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9.

Apply a load of 1 kN to the end of a steel up right.

The upright….

10. 11. 12.

Apply a force to a rigid body Suspend a brick from a spring balance, Strike a piece of glass with a hammer.

The force is balanced…. The spring…. The glass….

EXERCISE B Making observations (i) When we state the result of following an instruction, we make an observation. Look at this example ; Instruction push against a small object moves Observation if we push against a small object it moves. Result the object moves Now write observations like this from each of the instruction-result pairs in Exercise A. EXERCISE C Making observation (ii) We can write an observation in several different ways. Look at these examples : (a) using when: When we push against a small object it moves (b) putting the result first: A small object moves if we push against it. (c) using the passive: If a small object is pushed against, it moves. A small object moves when it is pushed against. Now rewite each of the observations you made in Exercise B using pattern (a), (b), or (c) EXERCISE D Relative clauses (defining) Look at the following sentence: (a) Loads cause tensile stresses. (b) The loads tend to pull a body apart. If then noun phrases in italics refer to the same thing, we can combine the two sebtences into one by using relative clause : (c) Loads which tend to pull a body apart cause tensile stresses. Write down a single sentence for each of the following pairs of sentences. Make the second sentence into a relative clause and insert it into the first sentence at the pleace marked by dots. EXAMPLE A lever…can be used to compare two masses. Such a lever which has the fulcrum placed between load and effort can be used to compare two masses. 1. A strut is a member… The member resists a compressive force. 2. The beams…are welded together. They from the cassis of the truck. 3. Rust may attact certain metals… These metals contain some proportion of iron. 4. We can combine information on the size of a force and the distance it moves, in adiagram… The diagram is called a work diagram. 5. Sir Isaac Newton put forward a law… The law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. EXERCISE E Relative clauses (non-defining) Compare the following sentences: (a) The mill which produces sheet steel was made in Scotland but the mill which produces tube steel was made in sweden. (b) The mill, which produces sheet steel, was made in Scotland. In sentence (a) therelative clauses tell us which mill we are talking about. In sentence (a) we have two defining relative clauses. In sentence (b) we already know which mill we are talking about. The clauses simply adds some extra information about the mill. In sentence (b) we have a non-defining relative clause. Note the use of commans. In Exercise D your made sentences with defining relative clauses. In this exercise, make the second sentence into a relative clause and insert it into this the first sentence at the pleace marked by dots. You will write sentence with non-defining relative clauses. EXAMPLE Brass,…,is used to make bolts and screws. Brass is an alloy copper and zinc. Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, is used to make bolts and screws.

The micrometer screw gauge is used by engineers to abtain very accurate measurements. This diagram means that the tensile force…must exceed 3 kN. each of mass 17 tonnes. The engine has a mass of 80 tonnes. 11.….…. 7.or noun compounds. The nut is incorporated in the jack. Look at the following examples : (a) a diesel engine = an engine which uses diesel oil (b) a brass bearing = a bearing which is made of brass (c) carbon steel = steel which contains carbon (d) a capstan lathe = a lathe which has a capstan Find further examples of each type in the following list.is wound on and thus overcomes the load. As the cord is wound off the wheel. 5.consists of a steel frame carrying a sleeve on which a thimble turns.are termed single purchase crab winches. 1. The block measures 100 by 200 by 10 mm. The tensile force will cause permanent distortion. consist of a steel frame carrying a sleeve on which a thimble turns . The gear…rotates in an opposite direction to the first. Stainless steel contains chormium. EXAMPLE The micrometer screw gauge. The rectangular block of steel. Complicated mechanism…are machines just as simple levers are machines. The angle is known as the angle of friction.is tougher than grey cast iron.are often reffered to as idlers. 10. EXAMPLE phosphor bronze (c) air motor electric drill turrent lathe metal casting chromium steel concrete bridge steel plate heat engine wing nut alumunium alloy What new relationship can you discover in the following list ? rewrite each combination to show the relationship between the two nouns. The gear is last in an even series of gears in mesh.…. 3. The electric motor. 4. The screw-jack is basically a screw running thourgh a fixed nut….1. 4. The chorium makes the steel corrosion-resistant. 9. EXERCISE G Noun midificaton (i) If we want to describe an object in greater detail we may use an adjective: water – hot water metal – ferrous metal lever – simple lever We can also put a noun in front of a noun : a cylinder – a steel cylinder a bearing – a brass bearing a filter – an air filter Many grammatical relationships are possible in noun + noun constructions. These steels…are used to make tools. (b). The motor has a mass of 400 kg. Polished steel. Malleable cast iron. 5. A railway engine. = The micrometer screw gauge. Hoisting winches of the first group. Polished steel is normally described as flat and smooth. Friction. Intermediate gears. the load cord. Intermediate gears do not affect the ratio of the gear train. or (d).…. 2. Mark each phrase (a). EXAMPLE a foot brake = a brake which is operated by foot Wankel engine test piece heat treatment water tube force system fuel gas hand pump instrument lathe needle valve gear lubricant dockside crane mushroom valve .…mprovides electric power for Zambia. Steels…are called tool steels.…. (non-defining).…. 8. EXERCISE F Relative clauses (defining and non-defining) Now join the following pairs of sentences and state whether the completed sentence contain defining or non-defining relative clauses. 2.….….is in fact covered with tiny bumps. (c). Friction is always present in a machine. which is used by engineers to obtain very accurate measurements.draws a train of eight coaches. up a gradient of 1 in 40. 6.…. The kariba dam.is linked to the drying shaft by a belt. Malleable cast iron is a ferrous metal. These complicated mechanisms make up an acroplane engine. 12.is fixed to the floor. The load cord is attached to the axle. 3. The dam is situated on the Zambesi.…. The body is just on the point of sliding at the angle….dissipates mechanical energy by converting it into heat energy.….