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Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name

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[Name]

1. We meet: the Dietzler evidence from the 1AC talks about how there is research involved in the development of the plan
2. Counter interpretation: Development means the deployment of technology outside the lab Chayes ‘85 -- Leading International Law Specialist, Kennedy Administration's Chief International Lawyer, and Felix Frankfurter
Professor of Law, Emeritus [deceased] (Summer 1985, Abram, “Space Weapons: The Legal Context”, Daedalus Vol. 114, No. 3, Weapons in Space, Vol. II: Implications for Security Pg. 202-203 http://www.jstor.org/pss/20024990)

Development
ACDA Director Gerard C. Smith was questioned on this subject by Senator Henry Jackson during the Senate hearings on approval of the ABM treaty. A written response was prepared by the administration after a thorough review of the negotiating record. It states: The prohibitions on development contained in the ABM Treaty would start at that part of the development process where field testing is initiated on either a prototype or breadboard model. It was understood by both sides that the prohibition on "development" applies

to activities involved after a component moves from the laboratory development and testing stage to the field testing stage, wherever performed. The fact that early stages of the development process, such as laboratory testing,
would pose problems for verification by national technical means is an important consideration in reaching this definition.19 4 The definition of "development" as any work performed outside the laboratory remains the official United States position, and has been reiterated in Arms Control Impact Statements issued since the adoption of the treaty.20 The line that is drawn is thus a functional one, related to the method accepted by both parties for verifying compliance with treaty provisions: "national technical means of verification" (NTM). It is fair to say that if an activity cannot be monitored by NTM, it is not prohibited by the treaty; the two parties, particularly the United States, have been unwilling to accept constraints that cannot be verified. Conversely, any test of a component is prohibited if it can be observed by national technical means (or could be observed if the country in question were complying with its treaty obligation not to use "deliberate concealment measures which impede verification by national technical means"). At least, there would be a heavy burden on it to establish that such activity was mere "research," and did not amount to development or testing within the meaning of the treaty.21

2. We meat we deploy technology beyond the Earth’s mesosphere 3. Standards They overlimit the topic to just exploration. The framers intent was to give us development and exploration and they define development as exploration No ground loss: they can’t name an argument they don’t read 4. Reasonability: reason for judge intervention 5. T is not a voter Prolif guarantees great power intervention – escalates to nuclear war. Below, 2008 (Tim, Wing Commander – RAF and MA Defense Studies – Kings College London, “OPTIONS FOR US NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT: EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP OR EXTRAORDINARY LUNACY?,” A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS, AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA, June) Proliferation. Roger Molander, of RAND Corporation, asserts that “in the near future, a large number of countries are each going to develop a small number of nuclear weapons.”5 The Union of Concerned Scientists considers this to be the greatest long term danger confronting both US and international security today.5 Proliferation increases risk in a number of ways. First, the more states that hold nuclear weapons, the more likely it is that one will have an insufficiently mature or robust nuclear doctrine to manage its capability responsibly. Tom Sauer suggests that developing states that do not have democratic political systems present a particularly high risk because in dictatorial regimes, the military are frequently in control, and as Sagan has observed, the military appear to be more inclined to initiate preventative attacks against adversaries than civilians.52 Second, the more widely proliferated nuclear weapons become, the more theoretical opportunities may be presented for theft of nuclear material. Third, proliferation increases the risk of nuclear intervention by an established nuclear power, including the five NWSs. Stephen Younger envisages several scenarios in which currently established nuclear powers might “feel a need” to intervene with nuclear weapons in present regional conflicts, especially if WMD are being employed or threatened. Moreover, since proliferation is frequently associated with reaction to nuclear development either within a bordering nation or regional counterpart, further proliferation is in turn likely to generate a quasi-exponential expansion of similar regional scenarios.53 Ambassador Lehman envisages a scenario in which

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. Nuclear Terrorism. This adaptation will not eliminate people’s need to define themselves in relation to otherness. Perhaps more important than anything else.We are not powerless. As the national-security community learned during the Cold War. human possibilities. rather than blights or destroys. . we must recognize that the hopeful future is not an apocalyptic heavenly peace but rather expanded awareness on behalf of human continuity. Gov. We need not accept the death sentence . concluded that nuclear terrorism is "inevitable. Douglas Dillon Prof." By choosing instead a human future. National Interest. L/N) Mueller is entitled to his opinion that the threat of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism is "exaggerated" and "overwrought. risk = likelihood x consequences. Richard Garwin." And "hope is important. the kind of larger collective adaptation we have been discussing. states my own best judgment that. "I don't see any way that it won't happen. the world's most successful investor and legendary oddsmaker in pricing insurance policies for unlikely but catastrophic events. Given such consequences.” Nor can we wait for a new Gandhi or Saint Joan to deliver us. At the same time. each of us must 2 . and Bulgaria—and was so cruelly frustrated in the student movement in China: “Political action that enlarges. differences between a 1 percent and a 20 percent likelihood of such an attack are relatively insignificant when considering how we should respond to the threat. Thus. Warren Buffet. Today. Allison ‘7 (Graham.” No one can claim knowledge of a single." My Harvard colleague Matthew Bunn has created a model in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science that estimates the probability of a nuclear terrorist attack over a ten-year period to be 29 percent--identical to the average estimate from a poll of security experts commissioned by Senator Richard Lugar in 2005. JFK School of Government. It must include struggles against widespread oppression and drastic human inequities by invoking the kind of “originality in political action” that has taken place in the Solidarity movement in Poland—and in related movements in Hungary. the consequences were so catastrophic that prudent policymakers felt a categorical imperative to do everything that feasibly could be done to prevent that war. dirty bomb--a nuclear explosion] with American cities and European cities included. East Germany. a single nuclear bomb exploding in just one city would change our world." 1. are virtually unanimous in their judgment to the contrary. My book. 278-279) Species awareness means awareness of human choice: "This is not the End of Time—unless we choose to make it so.” This species-oriented approach would “defy the given models of defiance. P." Hope is greatly enhanced—as is the acceptance of individual mortality—by the sense of reasserting the immortality of the species. 90 (Robert Jay and Eric." But analysts of various political persuasions. a risk that the nation could get sucked into a conventional regional conflict which is subsequently escalated into nuclear warfare by its allies or their opponents.54 Even if the risk is relatively low the consequences are too high to risk. Rather. in and out of government. We cannot afford to “stop thinking. Perm Do Both— Their own author says that there is no single truth—Engaging in political action and recognizing the power of the human race allows us to resist nuclear aggression Lifton and Markusen. correct path. on the current trend line. there must be endless combinations of reflection and action and.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] proliferation may induce a chain reaction of related regional arms races that could result in unintended and unexpected consequences far removed from the objectives of the proliferating nations. Czechoslovakia. and in the United States’ specific case. Rather. we are—in the words of the Polish Solidarity leader Adam Michnik—"defending hope." He stated. . but it can begin to subsume that otherness to larger human commonality. even when the likelihood of nuclear Armageddon was small. told Congress in March that he estimated a "20 percent per year probability [of a nuclear explosion--not just a contaminated. we must remain aware of persisting genocidal arrangements and expressions of genocidal mentality. The task is intensified by the psychological upheavals we can expect in connection with the millennial transition of the year 2000. Whatever the millennial imagery. The Genocidal Mentality. “Symposium: Apocalypse When?” November/December. Former Secretary of Defense William Perry has expressed his own view that my work may even underestimate the risk. above all. and Dir. Prof of International Relations @ Princeton U and Assist Researcher @ U of New York. a designer of the hydrogen bomb who Enrico Fermi once called "the only true genius I had ever met". the chances of a nuclear terrorist attack in the next decade are greater than 50 percent. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs – Harvard U.

is Ashley really suggesting at some of the greatest threats facing humankind or some of the great moments of history rest on such innocuous and largely unknown nonrealities like positivism and realism? These are imagined and fictitious enemies. Inculpating modernity. Darwin we have come to suspect that whether such progress is made will be largely a matter of luck. Professor of Humanities at the University of Virginia described as the reincarnation of Jesus Christ. Criticizing representations of nuclear presence doesn’t preclude the need for concrete action Rorty. once and for all. published. accurately represented. or from modernity. ethical. human hope from metaphysics. psychological—on behalf of perpetuating and nurturing our humanity. let alone desirable. technical rationality. Zizek. Even if our assumptions are flawed. But that does not show that we are suddenly surrounded by unrepresentables. or justice. More generally. They have helped create a cult of inscrutability. and their constant use of terms like `impossible. or from psychoanalysis. or realism emanate a “violence" that marginalizes dissidents? Indeed. is Ashley seriously suggesting that. Derrida usually replies that voting for the same candidates. where is this violence. as a result of being bathed in the light of reason. They’ve got the equation wrong A. or realism with violence. of new political and military configurations. We are then “people getting up from their knees” to resist nuclear oppression. and we would be better off without it. but as demonstrated by Ashley's torturous prose and reasoning. self-serving debates superfluous to the lives of most people and. of our species. Are we really to believe that ethereal entities like positivism. that Gray. if not imagined. 2K (Darry1. Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Sydney. or friendship – is both necessary and impossible. 128) Perhaps more alarming though is the outright violence Ashley recommends in response to what at best seems trite. or from the philosophy of history. but I think that the rhetoric of impossibility and unrepresentability is counterproductive overdramatization. it doesn't justify rejection of our aff—these types of radical critiques are exaggerations with zero impact Jarvis. another writer who enjoys demonstrating that something very important – meaning. for example. and Postmodernism. war. on the basis of this largely imagined violence. 51-2) This distinction between the theoretical and the practical point of view is often drawn by Derrida. and who talk a lot about impossibility. Ashley and Walker appear remarkably well integrated into the academy—vocal. to most issues of importance in international relations. if we found ourselves citizens of the same country. global transformation (perhaps even revolutionary violence) is a necessary. and marginalization? As self professed dissidents supposedly exiled from the discipline. wholly I am all for getting rid of the metaphysics of presence. C. It is one thing to say that we need to get rid of the metaphor of things being visible. would all be for example. Since gloss on the notion of `progress' than the rationalistic gloss which the Enlightenment offered. of war in the Balkans and ethnic cleansing. who has heard of positivism and who for a moment imagines that they need to be emancipated from it. This metaphor has created a lot of headaches for philosophers. International Relations and the Challenge of Postmodernism. injustices. Post-modernist philosophers have gotten a bad name because of their paradox-mongering habits. But we have been given no reason to stop hoping to get lucky. not killers. We clear away the “thick glass” that has blurred our moral and political vision. and countless other crimes not only smack of anthropomorphism. Spinoza Lectures”. theoretical fabrications that represent arcane. When asked about the implications of these paradoxical fact. the idea that intellectual progress aims at getting things clearly illuminated. `self-contradictory' and `unrepresentable'. arguably. Derrida and I. rationality or realism for that matter? In an era of unprecedented change and turmoil. p. positivism. the paradox doesn't matter when it comes to practice. Politics. p.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] join in a vast project—political. racism. turn out to be good experimentalist social democrats when it comes to actual political activity. All that we have learned from `post-modern' philosophy is that we may need a different We have been given no reason to abandon the belief that a lot of progress has been made by carrying out the Enlightenment's political program. I suspect. it just shows that `more accurate representation' was never a fruitful way to describe Even if we agree that we shall never have what Derrida calls "a full presence beyond the reach of play". and at the center of the Third Debate and the forefront of theoretical research. Likewise. our sense of the possibilities open to humanity will not have changed. and supporting the same reforms. to the `metaphysics of presence. “Truth. We have learned nothing about the limits of intellectual progress. modernism. requires a dubious logic to make such connections in the first place. ’97 (Richard. sharply delimited. a lot of the writers who are labeled `post-modernist. response? Has the rationale for emancipation or the tight for justice been reduced to such vacuous revolutionary slogans as "Down with positivism and rationality"? Apart from members of the academy.and more generally. repression. 2. one which defines itself by opposition to the Enlightenment search for transparency . Changing representational practices won’t alter policy—looking to structures and 3 . B. We become healers.

Dalby’s interpretation of the reconceptualization of national security in Moscow as heavily influenced by dissident peace researchers in Europe is highly idealist.These are the nearly soulless. I hand them back the guilt[20] some of them wish to hand me. The High Creator scourged them from Heaven for its perfect beauty.html) But this situation is different — we now confront potential enemies with enough force to convince them that they have no hope of seizing control of the world in the first place. 3.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] politics is more vital Tuathail. so different that they constitute a distinctive problem. the general contextuality of the Reagan administration is not dealt with.solving. 94 (J. In particular. a paradoxical. Gorbachev’s reforms and his new security discourse were also strongly selfinterested. Political. Critical geopolitics. but necessary part of making peace. however. but only for themselves. Both here and earlier. Third. root the geographical reasoning practices of the Reagan administration nor its public-policy reasoning on national security. it needs to always be open to the patterned mess that is human history.. Dalby’s book is narrowly textual. and the deterrence of the willfully destructive may be serving their own desire to be morally pure. p. should not be a prisoner of the sweeping ahistorical cant that sometimes accompanies ‘poststructuralism nor convenient reading strategies like the identity politics narrative. “Obscenity and Peace: Meditations on the Bomb”. science direct) While theoretical debates at academic conferences are important to academics.S. This is not.. theory-averse. the empowerment of the powerless. The assumption that it is representations that make action possible is inadequate by itself. They are shooting the bearer of the bad news that we can't make global war safely anymore. to minimize the obvious importance of academia as a general institutional structure among many that sustain certain epistemic communities in particular states. Political Geography. there is the notion that because I did research related to nuclear weapons. more than the cause of peace. In response to Dalby’s fifth point (with its three subpoints). so that humanity can continue as before. 15(6-7). While I agree with Dalby that questions of discourse are extremely important ones for political geographers to engage. I do other parts in my spare time. it is worth noting. Nuclear weapons have a sole purpose of maintaining peace—passivity through the alternative leads to inaction and hinders social progress Futterman. whose lives concluded neither blame nor praise. Former U. So I help maintain that deterrence. There is a danger that academics assume that the discourses they engage are more significant in the practice of foreign policy and the exercise of power than they really are. and Hell will not receive them since the wicked might feel some glory over them. I think that those who engage in peace protests without engaging in the enfranchisement of the disenfranchised.org/books/nuke. www. The issues raised by Simon Dalby in his comment are important ones for all those interested in the practice of critical geopolitics. the materialist and the cultural. They are mixed here with that despicable corps of angels who were neither for God nor Satan. Nuclear Weapons Scientist. the discourse and concerns of foreign-policy decision." In other words.dogchurch. troops and material moved and war fought’-evades the important question of agency that I noted in my review essay. 96 (Gearoid. Let me point out that even the anti-nuclear activists contribute to the nuclear weapons business. I deserve a greater portion of guilt for what happens if they are used. let me simply note that I find that the distinction between critical theorists and post. Still. in other words. there is a danger of fetishizing this concern with discourse so that we neglect the institutional and the sociological. Department of Georgraphy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute.makers are quite different. He analyzes certain CPD discourses. [21] ". military and economic structures. policy-making subculture. first. 664. institutions. Second. discursive networks and leadership are all crucial in explaining social action and should be theorized together with representational practices.A. the political and the geographical contexts within which particular discursive strategies become significant. insufficient. I do not disagree with Dalby’s fourth point about politics and discourse except to note that his statement-‘Precisely because reality could be represented in particular ways political decisions could be taken. In general. Dalby’s reasoning inclines towards a form of idealism.. an ultimately futile attempt to save the Communist Party and a discredited regime of power from disintegration. because they make war on nuclear weapons instead of making peace. an interpretation that ignores the structural and ideological crises facing the Soviet elite at that time. Of him and his kind Dante says. that his book is about the CPD. I sometimes consider those who engage in anti-war or anti-nuclear actions (including some scientists who eschew defense research for moral reasons) without ever doing any actual peace-making to be in the same category that Dante seems to have placed Pope Celestine V. making wars that only kill some of us. Instead of acknowledging the difference between 4 . Celestine apparently abdicated the papacy out of fear that the worldliness that one must take on as Pope would jeopardize his salvation. not the Reagan administration.structuralists is a little too rigidly and heroically drawn by Dalby and others.H. Virtual Church of the Blind Chihuahua. It's as if they want war to be safer.

Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] forcefully confronting a bully and being one. which just encourages the bully. they advocate passivity. 5 .

is in flux." 6 . even if a global necropolis is not psychologically absorbable at the moment. that "everything moves in the midst of death. the appearance of long lines of severely burned. persistent unreason that is. in thinking about such a nuclear war. Indeed. after all. we should probably focus on the most complete exposition of the Epicurean system. imaginings of such a world must be encouraged. and in the other. as Santayana notes in Volume Three of The Life of Reason. is an altogether different kind of understanding. before we can implement such education "Death. the most indelible badge of humankind. in the case of nuclear war. the olfactory stimulation provided by tens of thousands of burning bodies. everywhere." Santayana notwithstanding. but it is in the expressions of that ingenuity that people seek safety. It is a relationship that can be more widely understood. THE HERD AND HUMAN SURVIVAL"." says Norbert Elias in The Loneliness of the Dying. Just as repression of the fear of death by individuals can occasion activities that impair the forces of self-preservation.crossx. At the time of their descent into hell. De we need to recognize is. "is the absolute end of the person." or in the Japanese term. and that even the most enduring satisfactions are not at odds with personal transience. then. survivors of Auschwitz and Hiroshima. there are no other darkly visionary sources of human experience to which we can so safely turn. of one's customary personal and community supports. but that time is far in the future. Hibakusha. But let us take leave of the metaphysical. exactly. alive. Always desperate to grasp at promises that allay the fears of personal transience. Indeed. Of course. We must rely on an expanding awareness that states in general. muga-muchu. http://www. Although the analogies are certainly imperfect. Rather than rescue American foreign policy by freeing the citizenry from fear of death. disappearance is likely to undermine rather than support the education we require. will not wean our minds from mortal concerns. so can humankind impair its prospects for survival by denying the possibility of collective disintegration." Let us. For now. into ovens. individual human beings are only too anxious to accept wishfantasies of security in the midst of preparations for Armageddon." but the vicars of annihilation and that the triumph of the herd in world politics can only hasten the prospect of individual death. reduce the magnitude of danger. produced consequences that went far beyond immediate physical and emotional suffering. which delimits four categories of victims. both experienced and anticipated. something far less awesome and far more mundane. or with Spinoza. it recommends educating this populace to the truth of an incontestable relationship between death and geopolitics." Raised by this understanding "above mortality" the triumphant soul of constantly perishing bodies Rerum Natura of Lucretius). So the greater resistance to its demythologization perhaps corresponds to the greater But let us also be wary of nurturing new mythologies. All acknowledges that everything. To make this possible we must continue to make progress on the usual and mainstream arms control measures and on the associated strategies of international cooperation and reconciliation. "without self. the overwhelming imagery of unending terror and loss that were the central features of these two atrocities. the citizens of nuclear states reaffirm their segmented loyalties. literally melting. ghosts. reacted to the other-worldly grotesqueness of their conditions with what Yale psychiatrist Robert J. It follows from this that increasing human uncertainty brought about by an unprecedented vulnerability to we will need to reduce the perceived threat of nuclear war and enlarge the belief that nuclear stability (as a short-term objective) is within our grasp. we must rely on something else. the magnitude of danger experienced. without a center. The total immersion in death. over time. Curiously. offer us the clearest human picture of life in a post-apocalypse world. including those who were in utero at the time of the blast. Perhaps the closest we can come to really understanding what it would be like to endure a nuclear conflict is by studying the anatomy of life in the death camps of Nazi Germany and the aftermath of atomic holocaust in Japan. humankind will envisage the eternal and detach its affections from the world of flux. the thrusting of newly-delivered babies.php?p=1392947) To answer such questions we needn't contrast Descartes with the Epicureans (if we did. an "anonymous mass. to follow Martin Buber's injunction to "imagine the real. therefore. Locke or Hume. There are great ironies involved. this understanding is incorporated in the Japanese term for atomic bomb survivors. and the United States in particular. It is the dreadful as the threat of nuclear annihilation looms ever larger. must be done to bring individual Americans to the liberation offered by Santayana? Very little. of planting false hopes that offer illusions of survival in a post-apocalypse world. Lifton describes as a profound sense of "death in life. the symbols and images that are needed to interpret the idea of total extinction simply do not exist. Although the corrosive calculus of geopolitics has now made possible the deliberate killing of all life." Witnessing. The absence of such symbols and images makes it impossible for us. Sapere aude! "Dare to know"! This motto for the Enlightenment suggested by Immanuel Kant acquires a special meaning at the end of a millennium. of Treblinka and Nagasaki. in the one case. Such a total disruption of individual and social order.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] Perm do the plan and ***Insert Alternative*** [Name] Nuclear war is a threat beyond human comprehension—only by combining acceptance of the possibility with critical inquiry can we hope to produce meaningful approaches Beres professor of political science and international law at Purdue University 99 (September. are not the Hegelian "march of God in the world. Perhaps. "DEATH. populations all over the planet turn increasingly to states for security. and return to the vastly more concrete realm of international affairs and US foreign policy What. By surrendering ourselves to states. if anything! "Immortal reason." Nevertheless. the survivors found themselves--in Bruno Betteiheim's words. moved by the ingenuity of states that makes possible death in the millions. we encourage not immortality but extinction.com/vb/showthread. This. then. Louis Rene.

but ironically. Take fire-breathing dragons under the bed. Commenting on Camus. Science and Policy Professor at SUNY. Calling the pattern in which bombs fall a "footprint" almost seems a willful distorting process. 1724. Barash and Judith Eve Lipton observed that this distancing from death’s reality is yet another aspect of our insulation from life’s most basic realities. or touched. and Cookie Cutters: Nuclear Language”. we work not on matter but on machines. adapting ourselves to nuclear fear is counterproductive. 97 (Carol." The "cookie cutter" is a phrase used to describe a particular model of nuclear attack. takes a psychic toll. In psychiatric usage denial means to exclude from awareness. which outlines both short and long-range plans for production of new nuclear weapons. Bulletin of At the Atomic Scientists. Since Americans have escaped the devastation of nuclear weapons on their own soil and “nuclear weapons poised for annihilation in distant countries cannot be seen. http://www. 90 (“Nuclear Age Literature for Youth. Without either firsthand experience or vivid imagining. the one who threatens to incinerate your family. June. is benignly referred to as "the shopping list. a playful. Glick’ems. “Slick’ems. Images evoked by nuclear discourse serve as a way to tame the forces of nuclear power.” If we are to heed Camus’s call to refuse to be either the victims of violence like the Jews of the Holocaust. Research Fellow @ the Center for Psychological Studies. The president's annual nuclear weapons stockpile memorandum. We gain in cleanliness. friendly acronym for the electronic system designed to prevent the unauthorized firing of nuclear warheads. smelled. as Frank points out. Christmas Trees. B. and turn it into a pet you can pat. ordinary abstraction is adequate to that task. “We make love by telephone. your town. an organism’s adaptation increases chances of survival. that the literature of nuclear holocaust can play a significant role.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] Representations of Fear in the 1AC are good [Name] A. It is here. Only events that people have actually experienced can have true emotional impact. P. your planet.buildfreedom. 7 . 9-10) A summary of Frank’s thought in “Psychological Determinants of the Nuclear Arms Race” notes how all people have difficulty grasping the magnitude and immediacy of the threat of nuclear arms and this psychological unreality is a basic obstacle to eliminating that threat. or the perpetrators of it like the Nazi executioners of the death camps. Albert Camus had the same phenomenon in mind when he wrote in his essay Neither Victims nor Executioners of the inability of most people really to imagine other people’s death (he might have added “or their own”). tasted.” we find it easy to imagine ourselves immune to the threat. but lose in understanding. "PAL" (permissive action links) is the carefully constructed. Or domestic imagery may simply serve to make everyone more comfortable with what they're doing. moreover. Cohn. We only seal our doom more certainly. because “letting [the instruments of destruction] enter consciousness would create too strong a level of anxiety or other painful emotions. perverse refusal of accountability--because to be accountable to reality is to be unable to do this work. Imagining nuclear annihilation is a project of survival—their alternative creates repression and denial which makes nuclear war more likely Lenz. of course. we must revivify the imagination of what violence really entails.” In most life-threatening situations. David P. heard. The images evoked by these words may also be a way to tame the uncontrollable forces of nuclear destruction. to deny the existence of death machines and their consequences. and we kill and are killed by proxy. it is natural. The repressed fear.” p.shtml) These domestic images are more than simply one more way to remove oneself from the grisly reality behind the words.com/tl/tl07aa.

If we have this realistic fear. Similarly. or good karma. ’03 (Geshe Kelsang. By surrendering ourselves to States and to traditional views of selfdetermination.tharpa. “Ban battlefield nuclear weapons. before we can implement such education. or get morbidly obsessed by it and think that life is meaningless. The well documented images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. no matter how much they may be contemplated in war games and strategies. through Tantric spiritual practice. we can do nothing about the fact of death. and accumulating as much merit. Louis Rene Beres. . but also a strong mental barrier against actually initiating nuclear attacks on enemy populations. C. the most indelible badge of modern humankind. a danger we can avert.'1 the Citizens of conflicting States As a result increasing human uncertainty brought about by an unprecedented vulnerability to disappearance is likely to undermine rather than support the education required. deny it. What kind of fear is useful? A healthy fear of death would be the fear of dying unprepared. April 22. moved by the persistent unreason that is.com/background/fearof-death. our fear of death is an unhealthy and unrealistic fear-we don't want to die. Professor of Theoretical Physics at JNU. of the most hardened of military strategists. l/n Rather than rescue humankind by freeing individuals from fear of death. strategics of international cooperation and reconciliation. we encourage not immortality but premature and predictable extinction.html) There were a variety of different reasons behind each of these examples of abstinence from using nuclear weapons. but we can seize control over how we prepare for death and how we die. live ethically.” The Hindu. and teacher at the FPMT center Manjushri Institute in England. at least so far. As a result a taboo has tacitly evolved over the decades preventing nations. but also upon non-nuclear States that threaten others with war or even genocide 5. this sense of danger. so we ignore the subject. and that seat belt protects us from going through the windshield. To make this possible we must continue to make progress on the usual and mainstream arms control measures and on the associated reaffirm their segmented loyalties. “Fear of Death”. we can even attain a deathless body. www. Tibetan monk. internationally renowned Gelug scholar. http://www. right now we cannot do anything about dying. be more widely understood. from actually pressing the nuclear button even in the face of serious military crises.htm) Generally. It is the dreadful ingenuity of States that makes possible death in the billions. as the threat of nuclear annihilation looms even after the Cold War. deliberate killing of all life. 4. 2K2 (R. However. so there is no point fearing death itself. we will need to reduce the perceived threat of nuclear war and enlarge the belief that the short-term goal of nuclear stability is within our grasp. This "sense of danger" inspires us to make preparations so that we are no longer in the danger we are in now. arms control [*25] obligations must fill not only on nuclear weapon Stales. the awesome photographs of giant mushroom clouds emerging from nuclear tests in the Pacific and the numerous movies based on nuclear Armageddon scenarios have all contributed to building up a deep rooted fear of nuclear weapons. as this is a fear we can do something about. but we can do something about whether or not we go through the windscreen if someone crashes into us. Eventually.com/thehindu/2002/04/22/stories/2002042200431000. but It is in the [*24] expressions of that ingenuity that people seek safety. this perspective recommends educating people to the truth of an " incontestable relationship between death and geopolitics. Indeed. 1994. therefore. and prepare for a peaceful death on our own terms Gyatso. we are encouraged to prepare for a peaceful and successful death and are also inspired to make the most of our very precious human life instead of wasting it. There are great ironies involved. then. It permeates to one extent or another the psyche of all but the most pathological of fanatics. We can do nothing about other traffic. The unacceptability of nuclear devastation is the backbone of all deterrence strategies. is an altogether different kind of understanding. even if not decisively. It is a relationship that can. But one major common factor contributing to all of them has been an ingrained terror of nuclear devastation. There is not just a fear of being attacked oneself. In t h i s connection. Curiously. for example by practicing moral discipline. It colours the calculations. purifying our negative karma. Turn—Numbing 8 . professor of international law @ Purdue. This is not limited just to the abhorrence felt by anti-nuclear activists.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] Good fear of death is distinct from irrational fear—it allows us to reduce danger.hinduonnet. Although the corrosive calculus of geopolitics has now made possible the This. 11 Ariz J Int'l & Comp Law l. after all.. Embracing their alternative without reducing the threat of nuclear war will fail—our aff is a precursor to their framework. Tharpa Publications. as possible. and must. populations all over the planet turn increasingly to States for security. We put on a seat belt out of a sense of danger of the unseen dangers of traffic on the road. Fear of nuclear weapons has prevented their use Rajaraman.

Precisely the present absence of those limits "should deterrence fail. April. There is a method to our madness— Nuclear weapons are designed to deter wars—they secure the world Gusterson. as the Israeli philosopher Avner Cohen points out. Administration and Society. it would not be the kind of rule-governed practice" often assumed on the basis of past wars. bombs he describes as "no more strange than a vacuum cleaner.72) How can the anthropologist and the political citizen learn to live together in the same person in such a situation? How. Like most of his colleagues. how it could be properly kept under control and how it might be brought to termination." the uncertainty or unlikelihood of any significant amount of human life remaining. Lester does not worry that the United States will misuse the hydrogen bombs he designs. "we do not really know how to conceive of nuclear warfare as a concrete actuality. executive orders can produce a significant amount of complexity and conflict and not yield a long-term benefit because the next president may dispose of predecessors’ orders at a whim. should one write about an interview subject like Lester. helps blur that distinction by denying not only our ignorance but also what we can be expected to know. he sees weapons technology as "beautiful. for ex. and that nuclear weapons are the embodiment of a transcendent rationality. P. Professor of Poli Sci @ University of Vermont. a spectrometer is a very pretty thing . Journal of Contemporary Ethnology. radically distinguishes nuclear deterrence from that tradition. controlled or concluded. should deterrence fail and the deterrer act on his threat. but "we don't know how much we do or do not know about it. 203) Dissociation is called forth to cover over and deny ignorance. 93 (Hugh. confirms those beliefs. "To me. Lexis.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] Even if they win that we do not really know the impact to nuclear war—denying that destruction can occur through the criticism furthers numbing Lifton and Markusen. Prof of International Relations @ Princeton U and Assist Researcher @ U of New York.3 who told me that.1. as he sees it.. You don't feel a fear for them at all. Not only are we much more ignorant about what we call nuclear war than we care to admit." "How do I explain that?" he asked me." Perm do both CP gets rolled back—future presidents Cooper 97 [Phillip. 22. they make the world more stable. their objec. He says that he could never work as a lawyer defending murderers or other criminals but feels mor.tions did not trouble him? He believes that it is more ethical to work on nuclear weapons than on less destructive conventional weapons because nuclear weapons are designed to deter wars rather than to fight them. Lester is puzzled by those who cannot see that nuclear weapons make us safer by making war unthink. Assoc Prof of Anthropology and Science Studies @ MIT and Adjunct Fellow @ Harvard U’s Center for Psychology and Social Change.ample. Everything in his life. that technological progress is unavoidable and beneficial." In fact. but executive 9 . Dissociation." Since. “Ethnographic Writing on Militarism”. Vol. And while the principle of deterrence has a long history in political and military practice going back to the time of the Greek city-states. were always limited: after the war and destruction." But all evidence suggests that "no matter what nuclear war might be. 90 (Robert Jay and Eric. he is confident that nuclear weapons can be controlled by humans. especially in the form of psychic numbing. which alone can discipline the dark impulses leading humans to make war. No. and even wonders if it might be morally reprehensible not to work on nuclear weapons because.ally comfortable with his work as a nuclear warhead designer. there would be recovery and resumption of life. the consequences. and you feel badly that it's going to be destroyed [in a nuclear test]. P. Mike] Even if they serve temporary goals. although his university colleagues tried to talk him out of working at a nuclear weapons laboratory." it is less than responsible to claim how such an event could be "managed.. The Genocidal Mentality. 6. where he sees the atom bent to the experimental will of human rationality on a daily basis.able. It may be easier than moving a statute through Congress and faster than waiting for agencies to use their rule-making processes to accomplish policy ends.

com 12-99 What is likely to happen in Congress.space. will for most legislators be quite beside the point. DA 10/7/11. “Is a New Space Weapon Race Heating Up?”. The fact that this executive order might well be seen as usurping Congress's lawmaking powers. including the X-37B space plane or the HTV-2 hypersonic glider. renegotiated over rice Korea Herald 9-18-11 (Korea Herald is Korea's premier English newspaper. Howell. KC Ruling and opposition parties are preparing to lock horns once again over the free trade agreement between Korea and the U. "Parties to clash over U. not by its effects on Congress's power vis-avis the president. 05 May.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] orders may ultimately be a much weaker foundation on which to build a policy than the alternatives Executive Orders are perceived by Congress. because it shifts the status quo in their preferred direction.com/8342-space-weapon-race-heating." or they might be nothing more than smoke and mirrors. FTA doesn't solve. LexisNexus. The U. FTA again"." said Joan Johnson-Freese. The Democratic Party vowed to expose shortcomings in the revisions made to the KORUS FTA and block its ratification while the ruling Grand National Party promised to seek approval from opposition parties in passing the bill 10 . according to John Pike. Normal means is that weaponization projects occur on the Pentagon’s “black budget” – no one would know until the plan is developed Hsu 10 (Jeremy.com/national/Detail. Such uncertainty regarding space technology can make it tricky for nations to gauge the purpose or intentions behind new prototypes. senior fellow for the Hoover Institution and Associate Professor for the Government Department at Harvard University. 99 Terry M. military could even be using the cloak of mystery to deliberately bamboozle and confuse rival militaries.jsp?newsMLId=20110918000239. SPACE. or that it has the effect of expanding presidential power. if Congress tries to take any action at all in responding to the executive order.com.org. Yet she sees weaponization as a different issue from militarization because "so much space technology is dual use" in terms of having both civilian and military purposes. Main opposition Democratic Party lawmakers on the parliamentary committee on foreign affairs and trade left the meeting room as the Grand National Party submitted the FTA ratification bill to the panel Friday. a space policy analyst at the Naval War College in Newport.koreaherald. Thus. Non UQ – won't pass in South Korea – And. then. a military and security analyst who runs GlobalSecurity. Perm do the CP 1. http://www.S. Moe and Howell. Fellow for the Hoover Institution and Harvard Professor. 9/18/11. for example. the battle lines will be determined by the order's effects on legislative constituencies. Moe and William G. as well as offensive or defensive use. http://www. RI.S. 1. while members from conservative constituencies will tend to oppose it.html) "Space has been militarized since before NASA was even created. He suggested that the X-37B and HTV-2 projects could represent the tip of a space weapons program hidden within the Pentagon's secret "black budget.S. will tend to be supported by legislators from urban or liberal constituencies. when presidents take unilateral action by issuing executive orders that shift the policy status quo? The answer is that legislative responses (if there are any) will be rooted in constituency. An executive order that promotes civil rights. “Unilateral Action and Presidential Power: A theory”.

we have seen FTAs bringing us benefits in the cases of ASEAN states. Kim Dong-cheol of DP said the information shows Korea’s submissive attitude toward the U." Winners Win Walter Russell Mead Henry A. diplomatic cable that Kim Jong-hoon. “Here's How Obama Can Save His Presidency.” he said. The letter suggests that while the immense budget deficit does require budget cutting. Last week. the website released a U. NASA's human space flight program is a national security priority. after 2014. Justice and Science Appropriations Subcommittee with jurisdiction over NASA funding. Ambassador to Korea. U. The bill must be passed.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] at the parliamentary session.com/heres-how-obama-can-save-his-presidency-2011-6. But what they aren’t hearing from President Obama is a compelling description of what has gone wrong.” http://www. That source is the $1.S. Kim and other opposition lawmakers are also expected to pitch their voices against the GNP’s unilateral reference of the FTA bill. “The longer the delay the greater chances of failure. said the bill will not be passed without the consent of the opposition parties. What they hear from this administration are defensive responses: Hooveresque calls for patience mingled with strange-sounding attacks on ATMs and sharp. "Our nation's ability to access to is a critical national security asset and plays an important role in our future economic competitiveness. was send to Congressman Harold Rogers. Space is the ultimate high ground and nations such as China.com/s/ac/20110209/us_ac/7815432_house_gop_eyes_climate_change_research_for_cu ts_funding_for_human_space_flight In the search for extra funding for NASA's human space flight program.S. DP lawmakers said that they will confirm a Wikileaks revelation of further FTA concession. Funding for Human Space Flight. signed by House NASA supporters such as Bill Posey and Sandy Adams of Florida and Pete Olson of Texas. we do respect Korea-U. Mark. while expressing hopes that the Korean government and the National Assembly will pass the deal by the end of the year. 13. chairman of the foreign affairs committee.” he said. 29. Rep. the opposition walked out of the room when Foreign Affairs Minister Kim Sung-hwan explained future procedure of the FTA bill passage and its effect after the reference.S. We must not put ourselves in the position of watching Chinese astronauts plant their flag on the moon while we sit — Earth bound by our own short sightedness. Russia.yahoo. alliance but this is too much. “House GOP Eyes Climate Change Research for Cuts. President Lee Myung-bak is strongly behind it and wants to get it done before the state visit on Oct. saying that it is critical that the Obama administration and Congress start moving soon to ratify the agreement. foreign policy at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) 6/20/11 Business Insiders. author of multiple books on space and a frequent contributor to various periodicals. Holden Choi Americans are realistic enough to understand that the breakdown of the blue social model is a messy process and that perhaps no president can deliver a pain free transition to the next stage. The Daily Astorian cited Jim Wayman. Meanwhile. political counselor for the U. 2007 told then U. The allegation contradicts the government’s stance that rice tariffs and FTA would be dealt separately. Rep.” he said. how it can be fixed. http://news.” Feb 9. Chile and Singapore.businessinsider. Minister for Trade. Yoo Ki-june of the GNP fired back that the credibility of Wikileaks is weak. This date is when the suspension of the application of tariffs to rice by the World Trade Organization is to expire. opportunistic jabs at former President Bush. and Frank Wolf. “Yes. bureaucrats and politicians are also moving for the swift ratification of the FTA. and how the policies he proposes will take us to the next level. 2011.S.8 billion currently spent on Earth science.S. “Besides. chairman of the House Commerce. Embassy to Korea. Alexander Vershbow. Kissinger senior fellow for U. He suspected that there are more things behind the FTA deals. and India are anxious to seize the mantle of space supremacy should we decide to cede it. Nam Kyung-pil of GNP.S. The White House has responded to strategic challenges at home and 11 . a group of House Republicans believe it has found a potential source within NASA's budget.S. GOP loves space – sees it as a national security issue Whittington. A letter. Last Friday. and then-congressman Earl Pomeroy after the FTA signing that the Korean government would renegotiate tariff rates for rice imports with the U. 2/9 Yahoo! News. on Aug. Rep.S. chairman of the House Appropriations Committee.

http://www. according to John Pike. “Is a New Space Weapon Race Heating Up?”. What does President Obama think about the fiscal squeeze forcing trade-offs between state employee benefits and services to the poor? How much trouble is the American middle class in — and what changes are needed to save it? The President of the United States has to own this conversation. Unlike the Hubble Telescope. a failure to define the problem and outline a convincing solution will hurt more than what now appears his likely failure to regenerate healthy economic growth by the next election. His vision. Such uncertainty regarding space technology can make it tricky for nations to gauge the purpose or intentions behind new prototypes. but only if the President becomes the kind of inspiring and effective leader these tough and uncertain times demand. If congress continues to fund this project.S. He must first and foremost stand for something — and he must be able to make that something resonate with the voters.com/8342-space-weapon-race-heating. a military and security analyst who runs GlobalSecurity. In the end. The Obama Presidency can still be saved. RI. a fence-sitter.space. a space policy analyst at the Naval War College in Newport. A failed attempt to define the problem and control the discussion would further fuzz the President’s image and reinforce the sense among many voters that the man is not up to the hour.com/news/?p=206 DA 10/7/11 APS] The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) got some encouraging news when the US Senate Appropriations Committee decided to bump the funding for the already over-budget Hubble Space Telescope replacement. The President’s job is to lead.3 feet in diameter and orbit about 1 million miles from Earth. His opponents may fight him and defeat his proposals in Congress — that is not the worst thing that can happen. Voters sense that we live in historic times that demand leadership of a different kind. his initiatives must dominate the political scene. At a time of historic anxiety and tension like the present. Normal means is that weaponization projects occur on the Pentagon’s “black budget” – no one would know until the plan is developed Hsu 10 (Jeremy. as well as offensive or defensive use. the JWST has a folding. a finger-pointer. The longer the President fails to dominate the discussion about where this country is going the more his authority will erode. segmented primary mirror that will be adjusted to shape after launch." or they might be nothing more than smoke and mirrors Non-unique: The Hubble replacement telescope just received more funding – that should have triggered the trade-off Space News 9/22 [“Hubble Replacement Gets Some Additional Bucks”. including the X-37B space plane or the HTV-2 hypersonic glider.kscvisit. SPACE. He may have only one chance to get this right. Yet she sees weaponization as a different issue from militarization because "so much space technology is dual use" in terms of having both civilian and military purposes. The Webb telescope is a partnership between NASA. When complete the JWST will be 21.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] abroad with tactical maneuvers. The U." said Joan Johnson-Freese. the President of the United States cannot be an administrator. European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.com.org. it is going to be one BIG telescope that will be peering back in time through the myriad dusty space clouds that currently hide objects by looking only at the infrared spectrum. He suggested that the X-37B and HTV-2 projects could represent the tip of a space weapons program hidden within the Pentagon's secret "black budget. The JWST is scheduled for deployment sometime in 2018. Once it goes into orbit. Harry Truman did very well running against a ‘do-nothing’ Congress in 1948. http://www.html) "Space has been militarized since before NASA was even created. 9/22/11. the observatory will serve 1000s of astronomers world-wide. JWST will work primarily 12 . 05 May. military could even be using the cloak of mystery to deliberately bamboozle and confuse rival militaries.

“What we are saying is that on top of the warming trend there is a long-periodic oscillation that will probably lead to a to a lower temperature increase than we would expect from the current trend during the next years”. “Will Global Warming Take A Short Break? Improved Climate Predictions Suggest A Reduced Warming Trend During The Next 10 Years”. Mojib Latif from IFM-GEOMAR. “Just to make things clear: we are not stating that anthropogenic climate change won’t be as bad as previously thought”. adds Latif.” 2.com/releases/2008/05/080502113749. James Webb ran NASA from early 1961 through 1968. It was Webb’s vision that made NASA more than a political tool in the race to the moon. Single Policy of the plan doesn’t reduce all emissions—at worst it takes decades to make a change 13 . The improved predictions suggest that global warming will weaken slightly during the following 10 years. http://www. “That is like driving from the coast to a mountainous area and crossing some hills and valleys before you reach the top”. However. Johann Jungclaus from the MPI for Meteorology. can be predicted. in order to predict short-term developments over the next decade. This strategy is appropriate for long-term changes in climate such as predictions for the end of the century. models need additional information on natural climate variations. which are superimposed on the long-term anthropogenic warming trend. Scientists at IFM-GEOMAR and from the MPI for Meteorology have developed a method to derive ocean currents from measurements of sea surface temperature (SST). there’s good reason. Science Daily. Lack of sufficient data has hampered such predictions in the past. Near InfraRed Spectograph. in particular associated with ocean currents.sciencedaily. With this additional information. explains Prof. No impact to climate change—the rate of warming is slowing down now. natural decadal climate variations. as published in the last IPCC report. but directed the organization to be a balanced scientific exploration vehicle 1. explains Dr. Mid-InfraRed Instrument and a Fine Guidance Sensor Camera. the anthropogenic climate change and the natural decadal variation will add leading to a much stronger temperature rise. There will be 4 science instrument packages onboard: NearInfraRed Camera. 5-5-2008 (Science Daily. “In some years trends of both phenomena.Gator Debate 2011-12 [File Name] [Name] in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum but will also have some capability to view the visible range. only considered changes in future atmospheric composition.htm CBato) To date climate change projections. If the name James Webb might is not immediately recognized as a person of science. The latter are available in good quality and global coverage at least for the past 50 years.