carnegie Corp. of New York (1946-1953) Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1951-1953) Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1946-1953) Senior Partner of Price, Waterhouse & Co. public accountants (1911-1961) Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972) Secretary of the Council on Foreign Relations (1944-1972) Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Political Economy at Harvard University (1933-1957) Chairman of Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (1950-1959) Chief of ECA [Marshall Plan] Special Mission to the Netherlands (1949-1951) Representative of the President of the U.S. on Special Mission (1950-1953) President of Brown University (1937-1955) Secretary of the Air Force (1950-1953) Partner of William A.M. Burden & Co. (1949-1984) Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1959) Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1940-1942, 1945-1958) Senior Vice President of Chase National Bank (1951-1955) Director of Mutual Security Agency (1951-1953) President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1971) Provost of Columbia University (1949-1953) President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954)

Council on Foreign Relations Members during the Korean War

Winthrop W. Aldrich, Joseph E. Johnson, Paul G. Hoffman, John Foster Dulles, Allan Sproul

Thomas J. Watson Sr., Eugene Meyer, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, David Sarnoff, William S. Paley

Arthur H. Dean, Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, Allen W. Dulles, Thomas K. Finletter, George F. Kennan, Paul H. Nitze

Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, Maj. Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Sen. Herbert H. Lehman, Sen. H. Alexander Smith

Korean War (1950-1953): Name Bankers: Eugene R. Black Winthrop W. Aldrich David Rockefeller William G. Brady Jr. Howard C. Sheperd Harold Stanley E. Roland Harriman Ray Morris Knight Woolley Thomas McCance Frederick M. Warburg John M. Schiff Benjamin J. Buttenwieser William McC. Martin Jr. Allan Sproul Businessmen: Alfred P. Sloan Jr. Thomas J. Watson Irving S. Olds Eugene G. Grace Lewis W. Douglas Devereux C. Josephs Juan Terry Trippe B. Brewster Jennings B. Edwin Hutchinson Lawyers: John W. Davis Allen Wardwell Ralph M. Carson Eustace Seligman Arthur H. Dean Eli Whitney Debevoise Francis T.P. Plimpton Henry J. Friendly Corporate Media: Eugene Meyer Arthur Hays Sulzberger William S. Paley David Sarnoff Henry R. Luce Edward R. Murrow Organization Executives: Joseph E. Johnson Paul G. Hoffman Chester I. Barnard John Foster Dulles Russell C. Leffingwell Walter H. Mallory Hamilton Fish Armstrong College Administrators: A. Whitney Griswold James B. Conant Harold W. Dodds Henry M. Wriston Robert G. Sproul J.E. Wallace Sterling John Sloan Dickey Arthur G. Coons Kenneth C.M. Sills James P. Baxter III Charles W. Cole John W. Nason Donald K. David Carl W. Ackerman

CFR Membership (Year) 1950-1963 1927-1973 1942-present 1944-1952 1939-1962 1925-1959 1933-1969 1947-1956 1948-1977 1949-1978 1933-1970 1938-1986 1942-1991 1947-1995 1935-1955 1933-1965 1924-1955 1935-1962 1925-1958 1935-1973 1946-1961 1933-1976 1946-1960 1927-1960 1921-1955 1921-1953 1938-1969 1926-1976 1938-1987 1935-1989 1933-1983 1942-1985 1930-1958 1927-1968 1936-1989 1947-1969 1934-1966 1934-1964 1948-1990 1942-1972 1947-1955 1921-1959 1921-1959 1928-1979 1921-1972 1942-1962 1934-1976 1934-1968 1926-1978 1945-1964 1946-1978 1946-1983 1950-1964 1938-1953 1938-1971 1946-1953, 1960-1977 1942-1985 1942-1975 1940-1953

Primary Occupation President of The World Bank (1949-1962) Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953) Senior Vice President of Chase National Bank (1951-1955) Chairman of the board of National City Bank of New York (1948-1952) President of National City Bank of New York (1948-1952) Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1941-1955) Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978) President of American Red Cross (1950-1953) Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956) Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982) Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1945-1979) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1973) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977) Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1932-1977) Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1951-1970) President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1941-1956) Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1937-1956) Chairman of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1949-1956) Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corp. (1940-1952) Chairman of Bethlehem Steel Corp. (1945-1960) Chairman of Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (1950-1959) President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954) President of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1927-1964) President of Socony-Mobil Oil Co. (1944-1955) Vice President of Chrysler Corp. (1925-1953) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1921-1955) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1909-1953) Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed [law firm] (1935-1977) Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1923-1976) Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1929-1976) Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1931-1990) Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1933-1961, 1965-1983) General Counsel of Pan American World Airways (1946-1959) Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1947-1959) President of The New York Times Co. (1935-1957) Chairman of the board of Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS] (1946-1983) Chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America [RCA] (1947-1966) Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964) CBS journalist (1935-1961) President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1971) President of Ford Foundation (1950-1953) President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1948-1952) Chairman of The Rockefeller Foundation (1950-1952) Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (1946-1953) Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1959) Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972) President of Yale University (1950-1963) President of Harvard University (1933-1953) President of Princeton University (1933-1957) President of Brown University (1937-1955) President of University of California at Berkeley (1930-1958) President of Stanford University (1949-1968) President of Dartmouth College (1945-1970) President of Occidental College [California] (1946-1965) President of Bowdoin College (1918-1952) President of Williams College (1937-1961) President of Amherst College (1946-1960) President of Swarthmore College (1940-1953) Dean of Harvard Business School (1942-1955) Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1931-1956)

Edward S. Mason Korean War (1950-1953): Name Government Officials: Allen W. Dulles Frank G. Wisner Gen. Walter Bedell Smith Dean G. Acheson (Adm.) Alan G. Kirk George F. Kennan David K.E. Bruce John J. McCloy W. Averell Harriman Paul H. Nitze Willard L. Thorp Charles M. Spofford Thomas K. Finletter Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor Maj. Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer H. Alexander Smith Ralph E. Flanders William B. Benton Herbert H. Lehman Christian A. Herter Felix Frankfurter

1945-1972 CFR Membership (Year) 1927-1969 1947-1965 1953-1960 1948-1953, 1960-1971 1950-1962 1947-1973, 1977-2004 1946-1977 1940-1989 1923-1986 1949-2004 1950-1991 1947-1990 1935-1979 1949-1968 1946-1985 1946-1987 1934-1966 1939-1960 1945-1972 1921-1963 1930-1933, 1938-1942, 1946-1966 1932-1964

Dean of Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard Univ. (1947-1958) Primary Occupation Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1951-1953) Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Agency for Plans (1951-1959) Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1950-1953) U.S. Secretary of State (1949-1953) U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1949-1951) U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1952) Counselor of the State Department (1949-1951) U.S. Ambassador to France (1949-1952); Under Secretary of State (1952-1953) High Commissioner of Germany (1949-1952) Director of Mutual Security Agency (1951-1953) Director of State Department Policy Planning Staff (1950-1953) Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (1946-1952) Chairman of North Atlantic Council of Deputies and European Coordinating Committee (1950-1952) Secretary of the Air Force (1950-1953) Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1951-1952) Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Administration (1951-1953) Commanding General, 7th Infantry Division (1951-1952) Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans and Research (1952-1955) U.S. Senator (R-New Jersey, 1944-1959) U.S. Senator (R-Vermont, 1946-1959) U.S. Senator (D-Connecticut, 1949-1953) U.S. Senator (D-New York, 1949-1957) Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (R-Massachusetts, 1943-1953) Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1939-1962)

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS & NORTH KOREA

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright toasts North Korea’s dictator Kim Jong Il at a dinner in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 24, 2000. (REUTERS/Chien-min Chung/Pool)

North Korean Communist despot Kim Jong-il (left) comradely greets U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright, a Council on Foreign Relations member, at the Paekhawon guest house complex in Pyongyang, North Korea on October 23, 2000. (REUTERS/David Guttenfelder/Pool)

Former U.S. president Bill Clinton (seated L) and North Korea’s despot Kim Jong-il (seated R) pose for a picture in Pyongyang, North Korea on August 4, 2009 in this photo released by North Korean official news agency KCNA. The man standing in the center is former White House Chief of Staff John Podesta. John Podesta is a member of the Trilateral Commission. (Reuters)

Jo Myong Rok, first vice chairman of North Korea's National Defense Commission, visits President Bill Clinton at the White House. (Photo: New York Times) (Source: http://www.mishalov.com/northkorea_u.s.html)

Vice Chairman of the North Korean Defense Commission Jo Myong-Rok (left) meets with America’s President Bill Clinton at the White House on October 10, 2000. Jo was the highest-ranking North Korean official to visit Washington, D.C. since the beginning of the Korean War. (© Ron Sachs/CNP/Sygma/Corbis)

Former President Jimmy Carter receives a gift from North Korea’s dictator Kim Il Sung during his visit to North Korea in 1994.

This photograph was published in the 1992 Council on Foreign Relations Annual Report.

Former President Jimmy Carter visits North Korea’s tyrant Kim Il Sung in Pyongyang, North Korea in 1994. Kim Il Sung invaded South Korea in 1950 and killed thousands of Americans during the Korean War.

New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson (L) meets with North Korean First Secretary Mun Jong Chol at the governor’s mansion in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A. on January 10, 2003. The North Koreans met with Bill Richardson about Pyongyang’s nuclear threat since he has had extensive dealings with the communist country. Richardson's role is to listen to the North Koreans and report back to U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell. Bill Richardson is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson (L) is greeted by North Korean official upon his arrival at an airport in Pyongyang, North Korea in this picture released by North Korea's official KCNA news agency on December 16, 2010. (Reuters)

Council on Foreign Relations & South Korea

Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (left) greets South Korean President-elect Lee Myung-bak during their meeting in Seoul, Republic of Korea on February 21, 2008. A Korean independent counsel cleared Lee of financial fraud allegations that had clouded his rise to high office on February 21, 2008. Lee Myung-bak was inaugurated President of the Republic of Korea on February 25, 2008. Lee Myung-bak was the Mayor of Seoul, South Korea from 2002 to 2006 and a former Chairman of Hyundai Construction. Lee Myung-bak, a devout Christian who grew up in poverty, was born in Osaka, Japan on December 19, 1941; his parents were living in Japan as Korean migrant workers (“guest workers”). Lee Myung-bak’s presumed colonial Japanese name is “Akihiro Tsukiyama” (月山 明博). (AP Photo-Pool)

South Korea's President Lee Myung-bak (C) is interviewed by Council on Foreign Relations co-chairman Robert Rubin (R), a former Chairman of Goldman Sachs banking firm and former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City on September 21, 2009. (Reuters)

U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice shakes hand with South Korea’s President Lee Myung-Bak before their meeting at Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on Saturday, June 28, 2008. (Associated Press via U.S. Department of State)

Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (left) visits South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak at the Blair House in Washington, D.C. on April 18, 2008. (Reuters)

U.S. President Barack Obama (R) looks as South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak speaks to U.S. Representative to the United Nations Susan E. Rice during a meeting at the Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on November 19, 2009. Susan E. Rice is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a Rhodes Scholar. (Reuters)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak (L) greets former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright at the presidential Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on August 23, 2009. Albright was in Seoul to attend the funeral of the late former South Korean President Kim Dae-jung. Madeleine Albright is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Reuters)

South Korean President Lee Myung-bak (R) talks with U.S. Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg (L) at the presidential Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on June 4, 2009. James Steinberg is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a regular Bilderberg Meetings participant. (Reuters)

President Bill Clinton visits South Korea’s President Kim Young Sam (김영삼, 金泳三) in Seoul, South Korea in April 1996. Kim Young Sam was the President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. Kim Young Sam’s colonial Japanese name is “Kosuke Kanemura” (金村康右). (© Wally McNamee/CORBIS)

Korean President Lee Myung-bak speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City on September 21, 2009. (AP Photo)

Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (left) shakes hands with South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun during their meeting at the presidential house in Seoul on November 7, 2007. (Getty images)

Paul Wolfowitz, President of the World Bank, meets with Roh Moo-hyun, the President of South Korea, in Seoul, South Korea on May 30, 2006. (Photo: Kim Jae Hoon/World Bank)

Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice meets with South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun at the presidential house in Seoul, South Korea on March 20, 2005. (Photo: U.S. Department of State)

Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson (left) shakes hands with South Korean President Roh Moo-Hyun during a meeting in Seoul, South Korea on March 7, 2007. (Photo by Song Kyung-Suk-Pool/Getty Images)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-Bak (R) shakes hands with former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell (L) during their meeting at the presidential Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on November 7, 2008. (AFP/Getty Images)

U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (left) entertains South Korea’s President Syngman Rhee at a dinner in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. on July 28, 1954. They are shown chatting on the terrace of the Anderson House used by the State Department for official functions. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon (right) greets Dr. Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea, in the war-torn capital of Seoul, South Korea on November 18, 1953. Nixon presented a letter from U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower to Dr. Rhee. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

President Dwight D. Eisenhower shakes hands with South Korea’s President Syngman Rhee at the White House in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 1954. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (left) chats with South Korean President Syngman Rhee (center) at the presidential mansion in Seoul, South Korea on March 21, 1956. At right is Walter S. Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs. Jon Foster Dulles and Walter S. Robertson were members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Bettmann/CORBIS)

Army Gen. Maxwell Taylor goes for a test run in an American jeep as South Korean President Syngman Rhee goes for a ride. The Council on Foreign Relations undermined General Douglas McArthur and Syngman Rhee’s plan to unify Korea and eliminate Communism on the Korean peninsula.

Council on Foreign Relations Chairman Peter G. Peterson listens to South Korea’s President Roh Tae-woo at the Harold Pratt House on October 19, 1988. (Photo: Council on Foreign Relations Annual Report)

(Photo: Council on Foreign Relations Annual Report)

(Photo: Council on Foreign Relations Annual Report)

Kenneth W. Dam, Alan Romberg, Kong Sa Duk, Park Sil, and Han Soon Joo meet together at the Harold Pratt House in 1987. (CFR Annual Report)

Robert Gallucci (left), former chief negotiator for the 1994 North Korea Nuclear Agreement, and Governor of New Mexico Bill Richardson (right) are interviewed during taping of ‘Meet the Press’ at the NBC studio in Washington, D.C. on July 9, 2006. Richardson and Gallucci spoke about the recent missile tests of North Korea. Robert Gallucci and Bill Richardson are members of the Council on Foreign Relations.

President Bill Clinton (left) greets Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson. Bill Clinton and Bill Richardson are members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Source: Between Worlds: The Making of An American Life by Bill Richardson)

Left photo: Dr. William J. Perry (Co-Director, PDP and former U.S. Secretary of Defense) meets with Song Min-soon, the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea, in Seoul, Republic of Korea in February 2007. Dr. William J. Perry is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Photo by Deborah Gordon) http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/17271/pdp_principals_lead_us_delegation_to_korea.html Right photo: Left to right: Park Geun-Hye (National Assembly Member, former Grand National Party leader, and daughter of Park Chung-hee), Dr. William J. Perry (Co-Director, PDP and former U.S. Secretary of Defense), and General John Tilelli, Jr. (former ROK-US Combined Forces Command/U.S. Forces Korea) meet in Seoul, South Korea in February 2007. (Photo by Deborah Gordon) http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/17271/pdp_principals_lead_us_delegation_to_korea.html

U.S. special envoy for North Korea Stephen Bosworth, left, is greeted by former South Korean President Kim Dae-jung during their meeting at the Kim’s house in Seoul, South Korea on Saturday, May 9, 2009. Stephen Bosworth is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (AP Photo) http://www.armybase.us/2009/05/us-south-korea-stand-by-six-party-north-korean-talks/

Jessica Einhorn (left), Dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of Johns Hopkins University, greets former South Korean President and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Kim Dae Jung (center) as Don Oberdorfer (right), Director of the U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS, looks on upon arriving for a discussion with Korea experts at the school in Washington, D.C. on September 20, 2007. Jessica Einhorn and Don Oberdorfer are members of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Reuters)

Former President of South Korea and Nobel Prize winner Kim Dae-Jung, left, meets with former President Bill Clinton during the Clinton Global Initiative Annual Meeting in New York City on September 26, 2007. (AFP/Getty Images)

SOUTH KOREA & INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

U.S. President Barack Obama shares a laugh with South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak during a bilateral meeting at the Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on November 19, 2009. (Reuters)

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton (L) shakes hands with South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak (R) during their meeting at the Blair House in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. on June 15, 2009. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images North America)

Czech Republic President Vaclav Klaus and European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso (a Bilderberg Meetings participant) shake hands with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak before their meeting at the Presidential House in Seoul, South Korea on May 23, 2009. South Korea and the European Union (EU) held a meeting in Seoul to discuss unresolved issues of a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA). (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)

Britain's Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) greets South Korea’s President Roh Moo-hyun as he arrives at Downing Street in London on December 2, 2004. (Scott Barbour/Getty Images)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak (L) is welcomed by British Prime Minister Gordon Brown at Downing Street in London on March 31, 2009. Leaders from the world's leading industrialized nations met at London's ExCel Center for the 2009 G20 Summit on April 2, 2009. (Photo by Andy Rain - Pool/Getty Images)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak shakes hands with Canada’s Prime Minister Stephen Harper at the G-20 Summit in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. on September 25, 2009. (Reuters)

U.S. President Ronald Reagan toasts with South Korea’s President Gen. Chun Doo Hwan during a reception at the Blue House in Seoul, Republic of Korea on November 13, 1983. (Photo: Ronald Reagan Presidential Library)

Emperor Hirohito of Japan toasts South Korea’s President Chun Doo Hwan (left) during a state banquet at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, Japan on September 6, 1984. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

South Korean President Kim Dae Jung (L) meets with Emperor Akihito (R) at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo, Japan on July 2, 2002. (Photo: Koichi Kamoshida/Getty Images)

South Korea’s President Roh Moo-hyun (L) is greeted by Japanese Emperor Akihito during welcoming ceremonies for Roh at the Akasaka Palace state guesthouse in Tokyo, Japan on June 6, 2003. (Getty Images)

President of South Korea Roh Moo-Hyun (L) and Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi (R) attend a joint press conference held after their bilateral summit in Ibusuki, Japan on December 17, 2004. Koizumi met Roh as Tokyo faced mounting pressure from the public to impose sanctions on North Korea for failing to fully account for Japanese citizens it kidnapped decades ago.

Communist China’s Premier Wen Jiabao (left), Republic of Korea (ROK) President Roh Moo-hyun (center), and Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi meet prior to their trilateral conference in Bali, Indonesia on October 7, 2003. The three leaders met on the sidelines of the ASEAN Summit. [newsphoto.com.cn] http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-10/08/content_269783.htm

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak (R), a member of South Korea’s Grand National Party, shares a toast with Japan's Prime Minister Taro Aso, a member of the Liberal Democratic Party, during their dinner at the presidential house in Seoul, South Korea on January 11, 2009. Lee Myung-bak is a Presbyterian while Taro Aso is a Roman Catholic. (Reuters)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak (L) greets Japan’s Prime Minister Taro Aso at the start of their talks with both countries' delegates at the premier's official residence in Tokyo, Japan on June 28, 2009. Lee was on a day visit to Japan to discuss key issues such as East Asian security and North Korea. (Photo by Pool/Getty Images AsiaPac)

Red China’s President Jiang Zemin (L) and South Korea’s President Kim Young Sam review the People’s Liberation Army during arrival ceremony at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on March 28, 1994. (Forrest Anderson/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Communist China’s President Hu Jintao (C) accompanies South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak to view an honor guard during a welcoming ceremony in front of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, Communist China on May 27, 2008. (Photo by Guang Niu/Getty Images AsiaPac)

Communist China’s Foreign Minister Qian Qichen (front, row, third from left), Communist China’s President Jiang Zemin (front row, fourth from left), and South Korea’s President Kim Young Sam (front row, fifth from left) watch their aides sign an agreement in Beijing, Communist China on March 29, 1994. (Photo by Forrest Anderson//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Communist China’s President Jiang Zemin (left) toasts South Korea’s President Kim Young Sam in Beijing on March 29, 1994. South Korea established diplomatic relations with Communist China and severed ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) on August 24, 1992. South Korea maintained diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) during the Korean War, Vietnam War, and the first Persian Gulf War. (Photo by Forrest Anderson//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun (L) meets Communist China’s President Hu Jintao at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, Communist China on October 13, 2006. Roh was in Beijing for a day of talks with Communist China's leaders concerning North Korea's recent nuclear test. (Photo: Pool/Getty Images)

Communist China’s President Hu Jintao (R) toasts South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak after a meeting at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, Communist China on May 27, 2008. The South Korean President arrived in the Chinese capital on Tuesday for a four-day state visit. (Pool/Getty Images)

Communist China’s President Hu Jintao (R) meets with Park Geun-hye, envoy of President-elect Lee Myung-bak of the Republic of Korea (ROK), in Beijing, Communist China on January 17, 2008. Park Geun-hye is the daughter of General Park Chung-hee. (Xinhua Photo)

European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso (left) welcomes South Korea's special envoy Park Geun-hye, the daughter of South Korea’s former strongman General Park Chung-hee, before their meeting at the EU Commission headquarters in Brussels, Belgium on September 3, 2009. (Reuters)

Geun Hye Park (L), chairperson of the Grand National Party (GNP) of South Korea, greets Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi at his official residence in Tokyo, Japan on March 8, 2006. (Everett Kennedy Brown/AFP/Getty Images)

Park Geun-Hye (박근혜; 朴槿惠, left), the daughter of Gen. Park Chung-hee, greets South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak.

BUSH FAMILY & SOUTH KOREA

Former U.S. President George H.W. Bush (L) talks with South Korea’s President Roh Moo-Hyun (노무현, 盧武鉉) at the presidential Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on April 15, 2003. Former President of South Korea Roh Moo-Hyun committed “suicide” at his home near Busan [Pusan], South Korea on May 23, 2009 after his family was accused of accepting bribes. (Pool/Getty Images)

President George W. Bush (R) shakes hands with South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun in the Oval Office of the White House on June 10, 2005. Bush and Roh discussed the North Korean nuclear weapons program. (UPI Photo/ Kamenko Pajic)

South Korea’s President Lee Myung-Bak (center right) walks with former U.S. President George H.W. Bush (center left) at the Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on March 12, 2008. (Reuters)

President George W. Bush (left) and South Korea’s President Lee Myung-bak (이명박, 李明博) ride in a golf cart in Camp David, Maryland, U.S.A. on April 18, 2008. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

U.S. President George W. Bush (L) shakes hands with South Korean President Kim Dae Jung (김대중, 金大中), a devout Roman Catholic, during a summit talk at the presidential palace in Seoul, South Korea on February 20, 2002. Kim Dae Jung was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2000; Kim Dae Jung’s colonial Japanese name was Daichū Toyota (豊田大中). (Pool Photo/Getty Images)

South Korea’s President Roh Tae Woo (노태우, 盧泰愚) and American President George H.W. Bush reach across the table to shake hands at a meeting in Seoul, South Korea in January 1992. Roh Tae Woo was the President of South Korea from 1988 to 1993; South Korea established diplomatic relations with Communist China and severed ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) on August 24, 1992. Former South Korean presidents Gen. Roh Tae Woo and Gen. Chun Doo Hwan were convicted of treason and bribery in August 1996 but were pardoned by South Korea’s President Kim Young Sam in December 1997. (Wally McNamee/CORBIS)

Neil Bush (third from left), the son of former President George H.W. Bush and brother of former President George W. Bush, appears with Reverend Sun Myung Moon (second from right) in Paraguay in 2005. (Photo: http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x3183814)

Left photo: George H.W. Bush (second from left) and his Barbara Bush (left) appear with Reverend Sun Myung Moon (second from right). Right photo: Reverend Jerry Falwell (left), a longtime Bush family supporter, greets Reverend Sun Myung Moon.

President Richard Nixon (left) meets with Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Richard Nixon appointed George H.W. Bush as the U.S. Representative to the United Nations in 1971. (Photo: Democratic Underground)

Some 22,000 couples of Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church are wed en masse at the Madison Square Garden in New York City on July 1, 1982 as Reverend Moon (right), his wife (left), and other church officials are on raised platform in background. (© Bettmann/CORBIS)

Left: Dr. Syngman Rhee (Ri Seungman, 이승만, 李承晩, April 26, 1875–July 19, 1965), the President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960, appears on the front cover of the October 16, 1950 of Time magazine. Dr. Rhee, who was a Christian, earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from George Washington University, a Master of Arts degree from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1910. Right: South Korea’s President Gen. Chun Doo Hwan (전두환, 全斗煥) appears on the front cover of the June 29, 1987 edition of Time magazine. Chun Doo Hwan was the President of South Korea from September 1, 1980 to February 24, 1988. Chun Doo Hwan was the Director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) in 1980, and assumed the presidency in a military coup d’etat.

Left: Kim Il Sung (left), the dictator of North Korea, appears on the front cover of the June 13, 1994 of Time magazine. Kim Il Sung died on July 8, 1994. Kim Il Sung (김일성, 金日成; 15 April 1912–8 July 1994) was the Premier of North Korea from 1948 to 1972, “President” of North Korea from 1972 to 1994, and General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994. Right: Kim Jong Il (김정일, 金正日, born 16 February 1941), the dictator of North Korea and son of Kim Il Sung, appears on the front cover of the January 13, 2003 of Time magazine.

MODERN KOREA: PERPETUAL WAR FOR PERPETUAL PEACE?

South Korean tourists tour the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) as South Korean soldiers in the rear and North Korean soldiers in the foreground guard the Korean border. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeowatzup/2913814019/) The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), the 4km wide buffer zone separating North and South Korea is anything but demilitarized. Both countries are still technically at war, the ceasefire and armistice that ended the fighting were never followed with a formal peace treaty. The Joint-Security Area is a row of blue and white huts straddling the Military Demarcation Line dividing the peninsula where armistice talks continue to this day.

Left photo: President George W. Bush tours the Korean DMZ in 2002. (AP Photo) Right photo: President Bill Clinton appears at the Korean DMZ in 1993. (AP Photo)

Left photo: President George W. Bush and two unidentified U.S. Army officers visit the Korean DMZ. (White House photo by Eric Draper) Center photo: A female North Korean soldier looks out from behind a barbed wire fence around a camp on the North Korean river banks across from Hekou, northeastern China's Liaoning province. (Photo: http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x5808709) Right Photo: A North Korean soldier brandishes his rifle.

America’s President Ronald Reagan looks across the Korean DMZ at Guard Post Collier, South Korea on November 13, 1983. (Photo: Ronald Reagan Presidential Library)

U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld meets with South Korean Ambassador to the United States Han Sung Joo (center) and Maj. Gen. Moon Young Han (left) inside Rumsfeld’s Pentagon office on October 1, 2004. Han Sung Joo is a member of the Trilateral Commission. Donald Rumsfeld is a former member of the Council on Foreign Relations. (Department of Defense photo by Master Sgt. James M. Bowman, U.S. Air Force)

American President George W. Bush spoke to military personnel, their families and civilian employees at Collier Field House while visiting U.S. Army Garrison Yongsan in Seoul, South Korea on August 6, 2008. Yongsan Garrison was a former Imperial Japanese Army garrison during Japan’s occupation of Korea from 1910 to 1945. The KATUSA (Korean Augmentation To the United States Army) program allows Korean men who speak English fluently to serve in the U.S. military instead of the Korean military. (Photo: U.S. Army, Installation Management Command, Korea Region, Public Affairs Office)

In her first official trip overseas as Secretary of State, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton visits the Combined Forces Command at the USFK headquarters on Yongsan Garrison in Seoul, South Korea on February 20, 2009. The Combined Forces Command (CFC) Commanding General Walter Sharp (right) and his deputy Gen. Lee Sung-chool (left) appear with Secretary Clinton. (U.S. Army Korea Official Image Archive)

Bank of Korea (한국은행 [Hanguk Eunhaeng]), the central bank of the Republic of Korea that is located in Seoul, South Korea, was officially opened on June 12, 1950, just 13 days before Kim Il Sung’s Communist army crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded the Republic of Korea.

Kim Choong-soo (L), the current Governor of the Bank of Korea and a former economic adviser to President Lee Myung-bak, talks with President Lee Myung-bak (R) before a cabinet council at the presidential Blue House in Seoul, South Korea on May 13, 2008. (Reuters)

Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke (L) shakes hands with Bank of Korea Governor Kim Choong-soo at the beginning of the G-20 Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors during the spring IMF-World Bank meeting in Washington, D.C. on April 23, 2010. (Reuters)

Bank of Korea Governor Kim Choong-soo (L) talks with U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner in front of Bank of Japan Governor Masaaki Shirakawa (C) during a reception at the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in Busan [Pusan], South Korea on June 4, 2010. Finance ministers and central bankers from the Group of 20 wealthy and developing economies gathered in South Korea to grapple with Europe’s debt crisis, financial reforms and efforts to rebalance the global economy. Timothy Geithner is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a frequent Bilderberg Meetings participant. (Reuters) http://www.daylife.com/photo/07ri0Mm8mFdeU? q=kim+choong+soo

The skyline of Seoul, South Korea

Korean KTX express trains appear at Seoul Station in Seoul, South Korea.

Kaesong Industrial Park, located in North Korea approximately 10 kilometers from the De-Militarized Zone (DMZ), is a designated North Korean “special economic zone” where South Korean businessmen are encouraged to “invest” in “cheap labor”, open new factories and stores, and provide jobs for unemployed Koreans living in the totalitarian Communist state.

North Korean workers are seen working on bicycle tires at Kaesong Industrial Park. Korean workers at Kaesong Industrial Park are not paid directly by South Korean businessmen; South Korean businessmen are required to give the workers’ paychecks to a North Korean bureaucracy before Korean workers receive their “salary”.

An overcrowded Pyongyang tram appears in Munsu Street in Pyongyang, North Korea. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kernbeisser/3419728405/)

A Korean man takes a stroll on an abandoned street in Pyongyang, North Korea. (Photo: http://www.infrastructurist.com/2009/04/07/gallery-north-koreas-secret-infrastructure/)

Pyongyang, North Korea (Photo: http://subjunctive.net/klog/2005/09/)

Mansudae Grand Monument; Pyongyang (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/28705377@N04/4610972954/in/set-72157624069291564/)

Eric Lafforgue: "Pyongyang view, taken from Yanggakdo hotel. You can find a famous satellite picture on the net showing a map of the Korean peninsula by night, with a huge difference between the north and south. In North Korea, there is no public lighting, and people use very low wattage bulbs in their houses. The North Korean capital is as surreal by night as it is by day. Due to the fuel crisis there's hardly any traffic to be heard after dark, and nightlife is virtually non-existent. Only monuments are lit during local festivities. Every hour, on the hour, from 6 am to midnight, loudspeakers blast out a patriotic song. Tourists are totally forbidden from leaving their hotels to walk around town, even though Pyongyang is safe, that's the rule." (© Eric Lafforgue) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

A North Korean woman washes clothes in front of houses along the banks of the Yalu River near the North Korean town of Qing Cheng on September 12, 2008. (REUTERS/David Gray) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

A North Korean man paddles his boat along the banks of the Yalu River in front of one of the destroyed bridges that once linked Red China and North Korea, near the town of Qing Cheng, located around 50 kilometers north of the Chinese border city of Dandong on September 12, 2008. (REUTERS/David Gray) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

Eric Lafforgue: "The highways in North Korea are huge and carless. Planes could land there. You can even see kids playing in the middle of the road. Security is a major problem because children and old people are not used to seeing cars, so they cross over the roads at any time, without watching out for oncoming traffic. The only cars you can see sometimes on highways are military ones, and most of them are stopped by the side of road, broken down. Or you can also see brand new Mercedes cars belonging to the North Korean officials passing by at very high speeds." (© Eric Lafforgue) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

High-level North Korean officials take part in a mass meeting celebrating the country's 60th birthday in this picture distributed by North Korea's official news agency KCNA in Pyongyang on September 8, 2008. The portrait in the huge North Korean national flag is the state founder and "Great Leader" Kim-Il Sung. The right side letters read, "Celebrate 60th birthday". North Korea's foundation day falls on September 9, 2008. (REUTERS/KCNA) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

North Korean citizens and soldiers participate in celebrations for the 60th anniversary of the founding of North Korea in Pyongyang, North Korea on September 9, 2008, in this picture distributed by North Korea's official news agency KCNA on September 10, 2008. (REUTERS/KCNA) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

North Korean soldiers parade through Kim Il Sung Square in Pyongyang, North Korea on September 9, 2008. (AP Photo/Kyodo News) http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/09/recent_scenes_from_north_korea.html

The Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjom. (Photo: Flickr)

A South Korean protester holds a burning North Korean flag during an anti-North Korea rally in Seoul, 06 June 2007. Tens of thousands of South Korean activists and veterans staged a protest against North Korea's nuclear weapons on Memorial Day, when the country remembers those killed in the 1950-1953 conflict. (AFP/Getty Images)

South Korean protesters hold up placards during an anti-North Korea rally in Seoul, South Korea on June 25, 2007, to mark the 57th anniversary of the outbreak of the 1950-1953 Korean War. The protest comes amid a flurry of diplomacy to push for quick progress on a sixnation deal on disabling North Korea's nuclear weapons program. (AFP/Getty Images)

South Korean protesters burn a North Korean flag during an anti-North Korea rally on June 22, 2004 in Seoul, South Korea. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)

Protesters burn communist North Korean flags at an anti-North Korea protest opposing the planned inter-Korean summit near the presidential Blue House in Seoul on August 9, 2007. (Reuters/Lee Jae-Won)

South Korean protesters hold placards with pictures of North Korean dictator Kim Jong-Il during an anti-North Korea rally in Seoul, South Korea on June 6, 2007. Tens of thousands of South Korean activists and veterans staged a protest against North Korea's nuclear weapons on Memorial Day, when the country remembers those killed in the 1950-1953 conflict. (AFP/Getty Images)

South Korean activists hold anti-North Korean placards with pictures of Kim Jong-Il during a protest outside a luxury hotel where inter-Korean ministerial talks were held on June 1, 2007. The slogans demand North Korea scrap its nuclear program. The four-day meeting broke down over the delayed shipment of rice from South Korea. (AFP/Getty Images)

South Koreans condemn North Korean tyrant Kim Jong-Il. (Photo: http://asapblogs.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/06/15/shoo_32955133_6ao.jpg)

South Korean Christians and conservative protesters carry huge flags of South Korea and U.S. over their heads in front of City Hall during an anti North Korea rally as part of the South Korean Memorial Day in Seoul, South Korea on June 6, 2007. South Korea today marks the 52nd anniversary of the Memorial Day for those killed in the 1950-1953 Korean War. (Getty Images)

This picture taken on November 23, 2010 by a South Korean tourist shows huge plumes of smoke rising from Yeonpyeong Island in the disputed waters of the Yellow Sea on November 23, 2010. North Korea fired dozens of artillery shells onto the South Korean island on November 23, 2010, killing two people, setting homes ablaze and triggering an exchange of fire as the South's military went on top alert. (Getty Images)

South Korean war veterans burn North Korean flags during an anti-North Korea rally on November 30, 2010 in Seoul, South Korea. South Korean and American military forces began war games exercises Sunday as tensions between the two Koreas remain high following an artillery exchange on the disputed island of Yeonpyeong on November 24. (Getty Images)

Protesters holding placards pray in silence for the victims during a rally against North Korea in Seoul on November 30, 2010. Some 50 civic group members held the rally against North Korea's bombardment on South Korea's Yeonpyeong island on November 23. South Korea deployed rocket launchers and extra artillery on a frontline border island bombarded last week by North Korea, as Seoul's leader vowed on November 29 to make Pyongyang pay for any fresh provocations. (Getty Images)

Chung Hyun Church in Seoul, Republic of Korea. (Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/westlothian/2400330994)

A church service takes place in Won Ju Methodist Church in South Korea. An estimated 14 million Koreans living in South Korea are devout Christians; an estimated 48 million people live in South Korea. Koreans in North Korea who are caught reading the Bible or worshipping God are subject to persecution and death by the North Korean army and secret police. Korean Christians who served or are serving as presidents of South Korea include Syngman Rhee, Yun Bo-seon (1960-1962), Kim Young Sam, Kim Dae Jung, and Lee Myung-bak. (Photo: http://www.beckerath.com/en/news/news.htm)

Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. Over 33,600 American soldiers died during the Korean War; may they rest in peace.

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

General Douglas MacArthur’s Farewell Speech to Congress
April 19, 1951 Mr. President, Mr. Speaker and distinguished members of the Congress: I stand on this rostrum with a sense of deep humility and great pride - humility in the wake of those great architects of our history who have stood here before me, pride in the reflection that this home of legislative debate represents human liberty in the purest form yet devised. Here are centered the hopes and aspirations and faith of the entire human race. I do not stand here as advocate for any partisan cause, for the issues are fundamental and reach quite beyond the realm of partisan considerations. They must be resolved on the highest plane of national interest if our course is to prove sound and our future protected. I trust, therefore, that you will do me the justice of receiving that which I have to say as solely expressing the considered viewpoint of a fellow American. I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fading twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country. The issues are global, and so interlocked that to consider the problems of one sector oblivious to those of another is to court disaster for the whole. While Asia is commonly referred to as the gateway to Europe, it is no less true that Europe is the gateway to Asia, and the broad influence of the one cannot fail to have its impact upon the other. There are those who claim our strength is inadequate to protect on both fronts, that we cannot divide our effort. I can think of no greater expression of defeatism. If a potential enemy can divide his strength on two fronts, it is for us to counter his efforts. The Communist threat is a global one. Its successful advance in one sector threatens the destruction of every other sector. You cannot appease or otherwise surrender to communism in Asia without simultaneously undermining our efforts to halt its advance in Europe. Beyond pointing out these general truisms, I shall confine my discussion to the general areas of Asia... While I was not consulted prior to the President's decision to intervene in support of the Republic of Korea, that decision, from a military standpoint, proved a sound one. As I say, it proved a sound one, as we hurled back the invader and decimated his forces. Our victory was complete, and our objectives within reach, when Red China intervened with numerically superior ground forces. This created a new war and an entirely new situation, a situation not contemplated when our forces were committed against the North Korean invaders; a situation which called for new decisions in the diplomatic sphere to permit the realistic adjustment of military strategy. Such decisions have not been forthcoming. While no man in his right mind would advocate sending our ground forces into continental China, and such was never given a thought, the new situation did urgently demand a drastic revision of strategic planning if our political aim was to defeat this new enemy as we had defeated the old. Apart from the military need, as I saw it, to neutralize the sanctuary protection given the enemy north of the Yalu, I felt that military necessity in the conduct of the war made necessary -(1) The intensification of our economic blockade against China. (2) The imposition of a naval blockade against the China coast. (3) Removal of restrictions on air reconnaissance of China's coastal area and of Manchuria. (4) Removal of restrictions on the forces of the republic of China on Formosa, with logistical support to contribute to their effective operations against the Chinese mainland. For entertaining these views, all professionally designed to support our forces committed to Korea and to bring hostilities to an end with the least possible delay and at a saving of countless American and Allied lives, I have been severely criticized in lay circles, principally abroad, despite my understanding that from a military standpoint the above views have been fully shared in the past by practically every military leader concerned with the Korean campaign, including our own Joint Chiefs of Staff.

I called for reinforcements, but was informed that reinforcements were not available. I made clear that if not permitted to destroy the enemy built-up bases north of the Yalu, if not permitted to utilize the friendly Chinese force of some six hundred thousand men on Formosa, if not permitted to blockade the China coast to prevent the Chinese Reds from getting succor from without, and if there were to be no hope of major reinforcements, the position of the command from the military standpoint forbade victory. We could hold in Korea by constant maneuver and at an approximate area where our supply-line advantages were in balance with the supply-line disadvantages of the enemy, but we could hope at best for only an indecisive campaign with its terrible and constant attrition upon our forces if the enemy utilized his full military potential. I have constantly called for the new political decisions essential to a solution. Efforts have been made to distort my position. It has been said in effect that I was a warmonger. Nothing could be further from the truth. I know war as few other men now living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting. I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes. Indeed, on the second day of September, 1945, just following the surrender of the Japanese nation on the battleship Missouri, I formally cautioned as follows: "Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start workable methods were found in so far as individual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. "Military alliances, balances of power, leagues of nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war now blocks out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, our Armageddon will be at our door. The problem basically is theological and involves a spiritual recrudescence, an improvement of human character that will synchronize with our almost matchless advances in science, art, literature, and all material and cultural developments of the past two thousand years. It must be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh." But once war is forces upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end. War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision. In war there is no substitute for victory. There are some who for varying reasons would appease Red China. They are blind to history's clear lesson, for history teaches with unmistakable emphasis that appeasement but begets new and bloodier war. It points to no single instance where this end has justified that means, where appeasement had led to more than a sham peace. Like blackmail, it lays the basis for new and successively greater demands until, as in blackmail, violence becomes the only alternative. Why, my soldiers asked of me, surrender military advantages to an enemy in the field? I could not answer. Some may say to avoid spread of the conflict into an all-out war with China. Others, to avoid Soviet intervention. Neither explanation seems valid, for China is already engaging with the maximum power it can commit, and the Soviet will not necessarily mesh its actions with our moves. Like a cobra, any new enemy will more likely strike whenever it feels that the relativity in military or other potential is in its favor on a worldwide basis. The tragedy of Korea is further heightened by the fact that its military action is confined to its territorial limits. It condemns that nation, which it is our purpose to save, to suffer the devastating impact of full naval and air bombardment while the enemy's sanctuaries are fully protected from such attack and devastation. Of the nations of the world, Korea alone, up to now, is the sole one which has risked its all against communism. The magnificence of the courage and fortitude of the Korean people defies description. They have chosen to risk death rather than slavery. Their last words to me were: “Don't scuttle the Pacific.” I have just left your fighting sons in Korea. They have met all tests there, and I can report to you without reservation that they are splendid in every way. It was my constant effort to preserve them and end this savage conflict honorably and with the least loss of time and a minimum sacrifice of life. Its growing bloodshed has caused me the deepest anguish and anxiety. Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always.

I am closing my fifty-two years of military service. When I joined the army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barracks ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that old soldiers never die; they just fade away. And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good-bye.

U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur, former commander of Allied forces, first in World War II and then in Korea, gives his farewell address before the U.S. Senate in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. on April 19, 1951. President Harry S. Truman relieved General MacArthur of his command over differences in opinion on strategy in Korea. (© CORBIS)

Kim Shin-jo: Seoul Survivor 40 Years after Commando Raid, Former Assassin Lauds New President
By Andrew Salmon

Kim Shin-jo SEOUL - He was once dispatched to assassinate a South Korean president, but Kim Shin-jo was delighted at Monday’s inauguration of conservative Lee Myung-bak in Seoul. “There has been something wrong in our society,” says Kim, 67, of the last 10 years of liberal rule in Seoul. “I believe Lee will defend freedom.” The sole survivor of a North Korean commando squad tasked with “cutting the throat” of then-South Korean President Park Chung-hee in 1968, Kim, today a Presbyterian pastor, is a fierce critic of the engagement policy pursued by the previous two Seoul administrations. “North Korea has not been ‘engaged,’” he thundered at his office in a Christian retreat among hills overlooking the frozen Han River, north of Seoul. “Nothing has changed in the regime or the military: South Korean support has only made the regime stronger!” Kim Il-sung’s Commandoes He should know. Kim grew up in a staunchly communist family in North Korea. At 24, during his military service, he was selected for special forces. “I realized I was undertaking a revolutionary mission,” he said. “My life was no longer guaranteed.” Training was grueling. They learned weaponry, navigation, parachuting, amphibious infiltration, camouflage. One concealment tactic was to dig into graves and hide. “We slept with the bones: It made you fearless, and nobody would think of looking for you in a grave!” They swam rivers and ran up mountains. Carrying 30 kilo packs, they ran at 12 km/h in broken country. Sometimes they were starved, and forced to eat roots, snakes and frogs. Some men lost toes, fingers and even feet to frostbite in winter. Martial arts were emphasized: On his left hand and arm – “I was a southpaw!” - Kim still bears scars from breaking and knife fighting. His first cross border operation was to undertake a reconnaissance of a U.S. radar installation. The mission was successful: He returned without detection. His next operation would be a different matter. Mission Impossible? 1968 would prove the fiercest year of the Asian Cold War. In Vietnam, it would be marked by the Tet Offensive. In Korea, the U.S. spyship the Pueblo would be seized. Before those events, in January, Pyongyang’s high command planned an audacious operation to reunify the peninsula under communist rule within days. “It had to be a short-term war,” Kim said. “In the Korean War, North Korea could not win due to lack of money, lack of resources. The strategy was to win before U.S. aircraft from Okinawa could arrive. It had to be a swift, assymetrical attack.” The plan was to assassinate South Korean President Park Chung-hee. Media reports of his death, Kim claims, would signal other North Korean commando units to go into action - by low-level parachute landings, amphibious infiltration, and foot infiltration across the border. Ministries and key U.S. and South Korean military bases would be attacked. Prisons would be opened, sewing confusion. Commandoes with special equipment would take over broadcasting stations and post offices. Pro-North Korean elements in the south would rise on Jan 22, and the headless government would collapse. “It would be like a revolution from within,” said Kim. The unit chosen to spearhead the operation was the crack 124th Special Forces – Kim’s unit. Three assault teams would attack the presidential Blue House, in central Seoul. Kim, a lieutenant at the time, would lead a group that would clear the first floor The unit’s commander would lead his team onto the second floor, executing Park. The third group would provide cover. Three men would commandeer getaway vehicles. “We were confident,” Kim recalled. “We knew all about the Blue House defense; we didn’t think much of their bodyguards.” Into the South At 04:00 on January 18, 1968, 31 commandoes crossed the border. (The border fence they cut is preserved to this day). They wore South

Korean uniforms and were trained in Seoul accents – “This is the basis of guerilla fighting!” They removed mines as they went. They halted before a South Korean observation post: Women were going in: “They were not very alert!” Covered in white sheets, the assassins crossed the frozen Imjin River. Moving at night, they avoided patrols, but lying up on a forested hillside, were discovered by a group of poor loggers. Kim suggested killing them - “by the book” - but his commander, Kim Jong-moon, who had led seven cross-border operations, let them free. “At that point, I thought our mission would fail,” Kim said. After dark, the men moved out. Before long, they became aware of trucks and buses moving. The loggers had alerted the military. “They blocked the roads, but they could not stop us,” said Kim. “They thought we would move at 8 km/h, but we moved at 12 km/h. They blocked the roads behind us: We had already passed through!” It was freezing. South Korean soldiers tasked with hunting them lit fires, giving away their positions. The commandoes easily avoided them and crossed the Seoul ring road en masse. They laid up in the mountains overlooking the city. Below was a bus terminal. The objective was within reach. Gazing over the suburbs, Kim had one surprise: Seoul, which he was told would be blacked out due to electricity shortages, was glittering. The men hid their uniforms and dressed in Japanese civilian clothes they had carried with them. Their personnel weapons – automatic rifle, 320 rounds, 14 grenades, pistol, dagger – were concealed in waist bands, and covered with trench coats. Thus armed, the assassins entered the city. In was January 21st, 1968. Firefight Seoul was crawling with military and police. “We were stopped by police. They said, ‘Who are you?’ We said, ‘Capital Intelligence Command! We are on an operation!’ They let us go on.” But at approximately 10:30AM, around 200 meters short of their objective, they were challenged by a local police chief. This time their bluff did not work: He demanded ID. The commandoes drew their weapons, mowing down the police officer and his jeep driver. Then they attacked. The Blue House, however, had been reinforced. Outside its front gate, the commandoes ran into a defense platoon armed with automatic weapons. A furious firefight broke out. Incongruously, a bus drove through the crossfire. It was pepper-potted, the women and school children aboard killed. Then tanks rumbled up. The commandoes had no way to take on armor. They scattered. Most headed north. Kim broke east. Suddenly he was surrounded. “I put my weapon down. I had a desire to live: It’s the basic instinct of humans.” Of Kim’s unit, twenty nine were hunted down and killed over nine days. One escaped. Sixty eight South Koreans and three Americans also died. Interrogation, Defection, Religion For one year, Kim was interrogated. No violence was used: The South Koreans must have realized that would have been counter-productive: “I had high self-esteem” Kim said. He told his captors everything they wanted to know. Then he was put on trial, where it was proven that his weapon had not been fired. “In the firefight, I only had one concern: To survive.” On 10 April, 1970, he was freed to enter society. He found work in construction and lectured to the South’s army on the North’s special troops. In October, he married a Christian who had written to him while in captivity. The couple had two children. But life proved difficult. He learned his parents had been executed after his defection became known. In the market, his wife was pointed out as the “wife of the North Korean spy.” His children faced trouble at school; Kim’s story was featured in textbooks. He attempted suicide. On her birthday in 1980, his wife asked him to join her at church as his present to her. Kim consented. Christianity intrigued him. As he learned more, he found peace. In 1995, he became a pastor. Today, he preaches at a religious retreat outside Seoul and counsels North Korean refugees in the South. He has authored four books. One, referring to the fact that he can never return home, is entitled, “The Wild Goose that Cannot Fly North.” “I pray for both countries,” he said. He hopes that President Lee will take a tougher line with the North than his predecessors. Like many defectors, he believes that Seoul “has been driven, exploited and used by North Korea.” He remains suspicions of Pyongyang, which lacks high-technology military assets but retains dangerous unconventional warfare capabilities. “It took the South Korean Army nine days to track down my unit: What would they do if all the North Korean special forces came South?” he asks. “There are 100,000 like us! Only when all special force units are disbanded can we say the North has given up its intention to communize the South.” And that disastrous mission, 40 years ago? “I try not to think about it,” he said. “It still fills me with horror.” ENDS Source: http://www.armchairgeneral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=61784