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DURATION OF DEATH

In determination as to how long a period has been dead from the condition of the cadaver and other external evidences, the following points must be taken into consideration: Presence or Rigor Mortis: In warm counties like the Philippines rigor mortis sets in for two to three hours after the death. It is fully developed in the body after twelve hours and may last from 18 to 36 hours and its disappearance is concomitant with the onset of putrefaction.

1. Presence of post mortem lividity: Post mortem lividity usually develops 3 – 6 hours after death from small red spots which later coaslesce with each other to involve bigger areas defending upon the position of the body. 2. Onset of decomposition In the Philippines like other tropical countries, decomposition is early and the average time is 24-48 hours after death.

½ to 2 hours and medium. 3-4 hours. However.Liquid move more rapidly than semi-solid and the latter more rapidly than solid. Kind of meal . Size of the last meal. The usual time for egg to be hatched into larvae is 24 hours 5 Stage of Digestion of Food in the Stomach It takes normally 3-4 hours for the stomach to evacuate its contents after meal. Light meal leaves the stomach within 1. the position and condition of the decedent’s last meal is influenced by the following factors: a. 2 4 Entomology of the casdaver: In order to approximate the time of death by the use of the flies present in the cadaver. its life cycle is important. b. .within ten (10) minutes after the first mouthful has entered. Determination of death is dependent upon the amount of food taken and the degree of tonicity of the stomach.Report Rodel 3 Stage of decomposition The approximate time of death may be inferred from the degree of decomposition. although it must be made with extreme caution.

Its insufficiency delays gastric evacuation. ALDAY . The conclusion may be of value in the estimation of death if one is familiar with the decedent’s eating habit and meal time. contrawise. 3 By: RODEL G. a hypermotile stomach may enhance entry of food into duodenum. quantity of the last meal and the interval between the last two meals. Other factors: 1. Personal variation – Psycogenic pylorospasm can prevent departure of the meal from the stomach for several hours. d. The head of the meal ordinarily reaches the distal ileum and cecum between 6-8 hours after eating. Kind of Food Eaten – Vegetables may require more time for gastric hydrochloric acid content.Report Rodel c.

The amount of water in the sorroundings is not very essential to the phenomena. This is further accelerated when the body is subjected to autopsy. Areas of the body where fat is abundant develop adipocere recognizable through the naked eye rapidly as compared with the other areas. Water of the body may be drawn from the muscles and internal organs. It is difficult for adipocere to develop in the state of extreme emaciation. State of Health Before Death: 4 Adipocere formation depends primarily o the presence of fat in the body of the deceased. 2. Time Interval between death and Burial: Generally. .Report Rodel Factors Influencing Adipocere Formation in Earth Burial: 1. Exposure of the internal organs to external elements promotes enzymatic and bacterial actions in the process of hydrolysis and glycerol formation. greater is the degree of adipocere formation. the longer the space of time interval between death and burial.

colliquative putrefaction will develop for a long time thus making adipocere formation scanty. especially if the clothings are tight. . 5. Presence of Clothings and Other Coverings of the Body: Adipocere formation is found to be more advanced under clothings or other body coverings.Report Rodel 3. it may allow water to come in contact with the body surface thereby enhancing hydrolysis of fat. Sufficiently. 4. moist soil accelerates adipocere formation. Effect of the coffin: 5 The coffin has air space and if cruelty made. Type of soil: Dry soil is conducive to mummification. If water has been freely admitted.

provided that the death of the fetus is not due to attempted abortion or rupture of the membrane. .Report Rodel 6. C. the child is enclosed by the membrane in sterile condition. 7. Mass Grave: There is more tendency for adipocere formation when several bodies are located in a grave because of the abundance of moisture. When the fetus dies en utero. The softening of the body may be due to the action of the autolytic and proteolytic enzymes and ferments. Putrefation does not take place and the fetus becomes soft. MACERATION: This is the softening of tissues when in a fluid medium in the absence of putrefactive microorganisms which is frequently observed in the death of the fetus en utero. Access of Air to the Body After Burial: 6 The disturbance of a body in the grave shotly after burial or before the formation of adipocere prolongs its formation.

Florante S. Emaciation . The body is discolored either reddish or greenish with the skin peeling off and the arms flaccid and frail. For a definite and appreciable degree of maceration to take place. Adipocere – A waxy substance of fatty acids and calcium soaps that is formed during the decomposition of dead body fat in moist or wet anaerobic conditions 2. Terminologies: Merriam-Webster Definition 1. Macerate – to cause to become soft or waste away by or as if by excessive fasting.to waste away physically: to cause to lose flesh so as to become very thin. Hydrolysis – a chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water. 4. 3. 7 By: Mr. As maceration advances. There may be blister formation and the odor is somewhat rancid. there is brownish red discoloration of the skin. it requires about twenty-four hours. Fandialan .Report Rodel The appearance of the fetus is typical.